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Adaptability of the choice theory of planning and design-led planning with new urbanism principles and urban sustainable development.

INTRODUCTION

Generally speaking, when decisions regarding city-related issues have been left to the urbanists, various approaches were proposed based upon different requirements and enormous changes in urban areas. This question always has been put forward as 'What is the characteristics of a well design and an effective planning improving the quality of cities and neighborhoods, and thereby leading to have a good and successful city?' According to it two viewpoints have been ascended: design-led planning (planning based on the use of urban design frameworks, design codes, development briefs and master plan) and choice theory of planning. According to their proponents, they can promote the quality of environment, life and social vitality.

Sustainable development has been introduced as the most important paradigm in urbanism since 1980s, and most of the theories address it. Nowadays, New Urbanism, as one of the most crucial theories, guides postmodern urban planners and designers, and seeks to improve standard of living and quality of urban life. Besides, New Urbanism has a special attention to the designing and planning of communities and neighborhood units, and most of its approaches, which is near to the neighborhoods' sustainability criteria, is to improve their various aspects.

Its fundamental principles are based on applying the traditional principles of sustainable urbanism in the past humanistic urbanism. Its other characteristics contains: emphasis on the urban fabric with two main characteristics of walkability and supplying residents' needs which is the features of traditional neighborhood design; mixed-used neighborhoods and social mixing; creating urban spaces which employ appropriate architectural design valuing local history, climate, ecology, and quality of buildings, try to build a friendly environment for pedestrians which provides livability, security, comfort and satisfaction (Steuteville, 2004).

From Urban Design to Design-Led Planning:

In the early 20th century and after World War II, the comprehensive planning model was proposed following the need for house and reconstruction of destroyed cities. Its conceptual and theoretical foundations were based on Patrick Geddes and Abercrombie's ideas. However, from the beginning, it was strongly criticized even in its origin, i.e., Europe and America, due to its fixed philosophical basis, inflexibility, lack of transparency in standpoint, the over-trend towards geometric and physical notions, and lack of attention to the economic and socio-cultural issues. Soon this pattern was replaced by new approaches such as systematic approach and strategic planning (Elyaszadeh Moghadam, 2011). One of the recent trends in urban planning, beginning from West was still urban design which entered into the urbanism literature, and was considered as a missing link between urban planning and architecture. Its main purpose was to promote the visual and aesthetic quality of cities (See Fig. 1).

It is difficult to define urban design. In fact there is no consensus about its meaning; as a result, theoreticians have propounded their definitions as for example 'city sense and city design' by Kevin Lynch; 'New Urbanism' by Andres Duany and Peter Katz; and 'community design' by Edward Lozano. In fact it can be said that urban design definition has two sides and covers both substantive and procedural aspects of this field (Golkar, 2003), and that is why it contains a lot of definitions and each definition covers an aspect of it. In macro levels of urban planning, the necessity of designing caused an interaction between planning and designing, and finally, it formed design planning. Experts' opinion is hereunder:

1. The necessity to fully integrate designing and planning (Punter, 1999).

2. The necessity to interfere in urban design consciously in order to reach urban development to create Cohesion and solidarity between planning and designing (Pakzad, 2007).

3. An emphasis on the principles and notions of urban design and stating clearly its objectives in planning (Habe, 1989).

4. The necessity to integrate urban design objectives and planning initiatives (Southworth, 1990).

In shaping new system of design-led planning, we faced a gradual transformation in urban design. Table 1, presented by authors, indicates the summary of these changes from Cullingworth's point of views (1997).

This evolution reveals that urban design gradually placed along with the planning. In fact, in contrast to urban planning, we cannot consider it in a lower level. From 1980's, however, it took a sharp turn (See Table 2).

In England, urban design had been included in the UK planning policy statement since the late 1990's. In addition to urban planning system, hierarchy of planning also has been defined for urban design projects there. The highest level of these projects is a series of urban design policies paying attention to the physical and qualitative issues. Design-led planning strengthens its political aspects (Abbaszadeghan and Razavi, 2007: 20). The two chief reports in this regard are Urban Task Force report (1999) and Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR, 2000). According to Urban Task Force report (1999), without considering the designing till the last step, the speed of planning process will reduce; it leads to the wasting of costs, and not reaching the desired outcome. DETR (2000) links the planning and urban design with putting forward the necessity of a better urban design. It believes a successful planning is one which provides necessary tools for designing. Therefore, from late 1990's, the need for a link between urban planning and urban design was felt in order to fade the inefficiency and inflexibility away (See Fig. 2).

