Acute Toxicity of Endosulfan to the Fish Species Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala and Labeo rohita.
Acute toxicity (96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations) of endosulfan to the fish viz. Catla catla, Cirrhina mirgala and Labeo rohita of 90-, 120- and 150- day age groups were determined in static water bioassay with three replications for each test dose. Water temperature (29-30@C), pH (7.5) and total hardness (300 mg L-1) were kept constant during acute toxicity trials. Both 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations of endosulfan for all the three fish species varied significantly among all age groups. C. catla was more sensitive to endosulfan with the mean LC50 concentration of 0.98 ug L-1, followed by that of C. mrigala and L. rohita with the mean concentrations of 1.06 and 2.15 ug L-1, respectively. Mean lethal endosulfan concentrations of fish ranged between 1.60 ug L-1 (for C. catla) and 3.26 ug L-1 (for L. rohita) with significant differences. Fish age groups exhibited significant differences for their both LC50 and lethal concentrations.
However, 90-days old fish were significantly more sensitive to endosulfan, while 150-days age fish were least sensitive. Thus, the sensitivity of fish to endosulfan was negatively correlated with age. (c) 2013 Friends Science Publishers
Keywords: Fish; Endosulfan; 96-h LC50; Lethal concentrations; Age groups
The contamination of natural freshwaters with pesticide residues has become more serious issue all over the world because of their toxic effects on the aquatic animals (Indirabai et al., 2010; Muhammad et al., 2012; Naz and Javed, 2012). These pollutants are transported from industry, agriculture run off, municipal and man made activities into the aquatic environments. The chemical persistence of these compounds is causing alarmingly high levels of xenobiotic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystems (Brack et al., 2002; Diez et al., 2002; Naeem et al., 2011). Few chemicals are biologically degradable and become harmless, while others are biologically non-degradable and sustain in the aquatic environments for a long period of time. Therefore, there is a growing concern worldwide regarding indiscriminate use of such chemicals that can cause toxicity to the aquatic organisms (Weber et al., 2010).
Organochlorines (OCs) are the most widely used class of insecticides in the world and considered to be the most hazardous with respect to environmental pollution. They are persistent and non-biodegradable and their residues buildup in the aquatic food chain and remain there for a long period of time and thus show neurotoxicity to the animals (Adetola et al., 2011). Endosulfan, a compound of cyclodiene subgroup of organochlorine pesticides, is used extensively in Pakistan to control insect pests in fruit crops, vegetables, oilseed and cereal crops (Tariq et al., 2007). An extensive usage of endosulfan increases its frequency in the aquatic environments even at considerable distances from the point of its original application (Miles and Pfeuffer, 1997). This has also been detected in the soil, sediments, surface and river waters, food stuffs and atmosphere (Tariq et al., 2007).
The toxicity of endosulfan has created a situation to cause serious damage to the fish fauna in the natural water bodies (Panday et al., 2006). Ecological damage caused by anthropogenic factors to the environment, besides presence of other metallic ions, may affect the fish health (Javed and Saeed, 2010). Acute toxicity tests (LC50 and lethal) describe the sensitivity of fish towards various chemicals (Abduallah and Javed, 2006). In these tests, mortality data are used to determine the time-specific responses of various fish species to toxicants that could be used for sustainable conservation of indigenous fish species in Pakistan.
Acute toxicity tests are designed to measure the effects of toxic agents on aquatic species during a short period of their life span (Ebrahimpour et al., 2010; Javed, 2012a; 2012b) and allow us to assess the effects of various pollutants on the biology of fish (Javed and Saeed, 2010) to find out their abilities to adapt under certain toxicity levels and to forecast possible effects of toxicity on them (Rauf et al., 2009; Azmat et al., 2012). Although the effect of endosulfan on several fish species has been investigated in several studies but in Pakistan is virtually no scientific documentation on endosulfan's effect on the major carps.
Hence, the present investigation, acute toxicity of endosulfan, in terms of 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations was determined for major carps viz. C. catla, C. mrigala and L. rohita in order to develop strategies for sustainable conservation of these cyprinids in their natural aquatic habitats.
Materials and Methods
Acute tests (96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations) were conducted with three age groups (90-, 120- and 150-day) of C. catla, C. mrigala and L. rohita to determine their sensitivity against endosulfan. Fingerlings of major carps were obtained from Fish Seed Hatchery, Faisalabad with the following mean average weight, average total and fork lengths (Table 1).
