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Adoption of package of practices of maize crops in Punjab and its impact on productivity: a micro study.


The state of Punjab remains a classic example of a fast developing economy with agriculture as its base. The state is pioneer in ushering in the green revolution in the country. Besides this, the state has also made remarkable progress in allied sectors like dairy, poultry, fishery, and also in the production of fruits and vegetables. The state government has been giving importance to agro- based industries particularly food processing industry since green revolution period. The state is one of the progressive states in strengthening the agricultural infrastructure, particularly irrigation and power. The state has developed quite good network of canals and tube wells for crop irrigation and has a strong institutional structure, for providing credit to the farmers through vast network of banking institutions but still a sizeable number of the farmers got loan through non- institutional sources particularly from commission agents on very high rate of interest. Physiographically, the state may be divided into three regions; (i) hilly tracts, (ii) Foothills and (iii) Plain areas. The forest cover in the state was only 6.05 percent as against the national average of 19.4 percent. Punjab's climate is continental, semi arid humid. Soils of the state are sandy and loamy in texture.

The cumulative effect of all this is manifested in the highest per capita income since reorganization of Punjab in 1966, but started lagging behind in the present century. It has an area of 50362 sq Kms, is one of the smaller states of India. It accounts for 1.5 percent of total area of the country and 2.4 percent of the population. Punjab Agricultural University, Department of Agriculture and other Line departments have started educating the farmers to diversify in agriculture to grow crops other than wheat and paddy depending upon the potentials of a particular area. Punjab Agro Food grains Corporation Ltd. also started its Crop Diversification Programme through Contract Farming and maize is one of the crops adopted under contact farming.

Review of Literature:

A large number of research findings of scientific agriculture studies have been evolved but not the entire are being adopted by farmers. Sharma (1996) in his study found that majority of the maize growers were medium level of adoption, 24.17 percent were low and only 12.50 percent were high level of adoption. No adoption gap was found for the practices like tillage operation before onset of monsoon, manure applicable, and nitrogen fertilizer applicable where as the maximum adoption was found in the practice of insect pest control and seed treatment and the minimum in operation of hoeing.

Only one third of the respondent adopted the mulching techniques and low level of adoption gap was found in time of mulching material.

In another study Sharma (1999) reported that majority of the maize grower (69.0 percent) use in medium adoption level. It was further reported that 74 percent of them did not grow recommended varieties 65.0 percent used broadcasting method for sowing. Nearly all respondent did not accurately use plant protection measures and had sown crop timely.

Malik et. al (2000) Study on Haryana found that large numbers of respondents gave first priority to the information related to the sowing times and quality seeds of different crops, the study also indicate the most important source of information to the farmers, were official net work of extension service and input dealer.

Another study done by PAU (2002), on adoption of rain water management practices by the maize growing farmers in the kandi districts of Hoshiarpur and Nawashahr found that majority of the respondent (65.33 percent) grow only non recommended varieties but they used recommended seed ratio and applied non-recommended number of ploughing in the field. It was also found that all the respondents had shown their crop at the recommended times. About 70 percent farmers applied the recommended dose of urea, but 65 percent applied lesser dose of dominium phosphate and about 80 percent did not use potash to their crop. In case of weed control, none of the respondent applied chemical method and majority (69.33 percent) applied only mechanical method of weed control. Study further reveals that about 55 percent of the respondent deviated from the recommended time of first hoeing where as about 42 percent respondent deviated from time of hoeing. There was 60.61 percent adoption gap in method of applicably of weedicides where as no deviation was found in the application of weedicides. The study suggests that due to a high level of adoption gap in practices like improved varieties, fertilizes and manure application; soil mulching, bench terracing and staggered trenches, the training programmes and training activity should give more emphasis on these gaps from time to time.

V.K. Yadav, et. al. (2010-11), study indicates that knowledge level of scientific Kharif maize cultivation in Haryana was less than that in Bihar. Mean knowledge scores of Kharif maize cultivation in Bihar and Haryana were found to be 9.93 and 7.67, respectively. Significant difference was found at one percent level among farmers of Bihar and Haryana regarding cultivation of Kharif maize.