Development of urban design to design planning is presented in Table 3 by authors.

The Adaptability of Design-Led Planning Principles and New Urbanism's Criteria:

Urban design can be considered as an interactive approach in planning which can be obtained in all planning levels and scales focusing on goals, principles and criteria of quality-oriented urban design, establishing an appropriate cooperative relationship and professional interactive links; it is also worth noting that the control over the physical planning and qualitative control of urban development can be provided by legal, technical and political support along with aforementioned issues (Seyyedalhoseini et al, 2012: 50).

Punter (1999) introduces the designed guide as a flexible system. It guides some processes leading to desirable designed results. Its process is different from the codes and standards of land use and development processes. According to it, Punter and Carmona recognized a hierarchy of designed guidelines which determine the variability of these guidelines at the national, regional, municipal and local. at the same time, with a change in planning and designing tools, new policies appear within the existing framework sharing new goals with past guides (Bonner et al., 2012: 6). For example, Form Based Codes (FBC) in New Urbanism are considered as the tools combine former guides with zoning regulations, and thus receive a legitimate power to control designing (Paroleck et al., 2008).

Punter and Carmona, in their book Design Dimension of Planning, first, explain the Britain's policies and design programs in a large scale, and continue an interactive approach in the lower levels such as urban design, architecture, landscape architecture and conservation. They, therefore, divided the design guides into two main groups:

1. Urban design guidelines directing the product;

2. Administrative actions relate to the guidelines introducing criteria and qualitative products (Punter and Carmona, 1999).

New Urbanism also implements its guidelines executively, and in addition to its administrative principles, presents FBC as a flexible and effective tool to reach its goals. According to Bonner et al. (2012: 7), nowadays, most of the appropriate designed receipts consider a mixed approach unifying good samples of final product and some criteria in order to assess designing. In this regard, New Urbanism also provides some principles considering both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of place and try to improve them.

Thus with an emphasis on the quality of environment, design dimension of planning is theorized and leads to the shaping of design-led planning. In this case, the city is viewed not only as a shelter but as a unified environment in diverse aspects especially its social one.

As it is clear in the aforementioned conceptual model, the vitality, one of the indicators of sustainable communities, has a direct and reciprocal relationship with the quality of environment and design-led planning. This requires some pre-requisites in different dimensions. For example, it is the physical aspect of designing which leads to achieving the quality of environment in different levels.

Fig. 4 and 5 indicate that 'the quality of environment' relates on one hand to the 'vitality' and on the other hand to the 'architecture and urban design of the highest quality, i.e. both its social and physical aspects (favored by design-led planning) are important. As it was mentioned earlier, architecture and urban design of the highest quality are among the noteworthy principles in New Urbanism. It demonstrates that there is a close relationship between New Urbanism's principles and design-led planning.

However, the design-led planning believes that promoting sustainable communities and lifestyle in cities depend upon the design of physical environment (Rafieian and Razavi, 2010: 271). Planning and physical designs are among the New Urbanism's interested issues, and comprises a range of planning and designing of blocks and neighborhoods to the metropolitan areas.

In design-led planning, however, the design alone is not enough; it should be in company with investment in health, education, social services, security, and employment. The design can successfully provide a background for aforementioned issues using an integrated view of urban environment and taking into account the subject of planning (Rafieian and Razavi, 2010). New Urbanism also pays attention to the mentioned issues in its macro levels discussing in its charter in details.

Abbaszadegan and Razavi (2007) believe a series of theories and viewpoints affecting the relationship between planning and urban design such as the Athens charter, garden city, city beautiful movement, smart growth, New Urbanism, sustainable development, postmodernism and civil society. In fact after these steps, the design-led planning appeared. In other words, these theories have gradually brought near the planning and urban design, since each one explained the interaction between these two systems directly or indirectly. After these theories were flourished, the interference of designing in the planning and determining a defined framework became a necessity.

