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Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, Hassan Jamil, Mohd Noor Isa, et al., 2016, Geological mapping of Sabah, Malaysia, using airborne gravity survey. Borneo Science, 37(2): 14-27.

Airborne gravimetry is an effective tool for mapping local gravity fields using a combination of airborne sensors, aircraft and positioning systems. It is suitable for gravity surveys over difficult terrains and areas mixed with land and ocean. This paper describes the geological mapping of Sabah using airborne gravity surveys. Airborne gravity data over land areas of Sabah has been combined with the marine airborne gravity data to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage in order to produce the geological mapping. Free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps (density 2.67 g/cm3) have been derived from the airborne data both as simple ad-hoc plots (at aircraft altitude), and as final plots from the downward continued airborne data, processed as part of the geoids determination. Data are gridded at 0.025 degree spacing which is about 2.7 km and the data resolution of the filtered airborne gravity data were 5-6 km. The airborne gravity survey database for land and marine areas has been compiled using ArcGIS geodatabase format in order to produce the update geological map of Sabah.

Azylina Gunggu, Chang Ching Thon, and Cheah Whye Lian, 2016, Predictors of diabetes self-management among type 2 diabetes patients. Journal of Diabetes Research (2016), 7pp. Article ID 9158943;

Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern in Malaysia. Treatment of diabetes is costly and can lead to complications if disease is poorly controlled. Diabetes self-management (DSM) is found to be essential for optimal glycemic control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among samples from four randomly selected diabetes clinics in Sarawak. The aim was to determine the predictors for DSM. Face-to-face interview using questionnaire was used to collect data. Four hundred respondents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited. Majority of the respondents were Sarawak Bumiputra (Iban and Bidayuh, 48.6%) and female (68.6%). The mean age was 58.77 years (SD = 11.46) and approximately half of the respondents (50.6%) had T2DM for six years (SD = 4.46). The mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) was 8.06mmol/L (SD = 2.94), with majority (76.1%) having the level higher than 6.1mmol/L. Multiple logistic regression tests showed significant linear relationship between DSM and belief in treatment effectiveness ([rho] = 0.001), family support ([rho] = 0.007), and self-efficacy ([rho] = 0.027). Health care personnel must convince patients with T2DM of the effectiveness of the treatment, empower and enhance their self-efficacy, and enlist the family support so as to ensure patients sustain their DSM efforts.

Azman Awang Pawi, Awang, Zulkanain Abdul Rahman, Rosmadi bin Fauzi, and Suffian Mansor, 2016, The rise of politic ethnonationalism in the state of Sarawak Borneo. Journal of Scientific Research and Development 3(7):78-85.

Ethnonationalism refers to the convention of ethnic elements in an ethnic group to show their uniqueness and making evaluation using their own ideas and values. These elements include the concept of history, heritage and faith - determined by the group itself. Ethnonationalism attempts to relate history with ethnicity and it is not entirely about the membership of a certain political institution, but rather about giving rights and leaving legacies. The aim is to strengthen the concept of the autonomous region. The objective of this research is to evaluate the rise of politic ethnonationalism in the state of Sarawak by Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Adenan Satem, the new Chief Minister of Sarawak after the era of Tun Abdul Taib Mahmud. This research will study about the factors that triggered the rise of politic ethnonationalism in Sarawak. It also aims to find whether ethnonationalism will be able to unite Sarawakians and how far does it contain political paradox as well as the ability to disintegrate the nation state. This research uses the method of analysing Adenan's actions via all of his policies, decisions and attitude throughout the period of his appointment as the Chief Minister of Sarawak. It appears that Adenan managed to gain votes from various ethnicities in Sarawak to create a 'voice' and used it to gain political mandate as well as demand for more developments in Sarawak.

Bernard, H., R. Bili, Ikki Matsuda, et al., 2016, Species richness and distribution of primates in disturbed and converted forest landscapes in Northern Borneo. Tropical Conservation Science 9(4). DOI:

Knowledge of fundamental aspects of ecology such as species richness and distribution, and the factors affecting them, is increasingly used to identify priority areas for conservation and to effectively manage threatened species. We investigated the species richness and distribution pattern of nonhuman primate communities inhabiting 10 sampling sites in four different habitat classes corresponding to increasing habitat disturbance level, that is, old growth forest, twice logged forest, repeatedly logged forest, and oil palm plantation, in and around Kalabakan Forest Reserve, in central Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. By using direct and indirect survey methods, we confirmed the existence of 9 out of the total 10 primate species, found in Sabah, within the surveyed areas. Based on the monthly number of primate species detected, our results indicated a general trend of decreasing primate species richness with increasing habitat disturbance level. However, the response within the disturbed forest sites showed some variations with some sites in repeatedly logged forest displaying comparable primate species number to that of the undisturbed forest sites. We also found that within the forest habitats, tree density is a good predictor of the richness of the primate community with a positive effect. Hence, tree density may be a key indicator for evaluating primate communities in forest habitats. Overall, the results of our study suggest that although not equivalent to areas of undisturbed forest, degraded forests--including those that have been repeatedly logged--are still valuable for primate conservation. In contrast, oil palm plantations have mainly negative effects on the primate community.

Brearley, F.Q., P. Saner, Ayuho Uchida, et al., 2016, Testing the importance of a common ectomycorrhizal network for dipterocarp seedling growth and survival in tropical forests of Borneo. Plant Ecology and Diversity 9(5-6):563-76.|

Background: Connections between mature trees and seedlings via ectomycorrhizal (EcM) hyphal networks existing in dipterocarp-dominated tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia could have strong implications for seedling growth and survival and the maintenance of high diversity in such forests.

Aim: To test whether EcM hyphal network connections are important for the growth and survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

Methods: We conducted four independent experiments that prevented contact of experimental seedlings with an EcM network by using a series of fine meshes and/or plastic barriers. We measured the growth and survival (and foliar [[delta].sup.(13)]C in one experiment) of seedlings of six dipterocarp species over intervals ranging from 11 to 29 months.

Results: Seedling growth (diameter, height or leaf number) was unaffected by exclusion from the EcM network in three experiments and there were no differences in foliar [[delta].sup.(13)]C values in the fourth. Seedling survival was reduced following exclusion from the EcM network in one experiment. Our results give little support to the hypothesis that dipterocarp seedlings growing in the shaded forest understorey benefit from being connected, through a common EcM network, to surrounding trees.

Conclusions: We suggest that our negative results, in contrast to studies conducted in low diversity boreo-temperate or tropical forests, are due to these high diversity forests lacking host species-specific EcM fungi and therefore providing little opportunity for adaptive support of seedlings via hyphal networks.

Carson, Gordon, 2016, Space, mobilities, and insecurity in maritime Sabah: The impact of government bordering practices following the 2013 Sulu intrusion. Pp. 69-88 In: Paul J. Carnegie, Victor T. King, and Zawawi Ibrahim (eds.), Human Insecurities in South-East Asia. Asia in Transition series, No 5. ISBN: 978-981-10-2244-9 (Print) 978-981-10-2245-6 (online).

In this chapter, by focusing on the coastal and maritime spaces of Sabah, Malaysia, I show how measures to promote "national security" do not necessarily facilitate the human security--which I define as physical safety, economic prosperity, and security of identity--of many of those living within "national" spaces, and in some cases can have the opposite effect. I develop this argument based on my findings from research in Sabah in 2013, immediately after an intrusion by an armed group from the southern Philippines. Coming from the perspective of borderlands and political geographical studies, I explain the impact of certain spatial and bordering strategies and practices--which do not necessarily have to take place at the border line itself--on human security and on practices integral to residents' physical safety, economic livelihoods, and security of identity.

Charbonneau, Oliver, 2016, Civilizational imperatives: American colonial culture in the Islamic Philippines, 1899-1942. Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontario. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. Paper 3508., available for download from 1 February 2018 forthcoming.

This dissertation examines the colonial experience in the Islamic Philippines between 1899 and 1942. Occupying Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago in 1899, U.S. Army officials assumed sovereignty over a series of Muslim populations collectively referred to as "Moros." Beholden to pre-existing notions of Moro ungovernability, for two decades military and civilian administrators ruled the Southern Philippines separately from the Christian regions of the North. In the 1920s, Islamic areas of Mindanao and Sulu were "normalized" and haphazardly assimilated into the emergent Philippine nation-state. Never fully integrated, the Muslim South persisted as an exotic frontier zone in the American and Filipino colonial imaginaries.

The following chapters argue that Americans acting in both official and non-official capacities undertook a project of cultural reconfiguration among the Moros. Essentializing Moro "characteristics," American colonial actors implemented a variety of programs aimed at transforming Muslim social, legal, commercial, medical, and educational practices. These complex and imperfect processes often met with resistance from Moro populations, and American authorities used violence as a means of "correcting" recalcitrant behaviors. A second seam of argumentation asserts the centrality of inter-imperial dialogue and transfer to the colonial experience in the Southern Philippines. Americans borrowed and modified European imperial antecedents in myriad ways, from carceral technologies to the creation of racially demarcated leisure spaces. As a region, the Muslim South was shaped during the period under study by transcolonial flows of personnel, ideas, and commercial products. This involved transfers not only between Americans and Europeans, but also between Moros and the Islamic world.

Emphasizing understudied and unstoried histories, this project contributes to a growing body of work that situates American colonial encounters in a global context. Overlooked in much of the literature on American colonialism in the Philippines, the Muslim South was an important site for the development of American civilizational imperatives. These imperatives, and the colonial project writ large, were shaped and reshaped by pervasive supraregional connectivities and inter-imperial exchanges. Far from being mere colonial backwaters, Mindanao and Sulu are critical to understanding the character of American empire in the early twentieth century.

Cheah Lian Cheah, Chang Ching Thon, Helmy Hazmy, and Wan Manan Wan Muda, 2016, Gender and racial differences in the cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese rural adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism (2016), 6pp;; Article ID 4536753.

Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak.

Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data were obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity), measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI), body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups--Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0.

Results. A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate). The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69).

Conclusions. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Chou, Cynthia, 2016, The water world of the Orang Suku Laut in Southeast Asia. TRaNS: Trans-Regional and-National Studies of Southeast Asia, 4(2), July 2016:265-82. doi:10.1017/trn.2016.9.

