Printer Friendly

Adsorption Mechanism of Microcrystalline Cellulose as Green Adsorbent for the Removal of Cationic Methylene Blue Dye.

Byline: Kok Bing Tan, Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah, Bahman Amini Horri and Babak Salamatinia

Summary: The adsorption mechanism of pure cellulose is yet to be explored. Thus, in this study, the adsorption mechanism of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC), a polysaccharide which is renewable, low cost and non-toxic, was studied on the adsorption of model dye Methylene blue (MB). It was found that the main adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC was due to the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged MB dye and negatively charged MCC. Thus, physical adsorption was the dominant effect, since electrostatic attraction is categorized as physical adsorption. This was verified by Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, whereby mean free energy adsorption value was found to be 1), linear (RL=1), favorable (0<RL<1) and irreversible (RL=0).

Freundlich isotherm [39] is modeled based on the assumption that multilayer adsorption occurs on heterogeneous sites and surface of the adsorbent, whereby reversible adsorption occurred. Besides that, there is interaction between molecules adsorbed on neighboring sides. The linearized Freundlich Isotherm is derived as Eq. (5):

(Equation)

Temkin Isotherm is modelled based on the assumption that the decreased of heat of adsorption as a function of temperature is linear instead of logarithmic [40]. Linearized Temkin Isotherm is derived based on Eq. (6):

(Equation)

where, KT represents the Temkin isotherm equilibrium binding constant and BT is Temkin isotherm constant associated with adsorbate- adsorbate interaction and adsorption heat DHT, whereby BT= -RT/ DHT [41], with R is the universal gas constant of 8.314 J/K/mol, and T is the temperature in kelvin scale [42]. Therefore, Temkin isotherm is a function to temperature. Adsorption heat DHT is essential to determine whether MCC adsorbent behave as a physical adsorption or chemisorption [41].

On top of these three isotherm model, Dubinin-Radushkevich Isotherm is also essential to determine whether MCC adsorbent behave as a physical adsorption or chemisorption. This is because Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm can be used for the estimation of apparent free energy and the characteristics of adsorption [40]. Thus, Dubinin- Radushkevich Isotherm is also used to fit the equilibrium data. Linearized Dubinin-Radushkevich Isotherm is derived based on Eq. (7):

(Equation)

where, B denotes the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm constant associated with adsorption energy, Qm is the Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption capacity and E represents the Polanyi potential, derived from Eq. (8):

(Equation)

The mean free energy adsorption Ea could be determine based on the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm constant B, derived in Eq. (9).

(Equation)

Based on Eq. (4), (5), (6) and (7), the corresponding characteristics parameters are tabulated in Qmax and KL could be obtained from the slope and the intercept respectively from the linearized Langmuir isotherm in Fig. 6, the equilibrium data fitted well in Langmuir Isotherm at all temperatures, with R2 ranging from 0.994-0.9977. Compared to Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich isotherms, Langmuir isotherms had the highest R2 values at all temperature. Thus, the adsorption of MB on MCC was based on monolayer adsorption at the homogenous surface of MCC, whereby adsorbed MB molecules did not interact with each other at neighboring adsorption sites. As shown in Fig. 5, the maximum adsorption capacity Qmax decreased with temperature, which is further discussed in Section 3.5. Table-1 also tabulates the separation parameter RL, which are shown to be within 0<RL<1, which confirmed a favorable adsorption process at all temperatures.

Kf and 1/n could be obtained from the intercept and slope of the Linearized Freundlich Isotherm respectively in Fig. 7. Kf, which is related to Freundlich adsorption capacities, was shown to decrease with temperature, and has a similar trend with Qmax from Langmuir Isotherm. As observed in Table-1, all the 1/n values ranged between 0.1 and 1 at all temperatures. This suggests that the adsorption of MB on MCC is favorable at all temperatures [43], supported by the RL values based on Langmuir Isotherm.

The equilibrium data did not fitted well in Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms modelling, as evident by their lower R2 values compared to Langmuir Isotherms. However, despite their low R2 values, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich isotherms could give insights on the adsorption mechanisms [44], based on adsorption heat DHT and mean free energy adsorption Ea, respectively. As could be observed in Table-2, the adsorption heat DHT were -3.25 kJ/mol, -3.61 kJ/mol and -5.42 kJ/mol at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K respectively. The adsorption heat values at all the temperatures were higher than -20 kJ/mol; suggesting that physical adsorption is the dominant effect [45] behind the adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC. Similarly, the mean free energy adsorption Ea values at different temperatures as shown in Table-2, are <8 kJ/mol, suggesting that physical adsorption [43] is the dominant effect behind the adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC.