The Concept of 'Choice' in Urban Design:

In general, Jan Gehl (1984), the author of Life between Buildings, believes, the activities and events happening in the cities are of three types: a) necessary activities, which are essential activities of daily living; b) social activities; and c) optional activities which are close to recreational activities.

The article 'A Choice Theory of Planning', written by Davidoff and Reiner, may be considered as the most complete theoretical explanation in the matter of choice in urban design. They states, planning is defined as the process for determining appropriate future actions through a sequence of choices. In this definition, determining is used in two senses: 1. finding out the choices, and 2. assuring them. Accordingly, the choices which constitute the planning process are made at three levels: a) the selection of ends and criteria; b) the identification of a set of alternatives consistent with general prescriptive, and the selection of desired alternatives; and c) guidance of action toward determined ends (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962). In this regard, John Dakin (1963) believes, the core of the theory is that the exercise of choice is its (planning's) characteristic intellectual act.

Designers and planners, as the agent of their clients, have the task of assisting them in understanding the range of the possible in the future and of revealing open choices. The planers deal with values to discover which future conditions are presently desired and which may be desired by future clients.

Based on the third class (in Table 6), planning process is employed for future goals and conditions, especially for introducing and widening of choices. This class seems to have a close relationship with human right and democracy. In fact, this ideal plan paved the way for different methods of choosing. From a planner's point of view, desirable environment for future is purely a matter of values. However, there is nothing in the factual side of the planer's work which can reveal to her/him the desired nature of future. But once a particular set of values is posited, the relative weight of values is determined (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 107). It is a base for citizen's choice. in planning, the importance of choice is to some extent in which the constraints should be imposed only after choices are expressed, because the planners first should predict nature of the future, then identify the future's constraints and the range of choices, and finally control the changes in the future by an appropriate plan. The planners also should be able to predict the improbable and undesirable outcomes and the possible ways to control them.

Davidoff and Reiner (1962: 108) states, we would prefer to see planning operate under the assumption that all things are possible, given the willingness to meet their cost. In other words, the planer considers all possibilities, and it leads to the plurality. In the heart of this plurality, there is diversity. It can be said, diversity is an inevitable result of choice. It needs planner's prediction. In fact, the power to predict has a direct relationship with the choices that the planner has made.

The planner should consider the values, embedded in the society, from two perspectives: first, as the client's internal states of valuation; second, externally, as the entities which are valued (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 109). The important point regarding values is that a value shows the way to the planner in order to reach a goal (See Fig. 6). After that the main and basic reasons underlying the choices should be recognized. It permits more intelligent choices; as a result, the citizens encounter better choices. In this case, the goals will be achieved well if we have enough information about the alternatives.

Examining the Common Concepts of Choice and New Urbanism:

From the perspective of choice theory of planning, planner's responsibility means he cannot, as an agent of his clients, impose his own ideas of what is right or wrong, while her/his role, regarding prices, is as a responsible representative (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 108). New Urbanism, also, indicates the planner and designer's responsibility by representing some principles like mixed housing. It shows both diversity and power of choosing, and leads to the variation in prices of housing market.

The choice theory of planning, indeed, means widening of choices and not limiting them for citizens. Proponents of this theory know this issue as the ultimate goal of planning (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 108). New Urbanism also endeavors to widen citizens' choices.

Vitality, one of New Urbanism's goals, arises directly by New Urbanists; it is also among sustainability criteria of neighborhoods. A vital urban space is one in which there are different people (regarding their age and gender) involved in it; their activities are of social and optional (Khastou and Saeidi Rezani, 2010: 66). This notion has a close relationship with choice theory of planning.

Individuals have preferences for their activities and behave in accordance with them. These preferences express comparisons between their wants that have several features. The important point here is diversity, because, psychologically, actors vary in their preferences, and men do not appraise things similarly complicates the allocation problem in society (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962: 104). Therefore, choice is derived from diversity. New Urbanism recognizes the vitality of a community and a city in terms of their diversity whether based upon their housing types, land use, or people (people from different gender, age, etc.)

Thus, in planning, expressing decisions based on the choices can enhance democratic planning (Davidoff and Reiner, 1962). New Urbanism puts a special emphasis on participation; it claims revitalization occurs by the help and presence of people in society. From the beginning, New Urbanism has received political and legal supports due to its democratic concepts embedded in it.

There are some issues in enhancement of citizens' authority to choose and improving the quality of environment such as being inclusive, one of the urban environmental quality, which refers to the citizen's ability in choosing the activities in the city. Violich (1983), in his article 'Urban Reading and the Design of Small Urban Places', states, one of the good qualities which should be taken into account in urban design is freedom of choice for citizens, and the existence of possibility for social life vs. private life.

Discussion:

There are two prevailing views on the urban development planning: a) mere planning view; and b) mere designed view. Traditionally, planning view, a quantitative one, has a macro level. On the other hand, designed view, a qualitative one, lies in a lower level. It is worth mentioning that the relation between these two views was of linear one, i.e., design should follow planning. From mid-1990's, this linear view arose a lot of debates; therefore, another view came into existence which had a parallel approach at these views: design-led planning, a qualitative-quantitative approach. It means neither planning is merely quantitative nor designing is merely qualitative. Therefore, it yields for both architectures and urban planners' views in planning; the planner also should control the designing processes.

In this approach, the city is considered as an integrated environment; and as a whole system, it relates to its subsystems directly and reciprocally. This relationship is the result of the interaction and equilibrium between urban design and planning. According to this interaction and equilibrium and also changes in the process of planning and plans of urban development, the environment will improve, and urban development occurs based on its spatial organization; an improvement which deserves the human being.

Design-led planning was developed by the entrance of designing in the process of planning. It is the product of reaching solutions regarding crises caused by the quality of environment; it has the ability to provide solution at all levels. But at the lower levels, like local scales, the results are more tangible and strength.

At this time, with the advent of design-led planning in England, New Urbanism movement began in response to the sprawl in North America. This approach criticized the ideas, developed in both designing and planning, in America in the early 20th century. In its development, therefore, New Urbanism pays attention to both designing and planning and seeks a way to form an interaction between them (See Fig 7). It is believed that, New Urbanism aims to improve the quality of life and demands a return to the traditional urban planning (considering planning), and to the art of place-making (considering designing).

The important point is that design-led planning, which focus on the creation of a high quality environment, is a way to achieve sustainable environments (according to the principles of sustainable development). On the other hand as it was mentioned, New Urbanism also seeks to create sustainable environment. Accordingly, there is a close relationship between these theories.

The ultimate goal of New Urbanism is to improve comfort and welfare. After 20th century, the dominant theories have been looking for this goal. This notion will highlight more by creating such concepts as choice theory of planning, citizens' participation, planning and local government, etc. over time. All of these theories induce the notion of humanistic urbanism, an urbanism which belongs to people and should satisfy their needs. Therefore, the concepts of urban sociology and human communities entered into the New Urbanism's notions stronger than before. As today we believe most of the solutions to the city-related problems rooted in the social issues, and thus the sociological solutions should be employed. Society consists of individuals with different social, religious, ethnic, etc. groups. A city planner should provide these kinds of interests. We should, therefore, accept that the individuals should have the authority to choose between their preferences, and that is the point New Urbanism seeks for in mixing and variety.

Conclusion:

At the end, we present the below conceptual model regarding New Urbanism's principles of improving the quality of environment which is resulted from employing design-led planning and improving the quality of life which is derived from an increase in the power of citizens' choice.

It is clear; then, the nine principles of New Urbanism which lead to improving the quality of life and environment have a close relationship with design-led planning and the choice theory of planning; so that they result in sustainable urban development.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 4 September 2014

Received in revised form 24 November 2014

Accepted 8 November 2014

Available online 10 January 2015

REFERENCES

Abbaszadegan, M., H. Razavi, 2007. New Approach to Urban Development Plans "Design Led Planning". Honar-ha-Ye-Ziba., 28: 15-22. (in Persian)

Arendt, R., et al., 2000. Charter of the New Urbanism. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.

Bonner, A., 2012. The Rise of the Guideline, in Planning and Urban Design. PLA 1106 work shop in planning practice.

Carmona, M., J. Punter, 1997. The Design Dimension of Planning: Theory, Content and Best Practice for Design Policies. Routledge Publication.

Charter of New Urbanism, 1996. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from //www.newurbanism.org//

Dakin, J., 1963. An Evaluation of the Choice Theory of Planning. Journal of the institute of planners., 24 (1): 19-27.