This article explores how the Orang Suku Laut, an indigenous Malay roving fishing community, perceives the water world in Southeast Asia. Their rites of childbirth, naming and the enculturation of their young present invaluable ethnographic data that challenge us to develop new ways to conceptualise 'water spaces' as well as to widen our academic inquiry into the less understood ways of spatial imaginings.

Costantini, David; David P. Edwards, Mirre J.P. Simons, Life after logging in tropical forests of Borneo: A meta-analysis. Biological Conservation (196), April 2016:182-8.

Selectively logged tropical forests retain high species richness and functional diversity, but species composition changes after logging, suggesting that some species are more vulnerable to logging than others. We did a meta-analysis to summarize the effect of logging on the abundance of individual bird and mammal species in tropical forests of Borneo, which have suffered some of the most intense selective logging in the tropics. We found that species classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as 'vulnerable' or 'near-threatened' are generally less abundant in logged tropical forests than those classified as 'least concern.' However, the effect of logging within each IUCN category is variable, indicating that logging is not the only or main cause of decline in abundance. While our results show that closely related species responded similarly to logging, in birds there was significant variation between responses of some closely related species. Bigger species were significantly more susceptible to logging than smaller species in both birds and mammals. We also found that cavity-nesting birds suffered more from logging than did other species. Our results highlight the importance of identifying which factors lead individual species to flourish or suffer in logged tropical forests.

D'Agostino, J.; S.N. Spehar, and R. Delgado, 2016, The behavioural contexts of red langur (Presbytis rubicunda) loud calls in the Wehea Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Folia Primatologlca, 87(1):1-10. DOI: 10.1159/000443732.

Researchers hypothesize that male loud calls play several roles in primate societies including in the context of intergroup spacing and spatial coordination. Field studies examining the behavioral correlates of vocalizations are essential to evaluate the function of these calls. This preliminary study, from July 2011 to January 2012, explores the behavioral contexts and correlates of male loud calls in a habituated group of red langurs (Presbytis rubicunda) in the Wehea Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In analyzing 418 h of data collection, we find a total of 87 vocal behaviors, including bouts of multiple calls in rapid succession (i.e. calling events) and individual loud calls. In this sample, most vocal behavior takes place in the morning with 59% of calling events occurring before 8.00 h. The mean rate of calling events is 0.12 events/h, and the mean rate of individual loud calls is 0.20 calls/h. The mean number of calling events per day is 1.31 (range: 0-4), and the mean number of individual loud calls per day is 2.81 (range: 0-13). The rate of calling events is highest in the context of intragroup conflict, followed by intergroup encounters, predator threat, group travel, and the highest number of individual loud calls occurred during intergroup encounters. Although these results are preliminary, they suggest that adult male loud calls among red langurs at Wehea may play a role in both intergroup spacing and social coordination, supporting the hypothesis that these calls can serve different functions.

Duckworth, J.W.; Gabriella Fredriksson, Matt Heydon, Raymond Alfred, et al., 2016, Predicted distribution of small-toothed palm civet Arctogalidia trivirgata (Mammalia: Carnivora: Viverridae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 33: 103-110.

Small-toothed palm civet Arctogalidia trivirgata occurs widely across Borneo. Eighty-two spatially precise records were used to model its distribution on the island. While the model predicts some regions of low suitability, the scatter of records (mostly insufficiently spatially precise for use in the model) within them and the generally low relevant search effort make a conclusion of genuine low suitability of these areas premature. Modern surveys rely heavily upon ground-level camera-trapping, a technique demonstrably unsuited to this largely arboreal species, which is therefore often overlooked unless spotlighting or arboreal camera-trapping is undertaken. It is at least locally numerous in Borneo and occurs over a wide altitudinal range, well above the heavy deforestation of the lowlands. Its arboreal habits are likely to insulate it from trapping. Its use of monoculture plantations is unclear, but if it does not use these, its total Bornean population is likely to have declined roughly in proportion to the level of forest conversion in the last few decades. However, its survival on Singapore even a century after forest cover was reduced to small, degraded isolates indicates high adaptability to forest encroachment, provided some native forest survives, although such tolerance cannot yet be confirmed for Borneo. Even if oil palm, rubber and acacia plantations are unsuitable for small-toothed palm civet, current plans across Borneo for native forest retention through protected areas and low-impact logging appear sufficient to ensure its long-term survival.

Eto, Koshiro; Masafumi Matsui & Kanto Nishikawa, 2016, A new highland species of dwarf litter frog genus Leptobrachella (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Sarawak. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 64: 194-203.

A new highland species of the dwarf litter frog, Leptobrachella itiokai, is described from Gunung Mulu National Park, northern Sarawak, East Malaysia. It occurs syntopically with another highland species, L. brevicrus, but differs from it by a unique call that may be described as a chirp, with dominant frequency of ca. 10 kHz. The new species is morphologically distinguishable from congeners by the combination of the following traits: rounded ventrolateral glands usually not in series; side of body with small black spots; ventrum entirely dark-coloured with tiny light spots; male with thread-like lineae masculinae.

Feldhaar, Heike, Ulrich Maschwitz, and Brigitte Fiaia, 2016, Taxonomic revision of the obligate plant-ants of the Genus Crematogaster Lund (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), Associated with Macaranga Thouars (Euphorbiaceae) on Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Sociobiology: An International journal on social insects 63(1):651-81. DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v63il.949.

The taxonomy and natural history of ants of the genus Crematogaster Lund, 1831 (Crematogaster borneensis-group of the former subgenus Decacrema) obligately associated with myrmecophytic host-plants of the euphorb genus Macaranga are reviewed. Within this group of ants Crematogaster borneensis Andre, 1896 (with five subspecies and four varieties), Crematogaster captiosa Forel, 1910 as well as Crematogaster decamera Forel, 1910 have previously been described from SE Asia. Here we synonymise C. borneensis subsp. capax Forel, 1911, C. borneensis subsp. hosei Forel, 1911, C. borneensis subsp. sembilana Forel, 1911, and C. borneensis var. macarangae Viehmeyer, 1916 with C. borneensis Andre, 1896. Crematogaster borneensis var. harpyia Forel, 1911, C. borneensis var. insulsa Forel, 1911, C. borneensis subsp. symbia Forel, 1911, and C. borneensis subsp. novem Forel, 1911 are synonymised with C. captiosa Forel, 1910. In addition we describe five new species: C claudiae sp. nov., C. hullettii sp. nov., C. linsenmairi sp. nov., C. maryatii sp. nov., and C. roslihashimi sp. nov.. Seven of these eight species are placed into two informal species subgroups based on queen morphology, life-history characters and a formerly published molecular phylogeny. Keys are provided for the identification of queens and workers, as well as natural history information on the eight ant species. The morphology of these Macaranga-associated Crematogaster (formerly Decacrema) species is compared to the only other three species described for this former subgenus in SE Asia, i.e. C. angulosa Andre, 1896, C. biformis Andre 1892 and C. cephalotes Smith, 1857.

Gonzales B.J. and M.M.G. Gonzales, 2016, Trends of coral, fish, and fisheries near and far from human developments in Coral Bay, Southwest Sulu Sea, Palawan, Philippines. AACL Bioflux 9(2):396-407.

Coral Bay is the main source of marine-based food to the people of Bataraza, Palawan. Rio Tuba being one of the most populated barangays of Palawan has the challenge to balance the utilization and protection of bay's resources. Hence, the author analyzed results of socio-economic studies conducted in the area and the 3-year coral and fish assessments results to form as basis for its future EAFM/coastal management plan. In order to discern possible impacts of developments, the bay was divided into two zones according to distance from development sites: landward and seaward zones. Fishers of Coral Bay averaged 46 years-old with 4.25 average number of children. Trading/vending of dried and fresh fishes was dominated by women, while aquaculture and capture fisheries by men. From 2007 to 2009, all fish indicators in stations at Landward Zone either remained the same or have improved conditions, except for decreased in fish biomass in two stations, while in seaward zone fishes have generally decreased in abundance and biomass. The live coral cover trend increased in landward zone at 1.0%/year, while 4.4%/year decreased in seaward zone. The fish density (abundance) in landward zone has increased to 25% from previous average density in three years, while has decreased to 39% in the seaward zone. The average fish biomass per year in the landward zone (3.53 kg/250 m2) was more than three times than that in the seaward zone (1.15 kg/250 m2) in 2009. This may be because the seaward zone was open to any kind of fishing, including destructive means. While the landward zone has an in-placed security systems provided by private sectors that prevented destructive fishing and therefore might have protected coral and fish resources. In addition, the landward zone has viable population of crocodiles known to enrich estuarine waters that enhances primary productivity and growth of resources. This situations showed that in Coral Bay, proper protection of coastal fishing grounds and resources is a must, whether located near or far settlement/development areas. This study manifests that natural resources adjacent to heavy human population are not necessarily at risk as long as the protection mechanisms are properly in-placed. Hence, the local government must jointly plan with private sectors on how to institutionalize and perpetuate the protection of the bay's resources and more studies like siltation and chemical analysis shall be conducted to augment the results of this study. Information gaps for appropriate management of the bay were recommended in this paper.

Grinang, Jongkar; Pui Yong Min & Peter K. L. Ng, 2015, A new species of tree-hole dwelling freshwater crab of the genus Arachnothelphusa Ng, 1991 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from northern Sarawak, Malaysia, Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 63: 454-460.

A new species of tree-hole gecarcinucid freshwater crab, Arachnothelphusa merarapensis, is described from a primary dipterocarp forest near Merarap Hot Spring Resort in Lawas, northern Sarawak, Malaysia. This brings the number of species in the genus Arachnothelphusa found in Borneo to five, and it is likely that more species will be discovered from this island. The new species has preference for living in water-filled tree-holes, which is the first record of a tree-hole crab for Southeast Asia. The habitat characteristics and distribution of this new species are also discussed.

Harry, Kathleen, 2015, The Brunei Rebellion of l962. Ph.D. thesis, Charles Darwin University.

