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Acquisition of translation competence and translation acceptability: an experimental study.

1. Introduction

This article sets out to present the design and some of the results of the research carried out for the PhD thesis entitled "Acquisition of Translation Competence and Translation Acceptability", supervised by Amparo Hurtado and Wilhelm Neunzig at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. The thesis is being written as part of the research project on the acquisition of translation competence conducted by PACTE research group, the design, methods, instruments and results of which have been reported in a number of publications since the project's inception in 1997 (cf. PACTE 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2008, 2009, 2011a, 2011b, 2014).

The main data for the research reported here were obtained from PACTE's experiment on ATC. They are drawn from an experimental study carried out between November and December 2011 at the Facultat de Traduccio i Interpretacio (FTI), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB). One hundred students of the Bachelor of Arts (BA) in translation as well as 30 recent graduates took part in the study. The participants in our sample comprised 5 subgroups: students from each of the 4 years of the BA and a subgroup of recent graduates. While PACTE's sample covered direct (i.e. L2-L1) and inverse (i.e. L1-L2) translation in the language pairs English-Spanish or Catalan, French-Spanish or Catalan and German-Spanish or Catalan, the sample in the current study is restricted to direct translation in the English-Spanish language pair.

In the research conducted by PACTE, the indicator "acceptability" is used to refer to the quality of a translation product (PACTE 2005b: 216). The same indicator is applied in the research presented in the current paper. This transversal indicator serves as the backbone of PACTE's research on TC and ATC, since results for this indicator are triangulated with most of the data obtained for all other indicators in their study.

After contextualising the study within a theoretical framework and describing the experiment design, this paper presents the results obtained for the acceptability indicator, as well as those drawn from a questionnaire designed specifically for this study in order to explore perceptions of acceptability amongst the participants. The intention of deploying this additional instrument was to obtain more data on the learning of acceptability criteria by the participants in the sample. This means the study's findings are not only limited to the assessment of the productions by the participants, in order to measure their learning of acceptability criteria, but also complemented by the results of this additional questionnaire on perception, since it provides data about the participants' recognition of acceptable translation solutions.

Results from the analyses of the time devoted to the various phases of the participants' translation processes (orientation phase, drafting phase, revision phase) are also included. This analysis attempts to establish a relationship between the proportion of the total translation duration devoted to each of the translation process phases and acceptable translations, with a special emphasis on the proportion of the total translation duration spent on the revision phase. The article ends with some tentative conclusions from the results obtained so far and a consideration of the future steps to be taken in the project.

2. Aims

The main objective of this study is to investigate the development of translation acceptability in the process of ATC. Specifically, it sets out to study the evolution of translation acceptability during ATC, and to describe the learning processes of acceptability criteria during ATC. Furthermore, it sets out to establish a relationship between the duration of the translation process, especially the proportion of the total time devoted to the revision phase, and translation acceptability.

3. Conceptual Framework

3.1 Translation acceptability

The first scholar in translation studies to use the term acceptability was Toury (1995) in his Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. For this scholar, the translator must know what rules and conventions to follow to translate a given text. Toury believes that the translator makes the decision to avoid "sanctions" as the translator moves between two cultures with two different sets of rules, and the final product may respect either the rules of the source culture which will make the target text "adequate", or the rules of the target culture which will render the target text "acceptable".

However, the use of the term by Toury is more in line with the opposition between domestication vs. foreignisation, using Venuti's (1995, 2008) terminology, which was first referred to by Schleiermacher (1813).

Other scholars that use the term acceptability are Neubert and Shreve (1992) in their Translation as Text. For these authors, a translation (as a product) is primarily a text, and it is this fact that should prevail when assessing or controlling the acceptability of the target text. For a translation to be acceptable, the target reader must be able to identify and extract the contents of the target text in a way that the text type and its purpose can be determined. However, Neubert and Shreve argue that there is no single "norm" of acceptability. "Norms" vary between languages, and translators as experts should know the standards of acceptability governing the production of texts in the languages they are translating into and from. Furthermore, Neubert and Shreve consider textual acceptability as an organising and stabilising element of "social relations".

