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Administrative titles in Nubia in the Middle Kingdom.

THIS BOOK IS A FINAL PUBLICATION of the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia conducted by the German Academy of Sciences, Berlin, under the directorship of Professor F. Hintze. The work began in 1961 with a survey season, followed by three epigraphic campaigns between 1962 and 1963 in the region around the Second Cataract, between Faras West (PM VII, 124), south of Ballana and Qustul, and Sabu, north of the Third Cataract (PM VII, 174). The campaigns were of great importance since they resulted in the discovery of many new graffiti, as well as provided numerous corrections to previously published ones, notably the RIS and RIK texts.

Preliminary reports were published in Kush 11 (1963): 93-95; 12 (1964): 40-42; and 13 (1965): 13-16. However, these preliminary reports only discussed a few texts and simply listed the number of inscriptions copied, without giving much detail, and hence gave little indication of the scope of the work of Professor Hintze's team. These final results are now all the more welcome since they come in the wake of a number of new publications on ancient Nubia, notably K. Zibelius-Chen's Die agyptische Expansion nach Nubien: Eine Darlegung der Grundfaktoren (Wiesbaden, 1988) and B. Gratien's Prosopographie des nubiens et des egyptiens en Nubie avant le Nouvel Empire (CRIPEL, supplement no. 3, 1991). More material from the Nubian campaigns is also being worked on for future publications, e.g., the seal impressions from Mirgissa currently being studied by B. Gratien.(1)

Following an introduction that presents the campaigns and their logistics and a discussion of the date and the geographical distribution of the texts, the material is presented topographically, running north to south. Each text is given a number and supplied with a date, measurements, previous publication(s) when appropriate, and a present location (e.g., the National Museum in Khartoum) when the text has been removed from its original location. The text is given in a hieroglyphic hand (though not a facsimile, as the reader is referred to the plates), translated, and annotated. For the latter, an updating of the bibliographical apparatus might have been useful.

All this new material affords an opportunity to pull together the administrative titles found in Middle Kingdom Nubia,(2) leading to an investigation of the extent of the central administration's activities in the area during that period.

The titles in the catalogue(3) will be presented in the following order: the staff from the Inner and Outer Palace along with the various seal-bearers; the major ministries; the officers of the local administration; scribal titles and "middlemen"; the armed forces; mining and quarrying titles; and the priesthoods. Regarding the catalogue, it should be pointed out that some titles that would seem obvious to some readers have not been included in the catalogue. Among those are the ones relating to the royal family-- e.g., mwt-nsw, "queen,"(4) or s-nsw, "prince"(5)--and also the innumerable honorific epithets that shore up an official's curriculum vitae, e.g., the ubiquitous rh nsw, "royal acquaintance." The former are not administratively significant while the latter add nothing to our knowledge of the administrative workings of the "Nubian affairs" of the foreign office.

It must also be pointed out that, unlike some collections of Nubian material, the present catalogue will not contain the titles met at Elephantine,(6) or from the amethyst quarries of the Wadi el Hudi. While it is true that a number of examples indicate officials who left graffiti, or even stelae, at Elephantine either on their way to or back from Nubia,(7) a great many other examples of graffiti left at Elephantine show that such men either simply lived in the Elephantine region(8) or else left graffiti there during business missions without necessarily going on into Nubia.(9) Other officials who left graffiti both at Elephantine and in the Wadi el Hudi(10) cannot also necessarily be said to have been sent to Nubia as part of the "Nubian bureau" of foreign affairs. THE PALACE

THE INNER PALACE(11)

1 Chamberlain of the (king's) private apartments (imy-r hnwty n kp),(12)

2 Child of the Inner Palace (hrd n kp),(13)

3 Child of the Inner Palace of the private rooms of the king (hrd n kp n ipt-nsw),(14)

4 Chief hall-keeper of the royal private apartments (iry-t wr n kp).(15)

5 Elder of the portal (smsw hyt).(16)

High stewards

6 High steward (imy-r pr wr),(17)

7 Deputy high steward (idnw n imy-r pr wr),(18)

Honorific courtly titles

8 Noble (iry-pt),(19)

9 Prince/noble/mayor (hyt-),(20)

10 Sole friend (smr wty),(21)

11 Functionary, keeper of Nekhen (sb, iry-Nhn),(22)

12 Nobleman, dignitary (sr),(23)

13 Privy councillor (hry sst).(24)

Minor palace employees

14 Attendant of the royal favourite (nht nt tpnsw),(25)

15 Magnate of censing in the palace (wr idt m prnsw),(26)

16 Controller of every kilt (hrp sndyt nbt),(27)

17 Royal linen keeper (ssry nsw),(28)

18 Royal sandal-maker (tbw nsw).(29)

THE OUTER PALACE

19 Hall-keeper of the palace (iry-t h).(30)

GENERAL PALACE STAFF

20 Hall-keeper of the palace (iry-t n pr-).(31)

Door-, room-, and gate-keepers in the palace:

21 Keeper of the chamber (iry-t),(32)

22 Great room-keeper of the court (?) (iry-t n wsht ?),(33)

23 Elder of the court (smsw n wsht ?),(34)

24 Keeper of a portal (iry sbht),(35)

25 Guardian of ... (?) (hry sw ...).(36)

Retainers

26 Supervisor of retainers (shd smsw),(37)

27 Retainer of the palace (smsw Pr-),(38)

28 Retainer of the ruler (smsw n hq),(39)

29 Retainer of the Tribunal (smsw n rryt),(40)

30 Retainer (smsw).(41)

King's clerical staff(42)