These verified the deduction on Section 3.3 that the adsorption of MB on MCC was mainly physical adsorption, which was attributed to rely on electrostatic attraction between MCC and MB.

Table-1: Isotherm Parameters values at different temperature.

###Model###Parameters###Temperature

###298K###308K###318K

###Langmuir###Qmax(mg/g)###4.95###4.14###2.84

###KL (L/mg)###0.396###0.282###0.299

###RL###0.02###0.03###0.03

###R2###0.994###0.9977###0.9966

###Freundlich###Kf (mg/g)###5.88###3.25###2.29

###1/n###0.7576###0.7092###0.4878

###R2###0.9231###0.9227###0.9224

###Temkin###BT (L/mg)###0.7612###0.7096###0.4876

###KT###10.32###5.26###5.49

###HT(kJ/mol)###-3.25###-3.61###-5.42

###R2###0.9231###0.9227###0.9224

Dubinin-Radushkevich###Qm(mg/g)###2.86###2.49###1.92

###(mol2/kJ2)###0.0674###0.1245###0.1485

###Ea (kJ/mol)###2.72###2###1.83

###R2###0.7633###0.7848###0.8102

Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium and Thermodynamics Studies

Thermodynamics studies were essential to study the spontaneous of the process with temperature, by taking into considerations into both energy and entropy. This was performed by using the Van Hoff's equation, which is derived below as Eq. (10):

(Equation)

whereby, Kc is the equilibrium constant, DH is the change in enthalpy, DS is the change in entropy and DG is the Gibbs free energy. A plot of Ln Kc vs 1/T was plotted (not shown) and the value of DH and DS was obtained from the intercept and slope of the plot respectively. These values were tabulated in Table-2.

Looking into results presented in Table-2, DG values at all temperatures were in negative values, which confirmed the spontaneous and feasibility of the adsorption of MB dye on MCC [46], thus verified the RL and 1/n values from Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms respectively. Furthermore, the DG values at all the temperatures were within the range of - 20kJ/mol and 0 kJ/mol, further confirmed the deduction in Section 3.3 that physical adsorption [47]was the dominant adsorption mechanism behind the adsorption of MB dye on MCC.

The increasing in DG values with temperature and the negative DS indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous at lower temperature due to the decrease in randomness occurs with increasing temperature [48]. As a result, the adsorption was exothermic in nature, indicated by the negative DH values at all temperatures [20]. The decreased in randomness with temperature resulting in the decrease in adsorption capacities at all dye initial concentration with temperature, as evident in the equilibrium curves in Fig. 5, and the decreased in Qmax and Kf values with temperatures from Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms respectively.

Table-2: Thermodynamics Parameters.

###G###H###S

Temperature###(KJ/mol)###Kc###(kJ/mol)###(J/mol)

###298K###-5.44###9.00

###308K###-3.97###4.71###-32.1###-90.2

###318K###-3.67###4.00

Effect of Contact Time and Adsorption Kinetics

The effects of contact time on the adsorption of MB on the percentage at different temperatures are shown in Fig. 8, the adsorption occurred very rapidly, reaching equilibrium at 3 minutes, 1.5 minutes and 1 minute at 298 K, 308 K, and 318 K respectively. The maximum percentage removals and equilibrium adsorption capacities were achieved at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K are 90%, 85% and 80%, 1.44 mg/g, 1.36 mg/g and 1.28 mg/g respectively.

It should be highlighted that in comparisons to other adsorbents for the adsorption of MB, MCC had a significantly very fast adsorption. This include nanoparticles such as Carbon Nanotubes [49], Ilemite nanoparticles [50] and Titania nanoparticles [51], achieving equilibrium time at 60 minutes, 600 minutes and 90 minutes respectively, and wastes such as pyrolyzed petrified sediments, achieving equilibrium time in 480 minutes [52]. The strong electrostatic attraction enable rapid filling of adsorption sites by MB molecules on the surface of MCC, resulting in a very rapid adsorption rate [53], whereby achieving percentage removal of 66%-74% within 0.5 minutes. However, beyond 0.5 minutes, most of the adsorption sites were occupied, which resulted in decrease in adsorption rate.

By 1-3 minutes, all the adsorption sites were occupied [54], whereby saturation and thus maximum percentage removal and equilibrium adsorption capacities had been achieved. Thus, beyond 3 minutes, there was no more further adsorption occurred.