The causes of the Brunei Rebellion are little known, despite attracting some attention in the literature on the history of Brunei Darussalam. This thesis posits that the revolt had four main causes and two immediate catalysts, starting with the political development of Bruneian society outside the traditional sphere. The second cause was Brunei's invitation to enter the proposed Federation of Malaysia, which was bitterly opposed by the Partai Rakyat Brunei (PRB) because of its own dreams of a Brunei-led federation of northern Borneo. Discontent within Brunei and the dysfunction of the government since the promulgation of the constitution in 1959 was the third cause, while the influence of the PRB's regional and international relationships on its perception of its own capabilities and prospects also played their part.

The first trigger for the outbreak of the rebellion was the Speaker of the Legislative Council's rejection of certain motions proposed by the PRB for the first working meeting of that body, which was taken by the Party as a sign that its hopes of implementing some of its policies were not destined to be realized. More importantly, the arrest of several members of the PRB's armed wing in Sarawak in late November 1962 were thought by the Party leadership to pose an immediate threat to the Party's very existence.

The revolt and its aftermath are also explored in detail, since there is no really comprehensive account of the entire period in the literature and there are, as a result, many questions about these events yet to be addressed.

Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tomoji Endo, Takao Itioka, Fujio Hyodo, Takashi Yamasaki and Maryati Mohamed, 2016, Pattern of co-occurrence between ant-mimicking jumping spiders and sympatric ants in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 64:70-75.

To evaluate the pattern of co-occurrence between ant-mimicking jumping spiders and sympatric ants in a tropical rainforest, we sampled these arthropods and also non-mimicking jumping spiders by net-sweeping from the understory vegetation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We collected the spiders and ants from a total of 594 sample points, with ants occurring in 445 points (79.4%), non-mimicking jumping spiders in 308 (51.9%), Agorius ant-mimicking spiders in 40 (6.7%), and Myrmarachne ant-mimicking spiders in 59 (9.9%). Frequencies of occurrence of non-mimicking jumping spiders showed no significant difference in relation to ant-occurrence, whereas both of the ant-mimicking spider genera occurred significantly more frequently with ants. Agorius spiders co-occurred with a wider variety of different ant genera, compared to Myrmarachne, but logistic regression analyses and a null model test showed no specific associations between Agorius spiders and the sympatric ant genera. The mimetic resemblances of Agorius spiders are considered to be much less ant-like than those of Myrmarachne spiders, because their constriction of the cephalothorax is not as obvious as in Myrmarachne. These data provide support for the multi-model hypothesis (Edmunds 2000), which predicted that a poor ant-mimic should occur in ranges of many different ants, compared to good ant-mimic.

Hiromitsu Samejima, E. Meijaard, J.W. Duckworth, et al., 2016, Predicted distribution of the Sunda stink-badger Mydaus javanensis (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mephitidae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 33:61-70.

The Sunda stink-badger Mydaus javanensis is a small carnivore inhabiting the Southeast Asian islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Natuna Islands. It occurs in a wide variety of vegetation types and is presently listed by The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Least Concern. We analyzed 15 (Balanced Model) or 77 (Spatial Filtering Model) location records to predict habitat suitability across Borneo. The analysis suggests that most of the suitable habitat is located in Sabah, northeast Sarawak and North Kalimantan. In addition, this species is also recorded, mostly historically, patchily in west Sarawak, and West, Central, South and East Kalimantan. Although this species appears to be disturbance-tolerant and is frequently observed in village areas, some conservation action - such as limiting large-scale forest conversion to oil palm plantations - is warranted because most lowland habitat is unprotected. Further research in central and southern Borneo needs to focus on showing if there are any further sizable populations. Also, hunting of Sunda stink-badger has been reported in some parts of Borneo and might be a possible driver for the species' patchy distribution. More research is warranted to understand what determines the species' distribution.

Hoe, Y.C., M. Gibernau, A.C.D. Maia, and S.Y. Wong, 2016, Flowering mechanisms, pollination strategies and floral scent analyses of syntopically co-flowering Homalomena spp. (Araceae) on Borneo. Plant Biology (online, 2016). doi: 10.1111/plb.12431.

In this study, the flowering mechanisms and pollination strategies of seven species of the highly diverse genus Homalomena (Araceae) were investigated in native populations of West Sarawak, Borneo. The floral scent compositions were also recorded for six species thereof. The selected taxa belong to three out of four complexes of the section Cyrtocladon (Hanneae, Giamensis and Borneensis). The species belonging to the Hanneae complex exhibited longer anthesis (53 - 62 hrs) than those of the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes (ca 30 hrs). Species belonging to the Hanneae complex underwent two floral scent emission events in consecutive days, during the pistillate and staminate phases of anthesis. In species belonging to the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes, floral scent emission was only evident to the human nose during the pistillate phase. A total of 33 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in floral scent analyses of species belonging to the Hanneae complex, whereas 26 VOCs were found in samples of those belonging to the Giamensis complex. The floral scent blends contained uncommon compounds in high concentration, which could ensure pollinator discrimination. Our observations indicate that scarab beetles (Parastasia gestroi and P. nigripennis; Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) are the pollinators of the investigated species of Homalomena, with Chaloenus schawalleri (Chrysomelidae, Galeuricinae) acting as a secondary pollinator. The pollinators utilize the inflorescence for food, mating opportunities and safe mating arena as rewards. Flower-breeding flies (Colocasiomyia nigricauda and C. aff. heterodonta; Diptera, Drosophilidae) and terrestrial hydrophilid beetles (Cycreon sp.; Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) were also frequently recovered from inflorescences belonging to of all studied species (except H. velutipedunculata), but they probably do not act as efficient pollinators. Future studies should investigate the postmating isolating barriers among syntopically co-flowering Homalomena sharing the same visiting insects.

Hoeksema, Bert & David J.W. Lane, 2014, The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 566-580.

Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognized as the center of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. Most coral reefs of Brunei are offshore, submerged patch reefs, which makes them hard to discern from the water surface. Few coral studies have been carried out here, although recently an extensive reef coral inventory has been published for Brunei. The present study builds on this inventory by presenting a focus on the mushroom coral fauna of Brunei, based on a survey of the family Fungiidae at 17 sites varying in distance offshore. The purpose of this study is to compare the mushroom coral fauna of Brunei with other faunas in the region, which have been surveyed in a similar manner. A total of 33 species has been recorded, which is similar to various locations in the Coral Triangle and other areas around northern Borneo.

Hon, Jason; Andrew J. Hearn, Joanna Ross, Hiromitsu Samejima, et al., 2016, Predicted distribution of the yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 33: 42-49.

The yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula is a wide-ranging species across much of Asia. It is active mainly during the day, is semi-arboreal and has an omnivorous diet. On Borneo, it has a wide elevation range, from coastal lowland to lower montane habitat of 1700 m a.s.l. Records from camera-trapping and other wildlife surveys imply a widespread distribution, but the species is encountered less frequently than in many other parts of its global range. We collected a total of 195 occurrence records from all political units of Borneo except South Kalimantan. To reduce possibly confounding effects of sampling bias on habitat suitability we used 56 records in a Balanced Model and 94 records in a Spatial Filtering Model. Respondents' opinions on habitat preference showed large variation, except for lowland and upland dipterocarp forests, which were consistently perceived as highly suitable; disturbed areas such as burnt forests and bare areas were perceived to be less favorable. The habitat suitability model predicted that the yellow-throated marten is widespread within Borneo, likely to occur in mosaics of lowland and upland forests, including old plantations and active logging areas; but unlikely to use young plantations and crops, perhaps including oil palm plantations. The effects of logging on yellow-throated marten are not well understood, yet the species' population size on Borneo will depend on how tree plantations and logging concessions are managed and harvested. More surveys above about 1200 m a.s.l., where information is still limited, would enable more confident habitat assessments. Further research could determine if the Bornean subspecies, M. f. saba, could be a cryptic species.

Hunt, CO. and R. Premathilke, 2012, Early holocene vegetation, human activity and climate from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Quaternary International 246:105-119.

A 40 m. core from Loagan Bunut, Malaysian Borneo, yielded a high-resolution early Holocene (11.3-6.75 ka) sequence of marginal-marine deposits. Palynological analysis showed relatively stable fire-regulated lowland forest through this time, with the local development and regression of mangrove vegetation. A general trend of rising rainfall and thus strengthening North East monsoonal circulation linked to the migration of the mean position of the ICTZ was interrupted by what may be episodes of drier climate and weakening monsoonal activity at 9250-8890, 7900 and 7600-7545 cal. BP. Magnetic susceptibility peaks suggest marked short-term ENSO-style activity superimposed upon this record. Repeated markers for open and disturbed habitats, plus occasional imported and probably-cultivated taxa, point towards human impact from the earliest Holocene on the wet tropical forest at Loagan Bunut.

Hutchison, Charles S., 2010, The North-West Borneo Trough. Marine Geology 271(1-2):32-43.

The North-West Borneo Trough is bordered along its southeast margin by a melange wedge that has been the subject of disagreement with insufficient discussion. Offshore Palawan it has been interpreted as an accretionary prism that has been preserved in place when subduction ceased in the Middle Miocene. It is unconformably overlain by undeformed Upper Miocene to Holocene draping strata. Farther southwest along the Trough, the seismically identical melange wedge has been named a Major Thrust Sheet System, which was assumed to have been thrust as a nappe northwestwards over the autochthonous Dangerous Grounds terrain of attenuated continental crust of the South China Sea passive margin.

The accretionary prism model is the simplest, resulting in interpretation of the Northwest Borneo Trough as a fossil trench. Subduction was halted by the rifted and attenuated continental crust arriving at the Benioff Zone, choking subduction and causing isostatic uplift of the Western Cordillera of Sabah. The subduction system therefore became a collision zone resulting in the term 'foredeep,' in which case the actual trench position remains obscure and somewhere towards the southeast, but shown in unrestrained geological cartoons. Enigmas remain in the Palawan area of the Philippines. The Trough position is bathymetrically obscure in places and its given position makes it impossible to derive the Calamian micro-continent from continental Asia as required from its stratigraphy. In the southwest, the Trough terminates abruptly at the West Baram Line.

The Trough contains several spectacular edifices, formerly suggested to be volcanoes or mud volcanoes but herein shown to be carbonate build-ups that were drowned, indicating that the Trough subsided too fast for build-up continuation, whereas post-rift thermal subsidence of the Dangerous Grounds was slower, allowing the Spratly Islands build-ups to continue active.