31 Scribe of the royal tablet of the Archives (ss n nsw n smyt),(43)

32 Bearer of (documents) of the court (tw n hfthr),(44)

33 Messenger of the administration library/recording office (?) (sd hn).(45)

Attendants/Supply staff

34 Attendant (tw),(46)

35 Overseer of all royal storehouses (imy-r swt nbwt nt nsw),(47)

36 Overseer of a storehouse/room (imy-r st),(48)

37 Hall keeper of the chamber of incoming goods/kitchen (iry-t n t hnqt),(49) 38 Brewer (fty),(50)

39 Royal butler (wb nsw ?),(51)

40 Butler (wdpw),(52)

41 Hairdresser (nst),(53)

42 Cook (psy ?),(54)

43 Baker (rthty),(55)

44 Gardener (kry).(56)

Representatives of the royal domains

45 Steward (imy-r pr),(57)

46 Steward of the ... (?) (imy-r pr n (Pr)-Sbk???).(58)

Central government representatives

47 Chamberlain (imy-r hnwty),(59)

48 Messenger (wpwty).(60)

Minor officials

49 Overseer (imy-r),(61)

50 Director (hry),(62)

51 Headman (hry-tp),(63)

52 Majordomo (hry-pr).(64)

SEAL-BEARERS

53 Royal seal-bearer (htmty bity),(65)

54 Overseer of a seal (imy-r htm),(66)

55 Overseer of sealers (imy-r htmtyw),(67)

56 God's seal-bearer (htmw-ntr),(68)

57 Controller of the seal (hrp htm),(69)

58 Seal-bearer (htmw),(70)

59 Trustworthy seal-bearer (htmw kf-ib).(71)

MAJOR MINISTRIES

VIZIER

60 Vizier (tty, imy-r niwt),(72)

61 Chamberlain of the office of the vizier (imy-r hnwty n h n tty),(73)

62 Keeper of property (iry-ht).(74)

TREASURY

63 Steward of the Double treasury (imy-r pr (n) prwy-hd),(75)

64 Steward of the Double house of silver and gold (imy-r prwy-hd prwy-nbw),(76)

65 Overseer of the Treasury (imy-r pr-hd),(77)

66 Seal keeper of the Treasury (hry-htm n pr-hd),(78)

67 Hall-keeper of the Treasury (iry-t n pr-hd),(79)

68 Trustworthy seal-bearer of the Treasury (htmw kf-ib n pr- hd),(80)

69 Chief scribe of the overseer of the seal (ss wr n imy-r htm),(81)

70 Scribe of the Treasury (ss (n) pr-hd),(82)

71 Scribe responsible for the seal of the Treasury (ss hry-htm n pr(wy?)-hd).(83)

PROVISIONING QUARTERS

72 Steward of the Provisioning quarters (imy-r pr n sn),(84)

73 Counsellor to the Provisioning quarters overseer (shy n imy-r sn),(85)

74 Hall-keeper of the Provisioning quarters (iry-t n sn),(86)

75 Storehouse employee (sn).(87)

OFFICE OF THE FIELDS

76 Overseer of the fields (imy-r hwt),(88)

77 Steward of reckoning Lower Egyptian barley (imy-r pr hsb it mhty).(89)

GRANARIES

[78] Overseer of the Double granary (imy-r snwty).(90)

CATTLE

[79] Overseer of the House of cattle census (imy-r pr hsb ihw).(91)

LABOR FORCE

[80] Overseer of works (imy-r kwt),(92)

[81] Great one of the tens of Upper Egypt (wr mdw sm),(93)

[82] Summoner of ten (workmen) (nis mdw),(94)

[83] Royal foreman for every mission (hrp nsw n it nbt),(95)

[84] Foreman (hrp),(96)

[85] Foreman of crews (hrp skw),(97)

[86] Scribe of the workcamp (ss n hnrt),(98)

[87] Scribe of the called-up laborers of the district (ssn smdt n wrt),(99)

[88] Overseer of a workshop/an administrative district (imy-r gs- pr),(100)

[89] Strong-of-voice (nht-hrw),(101)

[90] Overseer of outline draftsmen (imy-r ssw qdwt),(102)

[91] Outline draftsman (ss qdwt),(103)

[92] Engraver (gnwty [?]).(104)

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE

[93] Overseer of the six great Law courts (imy-r hwwt wrwt 6),(105)

[94] Elder of the portal (smsw hyt),(106)

[95] Functionary, keeper of Nekhen (sb, iry-Nhn),(107)

[96] Chief of the cadaster (??) (hry n tm),(108)

[97] Keeper of the regulations (iry hpw).(109)

OFFICIALS OF THE LOCAL ADMINISTRATION

[98] Nomarch (hry-tp),(110)

[99] Mayor (hty-),(111)

[100] Mayor of Nekhen (hty-n Nhn),(112)

[101] Mayor/Commander of the entry of Upper Egypt (hty- R- Sm),(113)

[102] Governor of Lower Egypt (imy-r T-mhw),(114)

[103] Storeroom of the mayor of Mirgis[sa], (htm (n) hty- (n) Iq[n]),(115)

[104] District councillor (qnbty),(116)

[105] Herald (whmw),(117)

[106] Overseer of a district (imy-r w),(118)

[107] Overseer of district/guild(??)-men (imy-r wr- tyw),(119)

[108] Overseer of plowed fields/state lands (imy-r hbsw),(120)

[109] Attendant of the offering table of the ruler of a town (tw tt n hq niwt),(121)

[110] Administrator of Dep (d-mr Dp),(122)

[111] Scribe of the (local) council (ss n ddt).(123)

GENERAL SCRIBAL TITLES

[112] Scribe (ss),(124)

[113] Chief scribe of the ... (ss wr n ... ),(125)

[114] Scribe of the fortress of ... (?) (ss (n) mnnw..?),(126)

[115] Bearer of a chief scribe (tw n ss wr).(127)

MIDDLEMEN

[116] Overseer of Interpreters (imy-r ww),(128)

[117] Overseer of the foreign countries and of the people of Zatju(?) (imy-r hswt stw),(129)

[118] Greatest of the great ones of Upper and Lower Egypt (?) (wr wrw smw T-mhw [?]).(130)

ARMY

[119] Great general (imy-r ms(wr?)),(131)

[120] General (imy-r ms),(132)

[121] General of infantry (imy-r mnft),(133)

[122] Commander (?) (tsw),(134)

[123] Director of army scribes (shd ss ms), (135)

[124] Army scribe (ss ms).(136)

Retainers/Bodyguards(137)

