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Abstracts of papers presented at the 2012 Collegiate meetings.

Middle Region

Belmont University

Nashville, Tennessee

4 April 2012

Oral Presentations

Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics & Physics

A Comparison of the Mapping Properties of Schlict Functions and Harmonic Functions. Tia Guarino *, Lucas Johnson *, and Cory Medlin *, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. In this study, we consider the image of the unit circle under the generalized analytic family of functions [F.sub.n](z) = z + 1/n[z.sup.n] and the generalized harmonic family of functions [f.sub.n](z) = z + 1/n [z.sup.n]. Different radii of the circle are 1/ considered as well, and it is shown that this is a departure point into the investigation of harmonic polynomials.

An Investigation of the Convergence of the Newton-Raphson Method in the Complex Plane. Mason Yost *, James York-Winegar *, and Cortney Bramlett, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The Newton-Raphson method provides an algorithm to approximate roots of a real function, f(x), by generating a sequence {[x.sub.n]} which converges to the solution of [f.sub.c](x) = O. For a complex function, however, the dynamics of the iterates are interesting. This leads to the notion of fractals. We study the iterates of the function [f.sub.c](z) = [z.sup.2] + c for different values of c and discuss the techniques used to both generate and visualize the region of convergence of these iterates.

The Joukowsky Airfoil: Transformations in the Complex Plane. ZaklinaCetic *, Anne French *, Yuri Kim *, and ArkadiuszPiasecki. Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Conformal mapping is an important area of complex analysis and has various applications in physics, astrophysics, and even in nature. One of the most famous conformal mappings is the Joukowsky airfoil, which provides a means for understanding fluid flow around a cylinder and how the physics of airflow around a wing causes on object to become airborne. This report introduces the Joukowsky airfoils through an understanding of analytic functions and conformal mappings, and shows how variations in an airfoil's equation affect its shape and performance.

A Water Quality Analysis of Radnor Lake State Natural Area. Latoya Clark *, Nathan Eakin *, Jenna Gunselman *, Vicki Bosse *, and Kent Clinger, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Lipscomb University, Nashville, TN. Radnor Lake is a state park located in Nashville, TN. In the fall of 2005 the Radnor Lake Watershed Initiative was established in order to collect data to be able to research and protect the lake from harm. In the fall of 2011 the Instrumental Methods of Analysis class at Lipscomb University became a part of the water quality study. The task at hand was to gather water quality data and compare the results to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards to get a better understanding of the quality of the water, which impacts both the wildlife and natural preservation of Radnor. Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-ES) was used to determine metal ions and common ions were analyzed by Ion Chromatography (IC). Most of the water samples were found to be in the normal range for stream and lake samples.

Anagrams, Markov's and Knots. Liliana M. Alvarez *, Anne M. French *, and Ramanjit K. Sahi, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Our research objective is to observe the interplay of words created from scrambled letters in relation to Markov chains. Thereafter, we will study the words with regards to different types of knots. We applied stochastic modeling to anagrams that formed Markov chains. We used graph theory as an instrument to see the linkage between the world of literature and knot theory.

Animal Behavior

Repellent Properties of Stone-Mint. Cunila origanoides, against the American Dog Tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Elizabeth R. Thorndike, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The threat of contracting diseases vectored by ticks has been a consistent cause for the development of tick repellents throughout the United States. Recently, public demand for natural products has directed researchers toward producing plant-based repellents that are as effective as their synthetic counterparts. In this study, the repellency of native Tennessee herb Cunila origanoides against Dermacentor variabilis was studied using a laboratory bioassay. The herb was blended into slurry and distilled via steam distillation. The essential oil was then chemically separated and further isolated with a rotary evaporator. The essential oil was tested at three different concentrations, 10%, 25%, and 50%, in acetone. Significant repellency was detected at all concentrations. The results of this study suggest that natural plant-based repellents could be produced to effectively guard against tick-borne diseases.

Preferred Microhabitat Conditions for Centruroides vittatus in Middle Tennessee. Ryan P. Baker * and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University. Nashville, Tennessee. Microhabitat preferences of Centruroides vittatus, known only from a single population in middle Tennessee near Murfreesboro, were studied using a soil temperature probe, an infrared thermometer, and a spring scale. Data were collected from 30 rocks which were believed to have the best chance of harboring C. vittatus. The parameters measured for each rock were soil temperature around and beneath, surface temperature, surface temperature beneath, relative humidity around and beneath, greatest length and weight. Only six of the 30 rocks studied were found to harbor C. vittatus. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to make a comparison of the conditions studied as they related to the presence of C. vittatus. Only relative humidity beneath rocks and rock size produced statistically significant results using a 90% confidence interval. The data suggest that C. vittatus in middle Tennessee are more likely to be found under larger rocks with lower relative humidity beneath them.

Exploring Anxiety in Individual Versus Grouped Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Alesya Borisyuk * and Lori L. McGrew, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. This study was undertaken in order to better understand the differences in anxiety levels in Danio rerio, commonly known as zebrafish. The past 15-20 years has seen an increase in the usage of zebrafish as a model organism throughout the various research fields. It was hypothesized that individually tested fish, placed in a novel tank environment, would express more anxiolytic behavior than fish placed in groups of three. Each trial was recorded for five minutes and the mean number of dives was recorded, along with other forms of anxious behavior. The results indicate no significant difference in the mean number of dives between the two groups, yet the fish that were placed in the novel fish tank individually expressed more anxious behavior than the fish tested in groups, yet their reaction time was significantly slower.