In Bihar, majority of the farmers (66.67%) were possessing medium level of knowledge regarding cultivation of Kharif maize, which was followed by those having low and high levels of knowledge in equal number. In Haryana, majority of the farmers were having medium level of knowledge (55.00 percent), which was followed by those having high (33.33 percent) and low (11.67percent) levels of knowledge.

Pattanaik, Bikram. K, (2006) study on rice farmers of Puri district of Orissa found that adoption of HYVs and its package of practice reveal that the difference in adoption among the framers such as illiterate, literate (Primary and middle) and literate (Secondary and above), those who are not getting extension education varies between a low 25 percent to a high 50 percent however the difference are not significant. Study further analysed that the adoption rate of tenants, small and medium farmers those who were not exposes to extension education do not vary significantly but these categories have significantly higher adoption level than their counterparts, when they are getting extension education.

Maize Scenario

Over the years, maize has witnessed a phenomenal growth with respect to area, production and productivity in the country due to introduction of Single Cross Hybrid technology which offers an easy, viable and economical option to the farmers. Maize is a potential crop for diversification of cropping system. In context of peri-urban agriculture, speciality corn viz., baby corn and sweet corn hold great promise for ensuring livelihood security. The single cross hybrids of Quality Protein Maize enriched tryptophan and lysine provide a nutritious feed to poultry, cattle and for poor people particularly for those who consume maize as staple food thereby providing food and nutritional security. Maize has also great potential for high growth of seed sector and export. Hence, it clearly implies that at present maize has a unique place in Indian economy.

In India, Maize is the third most important food crop after rice and wheat. According to estimate it is cultivated in 8.7 m ha (2010-11) mainly during Kharif season which covers 75 percent area. Maize in India, contributes nearly 9 percent in the national food basket and more than Rs. 100 billion to the agricultural GDP at current prices apart from generating employment to over 100 million man-days at the farm and downstream agricultural and industrial sectors. In addition to staple food for human being and quality feed for animals, maize serves as a basic raw material as an ingredient to thousands of industrial products that includes starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, film, textile, gum, package and paper industries etc.

The maize is cultivated throughout the year in almost all states of the country for various purposes including grain, fodder, green cobs, sweet corn, baby corn, pop corn in peri-urban areas. The predominant maize growing states that contributes more than 80 percent of the total maize production are; Andhra Pradesh (20.9 percent), Karnataka (16.5 percent), Rajasthan (9.9 percent), Maharashtra (9.1 percent), Bihar (8.9 percent), Uttar Pradesh (6.1 percent), Madhya Pradesh (5.7 percent), Himachal Pradesh (4.4 percent).

In the state of Punjab maize is grown in three different seasons i.e. Kharif Maize, Winter Maize and spring maize. Most of the farmers sow winter and spring maize as a third crop. The state has a vast potential in most of its area, to adopt maize as Kharif crop i.e. as an alternative of paddy crop which requires a lot of water. It is pertinent to mention here that Punjab was traditionally a maize growing state which changed its status to paddy cultivation during the green revolution era.

Objectives of the study

* To study the adoption of HYVs of maize.

* To study the adoption of the package of practice.

* To study the problems of the farmers for growing Maize.

* To study the responses and suggestions of farmers to promote maize crops.

Methodology of the study Area of the study

The study was conducted in two maize growing adjoining districts namely Ropar (Roopnagar) and Nawanshahr (SBS Nagar) of Punjab. In total 200 farmers from the 4 blocks and 20 villages were the respondent of the study. As regards to the selection of farmers, those who were exposed to extension education, the purposive sampling methods was used and only those farmers who were regularly attending the extension programme organized by Public or Private Extension agencies were conducted for the present study. On the other group of farmers, a random sampling method was used.

Data Collection:-The research tools were finalized after analysing the preliminary results. The following primary level information was collected from each of the selected farmers.

* Identification of the area and farmers;

* Socio-economic status of the farmers;

* Land holding status and cropping pattern;

* Yield of spring, winter and Kharif maize;

* Adoption behaviour;

* Reason for non-adoption of maize crops and suggestion to raise area under maize;

* Marketing problem.

The data were collected through personal interview method.

