Adaptability of the choice theory of planning and design-led planning with new urbanism principles and urban sustainable development.
Generally speaking, when decisions regarding city-related issues have been left to the urbanists, various approaches were proposed based upon different requirements and enormous changes in urban areas. This question always has been put forward as 'What is the characteristics of a well design and an effective planning improving the quality of cities and neighborhoods, and thereby leading to have a good and successful city?' According to it two viewpoints have been ascended: design-led planning (planning based on the use of urban design frameworks, design codes, development briefs and master plan) and choice theory of planning. According to their proponents, they can promote the quality of environment, life and social vitality.
Sustainable development has been introduced as the most important paradigm in urbanism since 1980s, and most of the theories address it. Nowadays, New Urbanism, as one of the most crucial theories, guides postmodern urban planners and designers, and seeks to improve standard of living and quality of urban life. Besides, New Urbanism has a special attention to the designing and planning of communities and neighborhood units, and most of its approaches, which is near to the neighborhoods' sustainability criteria, is to improve their various aspects.
Its fundamental principles are based on applying the traditional principles of sustainable urbanism in the past humanistic urbanism. Its other characteristics contains: emphasis on the urban fabric with two main characteristics of walkability and supplying residents' needs which is the features of traditional neighborhood design; mixed-used neighborhoods and social mixing; creating urban spaces which employ appropriate architectural design valuing local history, climate, ecology, and quality of buildings, try to build a friendly environment for pedestrians which provides livability, security, comfort and satisfaction (Steuteville, 2004).
From Urban Design to Design-Led Planning:
In the early 20th century and after World War II, the comprehensive planning model was proposed following the need for house and reconstruction of destroyed cities. Its conceptual and theoretical foundations were based on Patrick Geddes and Abercrombie's ideas. However, from the beginning, it was strongly criticized even in its origin, i.e., Europe and America, due to its fixed philosophical basis, inflexibility, lack of transparency in standpoint, the over-trend towards geometric and physical notions, and lack of attention to the economic and socio-cultural issues. Soon this pattern was replaced by new approaches such as systematic approach and strategic planning (Elyaszadeh Moghadam, 2011). One of the recent trends in urban planning, beginning from West was still urban design which entered into the urbanism literature, and was considered as a missing link between urban planning and architecture. Its main purpose was to promote the visual and aesthetic quality of cities (See Fig. 1).
It is difficult to define urban design. In fact there is no consensus about its meaning; as a result, theoreticians have propounded their definitions as for example 'city sense and city design' by Kevin Lynch; 'New Urbanism' by Andres Duany and Peter Katz; and 'community design' by Edward Lozano. In fact it can be said that urban design definition has two sides and covers both substantive and procedural aspects of this field (Golkar, 2003), and that is why it contains a lot of definitions and each definition covers an aspect of it. In macro levels of urban planning, the necessity of designing caused an interaction between planning and designing, and finally, it formed design planning. Experts' opinion is hereunder:
1. The necessity to fully integrate designing and planning (Punter, 1999).
2. The necessity to interfere in urban design consciously in order to reach urban development to create Cohesion and solidarity between planning and designing (Pakzad, 2007).
3. An emphasis on the principles and notions of urban design and stating clearly its objectives in planning (Habe, 1989).
4. The necessity to integrate urban design objectives and planning initiatives (Southworth, 1990).
In shaping new system of design-led planning, we faced a gradual transformation in urban design. Table 1, presented by authors, indicates the summary of these changes from Cullingworth's point of views (1997).
This evolution reveals that urban design gradually placed along with the planning. In fact, in contrast to urban planning, we cannot consider it in a lower level. From 1980's, however, it took a sharp turn (See Table 2).