Further insight to the adsorption rate could be conducted by evaluating the adsorption kinetics of MB on MCC, which could also determine the rate- determining steps, as well as the adsorption mechanism. Three kinetics models were analyzed, which consist of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovorich models. Linearized Pseudo-first order model is defined below in Eq. (11):

(Equation)

where, Qt is the adsorption capacity at time t and k1 is the first order reaction rate constant. Linearized Pseudo-Second Order Model is defined below in Eq. (12):

(Equation)

whereby, k2 presents the second order reaction rate constant. Linearized Elovorich Kinetics Model is defined below in Eq. (13):

(Equation)

where, a denotes the initial adsorption rate and b represents the constant rate related to surface coverage and the activation energy for chemical adsorption. Normalized standard deviation (STD) is used to determine the most suitable model that describes the kinetic study of adsorption. Fig. 9 shows the linearized Pseudo-First Order at different temperatures. Clearly, at all the temperatures, the adsorptions of MB dye on MCC did not fit in the Pseudo-first order model at all, as evident with a low R2 values of 0.9851, 0.9743 and 0.9436 at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K respectively, as listed in Table-3. Furthermore, the STD between Qexp (experimental adsorption capacity at equilibrium) and Qcal (calculated adsorption capacity at equilibrium) were very large for all temperatures, which were 10%, 21% and 31% at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K, respectively.

The results obtained from Pseudo-first order model indicated that the adsorption of MB on MCC might follow Pseudo-second order. Fig. 10 shows the linearized Pseudo-second Order at different temperatures. Clearly, at all temperatures, the adsorption of MB on MCC did indeed fit very well in Pseudo-second order model. This was evident with very high R2 values of 0.9997-1 at all temperatures, as listed in Table-3. The STD between Qexp and Qcal were very low for all temperatures, which were 0.5%, 0.05% and 0.02% at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K respectively. Pseudo-second order model is defined based on the rate of adsorption is proportional to the square of the number of unoccupied sites on the adsorption sites on the adsorbate surface as well. adsorption mechanism relating to chemical adsorption [55]. Fig. 11 shows the Linearized Elovorich model at different temperatures.

It was observed that the adsorption kinetics of MB adsorption of MCC fitted only moderately with Elovorich model, with R2 were determined to be 0.9863, 0.9876 and 0.9698 at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K respectively as tabulated in Table-3. Since it is only fitted moderately, it is concluded there is no chemical adsorption mechanism involved.

Characterization

Characterization was done using FTIR, SEM and XRD and BET surface area, before and after adsorption to better understand and explain the results obtained.

Table-3: Kinetics Parameters.

###Temperature

###Model###Parameters

###298K###308K###318K

Pseudo-first Order###Qexp (mg/g)###1.44###1.36###1.28

###Qcal(mg/g)###1.15###0.85###0.58

###k1(min-1)###1.30###3.03###4.49

###R2###0.9851###0.9743###0.9436

###STD###10%###21%###31%

Pseudo-second order###Qexp (mg/g)###1.440###1.360###1.280

###Qcal (mg/g)###1.463###1.362###1.281

###k2 (g/mg.min)###3.29###34.32###59.71

###R2###0.9997###1###1

###STD###0.5%###0.05%###0.02%

###Elovorich###(mg/g.min)###90.74###15521.55 34714.28

###(g/mg)###0.3241###0.166###0.1513

###R2###0.9863###0.9876###0.9698

BET

Specific surface area and porosity of MCC were determined using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. As shown in Table-4, the specific surface area and the pore volume obtained were 1.32 m2/g and 0.02405 cm2/g respectively. The average pore width was 22.72 nm, suggesting that MCC is a mesoporous material [56]. The low specific area of MCC resulted in a relatively low adsorption capacity of MCC on MB, which is 4.95 mg/g at 298 K. This was despite the fact that MCC could effectively remove MB with high percentage removal due to several adsorption mechanisms. This was because specific surface area correlates to the adsorption capacity and is directly proportional to the number of adsorption sites according to Brunauer-Emmet- Teller (BET) theory [57].

Table-4: BET data for MCC.

###Parameters###Values

###Specific Surface Area###1.32 m2/g

###Pore Size###22.72 nm

###Pore Volume###0.02405 cm3/g

FE-SEM

Smooth, crystalline surface was observed on the surface of pure MCC as presented in Fig. 12(a).

Meanwhile, Fig. 12(b) shows a sharp-edged, crystallite structure of MB powder, which is significantly different from the MCC surface. Fig. 12(c) is the FE-SEM image for MCC after adsorption of 12 minutes .Compared to Fig. 12 (a), rougher surface was observed for the MCC after adsorption at Fig. 12(c). Several sharp-edged crystalline structures, which indicate the MB particle, are observed to be attached on the surface of MCC due to the dominant electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged MCC and MB, as verified based on the results of Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich Isotherms. The smooth surface of MCC could no longer be observed in Fig. 12(c), as it was saturated with MB particles. As a result, all the adsorption sites of MCC had been used up, and could not further remove the MB dye.