Davidoff, P., T. Reiner, 1962. A Choice Theory of Planning. Journal of the institute of planners., 25: 103115.

DETR, 2000. By Design, Urban Design in Planning System: Towards Better Practice. Commission for Architecture & Built Environment. London.

Elyaszadeh Moghadam, N., 2011. Surveying and Feasibility of Replacement of Structural-Strategic Model with Urban Comprehensive Planning Model in Iran. Armanshahr. 4(6): 48-35. (in Persian)

Gehl, J., 1987. Life between Buildings. Van Nostrand Reinhold press.

Golkar, K., 2003. Urban Design: from Birth to Maturity. Soffeh., 13(26): 9-23. (in Persian)

Habe, R., 1989. Public Design Control in American Communities. Town Planning Review, (60): 195-219.

Khastou M., N. Saeidi Rezani, 2010. The Effective Factors on Urban Spaces Vitality (Creating a Lively Urban Space with Emphasizng the Concept "Pedestrian Mall". Hoviateshahr., 6(4): 63-74. (in Persian)

Pakzad, J., 2007. Articles on Urban Design. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti Publication. (in Persian)

Paroleck, D., K. Paroleck and P. Crawford, 2008. Form Based Codes: A Guide for Planners, Urban Designers, Municipalities, and Developers. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

Punter, J., 1999. Design Guidelines in American Cities: A Review of Design Policies and Guidance in Five West Coast Cities. Liverpool: Liverpool university press.

Rafieian, M., H. Razavi, 2010. Improving the Quakity of Urban Design Using Design-Led Planning Approach. Modares., 14(2): 269-287. (in Persian)

Seyyedalhoseini, S.M., et al, 2012. Interactional Approach in Scales and Levels of Urban Design in Urban Process. Bagh-I-Nazar., 9(22): 42-54. (in Persian)

South worth, M., 1990. Theory and Practice of Contemporary Urban Design: A Look at American Urban Design Plans. Berkeley: Institute of urban and regional development. University of California, Berkeley.

Steuteville, R., 2004. The New Urbanism and Alternative to Modern Automobile-Oriented Planning Development. Retrieved September 5, 2013, from http://faculty.ncf.edu

Urban Task Force, 1999. Towards an urban renaissance. Department of Environment, Transportation and the Regions. London.

Violich, F., 1983. Urban Reading and the Design of Small Urban Places: The Village of Sutivan, Town Planning Review., 54: 41-62.

(1) Emad Ketabchi, (2) Khalil Hajipoor, (3) Mohammad Hoseinpour, (4) Abdorreza Pakshir, (5) Maryam Rasaeipoor

(1,2,3,4) Assistant Professor, Urban Planning Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

(5) Bachelor student of Urban Planning, Department of Architecture, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Emad Ketabchi, Urban Planning Department, Shiraz University Shiraz, Iran.

E-mail: ketabchi@gmail.com, +989177014385.

Table 1: Evolution of urban design. (Source: authors; adapted
from Abbaszadegan and Razavi, 2007)

Urban design's desirable         Time
issues

Urban design issues identified   1960's
gradually in the body of
planning projects.

Urban design's goals were        1970's
included within the public
policy of planning.

Urban design's considerations    1980's
were adopted as a supervisory
system of planning.

Table 2: Formation process and achieving design-led planning from
1980's until now. (Source authors)

The rapid              Time     Proposer
developments

1. Introducing mixed   1980's   Rooted in the notions of
used in order to                sustainable development
develop urban spaces
(paying attention to
the urban design)

2. Paying attention    1992     Urban designers
to the aesthetic
issues in
preparation of plans

3. Urban design as a   1996     Department of the
knowledge beyond                Environment, Transport
addressing a                    and the Regions (DETR)
building

4. The necessity of    1997     Mathew Carmona
a middle approach
for planning and
design

5. The necessity of    1999     Urban Task Force
design
considerations in
urban planning

The rapid              Implications
developments

1. Introducing mixed   Mixing of diverse land use
used in order to       instead of their conventional
develop urban spaces   (modern) zoning
(paying attention to
the urban design)

2. Paying attention    Aesthetic issues were noted in
to the aesthetic       the development plans and
issues in              planning process
preparation of plans

3. Urban design as a   The connection of urban design
knowledge beyond       into larger dimensions of
addressing a           planning
building

4. The necessity of    Considering the gap between
a middle approach      planning and designing and
for planning and       trying to remove it.
design

5. The necessity of    The programs containing design
design                 considerations are more
considerations in      successful in improving the
urban planning         quality of cities.