In England, urban design had been included in the UK planning policy statement since the late 1990's. In addition to urban planning system, hierarchy of planning also has been defined for urban design projects there. The highest level of these projects is a series of urban design policies paying attention to the physical and qualitative issues. Design-led planning strengthens its political aspects (Abbaszadeghan and Razavi, 2007: 20). The two chief reports in this regard are Urban Task Force report (1999) and Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR, 2000). According to Urban Task Force report (1999), without considering the designing till the last step, the speed of planning process will reduce; it leads to the wasting of costs, and not reaching the desired outcome. DETR (2000) links the planning and urban design with putting forward the necessity of a better urban design. It believes a successful planning is one which provides necessary tools for designing. Therefore, from late 1990's, the need for a link between urban planning and urban design was felt in order to fade the inefficiency and inflexibility away (See Fig. 2).
Development of urban design to design planning is presented in Table 3 by authors.
The Adaptability of Design-Led Planning Principles and New Urbanism's Criteria:
Urban design can be considered as an interactive approach in planning which can be obtained in all planning levels and scales focusing on goals, principles and criteria of quality-oriented urban design, establishing an appropriate cooperative relationship and professional interactive links; it is also worth noting that the control over the physical planning and qualitative control of urban development can be provided by legal, technical and political support along with aforementioned issues (Seyyedalhoseini et al, 2012: 50).
Punter (1999) introduces the designed guide as a flexible system. It guides some processes leading to desirable designed results. Its process is different from the codes and standards of land use and development processes. According to it, Punter and Carmona recognized a hierarchy of designed guidelines which determine the variability of these guidelines at the national, regional, municipal and local. at the same time, with a change in planning and designing tools, new policies appear within the existing framework sharing new goals with past guides (Bonner et al., 2012: 6). For example, Form Based Codes (FBC) in New Urbanism are considered as the tools combine former guides with zoning regulations, and thus receive a legitimate power to control designing (Paroleck et al., 2008).
Punter and Carmona, in their book Design Dimension of Planning, first, explain the Britain's policies and design programs in a large scale, and continue an interactive approach in the lower levels such as urban design, architecture, landscape architecture and conservation. They, therefore, divided the design guides into two main groups:
1. Urban design guidelines directing the product;
2. Administrative actions relate to the guidelines introducing criteria and qualitative products (Punter and Carmona, 1999).
New Urbanism also implements its guidelines executively, and in addition to its administrative principles, presents FBC as a flexible and effective tool to reach its goals. According to Bonner et al. (2012: 7), nowadays, most of the appropriate designed receipts consider a mixed approach unifying good samples of final product and some criteria in order to assess designing. In this regard, New Urbanism also provides some principles considering both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of place and try to improve them.
Thus with an emphasis on the quality of environment, design dimension of planning is theorized and leads to the shaping of design-led planning. In this case, the city is viewed not only as a shelter but as a unified environment in diverse aspects especially its social one.
As it is clear in the aforementioned conceptual model, the vitality, one of the indicators of sustainable communities, has a direct and reciprocal relationship with the quality of environment and design-led planning. This requires some pre-requisites in different dimensions. For example, it is the physical aspect of designing which leads to achieving the quality of environment in different levels.
Fig. 4 and 5 indicate that 'the quality of environment' relates on one hand to the 'vitality' and on the other hand to the 'architecture and urban design of the highest quality, i.e. both its social and physical aspects (favored by design-led planning) are important. As it was mentioned earlier, architecture and urban design of the highest quality are among the noteworthy principles in New Urbanism. It demonstrates that there is a close relationship between New Urbanism's principles and design-led planning.
However, the design-led planning believes that promoting sustainable communities and lifestyle in cities depend upon the design of physical environment (Rafieian and Razavi, 2010: 271). Planning and physical designs are among the New Urbanism's interested issues, and comprises a range of planning and designing of blocks and neighborhoods to the metropolitan areas.
In design-led planning, however, the design alone is not enough; it should be in company with investment in health, education, social services, security, and employment. The design can successfully provide a background for aforementioned issues using an integrated view of urban environment and taking into account the subject of planning (Rafieian and Razavi, 2010). New Urbanism also pays attention to the mentioned issues in its macro levels discussing in its charter in details.