FTIR

Fig. 13(a) shows the FTIR spectra of pure MCC before the adsorption process. The wavelength of 3436 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 represented the stretching and bending of hydroxyl group respectively in the MCC structure [58]. A peak was observed in 2917cm-1 due to the asymmetric stretching vibration of C-H in pyranoid ring, while the stretching of 1057-1033 cm-1 represent the C-O-C bond of the cyclic alcohol of cellulose [59]. Fig. 13 (b) demonstrates the FTIR spectra for MB. A sharp peak could be seen at wavelength of 1601 cm-1 which represented the C=N- bond in the MB structure while the stretching at 1180-1147 cm-1 represented the N-C bond of the aromatic amines functional group in MB structure. There was no hydroxyl functional group exist in MB structure [60]. Therefore, the hydroxyl peak appeared at 3423 cm-1 was attributed to the hydrates of the MB powder. The spectrum of MCC after adsorption, which is shown in Fig. 13(c), was very much similar to that of Fig. 13(a).

There was still a hydroxyl peak appeared at 3399 cm-1 which was due to the moisture of the environment. However higher intensities at 1642 cm-1 and 1168-1111 cm-1 were observed which are attributed to the overlapping with C=N- bond and N-C bond of the aromatic amines functional group in MB structure, respectively. This showed that MB has been anchored on the surface of the MCC. Comparing Fig. 13(a) and Fig. 13(c), there is neither additional nor disappearance of peaks observed. This verified that there was no chemical adsorption involved. Only electrostatic attraction or physical adsorption involved in the adsorption mechanism.

Adsorption Mechanism and Future Prospective

Results have shown that MCC had strong affinity towards MB dye, which led to the rapid adsorption rate of MB on MCC adsorbent. The strong affinity of MB on MCC was predominantly due to physical adsorption mechanism. As investigated in Section 3.3, the isoelectric point for MCC is at pH 2.8. Thus, the net charge of MCC at pH 2 was positive, due to high concentration of H+ ion. As a result, lowest dye percentage removal was obtained at this pH value due to electrostatic repulsion. Beyond pH 2.8, the net charge of MCC was negative, resulting in significant increase in cationic MB dye percentage removal from pH 2 to pH 3. Thus, the adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC was predominantly due to electrostatic attraction, which was categorized as physical adsorption. This was verified further by Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms and thermodynamics studies, whereby these studies shows that physical adsorption is the predominant adsorption mechanism.

Results from Elovorich kinetics model suggested that there is no chemical adsorption mechanism involved. This was verified by using FTIR on MCC after adsorption, where there was neither additional nor disappearance in peaks. As due to the strong electrostatic interactions between MCC and MB, equilibrium of adsorption occurred at a much faster rate than many other materials. These justified the potential of MCC as sustainable and green adsorbent.

Although this study have been investigated and justify the potential of MCC as sustainable and green adsorbent, there are still some challenges which have to be addressed in the future. The main challenge is the low adsorption capacity. Langmuir isotherm has shown that the maximum adsorption capacity is 4.95 mg/g, which is still significantly lower than other researched adsorbents on MB dye removal. These include carbon nanotube [61], natural palygorskite [62], and bentonite [63] which have 59.7 mg/g, 158.03 mg/g and 168.63 mg/g respectively. The low adsorption capacity was due to the low surface area (1.32 m2/g) of MCC, resulting in inefficient surface contact area between MCC and MB. Adsorption of water soluble dye is only adsorbed on the amorphous region of MCC as it is more hydrophilic than the crystalline region [64].

Therefore, since MCC has high crystallinity of 83%, there were lesser amorphous regions available for the adsorption of dye, which also contributes to the low adsorption capacity of MCC.

Suggested further improvements could be investigated in the future to increase the adsorption capacities. This includes the fabrication of MCC beads [65], which could significantly increase porosity, surface area, decrease crystallinity and improve access to internal sorption sites [66], which in turn, will increase the adsorption capacity of MCC. Similar bio-adsorbents like chitosan has the same problem of low surface area and high crystallinity in powder formed, which were finally solved by fabrication of chitosan bead [67]. Fabrication of cellulose and MCC beads is a well-established method, whereby cellulose is generally dissolved in a mixture of alkaline with urea or thiourea solution, before it is regenerated as cellulose beads in acidic solution [68].

With a high surface area of between 336-470 m2/g, and porosity between 93-95% [65], pure cellulose beads are mostly used for drug encapsulation and delivery [69]. However, there are very limited studies on the application of MB dye adsorption using MCC and cellulose beads, which could be explored in the future.