[125] Supervisor of retainers of the First Battalion (shd smsw n rmn tpy),(138) [126] Retainer of the First Battalion (smsw n rmn tpy).(139)

Local Commanders

[127] Chief local commander (tw n niwt),(140)

[128] Local commander (tw n niwt).(141)

Local Soldiers

[129] Local soldier (nh n niwt),(142)

[130] Overseer (?) of privates (imy-r (?) hwtyw),(143)

[131] Private (hwty),(144)

[132] Private from Hierakonpolis (hwty n Nhn),(145)

[133] Private from Antaeopolis (hwty n Tbw),(146)

[134] Bowman (iry pdt),(147)

[135] Overseer of recruits (imy-r hwnw-nfrw),(148)

[136] Strong one of Nubia (ws T-sty).(149)

NAVY

[137] Overseer of ships (imy-r h w),(150)

[138] Ship's pilot (imy-irty),(151)

[139] Officer of the crew(s) of the ruler (tw n tt hq),(152)

[140] Soldier of the crew of the ruler (nh n tt hq),(153)

[141] Scribe of a crew (?) (ss n ist),(154)

[142] Captain of rowers (imy-r hnywt).(155)

POLICE(156)

[143] Overseer of disputes (imy-r snt),(157)

[144] (lesser) Supervisor of a police officer (imy-ht sw-pr),(158)

[145] Police officer (s-pr),(159)

[146] Officer of dog keepers (tw mniw tsmw),(160)

[147] Dog keeper (mniw tsmw).(161)

MINING AND QUARRYING WORK

[148] Overseer of gold workers (imy-r nbw),(162)

[149] Prospector (smnty),(163)

[150] Prospector of the Hare nome (smnty n Wnt),(164)

[151] Scribe of the district of gold-reckoning (ss spt n hsb nbw [?]),(165)

[152] Stone worker (ikwy),(166)

[153] Overseer of the department of lapidaries (imy-r wrt n msw- t),(167)

[154] Lapidary (ms-t).(168)

PRIESTHOODS

Priests of Khnum

[155] Overseer of priests of Khnum (imy-r hmw-ntr n Hnmw),(169)

[156] Chief priest of Khnum (hm-ntr n Hnmw),(170)

[157] [Priest ?] of Khnum (hm-ntr n Hnmw),(171)

[158] wab-priest of Khnum (wb Hnmw).(172)

Priests of Satis

[159] Chief priest of Satis (hm-ntr n Stit),(173)

[160] Priest of Satis (hm-ntr n Stit),(174)

[161] wab-priest of Satis, mistress of Elephantine (wb n Stit, nbt bw).(175)

Priests of Anukis

[162] God's father of the temple of Anukis (it-ntr hwt-ntr nkt),(176)

[163] Watchman of the temple of Anukis (rsw hwt-ntr nkt).(177)

Priesthoods of other gods

[164] Priest of Amun (-Re?) (hm-ntr n Imn-[R?]),(178)

[165] Priest of Ptah (hm-ntr Pth),(179)

[166] Priest of Maat (hm-ntr Mt),(180)

[167] God's father of Onuris (it ntr In-hrt).(181)

Lector Priests

[168] Chief lector priest (hry-hb hry-tp),(182)

[169] Lector priest (hry-hb),(183)

[170] Scribe of the House [of Life] (ss pr (nh?)),(184)

General priesthoods

[171] Priest (hm-ntr),(185)

[172] setem-priest (s(t)m),(186)

[173] Funerary priest (hm-k),(187)

[174] wab-priest (wb),(188)

[175] Overseer of offering-cakes of the temple (imy-r s ywt hwt- ntr),(189)

[176] Reckoner of festival offerings (hsb hbyt [?]),(190)

[177] Scribe of festival offerings (ss hbyt [?]),(191)

[178] Magnate of censing in the palace (wr idt m pr-nsw),(192)

[179] Recipient of a 1000 portions from the offering table (nh n sp h hr wdhw),(193)

[180] Chief physician (wr swnw).(194)

What is particularly striking about such a catalogue is the astonishing range of titles met in Middle Kingdom Nubia. Various representatives of the Palace and the royal domains are attested, as well as officials from virtually all the major ministries of the central government, who were sent at one time or another to look after the Nubian holdings of the crown.

Of course, a tabulation such as this will not present a complete picture of the administrative involvement of Egypt in Middle Kingdom Nubia. For example, some of the material remains unpublished, and we are most probably dealing with an incomplete preservation of the sources.

The ancient Egyptians' own presentations of their titles present problems too. Officials occasionally used abbreviations when listing their titles, which makes it difficult to place the positions within a given ministry.(195) Sometimes an official lists a particular title on a graffito in Nubia but gives another title on a different monument. Such is the case with the supervisor of retainers (shd smsw) Igai-hotep,(196) who, however, lists "hall- keeper of the watch (iry-t n wrsw)" as his only title on his two Abydene stelae. Whether one title is more significant than the other, i.e., implies a promotion, is difficult to establish. The duties of a supervisor (shd) would seem to entail responsibility over others; however, one would assume that the title engraved on two different stelae left at Abydos, and therefore intended for a different kind of posterity than simple graffiti left in Nubia, would carry more weight. Similarly, if an official offers a whole gamut of titles,(197) it is sometimes hard to establish which function the official was sent to fill in Nubia; the catalogue must contain all the titles, but surely not all are relevant to the administration of the Nubian possessions of the crown. When an official lists a member of his family and gives the latter's title,(198) that title is added to the catalogue for the sake of completeness, but there is nothing to confirm the family member's presence in Nubia. The same situation occurs when an official's title is only known through seal impressions, as was the case with the vizier's title found in the forts; nothing confirms the actual presence of the vizier in Nubia at this time.(199) The opposite occurs when an official who claims to have dealt with Nubians in an autobiographical text has left no trace of his stay in the area. Such an example is a late Middle Kingdom stela from Gebelein, now in Cairo,(200) of a high steward and royal retainer named Hepet who states that he "traversed the [lands] of the Medjay in order to seek out cattle for his god" (= CG20764, lines 3-4). If Hepet went to Nubia to trade for the aforementioned cattle, he left no preserved memento of his stay in the region.

