Activity in professional associations: the positive difference in a librarian's career.
When a graduate student completes the formal coursework and requirements
for the master's degree in library and information studies, he
or she is simply not aware of the value of professional associations. The
student has listened to comments about professional associations, but the
comments are more theoretical than meaningful. Context and perspective
When the librarian assumes the responsibilities of his or her first
professional position, the realities of professional associations are still
somewhat mysterious. What is a professional association? Is it necessary
to become involved? If so, in what associations and at what levels since
there are local, state, regional, national, and international associations?
These are some of the questions entry-level librarians ask. The author of
this article started in an academic library in which participation was optional.
Soon, he realized that the degree and necessity of participation
varied from one library to another. Like other entry-level librarians, he
Participating in the activities of professional associations can contribute
positively to a librarian's professional development. Active participation
is likely to facilitate professional success in one's job and career.
This article discusses the impact of participation. As the literature
of professional associations is not extensive, several focus groups were
also conducted by this author to provide additional information and perspective.
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AS RELEVANT SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Information professionals need relevant information to be effective
in their positions. In her article on the role of professional associations,
Virgo (1991) states that associations are a "body of people who collectively
have a tremendous wealth of experiences to draw upon in a common
field" (p. 189). This collection of experiences underscores the value
of professional associations for the librarian.
The librarian's expertise and experiences are initially influenced by
the professional associations that participate in the accreditation of
graduate schools. The curricula and core competencies of the various schools
of library and information studies are influenced and monitored by professional
associations, most obviously the American Library Association
(ALA). Academic courses studied by graduate students are shaped by a
professional association. Before librarians assume their first professional
position, they have been influenced significantly by associations such as
ALA (Curry, 1992).
Practical up-to-date information is readily available and openly shared
at conferences conducted or sponsored by professional associations.
Formal programs, for example, provide numerous opportunities to obtain
information. Participants or speakers with special expertise are recruited
to discuss issues and provide various perspectives. A speaker or
panel of experts will not only provide information but also stimulate the
creation of ideas. Good speakers challenge the audience, providing opportunities
for positive discussions in which information is shared and
ideas are generated.
In addition to formal programs at conferences, discussion groups
and other less formal options, such as interest groups, are ideal forums
for information sharing. At the American Library Association conferences,
for example, the discussion group has become an essential vehicle
for the stimulation of ideas on current topics. Examples of discussion
groups include the Middle Management Discussion Group and the Interlibrary
Loan Discussion Group. Interest group examples include the Geographic
Information Systems Interest Group and the Internet Resources
Interest Group. These are special opportunities to learn and to keep up
to date on issues, patterns, and trends in librarianship. Members of the
focus groups emphasized the importance of the informality in discussion
and interest groups, indicating that informal conditions facilitate learning
and idea stimulation (Frank, 1997).
Active participation on committees in professional associations is a
particularly effective option for obtaining relevant information. Librarians
occasionally de-emphasize or deride the value of committees in libraries
and in professional associations. It is popular to do so, especially
in the relatively large associations such as ALA or the Special Libraries
Association (SLA). Most professionals realize, nonetheless, that committees
are important, and that effectively run committees are fundamental
to the success of the associations. Committees and task forces have specific
charges or responsibilities. Those who participate become familiar
with the committee's responsibilities as well as the rationale for the
existence of the committee. They also become involved in the collection and
synthesis of data or information, in various planning processes, and in
the implementation of recommendations. These are valuable experiences.
Becoming familiar and experienced with collegial processes in
professional associations contributes to success "at home" in libraries.
Working effectively in groups to examine issues critically and to attain a
positive consensus in decisions is a collegial skill that is valued in
libraries. Members of the focus groups reiterated the utility of these skills
Vendors or exhibitors that populate the various professional conferences
constitute another source of information. Indeed, it is occasionally
difficult to navigate in the sea of exhibitors that are available and
organized at ALA or SLA conferences. Exhibitors may include representatives
from private companies, colleges and universities, organizational
units of the association, and governmental organizations. For example,
at the ALA Annual Conference, one is likely to interact with publishers as
well as other information producers from the private and public sectors,
representatives of the various divisions such as the Association of College
and Research Libraries or the Public Library Association, and representatives
from local, state, and national governments. While the information
available from these exhibitors tends to he biased toward specific
points of view or, in some instances, toward specific companies, the information
is relevant to the librarian who is able to listen actively and consider
the various points of view from a critical perspective. It is
important to look at the overall picture as the patterns and trends are as
relevant as the specifics.
