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Additions of three hyphomycetous fungi to the hyphomycetes of Pakistan/Adicao de tres fungos hyphomycetous aos hyphomycetes do Paquistao.

In Asia, Pakistan high mycological biodiversity is saved but relatively few studies were undertaken. In Pakistan, saprophytic mycoflora consist of large number of fungi. However, information about their distribution in Pakistan areas is still lacking. Hyphomycetes are saprophytic mycoflora having asexual reproductive structures mode, producing on substrate without enclosing tissues (lack closed fruiting bodies) and referred as an imperfecti fungi, called Deuteromycota (anamorphic fungi). Under humid weather conditions, these fungi grow and developed their fruiting structures. Dedicated efforts of Ahmad (1956), Ahmad (1969) and Ahmad et al. (1997) broadly covered the whole areas of Pakistan for saprophytic fungi but the detailed indigenous mycoflora of different parts of the country have not yet be explored. The objective of the study is to explore the mycoflora of Pakistan.

Sampling sites: The plant litter was collected from main campus, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi (PMASAAUR), Pakistan and examined for the presence of various saprophytic fungi.

Collection of samples: The considered samples were bottled brush branch and deteriorating leaf of H. scholaris. The collected samples were brought to Plant Pathology Lab in paper bags.

Morphological and taxonomic studies: After washing with sterilized water, these samples were incubated in moist chamber on blotter paper in Petri dish plates at room temperature during summer season of 2010. These were studied in water and then in lacto-phenol mount under the Nikon microscope (X400), and identified by following and comparing these with the available existing literature. Other literature (Sultana, 1986 & 1987; Ellis, 1971; Mirza & Quereshi, 1978; Ahmad et al., 1997) was also consulted during this study. Hyphomycetes are difficult to indentify which requires knowledge of developmental features and skill with microscope. Seifert & Kendrick (2011) explained that hyphomycetes identified on microscopic morphology including condial, septation, shape, size, colour, arrangement of condia, conidiogenous cells and presence of sporodochia.

Asteromyces cruciatus

Colonies effuse, Light brown to darker shade and then black. Mycelium immersed and superficial, colony on potato dextrose agar (PDA) consists of thick and comparatively thin radiating, grayish patches, turns black with the production of conidia. Stroma none, Setae and hyphopodia absent. Conidiophores micronematous, mononematous, branched, or unbranched, straight or slightly flexuous, hyaline to olivaceous brown, smooth, narrow 2-3 pm thick, Conidiogenous cells clavate or broader 4-6 pm giving rise denticles 3 to many, cylindrical long, narrow toward tips 3-6 x 0.6-1 pm. Conidia long, ovoid to obpyriform or obclavate, pale to olivaceous brown, thick walled, smooth, without a germ slit, aseptate, 10-17.5 pm long and 4-6 pm thick at the broadest part (Figure1).

Material examined

It was an uninvited guest in the petri plate, isolated as laboratory contaminant (Table 1).

Date and collection number: 05-05-2010; ARID PP No. 07.

Habit and habitat:

It mostly present on dead leaves, grass stems and decomposing seaweeds in temperate climates of the world like Pakistan. On substrates it exposed to environment and conidia carried away by air (Shanthi & Vittal, 2010).D Asteromyces cruciatus produced pentapeptide lajollamide A, and compounds regiolone, hyalodendrin, gliovictin, N-norgliovicitin and bis-N-norgliovictin which have many biological activities and antimicrobial properties (Gulder et al., 2012).

Gyrothrix dichotoma

Colonies effuse gray to dark brown or black, velvety. Mycelium superficial, partly immersed, smooth, septate, hyaline, olivaceous and growing on pseudostroma. Hyphopodia absent and conidiophores micronematous. Setae straight below, septate, slightly bulbous at the base, 1.5 |jm dia and gradually tapers above to 1jm, smooth, branching, short, dichotomous and tips of branches twisted or bending, olive brown, 0.5 jm dia. Conidiogenous cells arising at the bases of setae, obclavate and polyblastic, cylindrical to truncate at their tips. Conidia straight or slightly curved at ends, hyaline or subhyaline, smooth, 6 x 2.5 jm. Conidia solitary, dry, straight, some time remain in bundles at the base, slightly curve at the tips, cylindrical in the middle, aseptate, colorless, smooth, 12-15 x 1.52|jiti (Figures 2; A and B).

Material examined:

It was studied on fallen twig of bottle brush from PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Campus (Table 1).