According to these authors, readers have a set of expectations when dealing with a text; those expectations are the result of their textual experiences. These experiences are part of the historical development that texts have in a given society. Thus, we could say that textual acceptability not only varies from one language to another, but also in time. The stability that supposedly creates the textual acceptability in "social relations", according to these authors, also allows acceptability standards to be used as the presumption of mutual knowledge, which is a precondition for the exchange of texts, and thus for translation, given that this exchange occurs between different languages.

Neubert and Shreve's texts show all standards of acceptability. These standards are part of the textuality of any society, whether industrial or what they call "traditional". Thus, acceptability becomes a primary feature of any text, something that is reinforced by the fact that generations of translators have had to deal with the need for a translation product which complies with the expectation standards of target language readers, who presumably do not know the rules of the source-text language. Faithful to their notion of text as a communicative element, Neubert and Shreve adapt the principles and conversational maxims of Grice (1975) to their peculiar vision of acceptability. As in other cases in translation studies, terminology discrepancies exist between scholars. What Toury refers to as acceptability is completely different from the definition of acceptability by Neubert and Shreve. However, in recent years several scholars in translation studies have started using acceptability as an equivalent to translation quality. Such is the case of Williams (2009) and the research group at Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, PACTE (2009).

Williams, in his Translation Quality Assessment: an argumentation-centred approach, speaks of "[...] acceptability threshold-the level of tolerance of errors [...]" (2004: 18), while for PACTE, acceptability "refers to translation product quality" (2009: 11). This research group defines acceptability in terms of a given translation solution being able to effectively communicate "(a) the meaning of the source text; (b) the function of the translation (within the context of the translation brief, the readers' expectations, genre conventions in the target culture); and (c) the use of appropriate language (grammar, orthography, syntax)". (PACTE, 2011b: 326-327).

3.2 Translation competence (TC) and acquisition of translation competence (ATC)

Given the origin and nature of the current study, it is based on PACTE's model of TC and ATC. The TC model embraces the following features: "(a) [TC] is expert knowledge; (b) it is predominantly procedural knowledge, i.e. non-declarative; (c) it comprises different inter-related sub-competences; and (d) it includes a strategic component which is of particular importance" (PACTE, 2003: 48). In their model, translation competence consists of five sub-competences as well as psycho-physiological components: the bilingual sub-competence, the extra-linguistic sub-competence, knowledge about translation, the instrumental sub-competence and the strategic subcompetence, which is the most important of all sub-competences as it interrelates to all others.

As far as ATC is concerned, PACTE (2000:103-104) defines the process as (see figure 1) a dynamic, spiral process that evolves from novice knowledge (pre-translation competence) to expert knowledge (translation competence); it requires learning strategies and, during the process, both declarative and procedural types of knowledge (sub-competences) are integrated, developed and restructured. A process in which the development of procedural knowledge and thus of strategic sub-competence are essential.

4. Research Design

4.1 Hypotheses

The current study attempts to address the following general hypotheses:

- The investigation of translation acceptability can provide relevant information about ATC.

- The learning of acceptability criteria influences the acceptability of translation solutions.

- The acceptability of translations increases as the acquisition of translation competence evolves.

- There is a relationship between the time devoted to each phase of the translation process, especially the time devoted to the revision phase, and the acceptability of translations.

4.2 Sample

Our sample consists of 49 participants, distributed in 5 subgroups that include translation students and recent graduates. All participants in our sample did direct translation with the English-Spanish language pair. There were approximately 10 students per year in the BA in Translation programme at the FTI, UAB (4 years in total), and an additional fifth group that comprises 8 recent graduates of the same programme. All participants took part in PACTE's experiment on ATC for the English-Spanish language pair.

The participants in our sample were all Spanish and/or Catalan (bilinguals) native speakers with a homogenous level of English (1) in each student subgroup (first-year students, second-year students, etc.). They were enrolled in the BA's direct translation into Spanish or Spanish and Catalan (never only into Catalan); their overall academic transcript grades were between 7 and 10 (out of 10). The recent graduates had just completed the BA in Translation on the year prior to the experiment.

4.3 Experimental tasks

In the course of the experimental study, the participants performed the following tasks:

(1) Completion of a questionnaire about the participants' background, including experience in translation;

(2) A direct translation from English into Spanish of the journalistic article "Email virus strikes in new form" (see Appendix 1), with no restrictions of time and free access to online and paper resources;

(3) Completion of a questionnaire about the problems encountered in the translation, including grading the degree of difficulty of the translation in general, free selection of segments of the source-text which participants thought were difficult to translate, specific questions about the whole translation, and specific questions about the 5 Rich Points;

(4) Completion of a questionnaire on the perception of translation quality (learning of acceptability criteria);

(5) Completion of a questionnaire about translation knowledge.