A librarian's network of contacts can be cultivated and refined at the
conferences sponsored by professional associations. Informal discussions
with colleagues at conferences are particularly important. Opportunities
to collaborate or network with colleagues over coffee, for example, contribute
significantly to one's ability to be effective. The information obtained
via these informal contacts is very current and usually practical or
to the point. Problem solving is facilitated by the information obtained
from colleagues from other institutions. The focus group participants
asserted that the information obtained from these contacts is especially
applicable and helpful (Frank, 1997).
Another benefit of participating actively in professional associations
is that it exposes one to a variety of perspectives and viewpoints. As a
result of organizational values as well as the realities and consequences of
accepted routines, librarians tend to do the same things in the same ways.
The resulting routines and associated inertia must be continually challenged
in order to move ahead. Formal programs and informal discussions
at conferences provide opportunities to be challenged. Librarians
at other institutions look at issues and problems differently. If one is
actively involved, he or she learns, becomes familiar with new or different
options, and is challenged to consider other approaches, solutions,
or perspectives. Creativity and innovation are stimulated. As the librarian's
routines and values are challenged, he or she becomes more effective.
Professional associations are producers and disseminators of relevant
information. "A primary mark of a profession is the development of a
scholarly body of knowledge which continues to grow and be furthered(Virgo,
1991, p. 195). Associations disseminate information via books,
refereed journals, presentations at conferences, and by other formal and
informal means. Librarians who are members of professional associations
have opportunities to contribute to this "body of knowledge." As
information professionals participate and contribute, they learn and become
more familiar with the processes of scholarly communication.
CONTRIBUTORS TO EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
Professional associations contribute significantly to the development
of effective leadership. Librarians who are active in professional associations
have realistic opportunities to improve or enhance their leadership
skills. Leadership is a relatively complex concept. One scholar argues
that "leadership is largely an intuitive concept for which there can never
be a single, agreed-upon definition" (Conger, 1992, p. 18). In their research
on leadership, Bennis and Nanus (1985) recorded 350 different
definitions of leadership (p. 4). For this article, leaders are "individuals
who establish direction for a working group of individuals, who gain commitment
from these group members to this direction, and who then motivate
these members to achieve the direction's outcomes" (Conger, 1992,
Leadership, administration, management, and supervision are interdependent
concepts and practices. All are concerned with behaviors and
interaction patterns, role relationships, influence, motivation, and goals
or desired outcomes. Additionally, all are concerned with the ability or
capacity to provide focus and direction for individuals and groups.
Opportunities to develop these skills are numerous via active participation in
professional associations. Service on committees, for example, exposes the
librarian to various planning and implementation processes. As the librarian is
working with information professionals from other states or regions, he or she
is also exposed to differences in methodologies. Assuming responsibility for a
committee is a particularly valuable experience as committee chairs work with a
group of colleagues to define and refine goals, develop strategies to attain
these goals, and follow up as needed. Roles and responsibilities are
delineated. Specific tasks are delegated. The chair of the committee
articulates the rationale for the committee's activities, relating the work of
the committee to other committees or organizational units in the association.
He or she becomes more familiar with the dynamics of conducting meetings,
including the ability to attain a positive consensus on important decisions.
The members of the focus groups stated emphatically that participating as
a chair of a committee in a professional association facilitates the
development of leadership skills. Several stated that the skills learned and
developed as chairs of association committees enabled them to work more
effectively with groups to attain desired outcomes. They also became more
interested in management. Another librarian noted that she was motivated
positively by Patricia Breivik's "Every Librarian a Leader" theme during
Breivik's term as President of the Association of College and Research
Libraries (Frank, 1997).
In addition to committees in professional associations, it is possible to
become the elected chair or president of the association's sections or
divisions. The responsibilities associated with such positions are significant,
and the opportunities to learn and to enhance one's administrative skills are
OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION
Participating in professional associations provides opportunities to
become familiar with the processes of research and publication. These
important processes contribute to the librarian's professional development.