Highly porous, low density and high surface area of MCC or cellulose-based aerogels [70] could be also fabricated to overcome the challenge on the low adsorption capacity of MCC powder. The formation of aerogel started with the gelation and dissolution of cellulose, followed by solvent exchange with alcohol, and finally drying to form aerogel [71]. The evaporation of alcohol in the drying steps resulting in several voids formation, subsequently highly porous structure consisting of a network of interconnected uniform cellulose is formed [72]. This provides more adsorption sites for the adsorption of MB, and potentially enhances the adsorption capacity significantly. Cellulose-based aerogel is used as a removal of oil by modifying it into hydrophobic aerogel [72], as pure cellulose aerogel is hydrophilic. Its hydrophilicity thus enhances the interaction between pure cellulose and water soluble dye.

However, there are also very limited studies on the application of MB dye adsorption using MCC and cellulose-based aerogel, which could be further explored in the future.

Conclusion

This paper has studied the adsorption mechanisms of MCC, and its potential as green adsorbent. The adsorption equilibrium fitted well with Langmuir Isotherm, which indicated that monolayer adsorption at the homogenous surface of MCC, whereby adsorbed MB molecules do not interact with each other at neighboring adsorption sites. Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms and thermodynamics studies have shown that electrostatic attraction, which was categorized as physical adsorption, was the dominant adsorption mechanism between MCC and MB. It was due to the electrostatic attraction as adsorption mechanism of this adsorption process which resulted more rapid adsorption of MB dye, compared to a lot of materials, This showed the potential of MCC as the future of green and sustainable adsorbent, particularly for the adsorption of dye, although further improvement is still required to enhance the adsorption capacity.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) for providing research funding under the FRGS scheme grant number FRGS/2/2013 TK05/MUSM/03/1.

References

1. Y. Liu, Y. Zheng and A. Wang, Enhanced Adsorption of Methylene Blue from aqueous Solution by chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/Vermiculite Hydrogel Composites, J. Environ. Sci., 22, 486 (2010).

2. C. Z. Liang, S. P. Sun, F. Y. Li, Y. K. Ong, T. S. Chung, Treatment of Highly Concentrated Wastewater Containing Multiple Synthetic Dyes by a Combined Process of Coagulation/Flocculation and Nanofiltration, J. Membr. Sci., 469, 306 (2014).

3. F. Banat, S. Al-Asheh and M. Qtaishat, Treatment of Waters Colored with Methylene Blue Dye by Vacuum Membrane Distillation, Desalination, 174 (2005).

4. P. Li, G. Zhao, K. Zhao, J. Gao, T. Wu, An Efficient and Energy Saving Approach to Photocatalytic Degradation of Opaque High- Chroma Methylene Blue Wastewater by Electrocatalytic Pre-Oxidation, Dyes Pigm., 92, 923 (2012).

5. S. Wang, L. Li, H. Wu and Z. H. Zhu, Unburned Carbon as a Low-Cost Adsorbent for Treatment of Methylene Blue-Containing Wastewater, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 292, 336 (2005).

6. L. Xiong, Y. Yang, J. Mai, W. Sun, C. Zhang, D. Wei, Q. Chen and J. Ni, Adsorption Behavior of Methylene Blue onto Titanate Nanotubes, Chem. Eng. J., 156, 313 (2010).

7. H. Deng, J. Lu, G. Li, G. Zhang and X. Wang, Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Adsorbent Materials Produced from Cotton Stalk Chem. Eng. J., 172, 326 (2011).

8. L. Ai, C. Zhang, F. Liao, Y. Wang, M. Li, L. Meng and J. Jiang, Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution with Magnetite Loaded Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube: Kinetic, Isotherm and Mechanism Analysis, J. Hazard. Mater., 198, 282 (2011).

9. S. K. Theydan, M. J. Ahmed, Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Biomass-Based Activated Carbon by FeCl3 Activation: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 97, 116 (2012).

10. Y. Li, Q. Du, T. Liu, J. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Xia and L. Xia, Methylene Blue Adsorption on Graphene Oxide/Calcium Alginate Composites, Carbohydr. Polym., 95, 501 (2013).

11. V. Meshko, L. Markovska, M. Mincheva and A. E. Rodrigues, Adsorption of Basic Dyes on Granular Acivated Carbon and Natural Zeolite, Water Res., 35, 3357 (2001).

12. M. Y. Chang and R. S. Juang, Adsorption of Tannic Acid, Humic Acid, and Dyes from Water Using the Composite of Chitosan and Activated Clay, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 278, 18 (2004).