Table 3: The process of urban design development. (Source:
authors; adopted from Golkar, 2003)

steps   Consecutive       The kinds of     period
        paradigm          urban design

1       Urban design as   pre-urban        Before opening
        a fetus           design           its academic
                                           discipline in
                                           America in
                                           1960.

2       Urban design as   cosmetic urban   1960-1970
        a newborn         design

3       Urban design as   functionalist    1970's
        a baby            urban design

4       Urban design as   perceptual       Beginning in
        a teenager        urban design     1970's and
                                           reaching its
                                           peak in 1980's.

5       Urban design as   urban            The late 1980's
        an adolescent     sustainable      and 1990's
        (adult)           design

6 *     Urban design in   interactional    from late
        its fully         urban design     1990's until
        maturity period                    now

steps   Noteworthy components       Related theories and
                                    practices

1       Dependent and               Haussmann's renovation of
        nondistinctive features     Paris; Camillo Sitte's
        from architecture; paying   teachings; City Beautiful
        attention to the            movement.
        aesthetic and qualitative
        components.

2       Big architecture from the   Paul Zucker, Clarence S.
        perspective of              Stein, Aldo Rossi and
        architects, a part of       Gordon Cullen's
        planning from planners'     definitions.
        perspective; formal and
        physical thinking;
        extreme attention to the
        visual concepts and
        beautiful landscape;
        urban landscape from
        Carmona and Punter's
        point of views.

3       Three dimensional urban     Jonathan Barnett's
        design; functional          definitions; royal
        components besides          institute of British
        cosmetic ones; entering     architects (RIBA);
        of paradigm of space into   Burnham's definition
        urban design.

4       Paradigm of place; adding   Thomas Kuhn's theory;
        perceptual aesthetic;       lynch, Rapoport and
        urban vitality movement;    Michael Southworth's
        urban experience and        definitions;
        application for every
        one; public perception.

5       Adding pro-environmental    Ecological urban design,
        component to the            Peter Calthorpe's
        aesthetic ones.             definition.

6 *     An interactive approach     The Design Dimension of
        of urban design and         Planning' by Carmona and
        planning; development of    Punter (1997); 'Urban
        new tools such as urban     Design Guidance' by
        design agenda,              Robert Cowan (2002) ,etc.
        development agenda, etc.

* This step is added by the authors of this article.

Table 4: The concepts of interactive approach to planning and
urban design regarding New Urbanism's implications. (Source:
authors)

concepts of design-led      concepts of New Urbanism
planning                    relates to design-led
                            planning innovations

1. Considering all levels   Principles 1 to 9 of
and scales of planning.     Charter of the New
                            Urbanism are about the
                            region, metropolis, city
                            and town; and its 10-27
                            principles are about the
                            neighborhood, the
                            district, and the
                            corridor. Therefore, it
                            takes into account all
                            levels.

2. Taking into              The nine principles of
consideration the           New Urbanism leads to a
criteria of                 better quality of life
quality-oriented urban      with an emphasis on the
design.                     improving the quality of
                            environment.

3. Legal, technical and     Urban sprawl, forming New
political support.          Urbanism, was criticized
                            by politicians including
                            governors and the first
                            vice president of the
                            United States. These
                            issues provided the
                            support for New Urbanism
                            in various aspects.

Table 5: The adaptability of design-led planning and New
Urbanism's criteria. (Source: authors)

Characteristics and principles   New Urbanism's concepts relate to
of design-led planning's         design-led planning (mainly on the
criteria                         development of new urban)

1. An integrated view on urban   New urban development should be
environment and focus on         organized with the existing
planning.                        patterns in an integrated manner
                                 (Morris); The integration of an
                                 architecture design with the
                                 environment is beyond any style
                                 (Stefanos Polyzoides).

2. Based on the functional       New development should balance
goals and principles rather      between different functions
rigid terms and conditions and   particularly housing and employment
complexity of an inflexible      (Morris); using the visual criteria
zoning.                          of urban design (Lennertz); FBC are
                                 based on physical form rather than
                                 conventional zoning.