Real-time recordings of participants' on-screen actions were obtained during their translation processes using Camtasia screen-recording software. With the aid of this software's time clock, we were able to ascertain the time spent on each of the phases involved in the translation process: the orientation, drafting and revision phases (cf. Jakobsen, 2002). These phases were defined in the experiment as follows:

* Orientation phase (OP): start time for OP is set as the moment when participants are asked to commence the translation, which was the same for all participants within the same subgroup. The end time of this phase is set when students type the first letter of their translation, usually the first letter of the title.

* Drafting phase (DP): start time for DP is set when students type the first letter of their translation coinciding with the end time of the orientation phase. End time is set when students type either a full stop on the last paragraph translated, or they type the last numerical digit of the journalistic article date (not all participants typed the date at the end of their translations).

* Revision phase (RP): start time for RP is set when students type either a full stop on the last paragraph translated, or when they type the last numerical digit of the article's date, coinciding with the end time of the drafting phase. The end time of the revision phase is set the moment when participants either save and close the target-text word file, or just save the file and do not make any further changes. After the completion of their translations, participants were required to fill out the translation problems questionnaire.

4.4 Research instruments, data collection and data analysis

Most of the instruments used in our experiment are the same as those used in PACTE's main research project on ATC. These comprise English source texts (see Appendix 1) for direct translation into Spanish, containing pre-established prototypical translation problems, otherwise known as Rich Points (PACTE 2008: 116, 2009: 8), target-text Rich Point-based acceptability assessment, a questionnaire on participant background, a questionnaire on translation problems and a questionnaire on participants' knowledge of translation, and real-time recordings of participants' on-screen actions produced by the software Camtasia. An additional questionnaire on the perception of acceptability especially designed for, and unique to, the present study was added. All questionnaires in this study were in Spanish and presented to participants in html format. This allowed for all data to be displayed on a single Excel file per questionnaire afterwards.

4.4.1 Translation quality assessment: source text and prototypical translation problems

Rich Points-based assessment was carried out on all translations produced for this experiment. This assessment procedure consists in only assessing the translations of preselected source-text segments containing prototypical translation problems. These problems were spread over the following five categories: linguistic, textual, extralinguistic, intentionality and problems related to the brief and/or the target audience. Table 1 presents an overview with a brief description of each.

The assessment of target-text acceptability follows PACTE's criteria, which are grouped into three main categories: meaning (i.e. the extent to which source-text meaning is reproduced), function (i.e. how adequately the function of the translation and translation brief are achieved) and language (i.e. how appropriate the use of the target language is). A translation solution can be assessed as acceptable (A), semi-acceptable (SA) or non-acceptable (NA). For each solution, 27 possible permutations exist (see table 2); each solution will be finally considered acceptable (A), semi- acceptable (SA) or non-acceptable (NA) according to the scheme presented in table 2 (PACTE, 2009: 12). Participants receive a score of 1 if the translation solution chosen is deemed acceptable; 0.5 if the translation solution chosen is deemed semi-acceptable or 0 if the translation solution chosen is assessed as non-acceptable. The final overall quality assessment of the target text is obtained by adding all the numerical values awarded to each Rich Point and dividing this result by the total number of Rich Points.

4.4.2 Questionnaires

Instruments used in this study include a questionnaire about participants' backgrounds and their experience in translation; a questionnaire about translation knowledge; and a questionnaire about translation problems. These three questionnaires were designed by PACTE for their experiments on TC and ATC: the questionnaire on the participants' backgrounds was designed to gain further information about the participants in our sample, their translation experience, their acquisition of foreign languages and additional features (PACTE, 2002: 53). The questionnaire about translation knowledge was designed to collect data on the participants' declarative knowledge about translation (PACTE, 2008: 112). The questionnaire on translation problems was designed to obtain information from participants about the translation brief, the problems encountered during their translation task, and the characteristics of those problems (PACTE, 2011b).