Socio-Economic Background of the Respondents

Education: Formal education plays a key role in getting knowledge. Therefore, it was asked from each farmer about the level of formal education he or she obtained, Sampled data shows that about 60 percent were educated up-to the level of elementary and about 35 percent farmers were having education up to high school or above. Only 5 percent of the sample farmers were found illiterate.

Caste: It is also the fact that most of land owing castes in the Punjab is from the general caste category and very few households belongs to scheduled caste and other backwards caste owns land. Similar picture observed in our sample where as 82 percent of sample framers belongs to general caste, 12 percent SCs, and only 6 percent belongs to OBCs category

Land Holding Size: Majority of the farmers in the state is either small or marginal farmers category. Sample data indicates that more than 40 percent farmers belong to small farmers, 35 percent medium category and about one fourth belongs to large farmer's category.


Adoption of HYVs of Maize

All the farmers selected for study, were asked regarding adoption of HYVs. The main reason for adopting high yield varieties was given that these varieties gave good yield as compared to traditional varieties and 42.5 percent of all sampled farmers were fully adopting the HYVs. As quite large numbers of farmers (54.0 percent) were adopting HYVs partially. The reason for partial adoption depends upon availability of seeds (51.9 percent) and about 48 percent farmer's opinion that traditional varieties are also equally good in terms of yield.

Use of Machinery in Sowing of maize

As contrast to traditional methods of sowing, a sizeable number of farmers (56.5 percent) were fully adopter of machinery. The reasons cited by them are that with the use of machinery, a lot of time is saved and crops are sown in time which gives better returns. The partial adopter of machinery category farmers cited similar reasons as cited by other category but also cited availability of machinery as a reason for their partial adoption. The reason for non-adoption of machinery is that they don't have access to machinery for sowing of the maize crop.

Use of Pesticides

Punjab farmers are on the top for using pesticides, on their crops. It has many negative effects on the human as well as of animal and birds health. It is also having negative impact on environment and ecology of the state. The data in Table-3 shows that 97.5 percent of the farmers were fully adopting the use of pesticides on their maize crop. Their reason for using was for betterment of crop and saving the crops from pest and diseases. Only 5 farmers were not using pesticides on maize crops, as they think there is no need of use of pesticides.

Use of Weedicides

As the use of pesticides is rampant, similar is for the case of use of weedicides. The data in table 4 shows that 94 percent of the total sample farmers were using weedicides. Their reason explained for using it was; for betterment of crop (83.5 percent) and to save crop from weeds (18.5 percent) which otherwise impacting the yield of crops. Only 3.5 percent farmers were partial and 2.5 percent farmers were found non-adoption of the weedicides.

Use of Certified Seeds

One of the key inputs for better yield and quality product is the use of certified seeds. The data in table 5 shows that only 4.5 percent farmers were not using certified seed because, they were not producing maize for commercial purposes. About 56 percent of total sampled farmers were using certified seeds only partially. The reasons cited by them, for partial use was, certified seeds are much better than traditional seeds in terms of yield of crops (78.2 percent) and also less availability of seed at shops (21.8 percent). More than 56 percent farmers were using certified seed; according to them the certified seeds are much better than traditional seeds in terms of giving good production and better yield. Therefore, we can say that seed is one of the important inputs for growing maize on occasional basis.

Purchase of certified seed from private shops

Farmers were asked their choice for purchasing the seed, whether they purchased it from private shops, is shown in the table 6. It was found that the 52 percent of total maize growing selected farmers were purchasing seeds from private shops. The reasons cited by them were for better production, seeds of the private shop are good. The 44 percent farmers were purchasing partially from private shop. The reason for partial adoption is the non-availability of seeds for all the time at pesticides shop, because better seed is available in scarce quantity and thus farmers purchased it immediately.

Sale of Produce to Government Agencies

Table-7 data shows sale of produce to government agencies. Though the MSP of maize crop is also fixed like wheat & rice crop but its procurement is not the same. Most of the time, farmer's fate depends upon the market players. The data shows that 90.5 percent of total farmers were not selling their maize produce to government agencies because of government purchase prices are always less than market prices. Moreover, the government dose not purchase their produce, even on the minimum support prices fixed by the government. Only less than one-tenths of farmers were selling it to government agencies either their full or partial produce. The reasons are documented in Table-7.