Inoue, Yoichi; Waidi Sinun, and Kazuo Okanoya, 2016, Activity budget, travel distance, sleeping time, height of activity and travel order of wild East Bornean Grey gibbons (Hylobates funereus) in Danum Valley Conservation Area. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 64: 127-138.

Activity budget, travel distance, sleeping time and height of activity of two wild East Bornean grey gibbon (Hylobates funereus) groups and travel order of one group were investigated during the dry and wet season at the Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. One male showed seasonal change in his behaviors between the dry season (August) and wet season (December). He spent more time engaged in moving, playing and grooming, traveled longer and entered the sleeping tree later in the dry season when fruit was abundant but did the opposite in wet season. On the other hand, another male gibbon whose family had a new-born baby did not show a similar seasonal behavioral change between the dry season (May-June) and wet season (December). Fruit availability and gibbon family composition, especially whether the family had a newborn baby, may have an influence on the activity budget, movement and sleeping time of East Bornean grey gibbons. Early night-tree entry may be influenced by combined factors such as fruit availability, predator avoidance and fruit competition with other animals. The female gibbon's activities occurred at greater height above the ground compared to that of males in the early morning and the late afternoon. Similar to other gibbons, the female East Bornean grey gibbon led the group more often than the male. In addition, a rare observation was made of infant carrying by the adult male when the infant was 29 months old.

Joffre, A.A.; A.K. Muhammad Ariffin, Y.W. Low, & K.M. Wong, 2015, Novitates Bruneienses: A background to the botanical survey of Brunei Darussalam, and a new species of Jarandersonia (Malvaceae). Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 67(1): 51-60.

A brief introduction to research and botanical documentation of the Brunei flora, and the collaborative program for a continuing botanical survey of the country, is given. An outline of the key biogeographical features of the Brunei area supports the premise that distinct geo-ecological enclaves occur which are special units of species richness, within which a significant level of undocumented plant diversity still exists. Jarandersonia yahyantha K.M.Wong, Joffre, Ariffin & Y.W.Low (Malvaceae), a new tree species so far only known in Brunei, is described.

Karin, Benjamin R., I. Das, A.M. Bauer, 2016, Two new species of diminutive leaf-litter skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tytthoscincus) from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia (northern Borneo). Zootaxa, 4093(3).

We describe two new species of skinks from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia, in northern Borneo, Tytthoscincus batupanggah sp. nov. and T. leproauricularis sp. nov. Morphological and molecular analyses both corroborate the two new species as unique compared to all other Tytthoscincus and additional Sphenomorphus that are candidates for taxonomic placement in the genus Tytthoscincus. Despite their phenotypic similarity and sympatric distribution, a molecular analysis shows that the new species are not sister taxa and exhibit a deep genetic divergence between each of their respective sister taxa. We discuss how historical climatic and geographic processes may have led to the co-distribution of two relatively distantly related phenotypically similar species. In light of these discoveries, we also emphasize the importance of conserving primary montane tropical rainforest for maintaining species diversity.

Kaskija, Lars, 2016, Devolved, Diverse, Distinct? Hunter-Gatherer Research in Borneo. Pp. 125-58 In: Victor T. King, Zawawi Ibrahim, and Noor Hasharina Hassan (eds.), Borneo Studies in History, Society and Culture. Asia in Transition series, No 4. Singapore: Springer.

In this chapter, past and present research on Borneo hunter-gatherers is reviewed briefly, followed by a general discussion of the category referred to as the hunter-gatherers of Borneo, their presumed origin/s, their distinctiveness, or their inclusion in wider sociopolitical contexts. It is suggested that our descriptions, besides emphasizing techno-economic factors, often emanate from rather simple dichotomies, where people and subsistence strategies are sorted into more or less ideal and homogenous types. Today, however, no simple picture of Borneo hunter-gatherers, past or present, can be put forward. Not only is our knowledge of hunter-gatherers in Borneo limited, it covers a very thin layer of time. Even though the huge data gap that exists between historic and prehistoric hunter-gatherers will never be bridged, present and future research in social or natural sciences (e.g. anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, palynology, paleobiology and genetics) will almost certainly generate an increasingly complex and ambiguous picture of Borneo hunter-gatherers, transcending any single grand theory and thereby reshaping and enriching our perception of the past, as well as the present.

King, Victor T., 2016, Some Preliminary Thoughts on Early Anthropology in Borneo. Pp. 15-34 In: King, Zawawi and Noor Hasharina 2016.

The chapter argues that the early post-war study of Borneo, primarily undertaken by anthropologists, and predominantly in what was then the British Crown Colony of Sarawak should not be viewed in narrow, parochial terms. Unfortunately, apart from Sarawak, there was little that was done in modern social science during the first two decades of the post-war era in other parts of Borneo. What was accomplished with regard to the understanding of local social organization and economies in Sarawak established an agenda for the next generation of researchers. These studies gave Borneo an academic legacy, a profile beyond the island; some publications, findings and the research training of postgraduate students were clearly more significant than others, and this chapter traces that variegated legacy. But importantly those early social scientists then moved on to expand their empirical and theoretical field of vision and link Borneo with major issues which were being debated outside Borneo Studies. Indeed, most of them had already undertaken research and training in other parts of the world prior to their research in Borneo. In that sense this formative research on Borneo was something of a staging post for the further development of our thinking about social and economic transformation in a rapidly changing world. The studies of Edmund Leach, Derek Freeman, William Geddes, Stephen Morris, T'ien Ju-K'ang, Rodney Needham, Tom Harrisson and George Appell, among others, are considered in a preliminary way to set the scene for some of the later chapters.

King, Victor T., 2016, Borneo and Beyond: Reflections on Borneo Studies, Anthropology and the Social Sciences. Pp. 79-124 In: King, Zawawi and Noor Hasharina 2016.

This overview of research on Borneo, which moves on from Chapter 2, draws attention to Borneo-wide studies, reference materials, bibliographies and a range of sources of information. It arranges the survey chronologically, thematically and in terms of debates and controversies. With regard to themes, it is argued that George Appell's categorization of concepts, themes and materials on the Iban could, with modification, provide the basis for a Borneo-wide arrangement of research. The survey proceeds from a consideration of early materials on Kalimantan, ethnic and ethnographic infilling with some conceptual development in the 1960s and 1970s, which saw the development of field research in Brunei, extension of research in Sabah, a considerable increase of research in Kalimantan, and the consolidation of research on the Iban of Sarawak. The 1980s witnessed a significant focus on development issues, policy and practice, primarily carried out by local researchers. The 1990s and beyond saw an increasing interest in issues of culture and identity across a range of thematic concerns (see Chapter 8). The discussion of debates and controversies, aside from those discussed in Chapter 2 arising from Freeman's work, comprise land tenure and rights in property; the Hoffman-derived Punan devolution issue; the intense debates about the traditional categorization of Borneo societies as either egalitarian or hierarchical; the movement from a structuralist/corporatist interest in defined social units to one that emphasized fluidity, individual agency, networks and gender; and the definition and characterization of the identity and social organization of the Maloh of West Kalimantan.

King, Victor T., 2016, Identities in Borneo: Constructions and Transformations. Pp. 177-207 In: King, Zawawi and Noor Hasharina 2016.

This chapter focuses on a rapidly expanding field of research in the social sciences in Borneo. There has been a noticeable focus on the multidisciplinary study of identities and ethnicities in Borneo in the last two decades, even though the identification of units for analysis and the labeling of ethnic groups or categories have enjoyed a long history in Borneo Studies. An important stimulus for the more recent increase in scholarly interest was the major conference held in Sarawak in 1988 which explored issues of ethnicity and then the publication by the Sarawak Museum of four volumes of papers in 1989, organized primarily in terms of the major ethnic groups identified in the state (Chin and Kedit in Sarawak Museum Journal 40:xi-xii, 1989). Other key moments in this developing interest included publications by Jerome Rousseau (Central Borneo: ethnic identity and social life in a stratified society. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990), Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing (In the realm of the diamond queen: marginality in an out-of-the-way place. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1993) and Bernard Sellato (Nomades et sedentarisation a Borneo: histoire economique et sociale. Editions de l'Ecole des hautes Etudes en sciences sociales, Paris, 1989). A more recent manifestation of this expanding interest is the edited book by Zawawi Ibrahim (Representation, identity and multiculturalism in Sarawak. Persatuan Sains Sosial Malaysia and Kuching: Dayak Cultural Foundation, Kajang, 2008b) and the volume by Peter Metcalf (The life of the longhouse: an archaeology of ethnicity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010). This chapter, which attempts an overview and analysis of the field, arranges the contributions (by no means exhaustively) into seven categories: (1) the nation-state, majorities and minorities; (2) religious conversion and identities; (3) the media, identities and nation-building; (4) borderlands, margins, migrations and identities; (5) interethnic relations and violence; (6) arenas for identity construction in tourism and museums; and finally (7) emerging middle classes, lifestyles and identities in urban settings.

King, Victor T., 2016, Borneo Studies: Perspectives from a Jobbing Social Scientist. Pp. 511-532 In: King, Zawawi and Noor Hasharina 2016.

The chapter comprises an intellectual journey through Borneo. It focuses on a particular style of research, referred to here as 'jobbing.' Popular reactions to the use of such a concept usually turn on the images that it conjures of an unprofessional and unscholarly approach to what are serious matters of academic endeavor. Research that can be characterized as 'jobbing,' it is argued, falls somewhere in the middle of a continuum from theory to practice, drawing on concepts in an eclectic and pragmatic way. In order to analyze and present materials gathered from a diverse range of sources in a logical and meaningful explanatory narrative, it is proposed that much of the research undertaken in Borneo over the last half century can also be categorized in the same fashion. The chapter ranges over 'jobbing concepts,' the relations between area studies and a jobbing lifestyle, the apprenticeship of a jobbing researcher, the ways in which research both on the Maloh of interior Kalimantan and on Borneo more generally can be appreciated from this perspective and the problems posed by globalization approaches for those whose work is rooted in the understanding of on-the-ground structures and processes.

King, Victor T., 2016, Identity, material culture and tourism: Of ritual cloths and totem poles. South East Asia Research. Published online before print 17 June 2016, doi: 10.1177/0967828X16654259.