The questionnaire on participants' background consisted of questions about personal details (age, gender, etc.), learning of L2 (at school, living abroad, etc.), access method into the BA in Translation, experience in translation (years, type of translations done, etc.). The questionnaire on translation problems consisted of questions about the difficulty of the whole source-text and specific questions about each of the 5 Rich Points selected for this text. It also included a selection question where participants were asked to choose 0 to 5 elements in the source text they considered problematic to translate, which could be individual words, sentences or whole paragraphs.

The questionnaire on participant knowledge of translation consisted of 36 items, based on seven factors about knowledge of translation (concept of translation, translation units, translation problems and phases in the translation process, translation methodology and procedures, translation brief, target reader). Participants' opinions were measured using Likert scaling in a forced choice method: I strongly disagree, I disagree, I agree, I strongly agree.

4.4.3 Learning of acceptability criteria: questionnaire on the perception of acceptability

The data on the perception of acceptability was obtained in a simple screening test where the 5 Rich Point source-text segments (see Appendix 2) were presented to participants together with three possible solutions or the possibility of opting for their own translations. This questionnaire was completed right after the translation problem questionnaire. They were able to access their own translations at all times during the completion of both, the translation problem questionnaire, and this questionnaire on perception.

The translation options were taken from those done by participants of PACTE's previous experiment on translation competence. Of the three possible solutions offered, in each case, one was acceptable, one semi-acceptable and one non-acceptable. Information about the acceptability of the presented solutions in the questionnaire was never disclosed to participants.

This questionnaire was set to provide additional data about the learning process of acceptability criteria by the participants in the study. Its main purpose was to have a means to measure the capacity of the participants to identify acceptable translations, which could be considered an indicator of the degree of awareness participants have attained in acquiring translation competence. As in the Rich Points-based assessment procedure, participants obtained a score of 1 if the translation solution chosen was acceptable, 0.5 if the translation solution chosen was semi-acceptable, and 0 if the translation solution chosen was non-acceptable. In the case of those opting for their own translation, the result depended on how their own solution was assessed by the evaluators.

4.4.3 Time employed in the translation process: Camtasia recordings

The Camtasia recordings provided insight into the efficiency of the translation process. By comparing the senior to the junior subgroups, we could observe whether senior participants took less time to produce acceptable translations in relation to junior ones. We could also observe if the amount of time dedicated to the revision phase increased or decreased in senior subgroups.

We were particularly interested in measuring the total duration of the translation process and the duration of each of the three phases of the process: the orientation phase (OP), the drafting phase (DP) and, particularly, the revision phase (RP). These durations (Total, OP, DP, RP) were obtained by a posteriori viewing of the avi. files produced by the software Camtasia.

5. Preliminary Results

In this section, we present three sets of results: those for target-text acceptability, for the perception of acceptability and for the average duration of the translation process and its three phases.

As the title for this section suggests, these are only preliminary results as it is still premature to draw firm conclusions from them. The acceptability results provide direct data about the quality of the translations of the participants. In an attempt to dig even deeper into the learning by the participants about translation acceptability criteria, the results of the questionnaire on perception of acceptability provide information about the participants' confidence in their own productions and their capacity to recognise acceptable translations or not.

In addition, we present the duration data, as acceptable translations could be considered the result of well-applied translation strategies learnt throughout the ATC; these strategies are gradually mastered in an ongoing process of structuring and development (PACTE, 2003: 48). Evidence of the mastering of these strategies could potentially be elicited from the duration data, especially the revision phase duration data.

5.1. Translation acceptability

The preliminary results of the assessment of the translations produced by the participants (see figure 2) show evidence of an overall increase in the acceptability of the translations for each subgroup, from the second-year students subgroup up to recent graduates subgroup. However, the degree of this overall increase is uneven throughout the sample. As shown in figure 2, we find the biggest increase between the first-year students and second-year students, from an average acceptability of 0.49 for students from the first year up to an average of 0.67 for second-year students.

From the second-year student subgroup up to the recent graduate subgroup, the increases in average are minimal, and we even find some slight decreases in the acceptability obtained by some of these subgroups. Third-year students have an average acceptability of 0.61, a decline of 0.06 if compared to the previous subgroup. The average acceptability obtained by students from the fourth year is 0.68; this average declines again by 0.02, to 0.66 for the subgroup of recent graduates.