All the fish were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one week before the start of acute toxicity tests and fed 30% digestible protein with 3 kcal/g digestible energy. However, they were not fed during acute toxicity tests. The technical grade (98.50% purity) endosulfan was dissolved in methanol to prepare stock-1 (1 g/100 mL) solution, while solutions of required concentrations were prepared by further dilutions in deionized water. The exposure concentration of endosulfan in water, for each fish species and age group, was started from zero with an increment of 0.1 ug L-1 with three replications for each test dose in 35-L glass aquaria. Three fish species viz. C. catla, C. mrigala and L. rohita of 90-, 120- and 150-day age groups were tested, separately, for different concentrations of endosulfan. These toxicity tests were conducted in the static water bioassay at constant pH (7.5), total hardness (300 mg L-1) and water temperature (29-30oC).
In each aquarium-replicate, ten fish of each species were tested against each test dose. However, the concentration of endosulfan in aquaria was increased gradually up to the test concentration in 5 h. Test media were supplied with constant airflow through air pump. During 96-h exposure, the dead fish were removed from the medium and recorded.
Probit Analysis method was used for the estimation of water-borne 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations with 95% confidence interval values (Siang et al., 2007). Data were statistically analyzed using Factorial design (RCBD). Means were compared for statistical differences through Steel et al. (1996). Correlations between parameters were also computed by using MSTATC software.
Both 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations of endosulfan for three fish species varied significantly with 95% confidence interval according to age (Table 2). Among the three age groups, 150-days all the three fish species showed significantly least sensitivity to endosulfan (1.71 ug L-1) while 90-days old fish were significantly (pless than 0.05) more sensitive (1.02 ug L-1). Among the three fish species C. catla was more sensitive (pless than 0.05) in terms of 96-h LC50 (0.98 ug L-1) to endosulfan, followed by that of C. mrigala and L. rohita with the mean concentrations of 1.06 and 2.15 ug L-1, respectively. During present study, the mean lethal concentrations of endosulfan for three fish species varied between a minimum of 1.60 ug L-1 (for C. catla) and a maximum mean value of 3.26 ug L-1 observed for L. rohita (Table 2). The responses of all the three fish age groups, for their sensitivity towards endosulfan varied significantly in terms of 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations of endosulfan.
The tolerance limits of three fish species in terms of lethal concentrations (96-h) of endosulfan varied significantly (pless than 0.05) also. L. rohita showed significantly least sensitivity to endosulfan (3.26 ug L-1) than those of C. mrigala (1.67 ug L-1) and C. catla (1.60 ug L-1). The toxicity of endosulfan to three age groups of fish showed significantly negative correlation with their mean acute toxicity measured in terms of LC50 and lethal concentrations (Table 3). The present study indicated species specific toxicity of endosulfan for three fish species that varied significantly (pless than 0.05) with fish age.
Endosulfan is highly toxic to various freshwater fish species. The 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations for endosulfan revealed significant differences among three fish species that varied with age also. Among the three age groups, 150-days all the three fish species showed significantly least sensitivity to endosulfan (1.71 ug L-1) while 90-days old fish were significantly (pless than 0.05) more sensitive (1.02 ug L-1). Capkin et al. (2006) reported that toxicity of endosulfan to rainbow trout fish size and age dependent i.e., toxicity of endosulfan decreased with age while fish size showed inverse correlation with endosulfan concentrations. Javed and Abdullah (2006) reported acute toxicity of metals to C. catla, C. mrigala and L. rohita that varied significantly with fish age as well.
Among three fish species C. catla was more sensitive (pless than 0.05) in terms of LC50 (0.98 ug L-1) to endosulfan, followed by that of C. mrigala and L. rohita with the mean concentrations of 1.06 and 2.15 ug L-1, respectively. Adetola et al. (2011) reported 96-h LC50 of 2.09 ug L-1 for African catfish. Kenneth and Willem (2010) reported 96-h LC50 value of 10.20 ug L-1 for O. niloticus, which is higher than that observed during present study. However, Siang et al. (2007) reported 96-h LC50 (with 95% confidence limits) of 0.42 ug L-1 (0.35-0.50) for M. albus predicting species specificity to tolerate endosulfan in aquatic media.
During present study, the mean lethal concentrations of endosulfan for three fish species varied between 1.60 (mu)pg L-1 (for C. catla) and 3.26 ug L-1 observed for L. rohita. The responses of all the three fish age groups, for their sensitivity towards endosulfan varied significantly in terms of 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations of endosulfan. The tolerance limits of three fish species in terms of lethal concentrations (96-h) of endosulfan varied significantly
Table 1: Mean average weight, total length and fork length of fish used during acute toxicity tests.