Notwithstanding the great number of administrative titles found in Middle Kingdom Nubia, there is still no evidence for the title of the commanders of the forts, if indeed a single title-bearer held that position. Two Thirteenth Dynasty texts mention "commanding in the fortress (hr ts m mnnw),"(201) but these come from men who hold different titles: graffito RIS 3 is from a seal bearer, no. [53], and general, no. [120], while the Askut text was left by a retainer of the ruler, no. [28]. References to a "seal of the mayor (htm hty-)" found in the forts(202) may reflect the presence of a civil administrator in charge of non-military operations in the forts. As for the title tsw (n Bhny) for the high commander of Buhen fort, this seems to occur only from the Second Intermediate Period onward.(203)

Nevertheless, the diversity of titles is indeed noteworthy. What is seen is nothing else than the gradual encroachment of the Egyptian administrative apparatus into Lower Nubia. First come the armed forces to take the area in military campaigns and thereby facilitate the central government's uninterrupted exploitation of the area's natural resources. This easily explains the various quarrying and mining titles met in Nubia.(204) Next is a labor force, sent to erect buildings that serve as trading posts and eventually become monuments to the grandeur of the king. In their wake comes a veritable army of magistrates and chancellors, directors and supervisors, all supported by the ubiquitous corps of scribes. Perhaps many of these functionaries were only sent to Nubia on short tours of duty,(205) accompanying the convoys of food supplies(206) or the tools and weapons(207) sent to the forts, serving mainly as observers and crown representatives.

This would certainly explain the presence of some of the officials from the Inner and Outer Palace and perhaps also that of the various stewards. As for the retainers, attendants, supply personnel, and clerical staff, these could also have been sent as observers on behalf of the various ministries, or simply have attended to the high officials. The presence of the sundry seal- bearers is also easily explained when one considers the Egyptian bureaucracy's near obsession with record keeping, and sealing and counter-sealing as a way to ensure the proper handling of crown possessions.(208) The presence of agents from the various ministries of the central government can also be easily understood. Whether they represented such institutions as the central Treasury or the Provisioning quarters, these men would have been responsible for the transit of goods to or from Nubia. Their presence was surely required by the central government's need to control all facets of this economic pipeline. The lack of major representation from such ministries as the Offices of the Granaries and Cattle may simply be due to the accident of preservation.(209)

Surprisingly, in Nubia there is no mention of the new "Departments" (wrt) created by the central administration in the late Middle Kingdom. Perhaps this stems from the fact that these departments had been created specifically for the purpose of centralizing governmental control over Egypt itself, and thus held no sway over foreign territory. The same can probably be said for the Office of the Provider of People (h n dd rmt), which was responsible for registering and assigning the needed manpower for royal projects. Of course, representatives of a labor force were sent to Nubia (see nos. [80] to [92]), and perhaps the overseer of works (no. [80]) was the official responsible for overseeing the construction of the forts and their dependencies.

The officials designated as "middlemen," nos. [116] to [118], are those who, in the present author's opinion, dealt directly as interpreters and intermediaries(210) with the indigenous population, whether these be local Medjay(211) or the more southerly inhabitants from Kerma who, it must be remembered, dealt with the Egyptians on an equal footing.(212)

Priests were included in these missions to fill an important spiritual need for people wrenched away from their homes and thus perhaps in need of additional reassurance. The absence of such religious functionaries would have been unthinkable to an ancient Egyptian. In administrative terms, the priesthood was also important because of the system of reversion of divine offerings, whereby such offerings were eventually handed over to the officiants. This made them part of a redistributive economy that was surely part and parcel of the food distribution process, and thus generally of the rations system within the forts themselves.

In the end, what the list of titles demonstrates is the customary thoroughness of the ancient Egyptians' organizational skills. All facets of a burgeoning empire can be seen in the titles left by the officials sent to administer the conquered territory.

1 See her preliminary report in Nubische Studien, 89-91.

2 The titles in the present catalogue are from texts dated to the Middle Kingdom, while texts from the Second Intermediate Period have been left out of the collection, since the Egyptian central authorities had by that time largely abandoned the area. The author agrees with S. Quirke, Administration, 3, that titles from the early Middle Kingdom differ from those of the late Middle Kingdom, and hence should be studied separately. However, the difficulty of dating many of the graffiti more precisely makes this desideratum impracticable, and to simply assume that the southernmost graffiti are later in date did not seem to be a viable solution.

3 Since Hintze's book only publishes the graffiti from Nubia, and not the stelae, statues, seal impressions, and other finds, the references in the notes will be to the original publications. When Hintze's epigraphic work offers us a new reading, however, proper reference will be made to his study, followed by the original publication in a bracket.

4 SCF I, 28, pl. 87 A (= 24-3-514).

5 RIK 122, who is also a hrd n kp, but whose name has unfortunately disappeared; and, less likely, RILN, no. 4, for which see also the remarks by H. de Meulenaere in Bi Or 40 (1983): 370.

6 E.g., the corpus of texts from the Aswan area found in J. de Morgan's Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de l'Egypte antique (Vienna, 1894), and stela MFA 13.3967/20.1222, which was found at Kerma but most probably came from Elephantine (see JSSEA 12 [1982]: 76). For the same reason, the material belonging to the famous Djefa-Hapy found at Kerma (see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 777) most probably originally came from Asyut and has therefore been omitted from the catalogue.

7 E.g., de Morgan, Catalogue des monuments, 25:182, 11:43, and 38:166, officials also responsible for the texts RIS 3, RIS 9, and RIK 127 (for which see Franke, Personendaten, dossiers 374, 503, and 115, respectively) left at Semna and Kumma; and de Morgan, op. cit., 11:43, a man who also left a statuette in Kerma (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 264). See also stela Berlin 19500 from Elephantine (= AIB I, 260-61) belonging to an tw n Styw named Ineni who claims to have accomplished "a multitude of missions, going south into Kush," but whose name is not found in the records from Nubia itself. 8 Good examples of this are names found both in the Aswan graffiti and the shrine of Heqaib at Elephantine: de Morgan, op. cit., 89:76, 17:79 (as well as 73:45, and 87:44), 89:76 (and 87:42), and 86:33, for which see Franke, Personendaten, dossiers 142, 410, 440, and 451, respectively. The well-known court official Ankhu from the late Twelfth Dynasty is also an example of this (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 177). Another example could be the wr mdw Sm Ameny, whose name is found on a number of objects, including a stela and some graffiti from Aswan (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 110).