Adhering package of practices of PAU/ Punjab government

The state Agriculture Department and Punjab Agricultural University provided detailed package of practices on maize crops but none of the sampled farmers adopted the package of practices in full, whereas 47 percent farmers were not adopting it at all and 52 percent farmers were using it partially. Reason for non-adoption cited by farmers was their partial knowledge (91.5 percent) and government agencies are not taking keen interest to create awareness among the farmers for adopting package of practices. The reasons for partial and non adoption are given in table 8.

Getting extension services through pesticide's shopkeepers/ commission agents

It was found that 72 percent farmers were getting extension services partially through pesticides shopkeepers and commission agents. The reason to prefer shopkeeper or commission agents is that they feel it convenient in getting this knowledge, at the time of purchasing the seeds, pesticides and weedicides. These shops are also easily accessible from their villages.

Marketing problem faced by the maize farmers

Each sampled farmer was asked about the marketing problems he faced during the sale of the maize produce. The data in table 10 shows that 96.0 percent farmer stated that fluctuation of maize prices is one of the main marketing problems, 86 percent farmers mention that they were not getting the price information, whereas and 56.5 percent mentioned absence of procurement of maize crop. Only 2.5 percent farmers reported no marketing problem, they face during the sale of maize production.

Marketing problems according to the status of extension education

Farmers were further categorized according to 'the getting' and 'not getting' extension education. Among the farmers, who reported fluctuation in prices as a marketing problem 60.9 percent were from such farmers who were getting extension education. Similarly, almost same proportion of farmers in the extension education getting category reported that their problem was that they are not getting price information. More than 56 percent farmers, who were not getting extension education, reported that procurement of crops is the main marketing problems of the maize growing farmers. (Table -11)

Suggestion for Promotion of Maize Crop

Opinion of farmers was sought on how to promote maize crops in their village. The 57 percent of total sample farmers suggested that maize can be promoted by providing better minimum support prices, whereas 38 percent suggested that government should organize camps to educate the farmers regarding the benefits of maize viz-a-viz other crops and 33 percent report as to involve private agencies in extension and also buy back of produce to promote maize. One-third farmers suggested that there is further need of research on HYVs maize crop so that it gives better crop options to the farmers.

Impact on Productivity

The information regarding latest technology is a power full tool for raising the productivity of the crop grown by the farmers. Therefore, it is important that how extension agencies are providing information and services to the maize growing farmers in the selected two district of the state of Punjab. There are three seasons, when maize is grown (i)- Khariff maize, which is sown in the months of May-June; another (ii) winter maize and (iii) spring maize.

Extension Education and Productivity:

Kharif Maize:- Data in table 11 shows that mean productivity of Kharif maize is 15.30 quintal and 12.71 for farmer getting and not getting extension education respectively. The mean productivity difference is 2.59. Calculated t value is significant at 0.05 level of probability. It shows that extension services are playing positive role in getting more yield from the crops.

Spring Maize:- The mean per acre productivity of spring maize of the farmers getting and not getting extension services is presented in the table 12. The mean productivity difference is 3.27 quintal per acre, which is quite high. Here again we can say that extension services are playing contributing role in getting better yield of spring maize. The calculated t value is significant at 0.01 level of probability.

Winter Maize:--The mean productivity of winter maize of the farmer getting and not getting extension services is 6.49 and 4.29 respectively. Through productivity of winter maize is very less as compare to spring. The mean productivity difference per acre is 2.20 quintal, which is quite high. Hence calculated t value is significant at 0.01 level of probability. We can conclude that there is a significant difference, for all varieties of maize crop grown in Kharif, spring and winter, among the farmers with or without exposure of extension education.

Conclusion and Suggestion

* All the maize growing farmers should be motivated to adopt latest high yielding varieties of maize for getting better yield.

* State government should think to provide latest machinery on hire basis, which are to be used for maize crops. Availability can be done at block level.

* Though the excessive use of pesticides and weedicides is common and every farmer is practicing it, but the need is to familiarize the farmers for its balanced and judicious use only.

* Certified seeds are one of the key issues for successful production of any crop, but it is more particular for maize crop, because most of the farmers while getting shopkeeper's advice some time can be cheated. Therefore, there is need to provide latest information on the seed, its treatment and other issues related to it to the farmers.