3. Flexibility of principles     New developments should be employed
and having a connection with     based on the historical form and
areas under study.               with respect to the borders of that
                                 area (Bothwell); architecture,
                                 landscape and urban design should
                                 be impressed by climate, local
                                 history, ecology, building practice
                                 and the land form (Douglas
                                 Kelbaugh); FBC are flexible tools
                                 to achieve New Urbanism's goals.

4. Public areas are extremely    The main task of architecture and
important.                       urban design is to define streets
                                 as public places (Solomon).

5. Examining public spaces and   Contemporary developments should
their relationships in order     consider two basic issues:
to create cohesion of            pedestrians and the form of public
neighborhoods and communities.   spaces (Douglas Farr).

6. Having a qualitative look     Highways should not cause a capital
at urban form, and concordance   outflow; instead they should
of design and planning.          improve the quality of cities
                                 (Norquist).

7. The importance of density     Civil, commercial and industrial
and mixed-used neighborhoods     densities should be concentrated in
and architecture                 neighborhoods rather than in far
                                 places separately (Moule);
                                 neighborhoods should be of compact
                                 and mixed-used ones
                                 (Plater-Zyberk).

8. Establishing of public        The need to establish public
spaces in creating successful    gardens, parks, etc. in
neighborhood units.              neighborhoods (Comitta).

9. Considering the quality of    Ten principles of New Urbanism help
neighborhood unit and            to improve the quality of a good
qualitative characteristics of   place in neighborhood units and
place.                           communities.

10. The desirable form and       New Urbanists claim they are
quality.                         reviving communities. New Urbanism
                                 returns to the traditional
                                 neighborhood design. FBCs are
                                 executive tools in New Urbanism.

11. Capability of design's       In the charter of New Urbanism
goals and criteria in order to   (1996), Calthrope and Dover
enter into larger scales.        introduce opportunities in which
                                 instead of putting the city and its
                                 suburbs against each other,
                                 recommend their cooperation with
                                 the metropolitan areas.

12. The plan's capability in     In its charter, New Urbanism
different scales including a     present solutions for the
piece of land, an urban block,   metropolitan areas, city,
a city center or a               community, neighborhood unit, and
neighborhood unit.               even single building. In the
                                 charter, it is mentioned that "we
                                 dedicate ourselves to reclaiming
                                 our homes, blocks, streets, parks,
                                 neighborhoods, districts, towns,
                                 cities, regions, and environment."

13. Practice-oriented            It was first introduced by
identity.                        Consultant Engineers Company, and
                                 was conducted in the Seaside
                                 holiday village in 1981; the first
                                 congress was launched in 1993.
                                 Therefore it went from
                                 administrating to the determining
                                 theory.

14. City is not merely a place   Design should encourage people to
of settlement but a place to     walk, and enable the neighbors to
communicate.                     take care of their neighborhoods.
                                 The city is a means to provide
                                 social contacts.

Table 6: Three important goals for a planner or designer.
(Source: authors; adopted from Davidoff and Reiner, 1962)

The goals of         notions                explanation
planning

1. efficiency and    This category is       The importance of
rational action      assessed in terms of   decision-makers'
                     desired goals. The     points of view
                     efficient
                     utilization of
                     resources would be
                     that which satisfied
                     the particular
                     preferences of
                     individuals. Here,
                     the logic is
                     important.

2. market aid, and   It is formed on the    The importance of
replacement          basis of               market and economic
                     competition,           and political
                     provided that the      issues.
                     services must be
                     sufficient in
                     respond to the
                     participants'
                     preferences.
                     Planning is merely
                     considered as a
                     controlling system
                     and a guide.

3. Change and        It is based on this    This is the base for
widening of choice   principle that no      choice theory. The
                     one has the wisdom     power of choosing is
                     or ability to make     devoted to the
                     decisions for the      addressees.
                     society and another
                     individual.
                     Choice-making,
                     therefore, is left
                     to the individual or
                     to a majority of
                     individual votes.
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Article Details
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Author:Ketabchi, Emad; Hajipoor, Khalil; Hoseinpour, Mohammad; Pakshir, Abdorreza; Rasaeipoor, Maryam
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Apr 1, 2015
Words:5368
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