13. H. Guo, S. Zhang, Z. Kou, S. Zhai, W. Ma, Y. Yang, Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Chemically Modified Maize Straw, Carbohydr. Polym., 115, 177 (2015).

14. A. Z. Abdullah, B. Salamatinia, A. H. Kamaruddin, Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of NaOH Treatment on Oil Palm Frond Towards Improvement in the Sorption of Heavy Metals, Desalination, 244, 227 (2009).

15. M. S. Chiou, H. Y. Li, Equilibrium and Kinetic Modeling of Adsorption of Reactive Dye on Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads, J. Hazard. Mater., 93, 233 (2002).

16. Y. Xing, X. Sun, B. Li, Poly(Methacrylic Acid)- Modified Chitosan for Enhancement Adsorption of Water-Soluble Cationic Dyes, Polym. Eng. Sci., 49, 272 (2009).

17. M. S. Chiou, H. Y. Li, Equilibrium and Kinetic Modeling of Adsorption of Reactive Dye on Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads, J. Hazard. Mater., 93, 233 (2002).

18. A. R. Cestari, E. F. S. Vieira, A. G. P. Dos Santos, J. A. Mota, V. P. De Almeida, Adsorption of Anionic Dyes on Chitosan Beads. 1. The Influence of the Chemical Structures of Dyes and Temperature on the Adsorption Kinetics, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 280, 380 (2000).

19. G. Zhang, L. Yi, H. Deng and P. Sun, Dyes Adsorption using a Synthetic Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Acrylic Acid Adsorbent, J. Environ. Sci., 26, 1203 (2014).

20. L. Wang, J. Li, Adsorption of C. I. Reactive Red 228 Dye from Aqueous Solution by Modified Cellulose from Flax Shive: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Thermodynamics, Ind. Crops Prod., 42, 153 (2013).

21. X. Luo and L. Zhang, High Effective Adsorption of Organic Dyes on Magnetic Cellulose Beads Entrapping Activated Carbon, J. Hazard. Mater., 171, 340 (2009).

22. L. S. Silva, L. C. B. Lima, F. C. Silva, J. M. E. Matos, M. R. M. C. Santos, L. S. Santos Junior, K. S. Sousa, E. C. da Silva Filho, Dye Anionic Sorption in Aqueous Solution onto a Cellulose Surface Chemically Modified with Aminoethanethiol, Chem. Eng. J., 218, 89 (2013).

23. A. L. Cazetta, A. M. M. Vargas, E. M. Nogami, M. H. Kunita, M. R. Guilherme, A. C. Martins, T. L. Silva, J. C. G. Moraes, V. C. Almeida, NaOH-Activated Carbon of High Surface Area Produced from Coconut Shell: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies from the Methylene Blue Adsorption, Chem. Eng. J., 174, 117 (2011).

24. J. M. Parnis, K. B. Oldham, Beyond the Beer- Lambert law: The Dependence of Absorbance on Time in Photochemistry, J. Photochem. Photobiol., A., 267, 6 (2013).

25. Z. Eren, F. N. Acar, Adsorption of Reactive Black 5 from an Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies, Desalination, 194, 1 (2006).

26. M. A. M. Salleh, D. K. Mahmoud, W. A. W. A. Karim, A. Idris, Cationic and Anionic Dye Adsorption by Agricultural Solid Wastes: A Comprehensive Review, Desalination, 280, 1 (2011).

27. M. T. Yagub, T. K. Sen, S. Afroze, H. M. Ang, Dye and its Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption: A review, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 209, 172 (2014).

28. S. Selvakumar, R. Manivasagan, K. Chinnappan, Biodegradation and Decolourization of Textile Dye Wastewater Using Ganoderma Lucidum, 3 Biotech, 3, 71 (2013).

29. B. H. Hameed, A. A. Ahmad, Batch Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Garlic Peel, an Agricultural Waste Biomass, J. Hazard. Mater., 164, 870 (2009).

30. M. C. Ncibi, B. Mahjoub, M. Seffen, Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Methylene Blue Biosorption by Posidonia oceanica (L.) Fibres, J. Hazard. Mater., 139, 280 (2007).

31. F. A. Pavan, A. C. Mazzocato and Y. Gushikem, Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Yellow Passion Fruit Peel as Adsorbent, Bioresour. Technol., 99, 3162 (2008).

32. C. H. Weng, Y. T. Lin, T. W. Tzeng, Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Pineapple Leaf Powder, J. Hazard. Mater., 170, 417 (2009).

33. A. N. Zhukov, D. Y. Baturenko, Y. M. Chernoberezhskii, A. V. Lorentsson, Conductivity and Electrokinetic Potential of Microcrystalline Cellulose Particles in Aqueous HCl and NaOH Solutions, Colloid J., 65, 310 (2003).