In this study of the relationships between identity, material culture and tourism some of the different roles of the anthropologist in engaging with the wider field of cultural identity are examined. It commences with the approach of the conceptually-oriented anthropologist in addressing issues of culture, identity and ethnicity. Then it explores the role of the anthropologist in an applied mode with regard to the ritual cloths of the Iban of Sarawak, Malaysia. It argues for the importance of advocacy and persuading governments to acknowledge the importance of material emblems of identity and to ensure that indigenous knowledge and skills are sustained and contribute to local livelihoods. Finally the study considers the anthropologist as tourist and the ways in which an informed mode of travelling, in this case engaging with Northwest Coast American/Canadian Indian totem poles, can contribute to the development of a comparative anthropology of tourism. It is argued that comparisons between Sarawak and the Northwest Coast in the context of issues of identity, material culture and tourism can contribute to an understanding of the ways in which items of material culture are deployed and transformed in globalizing processes of identity construction and transformation.

Lane, David and Bert Hoeksema, 2016, Mesophotic mushroom coral records at Brunei Darussalam support westward extension of the Coral Triangle to the South China Sea waters of Northwest Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 64: 204-212.

This communication reports the discovery of two additional fungiid coral species, Cycloseris hexagonalis and Lithophyllon spinifer, from a relatively deep shelf reef in Brunei waters. These new records plus two earlier excluded ones, Cycloseris explanulata and C. wellsi, raise the known number of mushroom coral species at this Northwest Borneo location to 37 which is comparable to the number (n=35) reported for reefs of the nearby Tungku Abdul Rahman Park/Kota Kinabalu area, outside but close to the currently recognized northwest boundary of the zone of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle (CT). The fungiid species richness at Brunei is compared with those of other sites in this eastern part of the South China Sea (SCS), and the adjacent westernmost CT ecoregion. A relatively high or comparable mushroom coral richness at all these sites, a richness which is higher than several central CT reef ecoregions, supports the argument for a westward shift of the CT boundary to the SCS waters of Northwest Borneo.

Low, Yee Wen; John B. Sugau, and Khoon Meng Wong, 2016, Hydnophytum puffii (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae), a new ant-plant from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Plant Ecology and Evolution 149 (1):123-130.

Hydnophytum puffii, a linear-leaved epiphytic ant-plant is described as new from Borneo using morphological characters based on specimens preserved in the Sandakan and Singapore Herbaria. This new species is so far known only from Sabah, Malaysia. This study is based on herbarium materials and field observations in Sabah. Conventional herbarium techniques were applied fortaxonomy, while the IUCN conservation status was assessed using GeoCAT. Hydnophytum puffii is closely related to H. angustifolium Merr. but differs in having glabrous young twigs, 4-5 pairs of leaf secondary veins on the lower leaf surface, a corolla tube that is densely covered with translucent hairs inside the throat around the anthers, and prolate mature fruits. This new taxon is the only species in Borneo to have linear leaves as the other two taxa, namely H. coriaceum Becc. and H. formicarum Jack have broad elliptic leaves.

Loken, Brent, 2016, Conservation of Charismatic Endangered Species in Wehea Forest, Borneo: Interplay of Ecological and Social Factors in a Community-Based Conservation Project. PhD thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Borneo is blessed with incredible biodiversity, including some of the most charismatic endangered species on the planet. Yet despite being recognized as a biodiversity hotspot, Borneo's forests, and the biodiversity contained therein, are being lost faster than anywhere else on the planet, with the main threats from habitat loss and hunting. Given the perceived failure of protected areas on Borneo to conserve biodiversity, some NGOs are implementing community-based conservation (CBC) and believe that win-win solutions are possible since biodiversity can be protected and human welfare improved with a single approach. However, on Borneo, where local communities were marginalized and natural resource institutions eroded during the Suharto era, the appropriateness of using CBC to protect biodiversity, especially elusive and low-density species, has not been investigated. In this thesis, I aim to advance our understanding of the conservation of charismatic endangered species on Borneo by examining the interplay of ecological and social factors in conserving the Bornean clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi borneensis), Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeaus morio), and Miller's Grizzled Langur (Presbytis hosei canicrus), in Wehea Forest, East Kalimantan. I used camera trapping and spatial-capture recapture modeling to estimate density and inferred the vulnerability of each species to threats by using estimates of abundance and conclusions drawn from my camera trapping studies. To help understand critical social factors of the Wehea CBC that could compromise the long-term viability of these three species in Wehea Forest, I used insights from common-pool resource theory and drew on my experience of being immersed with the Wehea Dayak for almost 4 years. Given the specific ecological and social factors found within Wehea, I conclude that a win-win outcome may be not possible. Either the long-term viability of these species may need to be compromised for the sake of human well-being, or the current protected area will have to be maintained at the expense of poverty alleviation. Since the ecological and social factors found within Wehea may be characteristic across Borneo, we should be careful not to automatically assume that CBC is the most effective approach for protecting wide ranging and low-density charismatic endangered species.

Lunkapis, G. J. and H. W. Danny, 2016, Preliminary impact assessment of seaweed cultivation by the coastal communities in Sabah, Malaysia. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2):413-20.

Seaweed is found in abundance and grows naturally in the east coast of Sabah. The local communities traditionally plant seaweed as part of their socio-economic activities. During the 10th Malaysia Plan or RMK-10 (2010-2015), this long endowed economic activity was identified to have a high yield potential and thereafter, was promoted as one of the most promising sectors in the National Key Economic Areas (NKEA) under the Entry Point Project (EPP 3). Substantial seaweed funding allocations were given to several agencies and thereafter, seaweed farming was promoted with a two-pronged strategy: to increase the national income and to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the local communities. This research was aimed at looking at the impact of seaweed industries among the coastal communities, with a case study in Semporna, Sabah. The methods used were mostly qualitative, with data being collected through interviews, field observations, questionnaire forms and secondary references. The survey results showed that four systems are being used by the state to implement the seaweed industry. Each system has its own weaknesses and strengths, and has had a different impact on the economy of the state as well as on the local communities. The efficiency of each system was compared and evaluated. The lessons learned should be useful in enhancing the visibility of the seaweed industry in Malaysia.

Marie, Pierre, Frederico F. Salles, and Jean-Luc Gattolliat. 2016, Two new species of Bungona Harker, 1957 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Borneo, Indonesia. Zootaxa 4088 (2):221-35;

Two new species of Bungona, belonging to the subgenera Chopralla Waltz & McCafferty, 1987 and Centroptella Braasch & Soldan, 1980, are described based on larvae from Kalimantan (Borneo, Indonesia). Bungona (Centroptella) papilionodes n. sp. is the third species described for the subgenus. It can be distinguished from Bungona (Centroptella) longisetosa (Braasch & Soldan, 1980) and Bungona (Centroptella) soldani (Miiller-Liebenau, 1983) by the length of the maxillary palp, the presence or absence of an additional small denticle on the lateral margin of the distal incisor, and the supination of the paraproct. This new report of the subgenus greatly increases its geographic range of distribution, as it was known only from Sri Lanka and China. Bungona (Chopralla) bintang n. sp. is the seventh species described for the subgenus Chopralla and the second described from Borneo. It differs from others species of the subgenus and especially from Bungona (Chopralla) pusilla (Muller-Liebenau, 1984) (Borneo) by the combination of lacking hindwing pads, the particular spination of distal margins of tergites, and the shape of the maxillary palp. The two new species fit into the recently revised concepts of Chopralla and Centroptella and confirm the characters used to support these taxa as valid subgenera.

Mathew, M.J., D. Menier, N. Siddiqui, S.G. Kumar, and C. Authemayou, 2016, Active tectonic deformation along rejuvenated faults in tropical Borneo: Inferences obtained from tectono-geomorphic evaluation. Geomorphology (267):1-15.

The island of Borneo is enveloped by tropical rainforests and hostile terrain characterized by high denudation rates. Owing to such conditions, studies pertaining to neotectonics and consequent geomorphic expressions with regard to surface processes and landscape evolution are inadequately constrained. Here we demonstrate the first systematic tectono-geomorphic evaluation of north Borneo through quantitative and qualitative morphotectonic analysis at sub-catchment scale, for two large drainage basins located in Sarawak: the Rajang and Baram basins. The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital elevation models arranged within a GIS environment focuses on hypsometric curve analysis, distribution of hypsometric integrals through spatial autocorrelation statistics, relative uplift values, the asymmetry factor and the normalized channel steepness index. Hypsometric analysis suggests a young topography adjusting to changes in tectonic boundary conditions. Autocorrelation statistics show clusters of high values of hypsometric integrals as prominent hotspots that are associated with less eroded, young topography situated in the fold and thrust belts of the Interior Highlands of Borneo. High channel steepness and gradients (N200m0.9) are observed in zones corresponding to the hotspots. Relative uplift values reveal the presence of tectonically uplifted blocks together with relatively subsided or lesser uplifted zones along known faults. Sub-catchments of both basins display asymmetry indicating tectonic tilting. Stream longitudinal profiles demonstrate the presence of anomalies in the form of knickzones without apparent lithological controls along their channel reaches. Surfaces represented by cold spots of low HI values and low channel gradients observed in the high elevation headwaters of both basins are linked to isolated erosional planation surfaces that could be remnants of piracy processes. The implication of our results is that Borneo experiences active folding of the Rajang Group fold-thrust belt to present and these events reactivated old major faults and minor related dislocations. From geomorphic analysis associated with sedimentary record, we posit that the terrain could have undergone high uplift rates since 5 Ma or multi-phased uplift with periodic intermittent pulses of high and low uplift rates.

Matsui, Masafumi; Kanto Nishikawa & Koshiro Eto, 2014, A new burrow-utilising fanged frog from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 679-687.

We found a unique, burrow-utilizing dicroglossid frog of the genus Limnonectes from western Sarawak, East Malaysia. This frog is always found near burrows on the ground, into which it escapes when disturbed. It is much divergent from other congeners in morphology and mtDNA sequences. This species is nested using molecular phylogeny in a clade with Bornean populations of L. kuhlii complex and L. hikidai, but differs completely from the others by having relatively smooth skin, distinct tympanum, and chocolate brown dorsum with tiny blue spots laterally. We thus describe it as a new species and discuss its unique habit of burrow utilization.