The decreases shown by the average acceptability results between the second-year subgroup and the recent graduate subgroup are too small to be considered significant. The data show the biggest average increase in the quality of translations between the first-year students and the second-year students. For the rest of the subgroups, the quality of their products stays largely the same from year to year.

5.2 Perception of acceptability

The preliminary results on the perception of acceptability (see figure 3) show evidence of a steady increase in the capacity of participants to identify acceptable translations as we progress from the first-year students up to the fourth-year students, but with a slight decrease from the fourth-year students to the recent graduates. The degree of this overall increase between the first-year subgroup and the fourth-year subgroup is uneven. As in the case of the acceptability results, we find the biggest increase between the first-year students and the second-year students: from an average perception of acceptability of 0.54 to an average of 0.66 for students in their second year.

As we go up the ladder in the BA, a pattern seems to emerge, with averages of 0.71 and 0.73 for the third-year and fourth-year students respectively. However, this is not maintained in the results of the last subgroup, as the recent graduates obtained a lower average for the perception of acceptability of 0.66.

5.3 Average duration

As we see in table 3, the fastest participants were the first-year students, taking an average of 47.14 minutes to finish the translation task, of which only 17.56% was dedicated to the revision phase. For the second-year students, the average duration needed to finish the translation task increases by approximately 10 minutes. However, we observe only a slight increase, on average, of the percentage of the total duration dedicated to the revision phase, from 17.56% of the total duration (8.28 minutes on average) for the first-year subgroup to 18.14% (10.44 minutes on average) for the second-year students.

From the third-year subgroup (see table 3) onwards, we find an average increase of almost 10% of the proportion of the total duration dedicated to the revision phase. This tendency to employ longer time on the revision phase stays above 20% on average for all or the more senior subgroups: third-year students spend an average of 29.02%, fourth-year students spend an average of 27.08% and the recent graduate subgroup spend an average of 23.21% of the total translation duration on the revision phase.

In this study, we attempt to see evidence of procedural knowledge learning (strategic sub-competence) in the time spent in each of the phases, especially in the revision phase and its relation to translation acceptability. For the time being, these results cannot be used to draw any conclusions. However, these preliminary findings regarding duration seem to be in line with the findings of some studies in translation, such as that carried out by Jakobsen (2002:191-204). In his study, 4 translation students and 4 professionals each translated four texts (two Danish-English and two English-Danish). The findings of this study highlight professionals completing the drafting phase more quickly than the students, and spending more time on the revision phase than the students, but making fewer changes during the revision phase.

In a different study carried out by Kunzli (2007), 10 translators were required to revise a legal text; the 2 translators who spent the most time on the revision phase were the best revised versions, and were assessed as acceptable by the evaluator. However, the study concludes that spending a lot of time on the revision phase did not necessarily produce an acceptable target text.

Regarding the time spent on the orientation phase, the recent graduate subgroup spent the longest average time, 8.34%. For the rest of the subgroups the results for this phase varied greatly, with no pattern observable. As for the drafting phase, although the results vary greatly between subgroups, there seems to be a tendency to spend less time on this phase in the case of the more senior subgroups.

6. Tentative conclusions and outlook

In our preliminary findings, we see some evidence of an evolution of the acceptability of translations from the first-year subgroup to the recent-graduates subgroup of the BA. The biggest difference in acceptability average takes place between the first-year and second-year subgroup (see figure 2), and there are some slight decreases for the third-year subgroup and recent graduates subgroup.

We also find some evidence which further supports the view of a learning process of acceptability criteria taking place from year to year of the BA in the results from the perception of acceptability questionnaire. Again, the biggest jump occurred between first-year and second-year subgroup, with a slight decrease for the recent graduates subgroup.

Finally, the preliminary findings about the time spent in each phase of the process show a tendency to spend a larger proportion of the total time on the revision phase from the third-year students onwards, the last three subgroups (third year, fourth year and recent graduates) spent over 20% of the total time on the revision phase. In contrast, participants from the senior groups tend to spend a smaller proportion of the total time on the drafting phase.

The limited nature of the results presented here precludes any firm conclusions from being drawn. Further steps therefore need to be taken to achieve a clearer picture of the relationship between the process of acquiring translation competence and the acceptability of translations. These following steps include: analysis of acceptability results by meaning, function, and language; establishment of a best/worst ranking; triangulation of acceptability, the time data and the results from the "Knowledge of translation" questionnaire; in-depth analysis of the "Perception of Acceptability" questionnaire; and a description of the selected "problematic" segments by participants.