Abbaszadegan and Razavi (2007) believe a series of theories and viewpoints affecting the relationship between planning and urban design such as the Athens charter, garden city, city beautiful movement, smart growth, New Urbanism, sustainable development, postmodernism and civil society. In fact after these steps, the design-led planning appeared. In other words, these theories have gradually brought near the planning and urban design, since each one explained the interaction between these two systems directly or indirectly. After these theories were flourished, the interference of designing in the planning and determining a defined framework became a necessity.
The Concept of 'Choice' in Urban Design:
In general, Jan Gehl (1984), the author of Life between Buildings, believes, the activities and events happening in the cities are of three types: a) necessary activities, which are essential activities of daily living; b) social activities; and c) optional activities which are close to recreational activities.
The article 'A Choice Theory of Planning', written by Davidoff and Reiner, may be considered as the most complete theoretical explanation in the matter of choice in urban design. They states, planning is defined as the process for determining appropriate future actions through a sequence of choices. In this definition, determining is used in two senses: 1. finding out the choices, and 2. assuring them. Accordingly, the choices which constitute the planning process are made at three levels: a) the selection of ends and criteria; b) the identification of a set of alternatives consistent with general prescriptive, and the selection of desired alternatives; and c) guidance of action toward determined ends (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962). In this regard, John Dakin (1963) believes, the core of the theory is that the exercise of choice is its (planning's) characteristic intellectual act.
Designers and planners, as the agent of their clients, have the task of assisting them in understanding the range of the possible in the future and of revealing open choices. The planers deal with values to discover which future conditions are presently desired and which may be desired by future clients.
Based on the third class (in Table 6), planning process is employed for future goals and conditions, especially for introducing and widening of choices. This class seems to have a close relationship with human right and democracy. In fact, this ideal plan paved the way for different methods of choosing. From a planner's point of view, desirable environment for future is purely a matter of values. However, there is nothing in the factual side of the planer's work which can reveal to her/him the desired nature of future. But once a particular set of values is posited, the relative weight of values is determined (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 107). It is a base for citizen's choice. in planning, the importance of choice is to some extent in which the constraints should be imposed only after choices are expressed, because the planners first should predict nature of the future, then identify the future's constraints and the range of choices, and finally control the changes in the future by an appropriate plan. The planners also should be able to predict the improbable and undesirable outcomes and the possible ways to control them.
Davidoff and Reiner (1962: 108) states, we would prefer to see planning operate under the assumption that all things are possible, given the willingness to meet their cost. In other words, the planer considers all possibilities, and it leads to the plurality. In the heart of this plurality, there is diversity. It can be said, diversity is an inevitable result of choice. It needs planner's prediction. In fact, the power to predict has a direct relationship with the choices that the planner has made.
The planner should consider the values, embedded in the society, from two perspectives: first, as the client's internal states of valuation; second, externally, as the entities which are valued (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 109). The important point regarding values is that a value shows the way to the planner in order to reach a goal (See Fig. 6). After that the main and basic reasons underlying the choices should be recognized. It permits more intelligent choices; as a result, the citizens encounter better choices. In this case, the goals will be achieved well if we have enough information about the alternatives.
Examining the Common Concepts of Choice and New Urbanism:
From the perspective of choice theory of planning, planner's responsibility means he cannot, as an agent of his clients, impose his own ideas of what is right or wrong, while her/his role, regarding prices, is as a responsible representative (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 108). New Urbanism, also, indicates the planner and designer's responsibility by representing some principles like mixed housing. It shows both diversity and power of choosing, and leads to the variation in prices of housing market.
The choice theory of planning, indeed, means widening of choices and not limiting them for citizens. Proponents of this theory know this issue as the ultimate goal of planning (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 108). New Urbanism also endeavors to widen citizens' choices.
Vitality, one of New Urbanism's goals, arises directly by New Urbanists; it is also among sustainability criteria of neighborhoods. A vital urban space is one in which there are different people (regarding their age and gender) involved in it; their activities are of social and optional (Khastou and Saeidi Rezani, 2010: 66). This notion has a close relationship with choice theory of planning.