* Farmers are not adhering to the package of practices of maize, as suggested by Punjab Agricultural University / State Agriculture Department, the reasons is that they do not have knowledge regarding this; therefore extension agencies should take responsibility in providing knowledge to the farmers on this aspect.

* Though Punjab government introduced the system of contract farming and maize is also one of the crop under which private agencies are encouraged to provide extension services. But studies show that it has not gained a success.

* Our study finding's also could not find any best practices in force on private extension. It is therefore suggested that public extension system should be strengthened by providing adequate manpower.

* The farmers reported that marketing of maize was one of the biggest hurdles, especially when there is a bumper crop. The government has not established any mechanism for procurement of maize produce. The farmers suggested that government should procure the whole produce, as is done in the case of wheat and rice.

* The farmers are not getting prior information of price of maize crop in the other markets. There is a need to establish marketing intelligence network.

* To encourage other farmers for growing of maize farmers suggested that extension services should be provided at the doorstep of the farmers as discussed earlier, the government should provide better minimum support price and procurement of the produce should also be ensured. Only then the farmer can think about switching from the paddy to maize crops.


Kumar, S and U Saha, "Agriculture Extension for Rural Development, Issues and Challenges" Kurukshetra, Feb., 2002.

Pattanaik. Bikram.K, "Extension Education and Agriculture Development- An assessment of Human capacity building" The Associate Publishers, 2006.

Pattanaik. Bikram. K et. al "Contract farming system in Punjab:--An Appraisal" Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, Chandigarh June 2008.

Report on National Commission on Farmers, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, 2006.

Yadva. V. K. et. al, "Knowledge and Adoption of Scientific Kharif Maize Cultivation Practices in Bihar and Haryana" Unpublished PhD thesis.
Table 1: Adoption of High Yielding Variety

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non-adoption, Traditional varieties 7 100.00
N=7 (3.5) are equally good
 Total 7 100.00
Partial Adoption, Depends upon 56 51.9
N=108 availability of seed
(54.0) Traditional varieties 52 48.1
 are equally good
 Total 108 100.00

Fully Adoption, It gives much yield 85 100.00
N=85 (42.5) Total 85 100.00

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 2: Use of Machinery in Sowing Maize

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non-adoption, N=46 (23.0) Don't have 44 95.7
 Depends on 2 4.3
 of machinery
 Total 46 100.00
Partial Adoption, N=41 Save much 13 31.7
(20.5) time
 Don't have 7 17.1
 Depends on 21 51.2
 of machinery
 Total 41 100.00
Fully Adoption, N=113 Same much 113 100.00
(56..5) Total 113 100.00

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 3: Use of Pesticides

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non Adoption, N=5 No need 5 100.0
(2.5) Total 5 100.0
Fully Adoption, N = For better of crop 176 91.7
195 (97.5) To save crop few 19 8.3
 warm and diseases
Total 195 100.0

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 4: Use of Weedicides

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non-Adoption, N=5 (2.5) No need 5 100.0
 Total 5 100.0
Partial Adoption, Use traditional 7 100.0
 N=7 (3.5) method
 Total 7 100.0
Fully Adoption, For betterment 157 83.5
 of crop
N=188 (94.0) To save crop 31 16.5
 from weeds
Total 188 100.0

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 5: Use of Certifies Seeds

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non-Adoption, N=9 (4.5) Certified seeds -- --
 are much
 better than
 seed in terms
 of yield

 Less -- --
 availability at

 Not for 7 77.8

 No need 2 22.2
 Total 9 100.0
Partial Adoption, N=78 Certified seeds 61 78.2
(39.0) are much
 better than
 seed in terms
 of production

 Less 17 21.8
 availability at

 Total 78 100.0
Fully Adoption, N=113 Certified seeds 113 100.0
(56.5) are much
 better than
 seed in terms
 of production

Total 113 100.0

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 6: Purchase of certified seed fro private shops

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non-Adoption, N=8 (4.0) Homemade seeds 8 100.0
 are good
 Total 8 100.0
Partial Adoption, N=88 Depends upon the 54 61.4
(44.0) availability
 of seed
 For better 34 38.6
 Total 88 100.0
Fully Adoption, N=104 For better product 104 100.0
Total 104 100.0

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 7: Sale of produce to government agencies

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency %

Non-Adoption, Government 166 91.7
N=18 (90.5) fixed price are
 less than
 market prices

 Government do 13 7.2
 not purchase
 the income

 Produced not 1 0.6
 for market.