Date and collection number: 05.06.10; ARID PP No. 8.

Habit and habitat:

It is mostly saprobic on all types of plant debris (decaying leaves and branches). Wiesneriomyces javanicus

Colonies effuse, sporodochia pulvinate with brown stromatic base, bearing hyaline conidiophores and golden yellow slimy conidial mass, encircled by curved dark brown setae. Setae simple, long, incurved, septate, brown, swollen at the bases 7 jm, tapering towards the apex to 2 pm. Conidiophores macronematous, arising close to one another forming sporodochium and branched at the apex, branches straight or flexuous, hyaline, smooth. Conidiogenous cell clavate, polyblastic, discrete, three in number and each cell with two or three denticles at the apex which bear the conidial in chains with isthimi. The conidial chain with isthimi consists of seven conidia and aggregates in slimy masses, single conidium smooth, gutullate, aseptate, and the conidia remain attached to one another by narrow isthimi (Figures 3 and 4).

Material examined:

It was studied and confirmed on deteriorating leaves of H. scholar's a new host, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Campus (Table 1).

Date and collection number: 25.6.2010; ARID PP No. 9.

Habit and habitat:

It is present on all type of litter, rotten leaves and twigs (Shanthi & Vittal, 2010; Ellis, 1971). This specie is widely distributed in tropics (Manoch et al., 2008).

Received: 28 May 2013

Accepted: 02 December 2013


The authors are indebted to Prof. Dr. Irfan Ul-Haque, Department of Plant Pathology for providing the working environment in the laboratories.


Ahmad, S. 1956. Fungi of Pakistan: Monograph 1. Biological Society of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan.

126 p.

Ahmad, S. 1969. Fungi of West Pakistan: Monograph i, Supplement I. Biological Society of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan. 110 p.

Ahmad, S., Iqbal, S.H., Khalid, A.N. 1997. The fungi of Pakistan. Sultan Ahmad Mycological Society of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan. 248 p.

Ellis, M.B. 1971. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England. 608 p.

Gulder, T., Hong, H., Correa, J., Egereva, E., Wiese, J., Imhoff, J. F., Gross, H. 2012. Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus. Marine Drugs 10 (12): 2912-2935.

Manoch, L., Jeamjitt, O., Eamvijarn, A., Dethoup, T., Kokaew, J., Paopun, Y., Poochinya, P., Umrung, P. 2008. Light and SEM Studies on Leaf Litter Fungi. Journal of Microscopy Society of Thailand 22: 5659.

Mirza, J.H., Quereshi, M.S.A. 1978. Fungi of Pakistan. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 311 p.

Seifert, K.A., Kendrick, B. 2011. The Genera of Hyphomycetes. CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, Netherlands. 997 p.

Shanthi, S., Vittal, B.P.R. 2010. Biodiversity of microfungi associated with litter of Pavetta indica. Mycosphere 1: 23-37.

Sultana, K. 1986. An unreported genus Scolecobasidium Abbot. of Hyphomycetous fungi for Pakistan. Biologia 32(2): 42 p.

Sultana, K. 1987. Seven hyphomycetes from Pakistan. Biologia 33(1): 61 p.

Kishwar Sultana (1), M. Umar Shahbaz * (2), Gulshan Irshad (1), M. Azhar Iqbal (2)

(1) Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

(2) Pulses Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan

* Corresponding author:

Table 1. Hyphomycetous fungi isolated from various samples collected
from different locations.

Sr.       Fungal         Substrate      Location
No.      species

1      Asteromyces     Laboratory      PMAS-AAUR,
        cruciatus      contaminant     Laboratory
                       on PDA plate

2       Gyrothrix      Fallen twig     PMAS-AAUR,
        dichotoma      of bottle         campus

3     Wiesneriomyces   Deteriorating   PMAS- AAUR,
        javanicus      leaves of         campus

Sr.    Date of     Collection
No.   collection     number

1     05/05/2010    ARID PP
                     No. 7

2     05/06/2010    ARID PP
                     No. 8

3     25/06/2010    ARID PP
                     No. 9

Com. Sci., Bom Jesus, v.5, n.3, p.356-360, Jul./Set. 2014
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Title Annotation:Scientific Note
Author:Sultana, Kishwar; Shahbaz, M. Umar; Irshad, Gulshan; Iqbal, M. Azhar
Publication:Comunicata Scientiae
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Sep 1, 2014
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