Individuals have preferences for their activities and behave in accordance with them. These preferences express comparisons between their wants that have several features. The important point here is diversity, because, psychologically, actors vary in their preferences, and men do not appraise things similarly complicates the allocation problem in society (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 104). Therefore, choice is derived from diversity. New Urbanism recognizes the vitality of a community and a city in terms of their diversity whether based upon their housing types, land use, or people (people from different gender, age, etc.)
Thus, in planning, expressing decisions based on the choices can enhance democratic planning (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962). New Urbanism puts a special emphasis on participation; it claims revitalization occurs by the help and presence of people in society. From the beginning, New Urbanism has received political and legal supports due to its democratic concepts embedded in it.
There are some issues in enhancement of citizens' authority to choose and improving the quality of environment such as being inclusive, one of the urban environmental quality, which refers to the citizen's ability in choosing the activities in the city. Violich (1983), in his article 'Urban Reading and the Design of Small Urban Places', states, one of the good qualities which should be taken into account in urban design is freedom of choice for citizens, and the existence of possibility for social life vs. private life.
There are two prevailing views on the urban development planning: a) mere planning view; and b) mere designed view. Traditionally, planning view, a quantitative one, has a macro level. On the other hand, designed view, a qualitative one, lies in a lower level. It is worth mentioning that the relation between these two views was of linear one, i.e., design should follow planning. From mid-1990's, this linear view arose a lot of debates; therefore, another view came into existence which had a parallel approach at these views: design-led planning, a qualitative-quantitative approach. It means neither planning is merely quantitative nor designing is merely qualitative. Therefore, it yields for both architectures and urban planners' views in planning; the planner also should control the designing processes.
In this approach, the city is considered as an integrated environment; and as a whole system, it relates to its subsystems directly and reciprocally. This relationship is the result of the interaction and equilibrium between urban design and planning. According to this interaction and equilibrium and also changes in the process of planning and plans of urban development, the environment will improve, and urban development occurs based on its spatial organization; an improvement which deserves the human being.
Design-led planning was developed by the entrance of designing in the process of planning. It is the product of reaching solutions regarding crises caused by the quality of environment; it has the ability to provide solution at all levels. But at the lower levels, like local scales, the results are more tangible and strength.
At this time, with the advent of design-led planning in England, New Urbanism movement began in response to the sprawl in North America. This approach criticized the ideas, developed in both designing and planning, in America in the early 20th century. In its development, therefore, New Urbanism pays attention to both designing and planning and seeks a way to form an interaction between them (See Fig 7). It is believed that, New Urbanism aims to improve the quality of life and demands a return to the traditional urban planning (considering planning), and to the art of place-making (considering designing).
The important point is that design-led planning, which focus on the creation of a high quality environment, is a way to achieve sustainable environments (according to the principles of sustainable development). On the other hand as it was mentioned, New Urbanism also seeks to create sustainable environment. Accordingly, there is a close relationship between these theories.
The ultimate goal of New Urbanism is to improve comfort and welfare. After 20th century, the dominant theories have been looking for this goal. This notion will highlight more by creating such concepts as choice theory of planning, citizens' participation, planning and local government, etc. over time. All of these theories induce the notion of humanistic urbanism, an urbanism which belongs to people and should satisfy their needs. Therefore, the concepts of urban sociology and human communities entered into the New Urbanism's notions stronger than before. As today we believe most of the solutions to the city-related problems rooted in the social issues, and thus the sociological solutions should be employed. Society consists of individuals with different social, religious, ethnic, etc. groups. A city planner should provide these kinds of interests. We should, therefore, accept that the individuals should have the authority to choose between their preferences, and that is the point New Urbanism seeks for in mixing and variety.
At the end, we present the below conceptual model regarding New Urbanism's principles of improving the quality of environment which is resulted from employing design-led planning and improving the quality of life which is derived from an increase in the power of citizens' choice.
It is clear; then, the nine principles of New Urbanism which lead to improving the quality of life and environment have a close relationship with design-led planning and the choice theory of planning; so that they result in sustainable urban development.