9 E.g., a Steward of Divine Offerings of Sobek of Shedyet named Neni (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 329), who left three graffiti at Aswan as well as a stela at Abydos, possibly during business trips on behalf of the aforementioned temple of Sobek in the Fayum; the King's Acquaintance Sa-Sobek, also known from a statue found at Illahun, as well as a stela and a seal from Abydos (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 547); and the Scribe of the Great Workcamp Senbefni, who is also attested on a seal from Ombos (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 652). 10 E.g., Wadi el Hudi, nos. 14 and 145, and no. 25 (= Franke, Personendaten, dossiers 270 and 294 respectively); the latter, in fact, also left a graffito in the Wadi Hammamat and a number of stelae at Abydos.

11 The following officials are closely associated with the royal family; on this, see Quirke, Administration, 117-18.

12 Seal impression from Debeira East (= Martin, Seals, 299a). This official was allowed to circulate in both the inner and outer sections of the palace; see Quirke, Administration, 103f. and 117f.

13 RIK 122; this official is also a "prince" (s-nsw). For this title, see Quirke, Administration, 39f., and the references in Hintze, Felsinschriften, 118, no. 422.

14 Seal impressions from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 207, 1635).

15 Razor from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 528, fig. 345:60).

16 Seal impression from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 314); statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 528, fig. 345:59; for this official, see also Franke, Personendaten, dossier 264). For this title, see D. Meeks, State and Temple Economy II, OLA 6 (Louvain, 1979), 648, n. 195. The translation "elder" for smsw must not lead us to believe that these officials were elderly or retired; see Quirke, Administration, 72, 92, 117. The title could also have judicial connotations; see infra, no. [94].

17 Seal impressions from Mirgissa Q 251 (= Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91; this official is also a chamberlain, no. [47]); Q 333 (= ib.; this man is also a royal seal-bearer, no. [53]); and from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1390); Semna Despatch no. 6; scarab from Semna (= Martin, Seals, 384; this man is also a royal seal-bearer, no. [53]). There is perhaps another example, RILN, no. 74, for which see Zaba, RILN, 114.

18 Seal impression from Kuban (= Martin, Seals, 71).

19 Stela from Semna (= CAA Boston MFA 2: Stelae I [Mainz, 1985], 153-55); inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 71, no. 6); RILN, no. 10; stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 451 (= RIK 87; for this man, see also nos. [9], [101], [136], [143], and [166]).

20 RILN, no. 10; stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8); seal impressions from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 1109, 1624); stela from Semna (see the preceding note); RIK 87 (see the preceding note); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 454 (= RIK 84). However, this title can also be rendered as "mayor" in the Middle Kingdom; see Fischer Supplement, 66; and infra, no. [99]. The last two titles are often found together, e.g., RILN nos. 10, 73, and 74 (for the latter, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 146); and RIK 87.

21 Inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 71, no. 6); the title smr, "friend" is also found alone (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 400 [= RIS 12]), in an autobiographical statement.

22 Seal impression from Mirgissa Q 364 (= Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91); stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8, although written without the sb designation); RIK 112, RIK 115, RIK 116, stela BM 1290, and Semna Despatch no. 6 (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 526); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 421 (= RIK 121; this man is the son of a shd smsw); stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 240; Franke, Personendaten, dossier 562); scarab from Ukma West (= Andreu, Ukma Ouest, 233, no. 131/13). For this official in Nubia, see D. Franke, SAK 11 (1984): 216-17; Quirke, Administration, 193. This title can also have a judicial function; see infra, no. [95]. The title is also found without the iry-Nhn compound in Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 397a (= RIK 50), preceding scribal and priestly titles (see nos. [25], [112], [123], [160], and [174]). 23 See the references in Smith, Buhen, 240; all examples, however, are from the Second Intermediate Period.

24 Scarab from Buhen (= Martin, Seals, 1166). This official is also a priest of Ptah; see infra, no. [165].

25 Stela from Shalfak (= SCF II, pl. 61B).

26 Stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8).

27 RILN, no. 74. Like the preceding title, this one is part of a string of titles and may therefore not actually be involved in the administrative structure of the Nubian possessions.

28 Seal impression from Debeira East (= Martin, Seals, 872c).

29 Seal impression from Aniba (= Martin, Seals, 558).

30 RIK 117 (see, however, Hintze, Felsinschriften, 142-43, who reads the title as an epithet) and RIK 118, both belonging to the same individual named Djehuty-hotep. This official is also a messenger, for which see infra, no. [48], which confirms the importance of his mission in Lower Nubia; see M. Valloggia, Recherches sur les messagers (Paris, 1976), 84, no. 22, and 223. For this title, see P. Vernus, RdE 22 (1970): 164; G. Andreu, BIFAO 80 (1980): 144 (a). 31 RIK 106 (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 307); seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1475); stela from Askut (= A. Badawy, Kush 12 [1964]: pl. XVI (c), and JARCE 5 [1966]: 25, pl. XI:8). For the Pr-, which is the administrative unit of the palace and the sector for state affairs, see Quirke, RdE 37 (1986): 118; and Administration, 38.

32 Inscription from the Western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 74); seal impressions from Mirgissa Q 203 (= Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91); from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 726, 1094); and from Semna (= SCF I, 66); Hintze, Felsinschriften, nos. 406 (= RIK 18); 464 (= RIK 74); and 485 (= RIK 53); stela from Uronarti (= CAA Boston MFA 2: Stelae I [Mainz, 1985], 151-52). The title could of course simply be an abbreviation of a longer designation.