Meijaard, Erik; Andrew Hearn, Joanna Ross, Gabriella Fredriksson, John Mathai, et al., 2016, Predicted distribution of the Malay weasel Mustela nudipes (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 33: 50-54.

Malay weasel Mustela nudipes is restricted to the Sundaic sub-region, in Borneo, Sumatra and the Malay-Thai peninsula. A distribution model suggested that the species is widespread on Borneo and occurs in a wide range of habitats. The ecology of the species is poorly known, making it difficult to predict how its populations are likely to be affected by ongoing deforestation and forest degradation. A summary of likely key habitats and priority actions for this species on Borneo is provided.

Minton, Gianna, Anna Norliza Zulkifli Poh, Cindy Peter, Lindsay Porter, Danielle Kreb, 2016, Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak. Advances in Marine Biology (73):141-56.

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually

small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus.

Miyabi Nakabayashi, Abdul Hamid Ahmad and Shiro Kohshima, 2015, Fruit selection of a binturong (Arctictis binturong) by focal animal sampling in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. DOI 10.1515/mammalia-2015-0009. Received January 14, 2015; accepted November 25, 2015. PDF available online.

We investigated fruit selection of a radio-collared female binturong (Arctictis binturong pageli Schwarz, 1911) by focal animal sampling in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We recorded seven food species from 12 feeding trees over 16 months. The radio-collared binturong fed only ripe fig fruits (Ficus spp., Moraceae), suggesting that her diet largely depended on figs. As the present study was based on only one female individual, more efforts are needed to elucidate the feeding ecology of this cryptic carnivore.

M. Saiful Islam and Hazirah S. Abdullah, 2016, Fabric that weaves stories: Pua kumbu and contemporary Iban identity construction in Sarawak, Malaysia. Asian Ethnicity 17(2):258-72.

This article examines the process of identity construction among the Iban indigenous people of Sarawak in Malaysia through pua kumbu - their sacred and ritual cloth. Although the Ibans are popularly known for their headhunting practices and longhouse dwellings, these cultural practices are in major decline and therefore pua kumbu is brought to the forefront as a significant means of identity construction. By illustrating the meanings, narratives, and ceremonies associated with pua kumbu, this article demonstrates that pua kumbu is not just a piece of sacred or ritual cloth; rather, it has significant meanings in the everyday life of the Ibans. It connects the Ibans with distinctly eternal meanings of their life and cosmology, past histories, and their connections to the physical environment. It thus helps the process of maintaining a boundary and identity construction of the Ibans by distinguishing between 'us and them' - the Ibans and others.

Md. Shamim Parvez, M. Aminur Rahman, and Fatimah Md. Yusoff, 2016, Sea urchin fisheries in Malaysia: Status, potentials and benefits. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Sciences, 4(1), online. ISSN 2320-4087.

Sea urchins are marine invertebrates, inhabiting the depths of coral reefs and rocky shores that are covered with coraline algae and seaweeds. They are usually spherical in shape, and their whole body is covered by numerous thorns or spines that act as defense mechanism against predators. The sea urchin gonad has been used as luxury food and folk medicine by the peoples of certain countries. For this reason, sea urchin became an important product and fetches high price in international markets. It also plays an important role towards providing employment opportunity and income source to the coastal communities in many Pacific island countries including Malaysia. Sea urchin gonad is very rich in essential proteins, lipids and bioactive compounds having profound nutraceutical and pharmaceutical importance. Nowadays, sea urchins have been harvested for trade with Asia and are perhaps one of the worthy exports from the Indo-Pacific islands. Unluckily, owing to increasing demand and prices, combined with the development of cash economies and growing coastal populations, it has led to extensive overfishing of the resource across much of this region, especially in Pulau Bum Bum near Semporna between Philippines and Eastern Malaysia. Nevertheless, some Pacific island countries have completed research trials on breeding, nursing and culture techniques, but such kinds of research works in Malaysia are still in the initial stage of accomplishment. Currently, indiscriminate catching and over-exploitation of sea urchin turns out to be excessive and disrupts its sustainability. Under this prevailing situation, aquaculture of sea urchins through the appropriate breeding, larval rearing, seed production and culture techniques in captivity should be the best approach to solve these problems in a worthwhile manner.

Mohammad Shawkat Hossain, Japar Sidik Bujang, Muta Harah Zakaria, and Mazlan Hashim, 2016, Marine and human habitat mapping for the Coral Triangle Initiative region of Sabah using Landsat and Google Earth imagery. Marine Policy 72(71):176-91.

The governments of the six Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have expressed their commitment to protecting marine ecosystems and improving management systems. Achieving the above commitment requires detailed baseline information on the spatial distribution and extent of the marine resources, such as seagrass meadows, coral reef, mangrove forests and seaweed beds, as well as the ability to successfully interpret and understand these data. This study examined a combination of Landsat image enhancement technique and pixel-based regional growing tools to create a map of marine and human habitats with five classes-of-interest: seagrass, land, coral and coral rubble, subsurface sand/mud, land, and human habitats for twelve islands of eastern Sabah of East Malaysia (extending from 4[degrees] 42' N, 118[degrees] 31' E to 4[degrees] 12' N, 118[degrees] 50' E), located in the south-eastern boundary of Palawan/North Borneo Ecoregion (extending from 14[degrees] 31' N, 116[degrees] 52' E to 0[degrees] 0.04' N, 122[degrees] 12' E) of the CTI implementation area. Using this method, an overall accuracy of >75% was achieved for mapping of those class-of-interest types. The estimated seagrass areal coverage is 274 ha, of which 158 ha (58% of the total area) occurred in relatively shallow water areas. Using Google Earth data, seaweed culture sites with a total area of 7114 ha were observed around 7 of the 12 islands. The mapping approach and the results of the study will be of immense benefit to natural resource management of the study area through enabling conservation agencies to prioritize seagrass, coral, seaweed or marine conservation sites and to document local threats to those habitats.

Nakabayashi, Miyabi; Yoshihiro Nakashima; Hearn, Andrew J, et al., 2016, Predicted distribution of the common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphrodites (Mammalia: Camivora: Viverridae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement 33:84-88.

The common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus is a small carnivore occurring in a broad array of habitats on Borneo, including logged and unlogged forest, cultivated land, and the outskirts of villages and towns. It is assigned incomplete legal protection in Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam. In addition, the recent, rapidly expanding increase in capture for use in civet coffee production, especially in Indonesia, might adversely affect its population. We used 67 (Balanced Model) and 113 (Spatial Filtering Model) occurrence records within a MaxEnt niche distribution modelling approach to predict its current possible distribution on Borneo. A large proportion of Borneo is predicted to be suitable habitat, including human-modified areas such as plantations. Predicted suitability was lower in coastal regions. Despite its high adaptability to habitat change, conservation actions for this species might be needed because it is widely caught for the production of civet coffee and killed as a pest or for meat. Further research is needed to investigate how these legal and illegal activities affect the common palm civet populations.

Nani Suryani Haji Abu Bakar, 2006, Brunei's political development between 1966 and 1984: Challenges and difficulties over its security and survival. PhD thesis, University of Leeds, August 2006.

After conducting extensive research at the Public Record Office at Kew, London, which involved unearthing documents pertaining to Brunei-UK relationships between 1966 and 1984,1 decided to focus my work on Brunei's political development between those periods of time. While I focused my work on this field, it became obvious that Brunei's security and survival remained the main issues that posed challenges and difficulties to the Sultans of Brunei. Starting in 1966, it was indeed a crucial year because this was when Britain decided to end its protection over Brunei. As a result of this decision, Britain put more pressure on the Sultan to implement a democratic system of government in the Sultanate. Britain's insistence that the Sultan should implement the system was supported by Malaysia and Brunei's local party. This demand for democracy posed challenges and difficulties concerning Brunei's security and survival, as it could reduce the power of the Sultan and would bring Brunei within Malaysia. Britain's decision also troubled the Sultan, as it would leave Brunei inadequately protected from any internal and external threats or attacks. Consequently the Sultan was apprehensive over Malaysia, which still wanted to bring Brunei within the Federation of Malaysia, and Indonesia for its past support of the 1962 Bruneian ex-rebels and for harboring the leader of the rebellion, Azahari, after the end of the rebellion. In this study I hope to give a clearer understanding of Brunei's history particularly between 1966 and 1984, as previous authors of Brunei's history have either not touched at all or only touched briefly on Britain's demands on the Sultan to implement a democratic system of government and Malaysia's persistent objective to bring Brunei within Malaysia. Furthermore, none of the authors of Brunei's history has studied in any detail the issues arising from Malaysia's intention to bring Brunei within Malaysia, i.e., the escape of Brunei's 1962 ex-rebels to Limbang (which made Brunei's call for the return of Limbang an urgent matter) and the- ex-rebels' political activities outside Brunei between 1973 and 1975, which had the support of the Malaysian government and other foreign countries and international organizations.

This study benefits from the use of the documents pertaining to Brunei-UK relationships (from 1966 onwards) that are available at the Public Record Office but that previous authors of Brunei's history have not used. Although there is a shortcoming in this study that is the unavailability of records for the period 1976 until 1984, I have used local and foreign newspapers and secondary materials which are available in various institutions both in Brunei and abroad. In addition, I have carried out interviews with key figures pertaining to the issues mentioned above in order to pursue the study. The method used in the study is chronological so that the events and issues highlighted in this thesis can be adequately discussed and followed.

Nurain Musi, Nazirah Mustaffa, Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya, 2016, First record of the female of the praying mantis Mythomantis Serrata (Order: Mantodea) from Sabah, Borneo. Journal of Tropical Biology & Conservation (13); page numbers n/a.

We present the first record of the female of Mythomantis serrata, collected from Imbak Canyon Conservation Area, Sabah. This species was described by Schwarz& Helmkampf in 2014 based on male specimens collected from Gunung Mulu, Sarawak and Danum Valley, Sabah, Borneo. This species can be distinguished from the other Mythomantis species, M. confusa and M. gracilis, based on the presence of sawtooth-like lobes along the sides of the pronotum, and the concave margins of its supra-anal plate. The female individual of this species possesses similar morphological characters like those seen in males. The description of the female specimen follows Schwarz & Helmkampf (2014).