Received 4 September 2014
Received in revised form 24 November 2014
Accepted 8 November 2014
Available online 10 January 2015
Abbaszadegan, M., H. Razavi, 2007. New Approach to Urban Development Plans "Design Led Planning". Honar-ha-Ye-Ziba., 28: 15-22. (in Persian)
Arendt, R., et al., 2000. Charter of the New Urbanism. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.
Bonner, A., 2012. The Rise of the Guideline, in Planning and Urban Design. PLA 1106 work shop in planning practice.
Carmona, M., J. Punter, 1997. The Design Dimension of Planning: Theory, Content and Best Practice for Design Policies. Routledge Publication.
Charter of New Urbanism, 1996. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from //www.newurbanism.org//
Dakin, J., 1963. An Evaluation of the Choice Theory of Planning. Journal of the institute of planners., 24 (1): 19-27.
Davidoff, P., T. Reiner, 1962. A Choice Theory of Planning. Journal of the institute of planners., 25: 103115.
DETR, 2000. By Design, Urban Design in Planning System: Towards Better Practice. Commission for Architecture & Built Environment. London.
Elyaszadeh Moghadam, N., 2011. Surveying and Feasibility of Replacement of Structural-Strategic Model with Urban Comprehensive Planning Model in Iran. Armanshahr. 4(6): 48-35. (in Persian)
Gehl, J., 1987. Life between Buildings. Van Nostrand Reinhold press.
Golkar, K., 2003. Urban Design: from Birth to Maturity. Soffeh., 13(26): 9-23. (in Persian)
Habe, R., 1989. Public Design Control in American Communities. Town Planning Review, (60): 195-219.
Khastou M., N. Saeidi Rezani, 2010. The Effective Factors on Urban Spaces Vitality (Creating a Lively Urban Space with Emphasizng the Concept "Pedestrian Mall". Hoviateshahr., 6(4): 63-74. (in Persian)
Pakzad, J., 2007. Articles on Urban Design. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti Publication. (in Persian)
Paroleck, D., K. Paroleck and P. Crawford, 2008. Form Based Codes: A Guide for Planners, Urban Designers, Municipalities, and Developers. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons
Punter, J., 1999. Design Guidelines in American Cities: A Review of Design Policies and Guidance in Five West Coast Cities. Liverpool: Liverpool university press.
Rafieian, M., H. Razavi, 2010. Improving the Quakity of Urban Design Using Design-Led Planning Approach. Modares., 14(2): 269-287. (in Persian)
Seyyedalhoseini, S.M., et al, 2012. Interactional Approach in Scales and Levels of Urban Design in Urban Process. Bagh-I-Nazar., 9(22): 42-54. (in Persian)
South worth, M., 1990. Theory and Practice of Contemporary Urban Design: A Look at American Urban Design Plans. Berkeley: Institute of urban and regional development. University of California, Berkeley.
Steuteville, R., 2004. The New Urbanism and Alternative to Modern Automobile-Oriented Planning Development. Retrieved September 5, 2013, from http://faculty.ncf.edu
Urban Task Force, 1999. Towards an urban renaissance. Department of Environment, Transportation and the Regions. London.
Violich, F., 1983. Urban Reading and the Design of Small Urban Places: The Village of Sutivan, Town Planning Review., 54: 41-62.
(1) Emad Ketabchi, (2) Khalil Hajipoor, (3) Mohammad Hoseinpour, (4) Abdorreza Pakshir, (5) Maryam Rasaeipoor
(1,2,3,4) Assistant Professor, Urban Planning Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
(5) Bachelor student of Urban Planning, Department of Architecture, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran.
Corresponding Author: Emad Ketabchi, Urban Planning Department, Shiraz University Shiraz, Iran.
E-mail: email@example.com, +989177014385.