34. C. H. Giles, T. H. MacEwan, S. N. Nakhwa, D. Smith, 786. Studies in Adsorption. Part XI. A System of Classification of Solution Adsorption Isotherms, and its Use in Diagnosis of Adsorption Mechanisms and in Measurement of Specific Surface Areas of Solids, J. Chem. Soc., 3973 (1960).

35. J. S. Piccin, C. S. Gomes, L. A. Feris, M. Gutterres, Kinetics and Isotherms of Leather Dye Adsorption by Tannery Solid Waste Chem. Eng. J., 183, 30 (2012).

36. G. Limousin, J. P. Gaudet, L. Charlet, S. Szenknect, V. Barthes, M. Krimissa, Sorption Isotherms: A Review on Physical Bases, Modeling and Measurement, Applied Geochemistry, 22, 249 (2007).

37. I. Langmuir, The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica, and Platinum, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40, 1361 (1918).

38. K. R. Hall, L. C. Eagleton, A. Acrivos, T. Vermeulen, Pore- and Solid-Diffusion Kinetics in Fixed-Bed Adsorption under Constant-Pattern Conditions, Ind. Eng. Chem, 5, 212 (1966).

39. S. Wang, Z. H. Zhu, Characterisation and Environmental Application of an Australian Natural Zeolite for Basic Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution, J. Hazard. Mater., 136, 946 (2006).

40. S. Rangabhashiyam, N. Anu, M. S. Giri Nandagopal, N. Selvaraju, Relevance of Isotherm Models in Biosorption of Pollutants by Agricultural Byproducts, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2, 398 (2014).

41. A. G. El Said, N. A. Badawy, A. Y. Abdel-Aal, S. E. Garamon, Optimization Parameters for Adsorption and Desorption of Zn(II) and Se(IV) using Rice Husk Ash: Kinetics and Equilibrium, Ionics, 17, 263 (2011).

42. A. Olgun and N. Atar, Equilibrium and Kinetic Adsorption Study of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 by a Boron Industry Waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 161, 148 (2009).

43. A. A. Oladipo, M. Gazi, S. Saber-Samandari, Adsorption of Anthraquinone Dye onto Eco- Friendly Semi-IPN Biocomposite Hydrogel: Equilibrium Isotherms, Kinetic Studies and Optimization, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 45, 653 (2014).

44. V. V. Panic, S. J. Velickovic, Removal of Model Cationic Dye by Adsorption onto poly(methacrylic acid)/Zeolite Hydrogel Composites: Kinetics, Equilibrium Study and Image Analysis, Sep. Purif. Technol., 122, 384 (2014).

45. S. S. M. B. Ibrahim, Comparative Isotherms Studies on Adsorptive Removal of Congo Red from Wastewater by Watermelon Rinds and Neem-Tree Leaves, Open J Phys Chem., 4, 139 (2014).

46. H. El Boujaady, M. Mourabet, M. Bennani- Ziatni, A. Taitai, Adsorption/Desorption of Direct Yellow 28 on Apatitic Phosphate: Mechanism, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies, J. Asso. Arab. Uni. Basic. App. Sci., 16, 64 (2014).

47. N. M. Mahmoodi, B. Hayati, M. Arami and C. Lan, Adsorption of Textile Dyes on Pine Cone from Colored Wastewater: Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies, Desalination, 268, 117 (2011).

48. H. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Wu and G. Dai, Isotherm, Thermodynamic, Kinetics and Adsorption Mechanism Studies of Methyl Orange by Surfactant Modified Silkworm Exuviae, J. Hazard. Mater., 192, 246 (2011).

49. S. Wang, C. W. Ng, W. Wang, Q. Li and L. Li, A Comparative Study on the Adsorption of Acid and Reactive Dyes on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Single and Binary Dye Systems, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 57, 1563 (2012).

50. Y. H. Chen, Synthesis, Characterization and Dye Adsorption of Ilmenite Nanoparticles, J. Non- Cryst. Solids, 357, 136 (2011).

51. K. Bubacz, B. Tryba, A. W. Morawski, The Role of Adsorption in Decomposition of Dyes on TiO2 and N-modified TiO2 Photocatalysts Under UV and Visible Light Irradiations, Mater. Res. Bull., 47, 3697 (2012).

52. A. Z. Aroguz, J. Gulen, R. H. Evers, Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution on Pyrolyzed Petrified Sediment, Bioresour. Technol., 99, 1503 (2008).

