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Activity in professional associations: the positive difference in a librarian's career.

INTRODUCTION

When a graduate student completes the formal coursework and requirements

for the master's degree in library and information studies, he

or she is simply not aware of the value of professional associations. The

student has listened to comments about professional associations, but the

comments are more theoretical than meaningful. Context and perspective

are missing.

When the librarian assumes the responsibilities of his or her first

professional position, the realities of professional associations are still

somewhat mysterious. What is a professional association? Is it necessary

to become involved? If so, in what associations and at what levels since

there are local, state, regional, national, and international associations?

These are some of the questions entry-level librarians ask. The author of

this article started in an academic library in which participation was optional.

Soon, he realized that the degree and necessity of participation

varied from one library to another. Like other entry-level librarians, he

was confused.

Participating in the activities of professional associations can contribute

positively to a librarian's professional development. Active participation

is likely to facilitate professional success in one's job and career.

This article discusses the impact of participation. As the literature

of professional associations is not extensive, several focus groups were

also conducted by this author to provide additional information and perspective.

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AS RELEVANT SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Information professionals need relevant information to be effective

in their positions. In her article on the role of professional associations,

Virgo (1991) states that associations are a "body of people who collectively

have a tremendous wealth of experiences to draw upon in a common

field" (p. 189). This collection of experiences underscores the value

of professional associations for the librarian.

The librarian's expertise and experiences are initially influenced by

the professional associations that participate in the accreditation of

graduate schools. The curricula and core competencies of the various schools

of library and information studies are influenced and monitored by professional

associations, most obviously the American Library Association

(ALA). Academic courses studied by graduate students are shaped by a

professional association. Before librarians assume their first professional

position, they have been influenced significantly by associations such as

ALA (Curry, 1992).

Practical up-to-date information is readily available and openly shared

at conferences conducted or sponsored by professional associations.

Formal programs, for example, provide numerous opportunities to obtain

information. Participants or speakers with special expertise are recruited

to discuss issues and provide various perspectives. A speaker or

panel of experts will not only provide information but also stimulate the

creation of ideas. Good speakers challenge the audience, providing opportunities

for positive discussions in which information is shared and

ideas are generated.

In addition to formal programs at conferences, discussion groups

and other less formal options, such as interest groups, are ideal forums

for information sharing. At the American Library Association conferences,

for example, the discussion group has become an essential vehicle

for the stimulation of ideas on current topics. Examples of discussion

groups include the Middle Management Discussion Group and the Interlibrary

Loan Discussion Group. Interest group examples include the Geographic

Information Systems Interest Group and the Internet Resources

Interest Group. These are special opportunities to learn and to keep up

to date on issues, patterns, and trends in librarianship. Members of the

focus groups emphasized the importance of the informality in discussion

and interest groups, indicating that informal conditions facilitate learning

and idea stimulation (Frank, 1997).

Active participation on committees in professional associations is a

particularly effective option for obtaining relevant information. Librarians

occasionally de-emphasize or deride the value of committees in libraries

and in professional associations. It is popular to do so, especially

in the relatively large associations such as ALA or the Special Libraries

Association (SLA). Most professionals realize, nonetheless, that committees

are important, and that effectively run committees are fundamental

to the success of the associations. Committees and task forces have specific

charges or responsibilities. Those who participate become familiar

with the committee's responsibilities as well as the rationale for the

existence of the committee. They also become involved in the collection and

synthesis of data or information, in various planning processes, and in

the implementation of recommendations. These are valuable experiences.

Becoming familiar and experienced with collegial processes in

professional associations contributes to success "at home" in libraries.

Working effectively in groups to examine issues critically and to attain a

positive consensus in decisions is a collegial skill that is valued in

libraries. Members of the focus groups reiterated the utility of these skills

(Frank, 1997).

Vendors or exhibitors that populate the various professional conferences

constitute another source of information. Indeed, it is occasionally

difficult to navigate in the sea of exhibitors that are available and

organized at ALA or SLA conferences. Exhibitors may include representatives

from private companies, colleges and universities, organizational

units of the association, and governmental organizations. For example,

at the ALA Annual Conference, one is likely to interact with publishers as

well as other information producers from the private and public sectors,

representatives of the various divisions such as the Association of College

and Research Libraries or the Public Library Association, and representatives

from local, state, and national governments. While the information

available from these exhibitors tends to he biased toward specific

points of view or, in some instances, toward specific companies, the information

is relevant to the librarian who is able to listen actively and consider

the various points of view from a critical perspective. It is

important to look at the overall picture as the patterns and trends are as

relevant as the specifics.

A librarian's network of contacts can be cultivated and refined at the

conferences sponsored by professional associations. Informal discussions

with colleagues at conferences are particularly important. Opportunities

to collaborate or network with colleagues over coffee, for example, contribute

significantly to one's ability to be effective. The information obtained

via these informal contacts is very current and usually practical or

to the point. Problem solving is facilitated by the information obtained

from colleagues from other institutions. The focus group participants

asserted that the information obtained from these contacts is especially

applicable and helpful (Frank, 1997).

Another benefit of participating actively in professional associations

is that it exposes one to a variety of perspectives and viewpoints. As a

result of organizational values as well as the realities and consequences of

accepted routines, librarians tend to do the same things in the same ways.

The resulting routines and associated inertia must be continually challenged

in order to move ahead. Formal programs and informal discussions

at conferences provide opportunities to be challenged. Librarians

at other institutions look at issues and problems differently. If one is

actively involved, he or she learns, becomes familiar with new or different

options, and is challenged to consider other approaches, solutions,

or perspectives. Creativity and innovation are stimulated. As the librarian's

routines and values are challenged, he or she becomes more effective.

Professional associations are producers and disseminators of relevant

information. "A primary mark of a profession is the development of a

scholarly body of knowledge which continues to grow and be furthered(Virgo,

1991, p. 195). Associations disseminate information via books,

refereed journals, presentations at conferences, and by other formal and

informal means. Librarians who are members of professional associations

have opportunities to contribute to this "body of knowledge." As

information professionals participate and contribute, they learn and become

more familiar with the processes of scholarly communication.

CONTRIBUTORS TO EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

Professional associations contribute significantly to the development

of effective leadership. Librarians who are active in professional associations

have realistic opportunities to improve or enhance their leadership

skills. Leadership is a relatively complex concept. One scholar argues

that "leadership is largely an intuitive concept for which there can never

be a single, agreed-upon definition" (Conger, 1992, p. 18). In their research

on leadership, Bennis and Nanus (1985) recorded 350 different

definitions of leadership (p. 4). For this article, leaders are "individuals

who establish direction for a working group of individuals, who gain commitment

from these group members to this direction, and who then motivate

these members to achieve the direction's outcomes" (Conger, 1992,

P. 18).

Leadership, administration, management, and supervision are interdependent

concepts and practices. All are concerned with behaviors and

interaction patterns, role relationships, influence, motivation, and goals

or desired outcomes. Additionally, all are concerned with the ability or

capacity to provide focus and direction for individuals and groups.

Opportunities to develop these skills are numerous via active participation in

professional associations. Service on committees, for example, exposes the

librarian to various planning and implementation processes. As the librarian is

working with information professionals from other states or regions, he or she

is also exposed to differences in methodologies. Assuming responsibility for a

committee is a particularly valuable experience as committee chairs work with a

group of colleagues to define and refine goals, develop strategies to attain

these goals, and follow up as needed. Roles and responsibilities are

delineated. Specific tasks are delegated. The chair of the committee

articulates the rationale for the committee's activities, relating the work of

the committee to other committees or organizational units in the association.

He or she becomes more familiar with the dynamics of conducting meetings,

including the ability to attain a positive consensus on important decisions.

The members of the focus groups stated emphatically that participating as

a chair of a committee in a professional association facilitates the

development of leadership skills. Several stated that the skills learned and

developed as chairs of association committees enabled them to work more

effectively with groups to attain desired outcomes. They also became more

interested in management. Another librarian noted that she was motivated

positively by Patricia Breivik's "Every Librarian a Leader" theme during

Breivik's term as President of the Association of College and Research

Libraries (Frank, 1997).

In addition to committees in professional associations, it is possible to

become the elected chair or president of the association's sections or

divisions. The responsibilities associated with such positions are significant,

and the opportunities to learn and to enhance one's administrative skills are

plentiful.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION

Participating in professional associations provides opportunities to

become familiar with the processes of research and publication. These

important processes contribute to the librarian's professional development.

Creativity and innovation are expressed as ideas, concepts are considered and

integrated, and new information is generated.

Several options for research and publication are available via participation

in professional associations. Poster sessions are popular examples. ALA's

conferences provide opportunities to prepare and present poster sessions.

These are not formal presentations or publications but necessitate

preparation and the ability to communicate ideas or concepts to others.

Additionally, editors of journals occasionally examine the various poster

sessions at national conferences looking for ideas or presentations

that might be eventually transformed into published articles. One of the

librarians in the focus groups stated that the editor of RQ asked her to

write an article on the topic of her poster session (Frank, 1997).

Calls for papers are ideal opportunities to become involved in scholarly

processes. Sponsored by professional associations at local, state, regional,

national, and international levels, calls for papers are opportunities to do

research and to discuss the results with a forum of colleagues. As with

poster sessions, these scholarly papers and presentations are potential

candidates for articles in refereed journals. Also, presenting a paper to a

group of peers, listening to their comments and suggestions, and responding to

their questions constitute several of the key elements of critical dialogue.

These skills are essential to success in libraries. Information professionals

are instructors, mediators and facilitators, and advocates for ideas as well as

strategic positions or directions. They must communicate effectively with

groups. Scholarly presentations at professional conferences provide realistic

options to develop these skills.

On occasion, committees in professional associations produce documents

that are eventually published. The author of this article participated on

such a committee in ALA's Reference and User Services Division. The committee's

activities focused on the importance of collection development policies. As

we collected data on policies, we realized that the information was

particularly relevant to the work of librarians who have managerial

responsibilities related to the development of collections. As a result, we

sought options to disseminate the information. The chair of the committee

contacted several editors, including the editor of RQ who provided support and

practical recommendations. In six months, the members of the committee

completed an article that was published in RQ It was a valuable experience for

all committee members. We participated in a collegial process within the

context of a professional association and produced an article that was

published in an important journal. Such activities and results are not uncommon

in professional associations (American Library Association, 1993).

Professional associations are concerned with the creation, organization,

and dissemination of information. They are also concerned with the

activities related to research and publication. One dictionary defines a

profession as a "calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and

intensive preparation including instruction in skills and methods as well as in

the scientific, historical, or scholarly principles underlying such skills and

methods" (Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1968, p. 1811). The

skills and methods referred to are essential to the success of librarians.

By supporting and providing opportunities for research and publication,

professional associations of librarians or information professionals

become, in a sense, more professional. In reality, it is also advantageous

for professional associations to provide such support:

* associations gain value for both themselves as organizations and especially

for their members;

* associations and their members gain visibility by publicizing research

efforts;

* by collaborating on activities that one institution cannot do as readily

(for example, gathering profession-wide statistics), associations gain

in effectiveness;

* associations can add to their image of having more clout than any one

individual institution;

* associations can draw on the tremendous range of talents of their members;

and

* associations can increase their impact on the educational process (Virgo,

1991, pp. 192-93).

The librarian who participates actively in professional associations and

who is interested in contributing to the scholarly processes will discover that

there are opportunities to do so. The professional associations are motivated to

provide these opportunities.

FACILITATORS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Activity in professional associations promotes the skills needed for

effective communication. One communicates with individuals as well as groups.

Also, one is exposed to a variety of methods and styles of communication. In

particular, the librarian is exposed to different perspectives and questions.

As the librarian becomes more informed and looks at issues from different

perspectives, he or she is more likely to be listened to "at home."

Professional associations also provide opportunities by which librarians

can be mentored by experienced colleagues. Formal mentoring programs exist in

national associations and occasionally in regional organizations. Issues of

communication are frequently discussed by the mentor and the one being mentored.

Communicating with one's supervisor or with other colleagues is a particularly

relevant topic of discussion. Articulation of ideas and the techniques of

assertive communication are also relevant. Listening to the comments and

suggestions of an experienced colleague from another institution makes a

positive difference. Several members of the focus groups had worked with

mentors via professional associations. Two of the librarians had participated

in mentoring programs organized by ALA's New Members Round Table (Frank, 1997).

A SENSE OF PROFESSIONAL

By participating actively in professional associations, one learns what it

means to be a professional. One contributes to the overall profession by

participating and, as a result, feels "professionally empowered." This is

especially important for the individual librarian and for the profession of

librarianship. "The significance of having members equipped to cope with new

challenges has far-reaching effects on any profession and shows the direction

towards which the profession is moving" (Osman, 1987, p. 33).

The sense of professional community is nurtured via participation in

professional associations. Conferring with professionals from other

institutions not only provides additional perspective on issues but also

enhances one's status as a professional. The values and ethics of

professionalism rise to the surface and are very evident in the activities of

professional associations. Issues of professional values and ethics were viewed

as very important by all members of the focus groups (Frank, 1997).

Professional associations usually have codes of ethics. ALA's Code of

Ethics is representative and underscores the sense of professional community.

The principles of the code essentially encompass the work of professional

librarians:

* We provide the highest level of service to all library users through

appropriate and usefully organized resources; equitable service policies;

equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all

requests.

* We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts

to censor library resources.

* We protect each library's user's right to privacy and confidentiality with

respect to information sought or received and resources consulted,

borrowed, acquired, or transmitted.

* We recognize and respect intellectual property rights.

* We treat co-workers and other colleagues with respect, fairness, and good

faith, and advocate conditions of employment that safeguard the rights and

welfare of all employees of our institutions.

* We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties

and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation

of the aims of our institutions or the provision of access to their information

resources.

* We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining and enhancing

our own knowledge and skills, by encouraging the professional

development of co-workers, and by fostering the aspirations

of potential members of the profession. (American Library Association,

1995, p. 673)

The above statements go to the core of the profession. These statements are

not unlike the principles in the codes of ethics for the legal or medical

professions. The issues covered in the code are particularly relevant to the

work of librarians. Information resources are organized to be accessible to all

users; equitable services are critically important. Intellectual freedom is a

concept that must be protected. Information transactions are private and

confidential. Intellectual property needs to be recognized and protected.

Colleagues must be respected; fairness in the workplace is essential. Private

interests are not advanced at the expense of others. Important differences

exist between one's personal convictions and professional responsibilities.

Professional excellence is an ongoing and encompassing goal and must be

supported.

Becoming aware of the sense of professional community pro-tides perspective

and insight on the culture of the profession of librarianship. A culture is a

"pattern of basic assumptions--invented, discovered, or developed by a given

group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and

internal integration--that has worked well enough to be considered valid and,

therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think,

and feel in relation to those problems(Schein, 1988, pp. 8-9). Librarians deal

or work with the issues of external adaptation and internal integration on a

day-to-day basis. On another level, the pattern of basic assumptions is

transferred from one individual or group to other individuals or groups and

essentially underscores the sense of professionalism. Codes of ethics, accepted

and unaccepted patterns of behavior, organizational values, and a concern for

the development and promotion of colleagues and principles are examples of

assumptions that are culturally transferred.

Active participation in professional associations facilitates one's

awareness of, and integration into, the culture of professional librarianship.

One gains a broader vision of one's role and responsibilities as a

professional. This vision is continually enhanced and expanded as the librarian

works with colleagues from other institutions to attain common goals. Moreover,

the librarian's ability to attain goals "at home" is facilitated. Members of

the focus groups were very concerned with ethics and values as critical

elements of professionalism. Several indicated that values were being openly

discussed in their libraries and that such discussions were uncommon five years

ago. Two participants stated that assumptions related to culture, values, and

ethics were being deliberated as a result of reorganizations in their

libraries. All stated that activity in professional associations contributes

significantly to one's sense of professional community.

THE CHALLENGES

Participating actively in professional associations is not necessarily a

simplistic process. For example, financial support is often needed to

participate at the local, regional, or national levels. Salaries of librarians

are not excessive and, as a result, the institution needs to provide some

financial assistance. Levels of support vary among libraries. It is a

controversial issue at some libraries. Who will participate? What levels of

financial assistance are available for the participating librarians? These are

practical and philosophical questions. Some academic librarians must

participate in order to qualify for a continuing appointment. In some

libraries, it is difficult to participate on a regular basis as a result of

staff shortages. In these instances, association options are selected

judiciously, and opportunities are occasionally rotated so that all interested

librarians can participate to some degree.

Becoming active on committees and other organizational units of professional

associations is occasionally challenging. It takes time and effort to

become familiar with the association's organizational structure as well as its

relative priorities. The size and complexity of associations, especially

national associations such as ALA or SLA, can easily frustrate interested

librarians. Associations of the scope and magnitude of ALA are frequently

confusing and complicated for the "new" librarian as well as for the

experienced one. A librarian feels overwhelmed by the numbers of programs,

committees, discussion groups, etc. Such feelings are not conducive to active

participation. Getting on a committee or becoming involved in some formal

capacity can be facilitated by colleagues or mentors who are already

participating in the activities of the association.

Becoming chairs of committees or getting elected to offices is another

challenge. A track record or some evidence of success is usually necessary,

especially for elected offices. In ALA or SLA, for example, becoming chairs of

sections or presidents of divisions usually necessitates a positive track

record in the section, division, or association. This is especially accented in

an association of ALA's size and complexity.

Opportunities for publications and scholarly presentations are numerous, but

success is not automatic. Applications for poster sessions are refereed.

Calls for papers are also refereed. A significant number of the applications

for poster sessions are accepted for presentation in associations such as ALA

as these have become a standard vehicle for the demonstration of new or

innovative initiatives.

Being able to identify with or to simply understand the realities of a

sense of professional community is also a challenge. The sense of professional

community is more abstract than concrete. What is a professional? It is not

necessarily obvious to new librarians and to some librarians who are

experienced in the profession. One, it is hoped, becomes familiar and

comfortable with the concept of professionalism, including its responsibilities.

The focus group participants were concerned with issues of financial

assistance and other challenges related to getting started. Several librarians

stated that financial support for professional conferences was directly related

to the degree of active participation. In other words, if one was active on a

committee or another group, one received more financial assistance. They

asserted that it was more difficult for new librarians with

lower salaries to get started under these conditions. Issues of fairness

underscored their

pointed comments. All participants emphasized the importance of fair

guidelines (Frank, 1997).

Members of the focus groups were also concerned with the size and

complexity of national professional associations such as ALA or SLA. All

indicated that it is difficult to get started and to become actively involved.

The academic librarians discussed the degree of duplication in the committees

and sections of ALA's Association of College and Research Libraries as well as

the Reference and User Services Division. Such duplication can be confusing to

the new or experienced librarian. The public, school, and special librarians

were less concerned with duplication but indicated that it is very difficult to

"figure out" associations such as ALA. or SLA (Frank, 1997).

IMPACT ON THE LIBRARIAN'S CAREER

The author of this article was not able to find a specific study that

correlates activity in professional associations and success in one's career as

a librarian. It is likely that a positive correlation exists.

Librarians who participate actively in professional associations are likely

to be more informed and, in particular, up to date on current issues and trends.

Opportunities to be exposed to other ideas and perspectives are numerous as one

participates and becomes effectively networked. In February 1997, a program on

"new learning communities" was sponsored by ALA's University Libraries Section.

As the concept of learning communities in academic libraries is relatively new,

the room was filled with interested librarians who were excited as they focused

on the description of the University of Washington's UWired program (American

Library Association, 1997). It is likely that the enthusiastic attendees

returned to their respective libraries with practical recommendations. They

were more informed and the informed librarian will be more effective and more

likely to succeed in his or her career.

The librarian who is interested in moving into management will have

opportunities to learn and/or refine various managerial skills. Working with the

committees and other groups, sections, or divisions of a professional

association provides opportunities to lead, to provide focus and direction, and

to attain important goals. These are relevant skills and are generally

perceived as very desirable in libraries. Moreover, these skills are likely to

open doors for the librarian, either in positions at his or her library or in

managerial positions at other libraries.

The librarian who is able to write and to communicate effectively will be

more "marketable." Professional associations provide excellent opportunities to

improve these skills. Becoming familiar with the processes of research and

publication via options such as poster sessions, calls for papers, and articles

in refereed journals enhances one's ability to communicate effectively with

colleagues. In addition, presenting a paper to a group of colleagues from other

institutions enables one to refine his or her oratory skills. Publications and

scholarly presentations also look good on vitae. They are indications of the

librarian's ability to organize and articulate ideas and information. Such

indications are valued and facilitate one's career development.

Becoming aware of the intrinsic value of a sense of professionalism also

facilitates a librarian's career development. It is more intrinsic than

extrinsic, so it is less obvious. Issues of values and ethics, for example, are

usually less evident in one's day-to-day activities. Nonetheless, the sense of

professional community that is facilitated via experiences in professional

associations is very important and contributes to professional effectiveness.

Participating actively in professional associations also enhances the

librarian's career options. A record of activity in associations indicates that

the librarian is interested in the profession. Moreover, a record of activity

is a clear indication that the individual is willing to learn and to grow.

Being exposed to different ideas and perspectives contributes significantly to

one's expertise and ability to examine issues critically. Such librarians are

likely to be promoted. Also, they are likely to be successful in efforts to

move into positions of responsibility at other libraries.

Members of the focus groups noted the relevance of participation to one's

career. The importance of being exposed to innovations at other libraries was

emphasized. Nearly all of the participants stated that they returned from

conferences with ideas for new activities or initiatives. They were more

informed. Additionally, creativity and innovation had been stimulated. The

librarians also underscored the value of participation to career development

and advancement. Opportunities to work in groups of librarians from other

libraries were especially valued by the focus group members. Collaborating with

librarians to refine strategies and attain goals facilitated the development of

skills that were emphasized in their respective libraries. All of the members

stated that the librarians who participate actively are more "marketable," more

likely to be promoted, and more likely to succeed in their careers (Frank,

1997).

CONCLUSION

The role and responsibilities of professional associations are varied and

numerous. If the associations are going to continue to provide realistic

opportunities to learn and to participate actively, they must be responsive to

their members. In particular, they must be as flexible as possible and open to

the concept of change. Issues of flexibility and change are occasionally

problematic for the large professional associations. Organizational behaviors

and practices are likely to be self-perpetuated. To be relevant in the future,

the associations must focus on change and renewal: "The professional

association that wishes to be effective in changing its industry must be open

to a process of continuous change within itself. Such an association will have

the credibility to carry the message of change to the rest of its industry"

(Segal, 1993, p. 242).

Professional associations are critically important. Participating actively

can make a positive difference. The librarian's ability to perform

effectively can be enhanced. Moreover, the librarian's career progression can

be influenced positively. One of the librarians in the focus groups concluded

that "the challenges and opportunities in professional associations provide

valuable perspective, help me to think critically, and stimulate my creative

abilities." Another librarian concluded that -the activities in professional

associations help me to know what others are thinking and doing, to see what

might be possible, and to move ahead in positive directions" (Frank, 1997).

REFERENCES

American Library Association. (1995). ALA code of ethics. American

Libraries, 26(7), 673.

American Library Association, Association of College and Research libraries.

University Libraries Section. (1997). New teaming communities: Collaboration

via technology. Unpublished presentation at the American Library Association's

1997 Midwinter Meeting, February 15,1997.

American Library Association. Reference and User Services Division.

Collection Development and Evaluation Section. Collection Development Policies

Committee. (1993). The relevance of collection development policies:

Definition. necessity. and application. RQ. 33(1), 65-74.

Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies of taking

charge. San Francisco. CA: Harper & Row.

Conger, J. A. (1992). Learning to Lead: The art of transforming managers

into leaders. San Francisco, CA:

Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Curry, E. L. (1992). The impact of professional associations. Journal of

Library Administration, 16(1-2), 45-54.

Frank, D. G. (1997). Focus groups (3) of academic, special, public, and

school librarians. Unpublished study presented at the American library

Association's 1997 Midwinter Meeting. February 1997.

Osman, Z. (1987). The role of the professional association in preparing its

members for new trends. In A. Thuraisingham (Ed.), The new information

professionals (Proceedings of the Singapore-Malaysia Congress of Librarians and

Information Scientists. September 46, 1986) (pp. 3245). Brookfield, VT: Gower.

Schein, E. H. (1988). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic

view. San Francisco. C: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Segal, J. S. (1993). The role of professional associations in organization

change: Toward user-centeredness. Journal of Library Administration. 19(3-4).

29-9-246.

Virgo, J. A. C. (1991). The role of professional associations. In C. R.

McClure & P. Hernon (Eds.), Library and information science research:

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Webster's third new international dictionary. (1968). Springfield, MA: Merriam

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Donald G. Frank, Library & Information Center, Georgia Institute of

Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0900
COPYRIGHT 1997 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1997, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Title Annotation:The Role of Professional Associations
Author:Frank, Donald G.
Publication:Library Trends
Date:Sep 22, 1997
Words:5145
Previous Article:To join or not to join: how librarians make membership decisions about their associations.
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