Table 1: Evolution of urban design. (Source: authors; adapted from Abbaszadegan and Razavi, 2007) Urban design's desirable Time issues Urban design issues identified 1960's gradually in the body of planning projects. Urban design's goals were 1970's included within the public policy of planning. Urban design's considerations 1980's were adopted as a supervisory system of planning. Table 2: Formation process and achieving design-led planning from 1980's until now. (Source authors) The rapid Time Proposer developments 1. Introducing mixed 1980's Rooted in the notions of used in order to sustainable development develop urban spaces (paying attention to the urban design) 2. Paying attention 1992 Urban designers to the aesthetic issues in preparation of plans 3. Urban design as a 1996 Department of the knowledge beyond Environment, Transport addressing a and the Regions (DETR) building 4. The necessity of 1997 Mathew Carmona a middle approach for planning and design 5. The necessity of 1999 Urban Task Force design considerations in urban planning The rapid Implications developments 1. Introducing mixed Mixing of diverse land use used in order to instead of their conventional develop urban spaces (modern) zoning (paying attention to the urban design) 2. Paying attention Aesthetic issues were noted in to the aesthetic the development plans and issues in planning process preparation of plans 3. Urban design as a The connection of urban design knowledge beyond into larger dimensions of addressing a planning building 4. The necessity of Considering the gap between a middle approach planning and designing and for planning and trying to remove it. design 5. The necessity of The programs containing design design considerations are more considerations in successful in improving the urban planning quality of cities. Table 3: The process of urban design development. (Source: authors; adopted from Golkar, 2003) steps Consecutive The kinds of period paradigm urban design 1 Urban design as pre-urban Before opening a fetus design its academic discipline in America in 1960. 2 Urban design as cosmetic urban 1960-1970 a newborn design 3 Urban design as functionalist 1970's a baby urban design 4 Urban design as perceptual Beginning in a teenager urban design 1970's and reaching its peak in 1980's. 5 Urban design as urban The late 1980's an adolescent sustainable and 1990's (adult) design 6 * Urban design in interactional from late its fully urban design 1990's until maturity period now steps Noteworthy components Related theories and practices 1 Dependent and Haussmann's renovation of nondistinctive features Paris; Camillo Sitte's from architecture; paying teachings; City Beautiful attention to the movement. aesthetic and qualitative components. 2 Big architecture from the Paul Zucker, Clarence S. perspective of Stein, Aldo Rossi and architects, a part of Gordon Cullen's planning from planners' definitions. perspective; formal and physical thinking; extreme attention to the visual concepts and beautiful landscape; urban landscape from Carmona and Punter's point of views. 3 Three dimensional urban Jonathan Barnett's design; functional definitions; royal components besides institute of British cosmetic ones; entering architects (RIBA); of paradigm of space into Burnham's definition urban design. 4 Paradigm of place; adding Thomas Kuhn's theory; perceptual aesthetic; lynch, Rapoport and urban vitality movement; Michael Southworth's urban experience and definitions; application for every one; public perception. 5 Adding pro-environmental Ecological urban design, component to the Peter Calthorpe's aesthetic ones. definition. 6 * An interactive approach The Design Dimension of of urban design and Planning' by Carmona and planning; development of Punter (1997); 'Urban new tools such as urban Design Guidance' by design agenda, Robert Cowan (2002) ,etc. development agenda, etc. * This step is added by the authors of this article. Table 4: The concepts of interactive approach to planning and urban design regarding New Urbanism's implications. (Source: authors) concepts of design-led concepts of New Urbanism planning relates to design-led planning innovations 1. Considering all levels Principles 1 to 9 of and scales of planning. Charter of the New Urbanism are about the region, metropolis, city and town; and its 10-27 principles are about the neighborhood, the district, and the corridor. Therefore, it takes into account all levels. 2. Taking into The nine principles of consideration the New Urbanism leads to a criteria of better quality of life quality-oriented urban with an emphasis on the design. improving the quality of environment. 3. Legal, technical and Urban sprawl, forming New political support. Urbanism, was criticized by politicians including governors and the first vice president of the United States. These issues provided the support for New Urbanism in various aspects. Table 5: The adaptability of design-led planning and New Urbanism's criteria. (Source: authors) Characteristics and principles New Urbanism's concepts relate to of design-led planning's design-led planning (mainly on the criteria development of new urban) 1. An integrated view on urban New urban development should be environment and focus on organized with the existing planning. patterns in an integrated manner (Morris); The integration of an architecture design with the environment is beyond any style (Stefanos Polyzoides). 