O'Hara, M.C., 2016, Investigating the regularity of linear enamel hypoplasia in Bornean and Sumatran orangutans and in a primate community from Sabah, Borneo. MA thesis, Ohio State University.

Developmental defects of tooth enamel are generally associated with systemic physiological stress, such as malnutrition and disease, and have recently been linked to seasonal stresses caused by environmental factors such as rainfall and fruit availability. The present study systematically evaluates whether developmental defects of enamel occur with any cyclicity in samples of primates from Southeast Asia, and whether cycles differ between environments, as has been suggested. The chronological sequence of defects was first compared between Bornean and Sumatran orangutans to see whether cycle periodicity differs. A second analysis compared the timing of defect occurrence among seven different primate species all from the same environment and time period (Kinabatangan River, Borneo, 1937). Previous research suggested that environmental factors influence the timing and acquisition of developmental defects and that different environments should be expected to impose different patterns of stress.

Here, it was hypothesized that if systemic physiological stresses, such as low caloric intake or disease stress, are strongly influenced by environmental seasonality, then some species might experience these stresses according to a similar schedule. However, given that the causes of developmental enamel defects are multi-factorial, it was alternatively hypothesized that no regular patterning related to environmental cycles would be found across individuals or species either between or within environments.

To evaluate whether enamel defects occur cyclically, the entire sequence of enamel growth and not just the intervals between defects had to be considered. This was achieved by creating standard perikymata profiles (SPPs), or standardized teeth, for each sex and species that allowed individual developmental sequences (IDSs) to be generated for each individual, tracking the position of each defect in the context of continuous perikymata (time). The SPPs allowed the number of perikymata between every pair of defects to be estimated, not just those pairs that have continuously visible, unworn perikymata between them. The IDSs allowed autocorrelation, a form of time-series statistical analysis, to be run to identify cycles of defect expression during an individual's development.

Autocorrelation revealed cycles of defect expression within individuals, but no common cycle periodicities were identified between individuals of the same species or across species. Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii only differed in the average number of LEH acquired per year with P. pygmaeus acquiring defects faster; all other analyses including number of defects, number of perikymata between defects, and autocorrelation analysis revealed no differences between the two species. Significant differences were identified in the rate of defect and LEH acquisition for the Kinabatangan species. Differences were also identified in the average number of perikymata between defects, although the differences disappeared when males and females were evaluated separately.

Although no overarching cycles of defect acquisition were identified for the species in this study, the method described for using standard perikymata profiles and autocorrelation analysis is robust and can be used in future studies.

Pang Siew Yong, A. Ramasamy, Yew Weng Kean and V.K. Ramachandaramurthy, 2016, Design of pv/wind hybrid system with improved control strategy for rural area: Case study of Sandakan, Malaysia. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(48):l-5.

Many villagers in East Malaysia are still depending on diesel generator as their electric source. Due to the high transportation fees for the diesel, the cost to operate the diesel generator are more expensive compared to the market price in urban areas. Hybrid renewable energy systems are being implemented in the rural areas to replace the diesel generators. The hybrid system will not only reduce the cost of power, but the carbon dioxide emission as well. In this paper, an AC bus off-grid Pv/Wind hybrid system is designed using PSCAD to be used for rural electrification. This project designed a solar-windbattery hybrid renewable energy system with a capacity of 13kW and 3kW for solar and wind respectively. The design includes an improved control strategy that does not require any dump load. The off grid hybrid system is designed and simulated for a typical load of 20 houses in Sandakan. Sandakan was selected as it has the required wind speed for wind energy. The simulation results clearly indicate that the proposed controller is able to regulate the voltage and frequency within limits for various environmental and load conditions.

Polus, R.C., C. Bidder and T.E. Jones, 2016, Understanding tourists' motives and sought experiences at Sandakan Memorial Park Borneo. Asian Journal of Tourism Research l(l):149-66.

Sandakan Memorial Park was established to commemorate the suffering and death of British and Australian soldiers and other civilians that were imprisoned in Sandakan by the Japanese army during the Second World War between 1942 until 1945. Using Sandakan Memorial Park as a case study, this paper seeks to contribute to the literature on dark tourism by looking at the phenomenon in terms of visitor motivation and engagement. A mixed method of inquiry utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approaches was adopted in order to verify identified variables and achieve the study's objectives. Contrary to prevailing scholarship on dark tourism, the study discovered that morbid curiosity and the contemplation of death were not among the primary reasons that western tourists visited Sandakan Memorial Park. Rather, especially in the case of Australian tourists, the perception of national heritage and a desire to learn were the key motivating factors. This paper also highlights the importance of on-site interpretation as a means to enhance the didactic and emotional value of the tourist experience at a dark tourism site.

Pugh-Kitingan, J., 2016, An Overview of Cultural Research in Sabah. Pp. 235-59 In: Victor T. King, Zawawi Ibrahim, and Noor Hasharina Hassan (eds.), Borneo Studies in History, Society and Culture. Asia in Transition series, No 4. Singapore: Springer.

Set against a background sketch of its peoples and cultures, this chapter traces the history of cultural research in Sabah, the East Malaysian state situated in northern Borneo. It takes the reader from accounts by European explorers and missionaries, and records of officers of the British North Borneo Chartered Company in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to post-Second World War research and the eventual development of the Sabah Society, the Department of Sabah Museum, the Borneo Research Council and the Institut Linguistik SIL-Cawangan Malaysia (now SIL Malaysia). It then briefly introduces some of the social and cultural research done since the establishment of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) in 1994, especially under its former School of Social Sciences (that combined with the School of Arts to form the Faculty of Humanities, Arts and Heritage in 2014), some of its research units and the Kadazandusun Chair. The discussion highlights some of the main researchers and their work over the years, especially in the fields of anthropology, linguistics, archaeology and ethnomusicology.

Ross, Joanna; Andrew Hearn, David Macdonald, Gono Semiadi, et al., 2016, Predicted distribution of the banded civet Hemigalus derbyanus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Viverridae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 33:111-117.

The banded civet Hemigalus derbyanus is a small, little-known civet with a geographical range comprising Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra and some associated islands), Malaysia, Brunei, peninsular Myanmar and peninsular Thailand. Habitat loss and degradation are the main threats to the species leading to its classification as globally Vulnerable by The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The banded civet uses degraded habitat to some extent, but its exact ecological requirements and the extent of its dependence on primary forest are unknown. We analyzed 65 (Balanced Model) and 104 (Spatial Filtering Model) location records of the banded civet to predict habitat suitability on Borneo. The resulting model predicted the majority of Borneo to be suitable habitat; although in general, the low-lying coastal areas, swamp forests and high-altitude areas were predicted to be unsuitable. Given this large area of predicted suitable habitat and the high overlap of habitat suitability and protected areas, the results from the distribution modeling do not suggest any urgent special conservation measures for the banded civet beyond maintenance of the current remaining forested habitat and protected areas. However, protection and, in some cases, ecological rehabilitation of habitat corridors will also be important to ensure connectivity among populations in increasingly isolated protected areas.

Ryota Aoyagi, Nobuo Imai. Tatsuyuki Seino, and Kanehiro Kitayama, 2016, Soil nutrients and size-dependent tree dynamics of tropical lowland forests on volcanic and sedimentary substrates in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Tropics, 25(2):43-52.

Soil nutrient concentrations and tree dynamics were examined in two Bornean tropical forests on contrasting geological substrates, one on volcanic and the other on sedimentary rocks. Concentrations of P extracted by the Hadley fractionation method and inorganic N of topsoils were much greater in the volcanic site than in the sedimentary site. Dipterocarps showed greater relative growth rates in the volcanic site than in the sedimentary site at the smallest size class (10cm [less than or equal to] diameter at breast height<20cm), but not at larger size classes. Dipterocarps in the two sites demonstrated the same values of crown position index (a surrogate of light conditions), implying that the greater tree growth in the volcanic site was associated with the greater soil nutrient availability, but not with light availability. On the other hand, relative growth rates of non-dipterocarps did not differ between the sites at all size classes despite the considerable differences in the soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting that factors other than N and P availabilities limit the growth of these trees. Contrary to growth rate, annual mortality rate was greater in the volcanic site at all size classes for all phylogenetic groups. Our results suggest that the volcanic site is characterized as high soil nutrient availability and a greater tree turnover, and that tree size is an important factor that differentiates tree growth between the two tropical forests with contrasting nutrient availabilities.

Sang, Julia, and Ruth Kiew, 2014, Diversity of begonia (Begoniaceae) in Borneo-How many species are there? Reinwardtia 14(1): 233-236.

A total of 126 species are currently named and described from Borneo (Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan - 5 species, Sabah - 41 species and Sarawak - 72 species). However, based on our survey of the begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa (about 110 species) significantly outnumber the 72-named species. The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah begonia flora can be expected to exceed 100 species. For Kalimantan (5 named species), the total number of un-named species is likely to be even higher considering that Kalimantan occupies a larger land area, its begonia-rich mountains and limestone areas are hardly collected, and the begonia flora has hardly been studied at all. We can therefore expect the begonia flora of Borneo to exceed 600 species. In view of the high level of narrow endemism (80% of species are known from a single locality), expeditions to unexplored areas are necessary to document, in particular, areas that are experiencing irreversible land-use change. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species.

Sanggin, S.E., Neilson I Ian Mersat, Wong Swee Kiong, etal., 2016, Natural resources and indigenous people's livelihood strategies: A case study of human communities in the headwaters of Engkari River, Sri Aman, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Business and Economics, 7(2):243-9. DOI: 10.15341/jbe(2155-7950)/02.07.2015/007.

This paper discusses the livelihood strategies and the environment in which the Iban of Rumah Jaong of the headwaters of Engkari River survives on and the challenges faced by its residents. The livelihood of the small Iban community depends on the natural resources for survival. Rivers serve as the source of food, domestic water supply and means of transportation. Forests, on the other hand, serve as source of food, timber and building materials, and to a lesser extent, as a people's hunting ground. To many outsiders, life in the headwaters of Engkari River is easily perceived as difficult and very challenging. However, for the local residents of a community living in the interior and remote part of Sarawak, such as in headwaters of Engkari river, life is considered 'normal' where the practice of mixed farming consisting of shifting cultivation of hill rice and with small plots of rubber and/or pepper garden seems sufficient to sustain the people's livelihood, at least for now.