DOI: ti.106201.2015.a07

Luis Miguel Castillo

PACTE Group, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona


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Appendix 1: Questionnaire on the perception of acceptability

(P.R.1) Email virus strikes in new form

Computer users were warned last night to be on the lookout for an email virus that can steal confidential information and allow hackers to take control of infected machines. The virus, a new variant of the Bugssear email worm that infected tens of thousands of computers around the world last October, began to spread rapidly from Australia to Europe and the USA at around 8am yesterday. According to MessageLabs, a (P.R.5) Cheltenham-based virus filtering firm which reported about 30,000 infected messages in 115 countries, the (P.R.3) propagation rate of Bugssear.B almost (P.R.3) doubled every hour throughout the morning. There was also a huge (P.R.3) surge as US users came online. Like its predecessor, the variant spreads by sending itself as an attachment to every address in an infected machine's email address book. To disguise where it came from, it uses different subject headings. As well as searching for anti-virus software and disabling it, Bugssear.B installs a (P.R.2) keylogger to record what the user types, which may allow hackers to record confidential information such as credit card details and passwords. It also installs a (P.R.4) "Trojan horse" program which could allow a hacker to take remote control of infected machines. [...]

The Guardian-Friday, 6 June 2003

P.R.1. Title: Problem of intentionality; textual problem.

P.R.2. Technical term: Linguistic problem of reformulation; extralinguistic problem.

P.R.3. Reference: Textual problem.

P.R.4. Element in apposition: Textual problem; problem of intentionality.

P.R.5. Element involving difficulties in comprehension and reformulation: Problem of intentionality; linguistic problem of re-expression.

Appendix 2: Questionnaire on the perception of acceptability

Escoge latraduccion que consideres mas apiopiada para los segnientos tubcayodos. Puedes decidir quedarte con tu traduccion (Choose the translation you consider more appropriate for the following highlighted segments. You may choose your own translation for this segment)

(1) "Email virus strike's in new form"

* "Ataca una nuevaforma de vi rus del correo electronico" (TRI2) SEMI-ACCEPTABLE

* "Nuevo vi rus informatico ataca otravez" (PI6) NON-ACCE PTABLE

* "Nuevo ataque de vi rus Informatico" (TR112) ACCEPTABLE

* Tupropi atraducdon (My own translation):

(2) "As well as searching for anti virus software and disabling it, Bugssear.B installs a keylogger to record what the user types [...]".

* "capturador detedaspara registrar I o quetecleael usuario" (TRIIO) SEMI-ACCEPTABLE

* "un programa que registra todo I o quetecleael usuario" (TR 112) ACCEPTABLE

* "d ave que graba cuanto ei usuario teclea en su ordenador" (T RI2) NON-ACCEPTABLE

* Tu propi atraducdon (My own translation):

(3) "[...]the propagation rate of Bugssear.B almost doubled every hour throughout the morning. There was also a huge surge as US users came online.

* "I a velocidad de propaeacion del Bugssear.B practicamente se se duplico cada hora a lo largo de I a manana. Tambien se produjo una espectacular difusion del virus cuando I os usuarios estadounidenses se conectaron a I nternet." (TR18) ACCEPTABLE

* "el ritmo de propagaciondel "Bugssear B" se ha doblado cada hora durante esta manana Tambien hahabido una enorme oleada a medida que los usuarios estadouni d ensesse conectaban." (PI3) NON-ACCE PTABLE

* "el indice de propagadon de Bugssear.B casi se doblaba a cada hora que pasaba durante to da la manana. Tambien se prodq|o una gran sobrecarga a medida que se conectaban los usuarios estadounidenses" (TRIIO) SEMi-ACCEPTABLE

* Tu prop! atraducdon (My own translation):

(4) ""Troian horse" program which could allow a hacker to take remote control of infected machines."

* "un programa Mamad." ca ballo de Troya", que permite que el pirata informatico controle el ordenador infectado a distancia." (TRI5) SEMI-ACCEPTABLE

* "un programatroyano que permite el control a distancia de los ordenadores intervenidos."


* "un troyano, graciasal cual el pirata puede manejar contoda comodidad el ordenador infestad."