2. Based on the functional New development should balance goals and principles rather between different functions rigid terms and conditions and particularly housing and employment complexity of an inflexible (Morris); using the visual criteria zoning. of urban design (Lennertz); FBC are based on physical form rather than conventional zoning. 3. Flexibility of principles New developments should be employed and having a connection with based on the historical form and areas under study. with respect to the borders of that area (Bothwell); architecture, landscape and urban design should be impressed by climate, local history, ecology, building practice and the land form (Douglas Kelbaugh); FBC are flexible tools to achieve New Urbanism's goals. 4. Public areas are extremely The main task of architecture and important. urban design is to define streets as public places (Solomon). 5. Examining public spaces and Contemporary developments should their relationships in order consider two basic issues: to create cohesion of pedestrians and the form of public neighborhoods and communities. spaces (Douglas Farr). 6. Having a qualitative look Highways should not cause a capital at urban form, and concordance outflow; instead they should of design and planning. improve the quality of cities (Norquist). 7. The importance of density Civil, commercial and industrial and mixed-used neighborhoods densities should be concentrated in and architecture neighborhoods rather than in far places separately (Moule); neighborhoods should be of compact and mixed-used ones (Plater-Zyberk). 8. Establishing of public The need to establish public spaces in creating successful gardens, parks, etc. in neighborhood units. neighborhoods (Comitta). 9. Considering the quality of Ten principles of New Urbanism help neighborhood unit and to improve the quality of a good qualitative characteristics of place in neighborhood units and place. communities. 10. The desirable form and New Urbanists claim they are quality. reviving communities. New Urbanism returns to the traditional neighborhood design. FBCs are executive tools in New Urbanism. 11. Capability of design's In the charter of New Urbanism goals and criteria in order to (1996), Calthrope and Dover enter into larger scales. introduce opportunities in which instead of putting the city and its suburbs against each other, recommend their cooperation with the metropolitan areas. 12. The plan's capability in In its charter, New Urbanism different scales including a present solutions for the piece of land, an urban block, metropolitan areas, city, a city center or a community, neighborhood unit, and neighborhood unit. even single building. In the charter, it is mentioned that "we dedicate ourselves to reclaiming our homes, blocks, streets, parks, neighborhoods, districts, towns, cities, regions, and environment." 13. Practice-oriented It was first introduced by identity. Consultant Engineers Company, and was conducted in the Seaside holiday village in 1981; the first congress was launched in 1993. Therefore it went from administrating to the determining theory. 14. City is not merely a place Design should encourage people to of settlement but a place to walk, and enable the neighbors to communicate. take care of their neighborhoods. The city is a means to provide social contacts. Table 6: Three important goals for a planner or designer. (Source: authors; adopted from Davidoff and Reiner, 1962) The goals of notions explanation planning 1. efficiency and This category is The importance of rational action assessed in terms of decision-makers' desired goals. The points of view efficient utilization of resources would be that which satisfied the particular preferences of individuals. Here, the logic is important. 2. market aid, and It is formed on the The importance of replacement basis of market and economic competition, and political provided that the issues. services must be sufficient in respond to the participants' preferences. Planning is merely considered as a controlling system and a guide. 3. Change and It is based on this This is the base for widening of choice principle that no choice theory. The one has the wisdom power of choosing is or ability to make devoted to the decisions for the addressees. society and another individual. Choice-making, therefore, is left to the individual or to a majority of individual votes.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Ketabchi, Emad; Hajipoor, Khalil; Hoseinpour, Mohammad; Pakshir, Abdorreza; Rasaeipoor, Maryam|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2015|
|Previous Article:||The relationship between corporation bargaining power and accounting conservatism in Tehran stock exchange.|
|Next Article:||Investigating the role of cultural development indexes in development programs in Iran.|