Creativity and innovation are expressed as ideas, concepts are considered and
integrated, and new information is generated.
Several options for research and publication are available via participation
in professional associations. Poster sessions are popular examples. ALA's
conferences provide opportunities to prepare and present poster sessions.
These are not formal presentations or publications but necessitate
preparation and the ability to communicate ideas or concepts to others.
Additionally, editors of journals occasionally examine the various poster
sessions at national conferences looking for ideas or presentations
that might be eventually transformed into published articles. One of the
librarians in the focus groups stated that the editor of RQ asked her to
write an article on the topic of her poster session (Frank, 1997).
Calls for papers are ideal opportunities to become involved in scholarly
processes. Sponsored by professional associations at local, state, regional,
national, and international levels, calls for papers are opportunities to do
research and to discuss the results with a forum of colleagues. As with
poster sessions, these scholarly papers and presentations are potential
candidates for articles in refereed journals. Also, presenting a paper to a
group of peers, listening to their comments and suggestions, and responding to
their questions constitute several of the key elements of critical dialogue.
These skills are essential to success in libraries. Information professionals
are instructors, mediators and facilitators, and advocates for ideas as well as
strategic positions or directions. They must communicate effectively with
groups. Scholarly presentations at professional conferences provide realistic
options to develop these skills.
On occasion, committees in professional associations produce documents
that are eventually published. The author of this article participated on
such a committee in ALA's Reference and User Services Division. The committee's
activities focused on the importance of collection development policies. As
we collected data on policies, we realized that the information was
particularly relevant to the work of librarians who have managerial
responsibilities related to the development of collections. As a result, we
sought options to disseminate the information. The chair of the committee
contacted several editors, including the editor of RQ who provided support and
practical recommendations. In six months, the members of the committee
completed an article that was published in RQ It was a valuable experience for
all committee members. We participated in a collegial process within the
context of a professional association and produced an article that was
published in an important journal. Such activities and results are not uncommon
in professional associations (American Library Association, 1993).
Professional associations are concerned with the creation, organization,
and dissemination of information. They are also concerned with the
activities related to research and publication. One dictionary defines a
profession as a "calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and
intensive preparation including instruction in skills and methods as well as in
the scientific, historical, or scholarly principles underlying such skills and
methods" (Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1968, p. 1811). The
skills and methods referred to are essential to the success of librarians.
By supporting and providing opportunities for research and publication,
professional associations of librarians or information professionals
become, in a sense, more professional. In reality, it is also advantageous
for professional associations to provide such support:
* associations gain value for both themselves as organizations and especially
for their members;
* associations and their members gain visibility by publicizing research
* by collaborating on activities that one institution cannot do as readily
(for example, gathering profession-wide statistics), associations gain
* associations can add to their image of having more clout than any one
* associations can draw on the tremendous range of talents of their members;
* associations can increase their impact on the educational process (Virgo,
1991, pp. 192-93).
The librarian who participates actively in professional associations and
who is interested in contributing to the scholarly processes will discover that
there are opportunities to do so. The professional associations are motivated to
provide these opportunities.
FACILITATORS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Activity in professional associations promotes the skills needed for
effective communication. One communicates with individuals as well as groups.
Also, one is exposed to a variety of methods and styles of communication. In
particular, the librarian is exposed to different perspectives and questions.
As the librarian becomes more informed and looks at issues from different
perspectives, he or she is more likely to be listened to "at home."
Professional associations also provide opportunities by which librarians
can be mentored by experienced colleagues. Formal mentoring programs exist in
national associations and occasionally in regional organizations. Issues of
communication are frequently discussed by the mentor and the one being mentored.
Communicating with one's supervisor or with other colleagues is a particularly
relevant topic of discussion. Articulation of ideas and the techniques of
assertive communication are also relevant. Listening to the comments and
suggestions of an experienced colleague from another institution makes a
positive difference. Several members of the focus groups had worked with
mentors via professional associations. Two of the librarians had participated
in mentoring programs organized by ALA's New Members Round Table (Frank, 1997).
A SENSE OF PROFESSIONAL
By participating actively in professional associations, one learns what it
means to be a professional. One contributes to the overall profession by
participating and, as a result, feels "professionally empowered." This is
especially important for the individual librarian and for the profession of
librarianship. "The significance of having members equipped to cope with new
challenges has far-reaching effects on any profession and shows the direction
towards which the profession is moving" (Osman, 1987, p. 33).
The sense of professional community is nurtured via participation in
professional associations. Conferring with professionals from other
institutions not only provides additional perspective on issues but also
enhances one's status as a professional. The values and ethics of
professionalism rise to the surface and are very evident in the activities of
professional associations. Issues of professional values and ethics were viewed
as very important by all members of the focus groups (Frank, 1997).
Professional associations usually have codes of ethics. ALA's Code of
Ethics is representative and underscores the sense of professional community.
The principles of the code essentially encompass the work of professional
* We provide the highest level of service to all library users through
appropriate and usefully organized resources; equitable service policies;
equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all
* We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts
to censor library resources.
* We protect each library's user's right to privacy and confidentiality with
respect to information sought or received and resources consulted,
borrowed, acquired, or transmitted.
* We recognize and respect intellectual property rights.
* We treat co-workers and other colleagues with respect, fairness, and good
faith, and advocate conditions of employment that safeguard the rights and
welfare of all employees of our institutions.
* We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties
and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation
of the aims of our institutions or the provision of access to their information
* We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining and enhancing
our own knowledge and skills, by encouraging the professional
development of co-workers, and by fostering the aspirations
of potential members of the profession. (American Library Association,
1995, p. 673)
The above statements go to the core of the profession. These statements are
not unlike the principles in the codes of ethics for the legal or medical
professions. The issues covered in the code are particularly relevant to the
work of librarians. Information resources are organized to be accessible to all
users; equitable services are critically important. Intellectual freedom is a
concept that must be protected. Information transactions are private and
confidential. Intellectual property needs to be recognized and protected.
Colleagues must be respected; fairness in the workplace is essential. Private
interests are not advanced at the expense of others. Important differences
exist between one's personal convictions and professional responsibilities.
Professional excellence is an ongoing and encompassing goal and must be
Becoming aware of the sense of professional community pro-tides perspective
and insight on the culture of the profession of librarianship. A culture is a
"pattern of basic assumptions--invented, discovered, or developed by a given
group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and
internal integration--that has worked well enough to be considered valid and,
therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think,
and feel in relation to those problems(Schein, 1988, pp. 8-9). Librarians deal
or work with the issues of external adaptation and internal integration on a
day-to-day basis. On another level, the pattern of basic assumptions is
transferred from one individual or group to other individuals or groups and
essentially underscores the sense of professionalism. Codes of ethics, accepted
and unaccepted patterns of behavior, organizational values, and a concern for
the development and promotion of colleagues and principles are examples of
assumptions that are culturally transferred.
Active participation in professional associations facilitates one's
awareness of, and integration into, the culture of professional librarianship.
One gains a broader vision of one's role and responsibilities as a
professional. This vision is continually enhanced and expanded as the librarian
works with colleagues from other institutions to attain common goals. Moreover,
the librarian's ability to attain goals "at home" is facilitated. Members of
the focus groups were very concerned with ethics and values as critical
elements of professionalism. Several indicated that values were being openly
discussed in their libraries and that such discussions were uncommon five years
ago. Two participants stated that assumptions related to culture, values, and
ethics were being deliberated as a result of reorganizations in their
libraries. All stated that activity in professional associations contributes
significantly to one's sense of professional community.
Participating actively in professional associations is not necessarily a
simplistic process. For example, financial support is often needed to
participate at the local, regional, or national levels. Salaries of librarians
are not excessive and, as a result, the institution needs to provide some
financial assistance. Levels of support vary among libraries. It is a
controversial issue at some libraries. Who will participate? What levels of
financial assistance are available for the participating librarians? These are
practical and philosophical questions. Some academic librarians must
participate in order to qualify for a continuing appointment. In some
libraries, it is difficult to participate on a regular basis as a result of
staff shortages. In these instances, association options are selected
judiciously, and opportunities are occasionally rotated so that all interested
librarians can participate to some degree.
Becoming active on committees and other organizational units of professional
associations is occasionally challenging. It takes time and effort to
become familiar with the association's organizational structure as well as its
relative priorities. The size and complexity of associations, especially
national associations such as ALA or SLA, can easily frustrate interested
librarians. Associations of the scope and magnitude of ALA are frequently
confusing and complicated for the "new" librarian as well as for the
experienced one. A librarian feels overwhelmed by the numbers of programs,
committees, discussion groups, etc. Such feelings are not conducive to active
participation. Getting on a committee or becoming involved in some formal
capacity can be facilitated by colleagues or mentors who are already
participating in the activities of the association.
Becoming chairs of committees or getting elected to offices is another
challenge. A track record or some evidence of success is usually necessary,
especially for elected offices. In ALA or SLA, for example, becoming chairs of
sections or presidents of divisions usually necessitates a positive track
record in the section, division, or association. This is especially accented in
an association of ALA's size and complexity.
Opportunities for publications and scholarly presentations are numerous, but
success is not automatic. Applications for poster sessions are refereed.
Calls for papers are also refereed. A significant number of the applications
for poster sessions are accepted for presentation in associations such as ALA
as these have become a standard vehicle for the demonstration of new or
Being able to identify with or to simply understand the realities of a
sense of professional community is also a challenge. The sense of professional
community is more abstract than concrete. What is a professional? It is not
necessarily obvious to new librarians and to some librarians who are
experienced in the profession. One, it is hoped, becomes familiar and
comfortable with the concept of professionalism, including its responsibilities.
The focus group participants were concerned with issues of financial
assistance and other challenges related to getting started. Several librarians
stated that financial support for professional conferences was directly related
to the degree of active participation. In other words, if one was active on a
committee or another group, one received more financial assistance. They
asserted that it was more difficult for new librarians with
lower salaries to get started under these conditions. Issues of fairness
pointed comments. All participants emphasized the importance of fair
guidelines (Frank, 1997).
Members of the focus groups were also concerned with the size and
complexity of national professional associations such as ALA or SLA. All
indicated that it is difficult to get started and to become actively involved.
The academic librarians discussed the degree of duplication in the committees
and sections of ALA's Association of College and Research Libraries as well as
the Reference and User Services Division. Such duplication can be confusing to
the new or experienced librarian. The public, school, and special librarians
were less concerned with duplication but indicated that it is very difficult to
"figure out" associations such as ALA. or SLA (Frank, 1997).
IMPACT ON THE LIBRARIAN'S CAREER
The author of this article was not able to find a specific study that
correlates activity in professional associations and success in one's career as
a librarian. It is likely that a positive correlation exists.
Librarians who participate actively in professional associations are likely
to be more informed and, in particular, up to date on current issues and trends.
Opportunities to be exposed to other ideas and perspectives are numerous as one
participates and becomes effectively networked. In February 1997, a program on
"new learning communities" was sponsored by ALA's University Libraries Section.
As the concept of learning communities in academic libraries is relatively new,
the room was filled with interested librarians who were excited as they focused
on the description of the University of Washington's UWired program (American
Library Association, 1997). It is likely that the enthusiastic attendees
returned to their respective libraries with practical recommendations. They
were more informed and the informed librarian will be more effective and more
likely to succeed in his or her career.
The librarian who is interested in moving into management will have
opportunities to learn and/or refine various managerial skills. Working with the
committees and other groups, sections, or divisions of a professional
association provides opportunities to lead, to provide focus and direction, and
to attain important goals. These are relevant skills and are generally
perceived as very desirable in libraries. Moreover, these skills are likely to
open doors for the librarian, either in positions at his or her library or in
managerial positions at other libraries.
The librarian who is able to write and to communicate effectively will be
more "marketable." Professional associations provide excellent opportunities to
improve these skills. Becoming familiar with the processes of research and
publication via options such as poster sessions, calls for papers, and articles
in refereed journals enhances one's ability to communicate effectively with
colleagues. In addition, presenting a paper to a group of colleagues from other
institutions enables one to refine his or her oratory skills. Publications and
scholarly presentations also look good on vitae. They are indications of the
librarian's ability to organize and articulate ideas and information. Such
indications are valued and facilitate one's career development.
Becoming aware of the intrinsic value of a sense of professionalism also
facilitates a librarian's career development. It is more intrinsic than
extrinsic, so it is less obvious. Issues of values and ethics, for example, are
usually less evident in one's day-to-day activities. Nonetheless, the sense of
professional community that is facilitated via experiences in professional
associations is very important and contributes to professional effectiveness.
Participating actively in professional associations also enhances the
librarian's career options. A record of activity in associations indicates that
the librarian is interested in the profession. Moreover, a record of activity
is a clear indication that the individual is willing to learn and to grow.
Being exposed to different ideas and perspectives contributes significantly to
one's expertise and ability to examine issues critically. Such librarians are
likely to be promoted. Also, they are likely to be successful in efforts to
move into positions of responsibility at other libraries.
Members of the focus groups noted the relevance of participation to one's
career. The importance of being exposed to innovations at other libraries was
emphasized. Nearly all of the participants stated that they returned from
conferences with ideas for new activities or initiatives. They were more
informed. Additionally, creativity and innovation had been stimulated. The
librarians also underscored the value of participation to career development
and advancement. Opportunities to work in groups of librarians from other
libraries were especially valued by the focus group members. Collaborating with
librarians to refine strategies and attain goals facilitated the development of
skills that were emphasized in their respective libraries. All of the members
stated that the librarians who participate actively are more "marketable," more
likely to be promoted, and more likely to succeed in their careers (Frank,
The role and responsibilities of professional associations are varied and
numerous. If the associations are going to continue to provide realistic
opportunities to learn and to participate actively, they must be responsive to
their members. In particular, they must be as flexible as possible and open to
the concept of change. Issues of flexibility and change are occasionally
problematic for the large professional associations. Organizational behaviors
and practices are likely to be self-perpetuated. To be relevant in the future,
the associations must focus on change and renewal: "The professional
association that wishes to be effective in changing its industry must be open
to a process of continuous change within itself. Such an association will have
the credibility to carry the message of change to the rest of its industry"
(Segal, 1993, p. 242).
Professional associations are critically important. Participating actively
can make a positive difference. The librarian's ability to perform
effectively can be enhanced. Moreover, the librarian's career progression can
be influenced positively. One of the librarians in the focus groups concluded
that "the challenges and opportunities in professional associations provide
valuable perspective, help me to think critically, and stimulate my creative
abilities." Another librarian concluded that -the activities in professional
associations help me to know what others are thinking and doing, to see what
might be possible, and to move ahead in positive directions" (Frank, 1997).
American Library Association. (1995). ALA code of ethics. American
Libraries, 26(7), 673.
American Library Association, Association of College and Research libraries.
University Libraries Section. (1997). New teaming communities: Collaboration
via technology. Unpublished presentation at the American Library Association's
1997 Midwinter Meeting, February 15,1997.
American Library Association. Reference and User Services Division.
Collection Development and Evaluation Section. Collection Development Policies
Committee. (1993). The relevance of collection development policies:
Definition. necessity. and application. RQ. 33(1), 65-74.
Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies of taking
charge. San Francisco. CA: Harper & Row.
Conger, J. A. (1992). Learning to Lead: The art of transforming managers
into leaders. San Francisco, CA:
Curry, E. L. (1992). The impact of professional associations. Journal of
Library Administration, 16(1-2), 45-54.
Frank, D. G. (1997). Focus groups (3) of academic, special, public, and
school librarians. Unpublished study presented at the American library
Association's 1997 Midwinter Meeting. February 1997.
Osman, Z. (1987). The role of the professional association in preparing its
members for new trends. In A. Thuraisingham (Ed.), The new information
professionals (Proceedings of the Singapore-Malaysia Congress of Librarians and
Information Scientists. September 46, 1986) (pp. 3245). Brookfield, VT: Gower.
Schein, E. H. (1988). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic
view. San Francisco. C: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Segal, J. S. (1993). The role of professional associations in organization
change: Toward user-centeredness. Journal of Library Administration. 19(3-4).
Virgo, J. A. C. (1991). The role of professional associations. In C. R.
McClure & P. Hernon (Eds.), Library and information science research:
Perspectives and strategies for improvement (pp. 189-196). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Webster's third new international dictionary. (1968). Springfield, MA: Merriam
Donald G. Frank, Library & Information Center, Georgia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0900
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|Title Annotation:||The Role of Professional Associations|
|Author:||Frank, Donald G.|
|Date:||Sep 22, 1997|
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