53. P. R. Rout, P. Bhunia, R. R. Dash, Modeling Isotherms, Kinetics and Understanding the Mechanism of Phosphate Adsorption onto a Solid Waste: Ground Burnt Patties, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2, 1331 (2014).

54. A. H. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, Adsorption of Remazol Black 5 from Aqueous Solution by the Templated Crosslinked-Chitosans, J. Hazard. Mater., 177, 668 (2010).

55. F. C. Wu, R. L. Tseng and R. S. Juang, Characteristics of Elovich Equation Used for the Analysis of Adsorption Kinetics in Dye-Chitosan Systems, Chem. Eng. J., 150, 366 (2009).

56. K. Pyrzynska, M. Bystrzejewski, Comparative Study of Heavy Metal Ions Sorption onto Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanotubes, and Carbon-Encapsulated Magnetic Nanoparticles, Colloids Surf., A, 362, 102 (2010).

57. S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett, E. Teller, Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60, 309 (1938).

58. Z. Shan, W. S. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. M. Huang and H. Ye, Preparation and Characterization of Carboxyl-Group Functionalized Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles and the Potential for Bio-Applications, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 18, 1329 (2007).

59. M. Kacurakova, P. Capek, V. Sasinkova, N. Wellner, A. Ebringerova, FT-IR Study of Plant Cell Wall Model Compounds: Pectic Polysaccharides and Hemicelluloses, Carbohydr. Polym., 43, 195 (2000).

60. P. Zugenmaier, Crystalline Cellulose and Derivatives, in: R. W. T. E. Timell (Ed.), Springer, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 2008, pp. 286.

61. Y. Yao, F. Xu, M. Chen, Z. Xu and Z. Zhu, Adsorption Behavior of Methylene Blue on Carbon Nanotubes, Bioresour. Technol., 101, 3040 (2010).

62. Y. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Liu and A. Wang, A Comparative Study About Adsorption of Natural Palygorskite for Methylene Blue, Chem. Eng. J., 262, 390 (2015).

63. Y. Liu, Y. Kang, B. Mu, A. Wang, Attapulgite/Bentonite Interactions for Methylene Blue Adsorption Characteristics from Aqueous Solution, Chem. Eng. J., 237, 403 (2014).

64. G. Thoorens, F. Krier, B. Leclercq, B. Carlin and B. Evrard, Microcrystalline Cellulose, a Direct Compression Binder in a Quality by Design Environment-A review, Int. J. Pharm., 473, 64 (2014).

65. J. Trygg, P. Fardim, M. Gericke, E. Makila and J. Salonen, Physicochemical Design of the Morphology and Ultrastructure of Cellulose Beads, Carbohydr. Polym., 93, 291 (2013).

66. P. Miretzky, A. F. Cirelli, Hg(II) Removal from Water by Chitosan and Chitosan Derivatives: A review, J. Hazard. Mater., 167, 10 (2009).

67. M. Vakili, M. Rafatullah, B. Salamatinia, A. Z. Abdullah, M. H. Ibrahim, K. B. Tan, Z. Gholami, P. Amouzgar, Application of Chitosan and its Derivatives as Adsorbents for Dye Removal from Water and Wastewater: A Review, Carbohydr. Polym., 113, 115 (2014).

68. B. Medronho, B. Lindman, Brief Overview on Cellulose Dissolution/Regeneration Interactions and Mechanisms, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., (2014).

69. J. Trygg, E. Yildir, R. Kolakovic, N. Sandler, P. Fardim, Anionic Cellulose Beads for Drug Encapsulation and Release, Cellulose, 21, 1945 (2014).

70. T. Oshima, T. Sakamoto, K. Ohe and Y. Baba, Cellulose Aerogel Regenerated from Ionic Liquid Solution for Immobilized Metal Affinity Adsorption, Carbohydr. Polym, 103, 62 (2014).

71. H. Jin, Y. Nishiyama, M. Wada, S. Kuga, Nanofibrillar Cellulose Aerogels, Colloids Surf., A, 240, 63 (2004).

72. S. T. Nguyen, J. Feng, N. T. Le, A. T. T. Le, N. Hoang, V. B. C. Tan, H. M. Duong, Cellulose Aerogel from Paper Waste for Crude Oil Spill Cleaning, Ind. Eng. Chem. Research, 52, 18386 (2013).
COPYRIGHT 2016 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Tan, Kok Bing; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Horri, Bahman Amini; Salamatinia, Babak
Publication:Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan
Article Type:Report
Date:Aug 31, 2016
Words:6173
Previous Article:Radiation Induced Degradation of an Azo Dye Solution for Use in Dosimetric Applications.
Next Article:Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Novel C-10 Nitrate Derivatives of Colchicine.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters