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Today's compounders and processors want more efficient multipurpose additives with value-added benefits. The push is for additives and concentrates that, more than ever, respond to production, functional, and environmental concerns.



Akzo Chemicals Inc. has announced the commercialization of Fyrol PBR, a brominated flame retardant for flexible polyurethane foam. Akzo says the additive can pass the California Bulletin 117 flammability test with no discoloration when incorporated into the foam.

A developmental program using phosphorus chemistry in intumescent coatings has been launched, with several products for polyolefins expected in 1991.

Coming soon are a new dispersing agent for carbon blacks in coatings and inks, and plastics colorants; a nonmetallic accelerator for polymerization of unsaturated polyester and vinyl monomers to directly support peroxide initiators; and two reactive diluents based on carboxylic acid ester technology to plasticize vinyls and epoxies.

Avoiding heavy


Eric Reger, manager, Technical Service, Ampacet Corp., says virtually all the company's major product codes containing heavy metal-based ingredients have been, or continue to be, reformulated. Ampacet now offers products such as 13805 yellow, 14342 orange, and 15151 red as heavy-metal-free alternates to their stock lead-based 13134, 14052, and 15250 products. Also, diarylide-free versions of 13805 and 14342 have been introduced.

New fluorescent concentrates, heavy-metal-and diarylide-free, exhibit up to an 80% decrease in plate-out. Products for molding include 13670-A (yellow), 14253-B (orange-yellow shade), 14319-B (orange-red shade), and 15941-A (red). Fluorescents for film are 14334 (orange), 15152 (red), 16142 (blue), and 17034 (green).

Ampacet's Howard W. England, vice president, Manufacturing, sees growing calcium carbonate usage, in blown film as combination slip-antiblock and processing aids, in a current multimillion-lb market for 70% calcium carbonate masterbatches. Along with lithopone, it is also an extender with titanium dioxide. England also foresees a "tremendous" increase in antioxidant demand for recycling; with expansion of polypropylene for residential carpeting and other decorative items, it is only a matter of time before fire retardancy is mandated for many of these products; strong ultraviolet stabilizer growth as agricultural applications expand worldwide and polyethylene and polypropylene films gain use for outdoor protection and storage; additive growth because of synergisms from alloying and blending polymers with aid of compatibilizers; and expansion of needs for antistats in electronic packaging and consumer products.

Multiple functions

Americhem, Inc., dubs itself a "specialty dispersion" company that can provide not only color but also a full range of processing, property, and decorative benefits. The concentrates also are designed for controlled release into customers' compounds.

The company has introduced a new line of concentrates that allow textile fibers to be colored in the mass, rather than utilizing a dyeing process that can potentially produce hazardous wastes.

Among Americhem's newest products is a line of concentrates, compounds, and other specialty dispersions with electrically conductive properties. The line provides conductivity by traditional high-structure carbon blacks in a thermoplastic dispersion, or by intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) dispersed in a thermoplastic substrate. According to Rick Mathews, vice president, R&D, the ICP approach represents a breakthrough in polymerization of the specific polymer and the first successful dispersion of this type of ICP in thermoplastics.

Spreading out

Anzon Inc.'s antimony-based flame retardants are now supplemented with non-antimony based products, smoke suppressants, and complete antimony/ halogen-based packages.

John Morley, research director, says Anzon has been adding to its range of Envirostrand and Fyrebloc nondusting products "on a weekly basis," often to meet specific requirements.

New grades of antimony flame retardants include a range of Microfine submicron antimony trioxides, with the current finest product having an average particle size of 0.3 micron. The product helps improve tensile and impact properties, and in thin-wall applications, can provide improvements in electrical properties and surface finish.

Pyrobloc SAP 2 and 5, with different particle sizes, are also added to Anzon's products. They provide low tintorial strength with low polymer reactivity, notably for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and translucents.

Low volatility stabilizer

Ciba-Geigy Corp.'s Additives Division has introduced Tinuvin 571, a low volatility liquid benzotriazole light stabilizer, which can perform synergistically with hindered amine light stabilizers. Tinuvin 622FB, a free flowing form of the company's hindered amine light stabilizer, is developed for polyolefin thick sections, films, and fibers; and Tinuvin 622FB is FDA-approved for food contact in polyolefins, including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA).

Other product introductions are Irganox 1010 FF and 1076 FF low dust, easy flowing granular antioxidants. Irganox 1520, a new low volatility, low viscosity liquid hindered phenolic antioxidant for elastomers and adhesives, helps prevent gel formation and changes in color, molecular weight, and viscosity during drying, storage, and shipping.

Weatherability and light stability of PVC, polyurethanes, and blends and alloys are said to be improved by the use of combinations of Irgastab T-634 tin carboxylate stabilizer, Chimassorb 944 HALS, and Tinuvin 328 UV absorbers in rigid and flexible PVC, notably in dark brown profiles and pastel siding.

The Pigments Division has introduced heavy-metal-free Cromophtal DPP Red BP, part of a series of organic pigments based on the company's diketo pyrrolo pyrrol chemistry; the product promises brilliant shade and high opacity for heavy-metal-free coloration of vinyls and olefins. Cromophtal Brown RBN, a new azo condensation product, provides excellent weather resistance in dark brown rigid PVC and for medium and earth brown shades containing titanium dioxide.

Cromophtal Red 3927A was developed for coloring weatherable PVC; and Irgalite Red RC, a calcium 2B toner with good electrical values, for coloring wire and cable. Irgalite Blue GSP, a new beta copper phthalocyamine pigment for high heat applications in engineering plastics, ABS, and polyolefins, offers bronzing resistance, clean shade, good dispersibility, and high strength.

Graphitan 6154 provides the basis for dark silk-luster shades without metallic pigments for packaging, footwear, clothing, appliances, and automotive components.

PVC expansion

Jack F. Kearney, manager, national sales, Polymer Additives Group, Climax Performance Materials Corp., says that tailoring ammonium octamolybdate, molybdenum trioxide, and zinc borates as synergists and smoke suppressants is expanding PVC applications.

The company reports that additions of ammonium octamolybdate to rigid PVC compounds reduces smoke by as much as 60% in the NBS chamber and increases flame retardance. In overhead of plenum passages, PVC must pass the demanding UL-910 flame and smoke test. Climax molybdenum and zinc borate compounds, alone or in combination, reportedly help meet these standards. Also, modest levels of molybdenum oxides and zinc borates (ZB-223) in plastisols aid compliance with building codes for resilient vinyl flooring.

Talc products

William R. Sevy, Cyprus Industrial Minerals, reports development of new talcs with cost/performance balance that enhances optical and reinforcement properties. Sevy says that Stellar 400 and 410 provide superior whiteness and reinforcement for polypropylene in appliances and packaging. Aspect 606 is a fiberglass extender in nylon 6/6, PET, and other thermoplastics. Also, Mistron 699 and Stellar 600 ultrafine help provide high impact in thermoplastic olefins, notably for automotive.

Long-term protection

Eastman Chemical Products, Inc., has a new glyceryl monostearate, PA2208, that provides long-term antistat protection, mold release properties, and processing improvements to many of the new polypropylene copolymers.

The company has commercialized new high-density polyethylene waxes: Epolene E-20 provides faster precompounding of PVC dry blends while maintaining clarity in rigid PVC applications. A new line of water-based Aquastab additive packages for polypropylene is designed to be added to the polymerization reactor, thus eliminating a usual compounding step.

Kenneth W. Hyche, principal technical representative, Plastics Additives Market Development, says that next year Eastman will add high and low molecular weight maleated polyolefin products for pigment dispersion, coupling, and compatibilizing. The products also have possible use in reactive processing and recycling. Additional Aquastab water-based systems are expected for polymers other than polypropylene.

Dust reduction

Engelhard Corp. recently introduced Mindust-treated cadmium pigments, which, according to Carlton Johnson, business manager for Engelhard's colors products group, generate significantly lower levels of airborne dust than untreated products, while providing equivalent color value and performance. The low-dust treatment is available in the Harshaw Color Thermobrite pigment line. Mindust counterparts are planned for all the company's major cadmium pigments.

Engelhard also introduced silica-encapsulated lead chromate pigments, which lower the level of acid-soluble metals released during burning or burial in a landfill.

Other Engelhard additives include the Meteor Plus line, with less than 2 micron average particle size; the Satintone calcined kaolin-based additives for the engineering plastic and PVC markets; and the kaolin-based Translink and Ultralink materials, which improve impact strength, flexural modulus, and heat distortion temperature. Jeff Carr, plastics products manager, says the heat stable kaolin-based reinforcements are being projected for growth in automotive.

Product replacement

J.M. McChesney, manager, Marketing Communications, Ethyl Corp., says that Saytex 402 is being readied as an efficient general-purpose flame retardant for high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl oxide. Ethyl recently unveiled its BT-93 low-bromine-level flame retardant for resistance to high UV radiation and bloom and plate-out.

Ethanox 398, a fluorophosphonite secondary antioxidant, responds to demands for improved plant operating efficiency. The product is nonhygroscopic, has high thermal stability that guards against charring and formation of "black specs," and is unaffected by radiation used for sterilizing medical and food products.

Metal oxides and organics

Ferro Corp., Color Division, says that current or pending legislation will most likely promote the demise or drastic reduction of both cadmium and lead pigments, which offer bright, strong, and economical yellows, oranges, reds, and maroons that are not readily available from other pigment families. One method of matching some of these bright colors, Ferro says, is to use mixed metal oxides, primarily the nickel and chrome titanate (trivalent chrome) yellows in combination with high performance organics, especially for engineering plastics requiring pigments with superior heat and chemical resistance. Ferro recently has commercialized six new nickel and chrome titanate yellow pigments, as replacements for cadmium and lead bearing colors, with more to follow. The new products bring the current total to fourteen.

Improved mold flow

A brominated phosphate ester flame retardant, PB-460 from FMC Corp., is melt blendable and shows an excellent balance of processability and properties. Joseph Green, principal scientist, relates that in studies of glass-filled PBT containing various flame retardants, the melt viscosity and shear sensitivity data demonstrate that unlike conventional flame retardants, the resin containing the brominated phosphate ester exhibits decreasing viscosity with increase in shear stress, and thus better mold flow. Green adds that mechanical energy data indicate the product requires the least energy at the higher shear rates of injection molding and results in the highest output.

For PVC plenum wire and cable insulation, PB-460, which contains 33% more bromine than the more conventionally used tetrabromophthalate ester, as well as phosphorus, permits lower concentrations and efficiently plasticizes.

A brominated phosphate ester, PB-370 (70% bromine and 3% phosphorus), as a flame retardant for polypropylene, is melt blendable. It is of interest as fiber for wall coverings, upholstery, carpet face yarn, slit film, and monofilament.

New monomers

For reactive chemistry, Great Lakes Chemical Corp. has two new monomers, Dibromostyrene (DBS) and Trifluoropropene (TFP). DBS is a bromine-containing styrene monomer targeted where aromatic bromine can enhance properties by reacting into a polymer backbone. Similarly, TFP is aimed where, through reactive chemistry, fluorine can enhance temperature and chemical resistance. Donald R. Mahoney, marketing manager, Industrial and Specialty Chemicals, says that the new products "represent the first wave of reactive monomer technology for the 1990s."

In the non-halogen arena, CN-1197 and CN-1511 offer low smoke and flame retardancy. Based on phosphrous intumescent chemistry, CN-1197 is for epoxy and unsaturated polyester laminates and composites; and CN-1511, at V-0, is keyed to polypropylene applications.

CN-323, the first of a series of new polymeric flame retardants to be offered by Great Lakes, can be provided in a range of molecular weights. Target markets are V-0 electronic components currently using polyester and polyamide resin systems.

In PVC, CN-1427 is being offered as a low smoke HDT modifier for rigid systems, and DP-45 is a flame retardant secondary plasticizer in flexible systems. In flexible urethanes, Firemaster 642 is finding success in automotive uses, demonstrating 30% increases in efficiency in meeting the MVSS 302 standard.

Antistat concentrates

Manfred Dicks, business manager, Polymer Additives, Hoechst Celanese, says that the recently commercialized Hostastat HS-1-based antistat concentrates, Hostastat systems E 3953 and E 4751, are penetrating new HIPS and ABS applications, such as cassettes, disks, and appliances. Hostastat HS-1, a biodegradable sodium alkyl sulfonate, has international approvals for food use and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) agreement that it is safe for polystyrene and styrenic polymers up to use levels of 3%.

Hoechst Celanese has developed a series of pelletized antistat concentrates with tailor-made polyolefin carriers and alkanolamide as the effective ingredient.

Hostastat system E 6951 reduces static decay in polypropylene parts in less than 2 seconds even in low humidity conditions.

Dicks says that another new antistat concentrate, Hostastat system E 5951, based on an LLDPE carrier and high loadings of lauramide, has outperformed other competitive antistats in HDPE film applications at 12% relative humidity. The product reduces letdown ratios and increases film strength.

A new line of Exolit IFR non-halogenated, low smoke, non-acid-generating flame retardants, for thermoplastics that process at 240 [degrees] C or less, feature loadings between 25 and 35 wt% to achieve a UL 94V-O rating at 1/16 inch. The products include Exolit IFR-10 and IFR-21 for olefins, EVA, and elastomers; Exolite IFR-11 for polypropylene: IFR-12 for glass-filled olefinics; and IFR-15 for polyether-based thermoplastic urethanes.

High activity

Developments from ICI Polymer Additives include availability of the Atmer 7000 series high activity (50% or more active ingredient loadings) "superconcentrates" in polymer specific carriers for eliminating dosing, dusting, and processing problems.

The company's new Clarifex heat-stable product reduces haze and increases clarity in polypropylene homopolymers, ethylene-propylene copolymers, and LLDPE.

Three new offerings, Topanol LVT 11 and LVT 600 antioxidants and Atmer LVT 3000 lubricant, based on liquid vehicle technology, provide improved convenience, more accurate metering, and safety.

Higher heat resistance

Mobay's Inorganic Pigments and Ceramics Division has introduced Bayferrox PK 5086, a new zinc ferrite trial product with increased heat resistance compared with other zinc ferrites, for applications that include ABS, polycarbonate, and high-density polyethylene.

Mobay's Specialty Polymers & Additives Group, Plastics and Rubber Division, supplies six additive product lines: Baymond ABS powder modifiers and ethylene vinyl acetate for formulation of alloys with PVC; Porofor blowing agents for PVC and in crosslinked polyethylene, ABS, and polystyrene foams; bonding agents for adhesion of PVC to substrates such as polyester or nylon fabrics; and Mesamoll, Unimoll, and Disflamoll specialty plasticizers.

Wider polymer range

Occidental Chemical Corp.'s Dechlorane Plus, a chlorine-containing cycloaliphatic nonplasticizing, nonreactive, and thermally stable flame retardant used in a wide variety of polymer applications, is now made in formulations that can also be used with ABS and HIPS polymers. The HIPS formulation provides a UL 94V-0 material with a notched Izod of up to 2.0 ft-lb/inch.

Occidental also is working on new formulations utilizing Chlorowax S-52 for use as a combination secondary plasticizer and flame retardant in flexible PVC wire and cable compounds. The company says that the product is a chlorinated paraffin with improved thermal and ultraviolet light stability compared with conventional chorinated waxes. With Chlorowax S-52, the level of antimony oxide can, in some cases, be reduced by as much as 50% without adversely affecting flame retardant efficiency.

Development results

A PMS Consolidated development program has resulted in PBT-, PC-, and nylon-based concentrates for the electronics and communication markets; color concentrates for glass-filled nylons and PBT for metal replacement and for polyacetals in automotive; and nylon and PET fiber masterbatches.

Pressure continues relating to heavy metal pigment usage. Organic pigments add potential for greater molding downtime because of plate-out on mold surfaces and screws. To solve this problem, PMS has extended its anti-plate-out technology, originally developed for fluorescent colorants, to organic concentrates.

Benjamin D. Berkman, vice president, comments that "besides the environmental pressures, the most pervasive dynamic is the quest for quality, resulting in development of a culture to guarantee consistent on-time delivery of defect-free products and services."

New trio

Polycom Huntsman recently released three new additive concentrates. A27018 natural slip polyethylene additive concentrate, for blown film, can be used at half the normal letdown ratio of standard slip products. A27305 is a new 80% mineral-filled, polyethylene extender for blown film, and injection molding and blowmolding. A27541, a photodegradable polyethylene additive concentrate, is for applications, including bags, six-pack holders, miscellaneous packaging, and agricultural film, where degradation is desired after one to six months.

Polycom Huntsman also has developed UL-listed talc- and calcium carbonate-filled polypropylenes. Black polystyrene concentrate B19352 is a 50% loaded carbon black product that the company says offers cost savings and greater opacity at the same letdown ratio as standard 30% loaded materials.

High loadings

The Special Polymers Group of Quantum Chemical Corp.'s USI Division offers new Spectratech PM 82053 LLDPE-based white concentrate for film, and CM 82055 LDPE white concentrate for extrusion coating. High (80%) titanium dioxide loadings permit reduction in concentrate needed. The products reflect emphasis on downgaging, in part due to source reduction efforts by processors.

For the diaper industry, two new pinks, Spectratech CM 77837 and CM 74143, and two new blues, CM 35091 and CM 35115, offer excellent dispersibility at low letdown ratios, and special formulations to provide heat stability for the diapers' cast film extrusion process.

Quantum's new carbon black compound, Spectratech YR 92363, is effective in packaging, for products susceptible to static discharge, such as electronic parts, weapons, and explosives.


Reed Plastics, a Division of Sandoz Chemicals, says its first heavy-metal-free product line, for use in all grades of nylon 6 and 6/6, will be twelve colors scheduled for release by the end of this year. The second line will be fourteen polyethylene formulations in compliance with FDA regulations. Heavy-metal-free lines are planned for polyacetal, polyester, polypropylene, and polycarbonate this year.

Added toughness

Rohm and Haas has introduced a range of Paraloid EXL additives as tougheners in nylon, PC, polyesters, and blends. The company also has additives based on its technology in glutarimide acrylic copolymerization. Paraloid HT-510, the first imide-based heat distortion temperature modifier for vinyl, boosts vinyl's service temperature about 43% over the previous high.

Also introduced are additives based on imide technology for blending with other polymers. The Paraloid EXL 4000 series additives now are available for nylon, polycarbonate, SAN, ABS, and polyesters. Increased melt strength and heat resistance are among the benefits.

Black concentrates

Bertram Lederer, president, Teknor Color Co., cites two new colorants, Black 1014 for flexible PVC and Black 1017 for rigid PVC compounds, formulated without lead or cadmium. The black concentrates, supplied as cubes with excellent dispersion characteristics, are designed for a ratio of 1 lb of concentrate per 100 lbs of compound.

Additive systems

Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Co. views its recent formation of Plastics Additives Systems as a response to a growing need for tailored additive packages. Anthony M. Fazzari, PAS business manager for thermoplastics additives, says that "the resin manufacturer or processor then does not have to contend with several individual additives because we have done that for him."

Unistab D-33, a new liquid dispersion, high molecular weight primary antioxidant for polyolefins, improves end properties and product uniformity. Work is also in progress on crosslinking systems that would combine four or more chemicals into a single additive package to enhance performance, notably thermal stability. The company is offering materials with Ucarsil FR coupling agents enabling use of 60% to 70% of alumina trihydrate, or other hydrated mineral flame retardants, mainly in polyethylene, as a composite ready for molding.

Plastics Additives Systems also provides low profile additives and polyester modifiers for SMC and BMC composites. Reed H. Lipinsky, PAS business manager for reinforced polymeric materials, says that use of a new Neulon H polyester modifier for molding large parts, such as truck hoods and agricultural equipment parts, is improving flow and surface quality. In the experimental product stage, a low profile additive facilities Class A surface quality in resin transfer molding, where low volume parts do not justify expensive tooling. Also, a new Ucure 100 reactive modifier for polyester composites also improves high temperature capability and surface properties.

Phenolic stabilizers

Uniroyal Chemical recently announced construction, targeted for mid-1992, of a new plastics antioxidant plant for production of high performance phenolic stabilizers, including Naugard 10 and 76. As recycling of plastics gathers momentum, Uniroyal is dedicating additional resources to development of novel antioxidant packages for this industry segment. The company's antioxidant/metal deactivators, Naugard XL-1 and Naugard 445, have found a market niche, and a new line of Naugablends is targeted for this new application area. The new Naugablend product line includes unique package combinations of phenolics and other antioxidants. Other Naugablends are mixtures of amines, phenolics, and phosphites.

Anticipation of greater interest in liquid systems has led Uniroyal's development of new Naugard 529 (an FDA-approved phenolic) and the introduction of Naugard liquid aromatic amines.

Enhanced stability

Witco Corp.'s Argus Division announced earlier this year its new Mark non-cadmium automotive stabilizer system for vinyls, which prevents polyurethane staining for up to 21 days at 250 [degrees] F. This compares with the current auto industry standard for vinyl interiors of 14 days.

Argus's non-cadmium co-stabilizer, Mark 6055, with standard stabilizers, can help protect fluorescent dyes in vinyl plastisols. It can also enhance processing of tin-stabilized rigid PVC containing ethylene bistearamide lubricant.

Mark 3704 is a new powdered magnesium and zinc stabilizer, for the vinyl bottled water market, which provides good color hold when used with the company's epoxidized soybean oil plasticizer, Drapex 6.8S. A Mark 3703 version is suited for hot filling.

Witco's Humko Chemical Division has extended its oleochemical-based internal mold release technology with MoldPro agents especially suited for increasing flow of nylon 6 and 6/6 and styrene butadiene block copolymers. The agents reduce the force needed for part ejection, and do not require periodic application or cause residue buildup on tool surfaces.

PHOTO : Color concentrates are formulated to be compatible with UL listing of varied polypropylene fan blades. Polycom Huntsman.

PHOTO : Ucarsil PA-1/D55 processing aid contributes to bubble stability and increases output of blown HMW/HDPE film line. Union Carbide.

PHOTO : Computer graphs provide index of energy (torque) required for processing a given additive-containing plastic. FMC Corp.

PHOTO : High clarity polypropylene sheet, nucleated with phosphate-type additive, is compared with control sample. Witco Corp., Argus Div.

PHOTO : Chemist oversees development of new, improved colorants that meet requirements of product diversity and quality. Mobay.
COPYRIGHT 1990 Society of Plastics Engineers, Inc.
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Title Annotation:for plastics
Author:Wigotsky, Victor
Publication:Plastics Engineering
Date:Nov 1, 1990
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