 Commission 1 0.6
 agent loan and
 gave produce to

 Total 181 100.0
Partial Adoption, Government has 8 61.5
 fixed price/
 less price.

N=13 (6.5) Commission agent loan 3 23.1
 Total 13 100.0
Fully Adoption, Sometime 6 100.0
N=6 (3.0) Government
 prices are
 better than

 market prices
Total 6 100.0

Table 8: Adhering package of practice on maize provided by PAU

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage
Non-Adoption, N=94 Partial 86 91.5
(47.0) Knowledge

 Government 8 8.5
 agencies are
 not taken keen

Total 94 100.0
Discontinue, N=2 (1.0) Gave not good 2 100.0

 Total 2 100.0
Partial Adoption, N=104 Partial 97 93.2
(52.0) Knowledge

 Camp attended 5 4.8
Total 104 100.0

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 9: Getting extension services through pesticides shopkeepers/
commission agents

Adoption Behaviour Reasons Frequency Percentage

Non-Adoption, -- -- --
N=6 (3.0) Not required 6 100.0
 Total 6 100.0
Discontinue, N=3 (1.5) Not required 3 100.0
 Total 3 100.0
Partial Adoption, Provide service 74 51.4
N=144 (72.0) when they
 purchase some

 Easily available 70 48.6
 Total 144 100.0
Fully Adoption, Easily available 47 100.0
N=47 (23.5)
Total 47 100.0

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 10:-Main marketing problems in the sale of maize crops

Problem N Percentage Total

Fluctuation in prices 192 96 200 (100)
Not getting price information 172 86 200 (100)
Absence of procurement of crop 113 56.5 200 (100)
No problem 5 2.5 200 (100)

Source : Field Survey 2011

Table 11: Marketing problems according to the status of extension

Reasons GEE NGE Total

Fluctuation in prices 117 (60.9) 75 (39.1) 192 (100.0)
Not getting price information 104 (60.5) 68 (39.5) 172 (100.0)
Absence of procurement of crop 49 (43.4) 64 (56.6) 113 (100.0)
No problem 5 (100.0) -- 5 (100.0)

GEE--Getting Extension Education, NGE--Not Getting Ext. Education

Table 12: Opinion of the farmers to promote maize crops in the villages

Suggestions N Percentage Total

Provide better minimum 114 57.0 200 (100)
support prices
Govt. should organize camps 72 36.0 200 (100)
Involvement private agencies 76 38.0 200 (100)
for providing services
and buy back of produce
Need more research on HYVs 66 33.0 200 (100)

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 13: Mean per acre maize productivity (Khariff Maize) of the
farmer getting and not getting extension education.

Categories of Farmers Mean Mean T-value
 Productivity Productivity
 (in quintal) difference (in

Farmer getting Extension 15.30 -- --
Farmer not getting 12.71 2.59 1.980 *

* Significant at 0.05 level of Probability. (Source: Field Survey 2011)

Table 14: Mean per acre maize productivity (Spring Maize) of the farmer
getting and not getting extension education.

Categories of Farmers Mean Mean T-value
 Productivity Productivity

Farmer getting 13.00 -- --
Extension Education
Farmer not getting 9.73 3.27 2.781 **
Extension Education

** Significant at 0.01 level of Probability.

Source: Field Survey 2011

Table 15: Mean per acre maize productivity (Winter Maize) of the farmer
getting extension and the farmers not getting extension education.

Categories of Farmers Mean Mean T-value
 Productivity Productivity

Farmer getting 6.49 -- --
Extension Education
Farmer not getting 4.29 2.20 3.372 **
Extension Education

** Significant at 0.01 level of Probability.

Source : Field Survey 2011
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Author:Singh, Sukhvinder; Pattanaik, B.K.
Publication:Political Economy Journal of India
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2012
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