Age groups###Fish species###Average Weight (g)###Average Total length (mm)###Average Fork length (mm)
Table 2: LC50 and lethal concentrations of endosulfan (mu) g L-1) for C. catla, C. mrigala and L. rohita
96-h acute toxicity###Age groups###C. catla###C. mrigala###L. rohita
###90-thy###0.67+-0.Olb (0.56-0.75)###0.63+-0.04b (0.54-0.72)###1.75+-0.02a (1.55-1.92)
LC50###120-day###1.02+-0.Olc (0.94-1.11)###1.20+-0.05b (0.92-1.10)###2.16+-0.03a (1.97-2.32)
###150-day###1.25+-O.02c (1.12-1.47)###1.35+-0.02b (1.23-1.45)###2.53+-0.02a (2.30-2.72)
###90-thy###1 .23+-0.03b (1.10-1.46)###1.14+-0.02c (1.02-1.37)###2.84+-0.02a (2.55-3.36)
Lethal concentrations###120-day###1 .54+-0.Olc (1.42-1.74)###1.78+-0.01b (1.42-1.74)###3.11+-0.01a (2.87-3.56)
###150-day###2.04+-O.02c (1.86-2.34)###2.10+-0.01b (1.93-2.38)###3.83+-0.10a (3.52-4.40)
###96-h LC50###Lethal concentrations
(The values within brackets are the range values at 95% confidence interval)
The means with similar letters in a single row for a variable are statistically non-significant at p less than 0.05
Table 3: Relationships between 96-h LC50 and lethal concentrations for the fish
Age groups###Regression equation (y= a+bx)###r###R2
90-day###Lethal concentrations = 0.21+1.503 (LC50)###SE= 0.025###0.999###0.998
120-day###Lethal concentrations = 0.14+1.371 (LC50)###SE= 0.03###0.998###0.996
150-day###Lethal concentrations = 0.22+1.426 (LC50)###SE= 0.05###0.996###0.992
= Highly Significant at p less than 0.001; SE= Standard error; r=correlation coefficient; R2=coefficient of determination
(p less than 0.05) also. L. rohita showed significantly least sensitivity to endosulfan (3.26 (mu)g L-1) than those of C. mrigala (1.67 ug L-1) and C. catla (1.60 ug L-1) which is less than 9.0 ug L-1 determined for L. rohita against melathion by Patil and David (2008). Kamrin (1997) reported 96-h LC50 of endosulfan to fathead minnow 1.40 ug L-1 while these were 1.50, 1.20 and 1.50 ug L-1 for rainbow trout, bluegill sunshine and channel cat fish, respectively. The 96-h LC50 of endosulfan for Anguilla anguilla was reported as 41.00 ug L-1, while these were 1.75, 7.75, 2.40 and 0.10 ugL-1 for C. punctatus, O. mykiss, B. bidyanus and the C. carpio, respectively (Sunderam et al., 1992; Gimeno et al., 1994; Capkin et al., 2005: Panday et al., 2006). The toxicity of endosulfan to three age groups of fish showed significantly negative correlation with their mean acute toxicity measured in terms of LC50 and lethal concentrations.
Kolankaya (2006) reported the toxicity of organochlorines that showed negative relationship with fish age during acute exposures. The endosulfan was very toxic to the three culture-able fish species. Thus, the use of endosulan should be minimized/ stopped in order to conserve freshwater fish species.
In conclusion, L. rohita showed less sensitivity to endosulfan, followed by C. mrigala and C. catla. The sensitivity of endosulfan to major carps decreased significantly with increase in fish age. Among the three age groups, 90-days old fish showed higher sensitivity to endosulfan, while 150-days fish was least sensitive. Despite such a variable response of the fish species, the use of endosulfan should be minimized/ stopped in order to conserve freshwater fish species.
The author is thankful to the HEC for providing financial support under "Indigenous PhD Fellowship Scheme (Pin # 074-2879-BM4-142)" to complete this work as a part of PhD research.
Abdullah, S. and M. Javed, 2006. Studies on 96-h LC50 and lethal toxicity of metals to the fish Cirrhina mrigala. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 43: 180-185
Adetola, J.O., P.E. Ndimele and S. Onuoha, 2011. Aute toxic effects of endosulfan (organochlorine pesticides) to fingerlings of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822). Amer.-Eur. J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 10: 884-892
Azmat, H., M. Javed and G. Jabeen, 2012. Acute toxicity of aluminium to the fish (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala). Pak. Vet. J., 32: 85-87
Brack, W., K. Schirmer, T. Kind, S. Schrader and G. Schuurmann, 2002. Effect- directed fractionation and identification of cytochrome P450A-inducing halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21: 2654-2662
Capkin, E., I. Altinok and S. Karahan, 2005. Water quality and fish size affect toxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, to rainbow trout, Chemosphere, 4: 183-195
Capkin, E., I. Altinok and S. Karahan, 2006. Water quality and fish size affect toxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, to rainbow trout, Chemosphere, 64: 1793-1800
Diez, S., M. Abalos and J.M. Bayona, 2002. Organotin contamination in sediments from the Western Mediterranean enclosures following ten years of TBT regulation. Water Res., 36: 905-918
Ebrahimpour, M., M. Alipur and S. Rakhshah, 2010. Influence of water hardness on acute toxicity of copper and zinc on fish. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 6: 361-365
Gimeno, L., M.D. Ferrando, S. Sanchez and E. Andreu, 1994. Endosulfan effects on liver and blood of the eel, Anguilla anguilla. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 108: 343-348
Indirabai, W.P.S., G.G. Tharani and P. Seetha, 2010. Impact of sublethal concentration of endosulfan on biochemicals and histology of organ tissues of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822). Int. quat. J. Life Sci., 5: 215-218
Javed, M. and S. Abdullah, 2006. Studies on acute and lethal toxicities of iron and nickel to the fish. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 330-335
Javed, M. and M.A. Saeed, 2010. Growth and bioaccumulation of Iron in the body organs of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala during chronic exposures. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 12: 881-886
Javed, M., 2012a. Effects of zinc and lead toxicity on the growth and their bioaccumulation in fish. Pak. Vet. J., 32: 357-362
Javed, M., 2012b. Tissue-specific bio-accumulation of metals in fish during chronic waterborne and dietary exposures. Pak. Vet. J., 32: 567-570
Kamrin, M.A, 1997. Pesticide Profiles; In: Toxicity, Environmental Impact and Fate, pp: 205-208. C.R.C. Lewis (ed.). Publishers, Boca Raton, New York, USA
Kenneth, W. and S. Willem, 2010. Acute toxicity and lethal body burden of endosulfan in Tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L)]. Open Environ. Pollut. Toxicol. J., 2: 21-26
Kolankaya, D., 2006. Organochlorine pesticide residues and their toxic effects on the environment and organisms in Turkey. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 86: 147-160
Miles, C.J. and R.J. Pfeuffer, 1997. Pesticides in canals of South Florida. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 32: 337-345
Muhammad, F., I. Javed, M. Akhtar, Z.U. Rahman, M.M. Awais, M.K. Saleemi and M.I. Anwar, 2012. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk. Pak. Vet. J., 32: 589-592
Naz, S., and M. Javed, 2012. Acute toxicity of metals mixtures for fish, Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 49: 387-391
Naeem M., A. Salam, S.S. Tahir and N. Rauf, 2011. The effect of fish size and condition on the contents of twelve essential and non essential elements in Aristichthys nobilis from Pakistan. Pak. Vet. J., 31: 109-112
Panday, S., N.S. Nagapur, R. Kumara, S. Sharma, S.K. Srivastava and M.S. Verma, 2006. Genotoxicity evaluation of acute doses of endosulfan to freshwater teleost Channa punctatus (Baloch) by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 65: 56-61
Patil, V.K. and M. David, 2008. Behaviour and respiratory dysfunction as an index of malathion toxicity in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 8: 233-237
Rauf, A., M. Javed, M. Ubaidullah and S. Abdullah, 2009. Assessment of heavy metals in sediments of the river Ravi, Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 11: 197-200
Siang, H.Y., L.M. Yee and C. Tse Seng, 2007. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan and its effect on behaviour and some hematological parameters of Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew). Pest. Biochem. Physiol., 89: 46-53
Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dinkkey, 1996. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biomaterical Approach, 2nd edition. McGraw Hill Book Co., Singapore
Sunderam, R.I.M., D.M.H. Cheng and G.B. Thompson, 1992. Toxicity of endosulfan to native and introduced fish in Australia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 11: 1469-1476
Tariq, M.I., S. Afzal, I. Hussain and N. Sultana, 2007. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: A review. Environ. Int., 33: 1107-1122
Weber, J., C.J. Halsall, D. Muir, C. Teixeira, J. Small, K. Solomon, M. Hermanson, H. Hung and T. Bidleman, 2010. Endosulfan, a global pesticide: A review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic. Sci. Total Environ., 408: 2966-2984
1Fisheries Research Farms, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
For correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
To cite this paper: Ilyas, R. and M. Javed, 2013. Acute Toxicity of endosulfan to the fish species Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala and Labeo rohita. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 15: 149-152
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Ilyas, Rahila; Javed, Muhammad|
|Publication:||International Journal of Agriculture and Biology|
|Date:||Feb 28, 2013|
|Previous Article:||Effects of Lead on Chlorophyll Content, Total Nitrogen, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Duckweed (Lemna minor).|
|Next Article:||Relationships between Somatic Cell Count and Udder Type Scores in Holstein Cows.|