Santamaria, M.C.M., 2016, "Temple of Dance?": Interrogating the Sanskritization of Pangalay. Asian Studies: Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia, 52(1): 13-37.

This paper interrogates the idea that pangalay, a Southern Philippine dance tradition of the Tausug (a.k.a. Suluk) people, means "temple of dance" in Sanskrit, arguing on the contrary that it is mainly Austronesian in origin. In the works of Ligaya Fernando-Amilbangsa, pangalay is presented as a pre-Christian and pre-Islamic dance tradition, and that the dance label means "temple of dance" in Sanskrit. This process of Sanskritization of what I argue is an Austronesian cultural artifact warrants a close review. To deconstruct this discourse on pangalay, I situate it within the scholarship on the Indianization of Southeast Asia, and on India-Philippine cultural relations. I also conduct a linguistic analysis of the phrase, "Temple of Dance" to show the pangalay does not carry that meaning. Part 1 gives a brief introduction to pangalay and related traditions in the southern Philippines. Part 2 discusses the frameworks of "Indianization". Part 3 features the linguistic analysis of the phrase, "temple of dance". The paper concludes by discussing alternative views culture and dance in the Philippines.

Sather, Clifford, 2016, The Sugi sakit: Ritual storytelling in a Saribas Iban rite of healing. Wacana: Jurnal llmu Pengetahuan Budaya 17(2): 251-277.

This paper describes a Saribas Iban rite of healing called the Sugi Sakit. What distinguished this rite from other forms of Saribas Iban healing was that it incorporated within its performance a long narrative epic concerned with the adventures and love affairs of an Iban culture hero named Bujang Sugi. Here I explore the language used by Iban priest bards both in telling the Sugi epic and in performing the larger ritual drama in which it was set, and look, in particular, at how the Sugi epic, which was otherwise told for entertainment, was integrated into this drama and recast by the priest bards as they performed the ritual, so that it not only entertained their listeners, but also served as a serious instrument of healing [author].

Semiadi, G., Ross, J., Hearn, A.J., et al,, 2016, Predicted distribution of the masked palm civet Paguma larvata (Mammalia: Carnivora: Viverridae) on Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No 33: 89-95.

The masked palm civet Paguma larvata is a small carnivore within the civet family Viverridae, currently listed as Least Concern on The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Across its global range the masked palm civet uses a range of habitats in tropical and subtropical regions, from lowlands to highlands, but its exact ecological requirements and the use of modified habitat remains unclear. We analyzed 49 (Balanced Model) and 72 (Spatial Filtering Model) location records of the masked palm civet from Borneo to predict habitat suitability. The resulting model predicted the interior and high elevation areas of Borneo to be suitable habitat, while the coastal and other low-lying areas, such as the extensive peat swamp forests in Central Kalimantan, were predicted to be unsuitable. Greater survey effort in South, Central and West Kalimantan and in Brunei is necessary to obtain more records to improve current models and understanding. The species is probably widespread in Borneo and its likely stronghold is in the higher-elevation forests which are currently less threatened and for a large part protected. Thus, species-specific conservation efforts are not considered warranted at this time.

Styring, A.R., Roslina Ragai, Mohamed Zakaria, and F.H. Sheldon, 2016, Foraging ecology and occurrence of 7 sympatrie babbler species (Timaliidae) in the lowland rainforest of Borneo and peninsular Malaysia. Current Zoology (2016):1-11. doi: 10.1093/cz/zow022.

Understanding foraging strategies of birds is essential to understanding mechanisms of their community assembly. To provide such information on a key Southeast Asian rainforest family, the babblers (Timaliidae), we evaluated foraging behavior and abundance in 7 morphologically and behaviorally similar sympatric species (Cyanoderma erythropterum, C. ruflfrons, Stachyris maculata, S. nigricollis, S. poliocephala, Macronus ptilosus, and Mixornis gularis) in 5 habitats defined by structural complexity: (1) continuous native rainforest, (2) logged native rainforest fragments, (3) mature industrial tree plantation, (4) young industrial plantation, and (5) oil palm plantation. Enough data were obtained to compare abundance in all 7 species and foraging behavior in 5. All species were common in forest fragments and mature industrial tree plantations and less so in continuous rainforest and young industrial plantations; only M. gularis occurred in oil palm. In terms of foraging, M. gularis was the greatest generalist; C. ruflfrons foraged mainly on live leaves in the forest midstory; and S. maculata, C. erythropterum, and M. ptilosus foraged mainly on dead leaves suspended in understory vegetation at significantly different heights. The dead-leaf substrate depends on a rich supply of falling leaves and extensive understory structure, conditions most common in native forest and old industrial plantations, and less so in mature forest, young plantations, and oil palm. Because of the importance of foraging data to understanding and managing biodiversity, we encourage the development of foraging fields in eBird (, so that birdwatchers may help collect these relatively rare data.

Svizzero, Serge and Clem Tisdell, 2015, The persistence of hunting and gathering economies, Social Evolution & History 14(2): 3-26.

After agriculture commenced ten thousand years ago, hunting and gathering economies are supposed to have shrunk rapidly, almost vanishing except in areas unsuitable for cultivation. We demonstrate that, even after the diffusion of agropastoralism, some of these economies persisted until recent times and some even survive nowadays. We develop three main arguments. First, foraging should be viewed as a possible optimal alternative to farming. Second, some foragers were involved into a dual economy in which they traded with farmers. Moreover, food procurement (gathering and hunting) and food production were combined by some groups of people. While these mixed-economies are often perceived as a necessary but temporary and an unstable stage in cultural evolution, in some cases, they proved to be a stable end-point or to be sustained for a very long time. Third, it is argued that some hunter-gatherers did not adopt agriculture owing to their values, beliefs and institutions.

Thambiah, S., 2016, Bhuket material culture and Kayan stratification in Sarawak, Malaysia: Mats and baskets as instruments of social differentiation. Indonesia and the Malay World 44(130):307-26.

This article sets out to show that baskets and mats transcend their utilitarian importance and act as social instruments when they are decorated with intricate designs and patterns. The focus is not into the usual areas of aesthetics, style, and history, and emphasis is instead on the artistic objects' social utility as instruments of social differentiation or as rank markers. The users or owners of this material culture, the Kayan people of upper Balui, Sarawak, Malaysia, use them in cultural processes that maintain and enhance stratification, but this does not have the same effect for the producers of the art form, the hunter-gatherer Bhuket, though they may gain in terms of status and fame as recognition for their skill. The article discusses the origin of and beliefs related to plaiting and related processes involved in mat and basket making, and these objects as social instruments for stratification. Some examples of the meaning of patterns on mats and baskets as symbols of social differentiation are also provided.

Tuck, S.L., M.J. O'Brien, CD. Philipson, et al., 2016, The value of biodiversity for the functioning of tropical forests: insurance effects during the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.1451.

One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In Southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the 'insurance hypothesis' predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in species traits and ecologies. To test for potential insurance effects, we analyze the patterns of seedling mortality and growth in monoculture and mixture plots over the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment. Our results reveal the species differences required for potential insurance effects including a trade-off in which species with denser wood have lower growth rates but higher survival. This trade-off was consistent over time during the first decade, but growth and mortality varied spatially across our 500 ha experiment with species responding to changing conditions in different ways. Overall, average survival rates were extreme in monocultures than mixtures consistent with a potential insurance effect in which monocultures of poorly surviving species risk recruitment failure, whereas monocultures of species with high survival have rates of self-thinning that are potentially wasteful when seedling stocks are limited. Longer-term monitoring as species interactions strengthen will be needed to more comprehensively test to what degree mixtures of species spread risk and use limited seedling stocks more efficiently to increase diversity and restore ecosystem structure and functioning.

Wong, A.B.H. and Annan H. Fikri, 2016, Aquaculture, aquarium, conservation & legislation. International Journal of the Bioflux Society 9(5): 1078-89.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of land use on aquatic insect communities in and around the streams of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia. Five sampling stations were selected from pristine streams (S1 and S2) and streams in the vicinity of human activities (S3, S4, and S5). Aquatic insects were sampled using Surber net from June 2012 to January 2013. A total of 10,360 individuals of aquatic insects from nine orders, 49 families, and 67 genera were collected. Order Coleoptera (27%), Ephemeroptera (26%), Trichoptera (24%) were the common orders found in the streams of Kinabalu Park. Stenelmis spp. (12%) was the dominant taxa, followed by Psephenus spp. (10%) and Hydropsyche spp. (8%). Pristine streams generally had higher total abundance, genera richness and diversity of aquatic insects. Based on the water parameters, all stations were classified as Class I. Biotic indices rated most stations were not impacted, but lower values were found in S3, S4, and S5. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that water temperature, canopy cover, water velocity and stream width were the most influential environmental parameters on aquatic insect assemblages in the streams of Kinabalu Park.

Zanariah Ahmad Ishak, Siti; Siti Haslina Hussin, MaliaTaibi, et al., 2016, Sarawak Malays and development agenda in the newspaper. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 11(2): 387-405. ISSN: 1823-884x.

Research has focused on newspaper content and news pattern using the development media framework but few studies have investigated the impact of ethnicity on newspaper content. This study examined the media portrayal of Sarawak Malays in the year 2000 and the role of newspaper owners in the selection and publication of news. An English newspaper, The Sarawak Tribune, owned by a Melanau with political links to the Sarawak government was chosen. Using content analysis, data collected were classified into 18 news categories. This study incorporates the analysis of news patterns and interviews with the editors. Findings indicate that the Sarawak Malays are mostly reported in news concerning community activities, followed by court and crime news; physical development and human development; education; and sports. The news patterns also suggest a patriarchal relationship between leaders and community which is the basis for social activities among the Sarawak Malay community. In conclusion, news concerning the Sarawak Malays was given fair coverage by the newspapers despite being owned by the Melanaus. Thus, it is recommended that future studies continue to investigate similar issues in different newspapers by adopting a more comprehensive conceptualization of development which is presented in the news reporting. Consistent with the media development theory, the proposed framework enables researchers to reflect the state development aspirations in a holistic manner.
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Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Article Type:Author abstract
Geographic Code:9MALA
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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