* Tu propiatraducion (My own translation): --

(5) "[...] a Cheltenham-based virus filtering firm which reported about: 111, 0110 infected messages in ITS countries [...]".

* "compania inglesacon sede en Cheltenham que se dedica al filtrado de virus" (TRI12) ACCEPTABLE

* "empresafabri cante de antivirus con sede en Cheltenham" (TRI6) NON-ACCEPTABLE

* "compania defiltracion de vi rus situada en Cheltenham" (TRI2) SEMI-ACCEPTABLE

* Tu propiatraducion (My own translation): --

Luis Miguel Castillo is a PhD candidate at Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona. His PhD research aims at observing the evolution of translation acceptability criteria within the process of translation competence acquisition, and it is part of the large-scale experimental research project carried out by PACTE group on the acquisition of translation competence (ATC). Fluent speaker of English, French, Catalan and Portuguese. He is well-travelled and voracious learner of other languages and cultural customs. His other research interests include eye-tracking techniques in translation studies, postediting, autotranslation.

(1) This was guaranteed by selecting trainees with similar English-language grades (between 7 and 10 out of 10) at all levels; in the case of the first-year students, they all were required to pass the English admission test to the BA in question, which it is equivalent to the CEFR's B2 level.

Table 1. Categories of translation problems (PACTE, 2011b)

Linguistic problems       Lexis (non-specialised) and morphosyntax.
                            Problems of both comprehension and
                            re-expression may be involved.
Textual problems          Coherence, cohesion, text type, genre, and
                            style. Problems of comprehension or
                            re-expression may be involved, and are
                            associated with differences in the way
                            texts function in each language.
Extralinguistic           Cultural, encyclopaedic and subject-domain
  problems                  knowledge. Problems that also derive
                            from cultural differences.
Problems of               Difficulty in understanding information
  intentionality            in the source text (intertextuality,
                            speech acts, presuppositions,
                            implicatures). Problems of comprehension.
Problems relating to      Difficulties (affecting reformulation)
  the translation brief     which, from a functionalist point of
  and/or the                view, would affect all Rich Points.
  target-text reader

Table 2: Permutations of Acceptability (PACTE, 2009: 12)

Meaning   Function   Language   Assessment   Numerical
A            A          A
A            A          SA
A            SA         A           A            1
A            SA         SA
SA           A          A
A            A          NA
A            SA         NA
A            NA         A
A            NA         SA          SA          O.S
SA           SA         A
SA           SA         SA
SA           A          SA
A            NA         NA
SA           SA         NA
SA           A          NA
SA           NA         A
SA           NA         SA
SA           NA         NA
NA           A          A           NA           O
NA           SA         A
NA           SA         SA
NA           SA         NA
NA           A          SA
NA           A          NA
NA           NA         A
NA           NA         SA

Table 3: Average overall translation process times, average
times per phase and average acceptability by subgroup

                   Average process duration (minutes)

SUgop              OP duration   OP% TOTAL   DP duration   DP% TOTAL

1st year           3.71          7.87%       35.14         74.54%
2nd year           2.55          4.43%       44.55         77.41%
3rd year           3.53          6.50%       35            64.46%
4th year           1.5           2.64%       30            52.71%
Recent graduates   4.67          8.34%       38.33         68.45%

                   Average process duration (minutes)

SUgop              RP duration   RP% TOTAL   TT duration

1st year           8.28          17.56%      47.14
2nd year           10.44         18.14%      57.55
3rd year           15.76         29.02%      54.3
4th year           15.41         27.08%      56.91
Recent graduates   13            23.21%      56

SUgop              Average

1st year           0.49
2nd year           0.67
3rd year           0.61
4th year           0.68
Recent graduates   0.66

TT = Total time; OP = Orientation phase; DP = Drafting
phase; RP =Revision phase.

Figure 2: Acceptability means by subgroup

Years of the B.A in translation

1st year           0.49
2nd year           0.67
3rd year           0.61
4th year           0.68
Recent graduates   0.66

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 3: Perception of acceptability means by subgroup

Years of the B.A in translation

1st year           0.54
2nd year           0.60
3rd year           0.74
4th year           0.75
Recent graduates   0.70

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Castillo, Luis Miguel
Publication:Translation & Interpreting
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUSP
Date:Jan 1, 2015
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