33 Debod, pl. 121d (?); see Fischer, Supplement, 11.

34 Text from Kagnarti (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, 88-89, no. 364).

35 Seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1800).

36 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 397a (= RIK 50; for this man, see also nos. [11], [112], [123], [160], and [174]).

37 Six individuals are known: stela from Kuban (= LD ii, 138g; PM VII, 395); RIK 12, 23, and 63 (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 160); RIK 89, 104, and 121 (= Franke, Personendaten, dossier 119); RIK 56; Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 461 (= RIK 77; this man most probably holds the military equivalent of the title since he is connected with a police officer, for which see no. [145]); and RIK 107. For this title, see Quirke, Administration, 83. For the administrative importance of the smsw in the Nubian forts, see Smith, Aegean Seals, 208, Table 4, and the discussion there.

38 Seal impression from Buhen (= Martin, Seals, 547).

39 Seal impression from Serra East (= Martin, Seals, 1306a); text from Askut (= S.T. Smith, JARCE 28 [1991]: 118); RIK 108.

40 Seal impression from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 1826). For this title, see S. Quirke, RdE 37 (1986): 117 (d).

41 RILN, nos. 1,4 (four different men), 18, 116, 127, 143, and 167; stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, nos. 598 and 712); seal impressions from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 1825; Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91, Q 275); from Shalfak (= Martin, Seals, 348); and from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 266, 1158 [?], 1225, 1714, and 1824; on these, see also Smith, Aegean Seals, 205); Semna Despatch no. 4; Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 514 (= RIS 17); RIK 16; RIK 60; Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 466 (= RIK 72); RIK 74; RIK 75; RIK 82 (although the title here may be an abbreviation for smsw n rmn tpy; see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 19); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 454 (= RIK 84); RIK 93. Another supposed occurrence of the title, RIK 70, has now been re-read by Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 468.

42 The reader will notice that, for the sake of convenience, I have retained the reading ss instead of zhw to render the word "scribe."

43 Seal impressions from Kuban (= Martin, Seals, 2); and from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 741). For this title, see P. Vernus, BIFAO 74 (1974): 158 (g). For the

[Mathematical Expression Omitted]

see W. A. Ward, JEA 67 (1981): 171-72; Or 51 (1982): 382f.

44 Scarab from Mirgissa (= Vercoutter, Mirgissa I, pl. 26, 1). The title-bearer was perhaps charged with carrying certain documents or objects on behalf of the king. The word tw, "bearer, carrier," is well known; cf. W. A. Ward, JEA 63 (1977): 65; ZAS 107 (1980): 170-74; D. Franke, Altagyptische Verwandtschaftsbezeichnungen (Hamburg, 1983), 51; S. Quirke, RdE 37 (1986): 130. For a similar compound, cf. the title ss n hft-hr nsw, for which see Meeks, Alex II, no. 78.3005. For the expression hft-hr, see particularly W. A. Ward, Or 51 (1982): 387f.

45 RILN, no. 121. For this title, see Zaba, RILN, 145.

46 RILN, no. 47A; RIK 118. The latter is also a messenger, no. [48], and a hall-keeper of the palace, no. [19].

47 RILN, no. 74.

48 Seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 222).

49 Seal impressions from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1788); and from Semna (= Martin, Seals, 1464).

50 RILN, no. 177.

51 Text from Askut (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, Askut 8).

52 RILN, nos. 131, 150, 203, 213; inscription from the Western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 74); text from Abu Sir (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 284, who, however, reads the title as wb); seal impressions from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 107, 1806); text from Suratab (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 534b).

53 Seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 279).

54 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 482b (= RIK 65; the title can, however, be read as htmw, for which see infra, no. [58]).

55 RIK 119d, although the title could here be read as "seal bearer" (htmty); see Hintze, Felsinschriften, nos. 390 (= RIK 119a) and 393 (= RIK 119d).

56 Statuette from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 54); however, this piece could well date from the Second Intermediate Period.

57 ALN, pl. 18, 15-16; texts from Askut (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, Askut 2 and 3); Smith, Buhen, no. 262; seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1648); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 528 (= RIS 24); statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, fig. 344:47; this man is the father of a royal seal-bearer, no. [53], a nomarch, no. [98], and an overseer of the seal, no. [54], and may therefore not necessarily have been in Nubia himself).

58 Seal impression from Semna South (= L. V. Zabkar, JARCE 19 [1982]: 38, no. KE-28). This title could also be included in the Religious Titles section.

59 Inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 72, no. 7); RILN, no. 74; RILN, no. 138 (this official is also a foreman of crews, no. [85]); seal impression from Mirgissa Q 251 (= Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91; this official is also a high steward, no. [6]); seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 9); RIK 85 (the title here could of course be an abbreviation since the text is lost after the words imy-r hnwty).

60 RIK 118 (for this man, see M. Valloggia, Messagers, 84, no. 22, and 223; this official is also a hall-keeper of the palace, no. [19]). Another title that could be included in this category of central government representatives is the title s, which has been rendered as "royal representative (?)" (= RILN, nos. 63, 64, and 71). However, the reading of the title is problematic; see Zaba, RILN, 90; and D. Franke, GM 83 (1984): 122.

61 RILN, no. 81 (?); texts from Abd el Qadir (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 30); and from Abu Sir (ib., no. 290); scarab from Ukma West (= Andreu, Ukma Ouest, 230, no. 56/2; the text is difficult to read, but this official is also a royal seal-bearer, no. [53]).

62 Text from Abu Sir (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 122).

63 Text from Saidnambi (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 543).

64 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 412 (= RIK 24).

65 Inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 71, no. 6); RILN, no. 10 (for this man, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 146); RILN, no. 52; RILN, no. 74; stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8); Smith, Buhen, 5-6, no. 262 (this official is also a workshop overseer, no. [88]); seal impression from Mirgissa Q 333 (= Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91; this official is also a high steward, no. [6]); seal impression from Debeira East (= Martin, Seals, 1065a; this official is also an overseer of the seal, no. [54]); stela from Semna (= CAA Boston MFA 2: Stelae I [Mainz, 1985], 153-55; see supra, no. [8]); RIS 3 and RIS 18 (these two men are also generals, no. [120]; for RIS 3, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 374); RIS 9 (this man is also an overseer of the fields, no. [76], which, in fact, seems to be his most important title; for this man, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 503); scarab from Semna (= Martin, Seals, 384; this official is also a high steward, no. [6]); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 468 (= RIK 70); statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 524, fig. 344:47; this official is also an overseer of the seal, no. [54], and a nomarch, no. [98]); scarab from Ukma West (= Andreu, Ukma Ouest, 230, no. 56/2). 66 Seal impression from Debeira East (= Martin, Seals, 1065a; this official is also a royal seal-bearer, no. [53]); Hintze, Felsinschriften, nos. 447 (= RIK 91); and 474 (= RIK 59; both of these men are also bearers of a chief scribe, infra, no. [115]); statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 524, fig. 344:47; this official is also a royal seal-bearer, no. [53], and a nomarch, no. [98]).

67 Statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 525, fig. 344:48).

68 Seal from Askut (= A. Badawy, Kush 12 [1964]: 52).

69 Text from Abu Sir (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 99).

70 Smith, Buhen, 27, no. 1781; seal impressions from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 185, 533?); RIK 65 (although the title could here be read as psy, "cook," for which see Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 482b and supra, no. [42]); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 453 (= RIK 85).

71 Inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 72, no. 11; for this official, who is also an overseer of ships, no. [137], see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 523); RIK 52; RIK 80; RIK 86.

72 RILN, no. 73 (this is the famous vizier Antef-oker, for whom see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 146); two seal impressions from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1775). The latter, however, were found on letters, and do not therefore necessarily indicate the vizier's actual presence at Uronarti; see Smith, Aegean Seals, 210. Another instance of a vizier's set of titles is found in RILN, no. 10, but there is again no indication of the vizier's presence in the text. 73 Stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 38, 64).

74 RILN, no. 161. On this title, see Meeks, Alex I, no. 77.0368; S. Quirke, RdE 37 (1986): 113, and 127-28, section no. (5).

75 RIK 59.

76 Inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 71, no. 6).

77 Text from Semna (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 532).

78 Smith, Buhen, nos. 549, 1078, and 1111. All these officials also hold scribal titles; see infra, no. [71].

79 RIK 76; RIK 102.

80 RIK 120.

81 Seal impression from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 1338).

82 ALN, pl. 18, 4,

83 Smith, Buhen, nos. 549, 1078, and 1111. For these men, see also supra, no. [66].

84 Seal impressions from Buhen (= Martin, Seals, 517); and from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1274).

85 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 399 (= RIK 126); for the reading shy instead of the earlier reading htmty, see ibid., 108.

86 Stela from Uronarti (= CAA Boston MFA 2. Stelae I [Mainz, 1985], 149-50). For the importance of the wt, "rooms," in the sn, within which various commodities were stored, see S. Quirke, RdE 37 (1986): 120.

87 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 482b (= RIK 65).

88 RIS 9. This official is also a royal seal-bearer, supra, no. [53], although "overseer of the fields" seems to be his most important title.

89 Seal impressions from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 336; Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91, Q 232).

90 RILN, no. 74. Among a long list of titles, this one seems to be the most important; see column 14 of the text.

91 RILN, nos. 155 and 157; for this, see also P. Vernus, RdE 37 (1986): 117f.

92 Fragment of a faience vessel from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, fig. 344:52).

93 ALN, pl. 53, 2; RILN, no. 152; Smith, Buhen, nos. 1708, 1785; seal impression from Buhen (= Martin, Seals, 733); stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 49; for this man, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 754); seal impressions from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 1202, 1491, 1805; Gratien, Nubische Studien, 91, Q 230); and from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1644); text from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 525-26, fig. 344:49; for this man, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 605). The title is difficult to interpret. The wr mdw sm sometimes held judicial functions (cf. Helck, Verwaltung, 53; N. Strudwick, The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom [London, 1985], 178-79) or else was in charge of recruiting manpower (cf. H. G. Fischer, JNES 18 [1959]: 265f.). The word md, "(troop of) ten," is certainly found in titles connected with labor: cf. the titles imy-r md, "overseer of ten" (= J. Cerny, JEA 34 [1948]: 121); imy-r md (n) wi, "overseer of ten crew members" (= G. T. Martin, Hetepka [London, 1979], 32, pl. 31 [74], [75]); n md, "overseer of ten (men)" (= G. Bjorkmann, Boreas 6 [1974]: 77f.; Meeks, Alex I. no. 77.1951); imy-r mdw hwt- t, "overseer of ten men from the palace" (= Meeks, Alex II, no. 78.2522). See also the discussions by J.-L. Chappaz in Les Figurines funeraires (Geneva, 1984), 10; P. Vernus, RdE 26 (1974): 107f.; and Quirke, Administration, 79-80, 117. The latter suggests that the title denotes only that the holder was in charge of a mission; however, the fact that the wr mdw sm is not found in the Sinai inscriptions is noteworthy; cf. O. Berlev, Bi Or 22 (1965): 267, n. 19.

94 RILN, nos. 222 and 224.

95 Stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8).

96 Stelae from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 41-43).

97 RILN, no. 138; this official is also a chamberlain, no. [47].

98 Statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 527, fig. 345:57); on the hnrt, see S. Quirke, RdE 39 (1988): 83-106.

99 RIK 66; this text belongs to a family of scribes, in which two of the brothers are scribes of the called-up labourers of the district while the third is a scribe of the local council, for which see infra, no. [111].

100 Stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 5-6). This official is also a royal seal-bearer, no. [53]. For gs-pr, see H. G. Fischer, ZAS 93 (1966): 66-67.

101 Text from Askut (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, Askut 7). For this title, see W. K. Simpson, JNES 18 (1959): 30; Meeks, Alex I, no. 77.2190; III, no. 79.1614. 102 Text from Abu Sir (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 105). These men, as well as the next two title-holders, had probably been sent to Nubia to decorate temple reliefs. The present title-holder prepared the wall with proportion squares and red outline sketches of the reliefs; see AEO I, 71*; J. A. Wilson, JNES 6 (1947): 235; R. Drenkhahn, Die Handwerker und ihre Tatigkeiten im alten Agypten (Wiesbaden, 1976), 70; Meeks, Alex I, no. 77.3861 and III, no. 79.2770. 103 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 528 (= RIS 24).

104 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 528 (= RIS 24; this man is also a scribe of the crew, infra, no. [141]). On these men, see Meeks, Alex I, no. 77.4651 and II, no. 78.4454. However, Drenkhahn, op. cit., no. 1.4.4.1, 62, 68-69, proposes the reading qs.ti for the title. This man was a sculptor, who worked in stone and wood. Gardiner, Sinai, 18, has also suggested that such men might have been responsible for the recording of the expedition on the stela.

105 RILN, no. 73 (for this man, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 146); RILN, no. 74. For the judicial functions of this title, see P. Posener-Krieger, Abousir II, 459-60; D. Lorton, JESHO 20 (1977): 9f.; Meeks, Alex I, no. 77.2542; and Strudwick, Administration, 188-98. See, however, S. Quirke, RdE 37 (1986): 128, who suggests that the title-holder was in fact only a representative of the royal residence, with the hwwt wrwt 6 being part of the administrative bureaucracy of the residence.

106 For the judicial functions of this title, see S. Sauneron, BIFAO 54 (1954): 122; G. Andreu, BIFAO 80 (1980): 143 (f). This title has already been mentioned above, no. [5].

107 For the judicial functions of this title, see P. Vernus, RdE 26 (1974): 109 (f). This title has already been mentioned above, no. [11].

108 Seal impressions from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 702); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 445 (= RIK 93; this man is the father of a smsw). For the judicial role of this title, see P. Vernus, RdE 26 (1974): 112.

109 Seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 232).

110 Statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 524-25, fig. 344:47). This official is also a royal seal-bearer and an overseer of the seal; see nos. [53] and [54]. 111 See supra, no [9]; for the translation "mayor" in the Middle Kingdom, see Fischer, Supplement, 66.

112 Text from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 524, fig. 344:46).

113 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 451 (= RIK 87; for this man, see also nos. [8], [9], [136], [143], and [166]).

114 RILN, no. 51.

115 Seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1856).

116 Seal impression from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 1613).

117 Debod, pl. 109 c; seal impressions from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 604, 1750); statuette from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 526, fig. 344:50). Two other supposed occurrences of this title, RIK 113 and RIK 114, are doubtful: in each case, the sign is either part of the father's name, whmw (see Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 496), or, perhaps less likely, the letter b (Gardiner Sign List D 58) in the longer name Ntr(.i)-pw-Gbw.

118 Seal impression from Debeira East (= Martin, Seals, 1576a); and perhaps an offering table from Semna (= SCF I, 62), although see infra, no. [116].

119 Graffiti from Amada (= ALN, pl. 53, 3-5).

120 Seal impression from Mirgissa (= Martin, Seals, 412); and perhaps a statuette from Askut. For the latter, see A. Badawy, Kush 12 (1964): 50, who gives a title "director of the plowings."

121 RILN, no. 150; for the reading tt instead of wdhw (= Ward, Titles, no. 6b), see D. Franke, GM 83 (1984): 115. This man is accompanied by a butler, supra, no. [40].

122 RILN, no. 74 (with his publication of this text, Zaba, 111, has suggested the additional title r P, "the spokesman of Pe"); stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 39f.).

123 RIK 66 (this man is part of a family of scribes; see supra, no. [87]); RIK 79.

124 Inscription from the western Nubian desert (= R. Engelbach, ASAE 33 [1933]: 73, no. 12); RILN, no. 73; texts from Faras (= Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 2); from Abd el Qadir (= ibid., no. 15); from Abu Sir (= ibid., nos. 83; 92; 118; 149; 184; 191; 206; 225; 228; 310); and from Buhen Hill (= ibid., Buhen Hill A 5; A 6); seal impression from Uronarti (= Martin, Seals, 1371, although the complete title is missing); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 397a (= RIK 50; for this man, see also nos. [11], [25], [123], [160], and [174]). 125 Stone vessel from Kerma (= Reisner, Kerma, 527, fig. 345:56).

126 Stamp-seal impression from Kumma (= Martin, Seals, 1879).

127 Hintze, Felsinschriften, nos. 447 (= RIK 91), who reads tw n ss smsw; and 474 (= RIK 59). Both of these are also overseers of the seal, no. [54]. For the title tw n ss, see Wb V, 349:11, and Hintze's comments, ibid., 125. For my reading tw n ss wr, cf. Ward, Titles, no. 1580.

128 ALN, pl. 50, 8; stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, no. 1708; for this man, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 756); and an offering table from Semna (= SCF I, 62). The last example is difficult: here the title could be read as imy-r w, district overseer," no. [106], and at any rate, the offering table could well date from the Second Intermediate Period or even the New Kingdom. For such men in Nubia, see Smith, Buhen, 72f.

129 RILN, no. 64. For this title, see W. K. Simpson, JNES 45 (1986): 72, contra Ward, Titles, no. 291a.

130 Text from Kerma (= Kerma IV, 509 [31]). For the reference, see Fischer, Supplement, 17; and D. Franke, GM 83 (1984): 122.

131 Stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8).

132 Texts from Semna (= SCF I, pls. 90, 91B); Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 506. Three men who are also royal seal- bearers, supra, no. [53], are also imy-r ms: stela from Semna (= CAA Boston MFA 2: Stelae I [Mainz, 1985], 153-55); RIS 3 (for this man, also known from a graffito at Aswan, see Franke, Personendaten, dossier 374); and RIS 18. The title imy-r ms can be rendered either "expedition leader" or "general," but the great number of military titles found in Middle Kingdom Nubia renders the translation "general" more likely.

133 Stela from Buhen (= Smith, Buhen, 51, no. 8; this official is also an imy-r ms wr).

134 Hintze, Felsinschriften, no. 507 (= RIS 10).
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Date:Jul 1, 1993
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