Treating Danio rerio with Nicotine and Caffeine to Study Anxiety. Vishan Ramcharan * and Lori L. McGrew, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. In this experiment, observable anxiety in zebrafish was investigated by recording behavioral responses of Danio rerio to nicotine and caffeine. Because the zebrafish share numerous similarities with the human nervous system, they should respond to these drugs in the same way humans do. The working hypothesis for this experiment was that zebrafish will exhibit increased anxiety when dosed with caffeine and decreased anxiety when dosed with nicotine. The method of testing used an inverse trapezoidal "Test tank." Fish spent more time at the deeper, narrower half of the tank if they were anxious and more time at the more spacious, shallower top half if they were calm. Duration of freezing bouts and numbers of erratic movement were also recorded and taken into consideration. This method of testing bore no conclusive result in the caffeine group; however, it was found that the zebrafish exhibited decreased anxiety when dosed with nicotine.

Directional Predator Avoidance of Physid Snails. Kelsey K. Grant * and John H. Niedzwiecki, Belmont University Nashville. Tennessee. Many studies show that snails have different defense mechanisms in response to predatory crayfish. Crawl out behavior is most common in regards to this specific predator. We tested if a snail would react directionally to the presence of a crayfish by its chemical cue. Crayfish were randomly placed on one side of an aquarium, behind a screen, and distance traveled from the screen by each snail was measured. We did not find a significant change in distance from screen with or without predator. However, snails did show a significant crawl out response. Results suggest that snails do not respond to crayfish predators by moving away from them; it may be that crawling away is ineffective, given difference in snail and crayfish speeds, and perhaps the crawling out behavior is simply more effective.

Ecological Avoidance Behavior of a Physid Snail in the Presence of Orconectses rusticus Crayfish Predators' Cue. Abader A. Almosawi * and John H. Niedzwiecki, Belmont University, Nashville. Tennessee. Many researchers have examined the difference in prey behavior in the presence and absence of predators. Predation has been shown to influence behavior. In response to predation, many prey species develop responsive behavior including the seeking of shelter and decreasing activity. We examined if Physa snails' activity changes in the presence of the crayfish chemical cues in specific ways. The habitat of the physid snails has two surfaces: a light surface, where snails are conspicuously colored, and was structured, and a dark surface, where snail color matches was smooth. We asked if snails would try to background match their habitat or seek shelter in response to a predator. While we elicited a reduction in activity, we did not find changes in behavior increasing background matching or shelter seeking in the presence of a predator. Snails may not use these behaviors or we may have failed to provide realistic choices.

Niche Partitioning in Centrarchid Sunfish in a Middle Tennessee Stream. Phillip Parsley* and John H. Niedzwiecki, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. This experiment explored niches of Centrarchid sunfish in the Little Harpeth River in Edwin Warner Park, Nashville, Tennessee. Three common sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus. L. megalotis. L. macrochirus) found in this stream were studied to see how each species could reside in essentially the same niche. The theory of competitive exclusion suggests that the fish should differ in an important aspect of their ecology. A pool was found and divided into sections based in relation to the upstream, mid-pool, and downstream portion the pool, as well as depositional and erosional banks. Results for the fish caught were not significant, and in this study the fish did not appear to be partitioning space in relation to the pool. It is still possible some other factor, such as food or breeding space, is partitioned by the fish or that a predator of these fish reduces competition to allow coexistence.

Ecology and Environmental Science

Effects of Allelopathic Intraspecific Competitions on Growth of Privet, Ligustrum sinese. Kelly Casarez * and Darlene Panvini, Belmont University. Nashville, Tennessee. Allelopathy is an adaptation plants use to chemically compete with other plants and can occur both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Interspecific allelopathy has been shown in the invasive exotic Ligustrum sinense, Chinese privet, but less is known about intraspecific allelopathy occurring in L. sinense invaded areas. To test this, 72 L. sinense seedlings were transplanted from a recently disturbed area of Shelby Bottoms Park in Nashville, TN, to peat pots in the lab. Leaves from larger, established L. sinense plants were also removed and pulverized to make 5 different concentrations of solution to water the seedlings: 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% privet. Deionized water was used as a control. Recorded seedling height over the study period indicated observable but statistically insignificant growth inhibition of seedlings likely due to individual variation in seedlings. This study does not show that intraspecific competition exists in L. sinense.

Terrestrial Animal Diversity in Two Middle Tennessee Freshwater Wetlands. Megan DeVries * and Darlene Panvini. Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Decisions regarding wetland protection, restoration, and mitigation include analyses of a variety of abiotic and biotic factors, as well as the relationships between these features that comprise a wetland. This project examines how two factors, size and degree of naturalness, affects terrestrial animal diversity by compiling a species list for two middle Tennessee wetlands: a small, mitigated area and a larger, natural area. Species lists are not known for either site. The diversity of terrestrial animals in each wetland was tested over a period of six weeks using four collection methods: pitfall traps, cover boards, sweep nets, and small animal traps. Numerous insects, spiders, and mollusks were collected and identified at both sites. Jacquard's Coefficient of Community Similarity was used to compare diversity in the two wetlands. Upon completion of this study, the relationship between diversity of terrestrial animals, wetland size, and degree of human involvement will be discussed.

Effects of Riparian Tree Canopy on Water Quality and the Occurrence of Waterpennies (Beetle Larvae) in the Little Harpeth River. Jordan Murray * and Darlene Panvini. Belmont University. Nashville, Tennessee. Studies on riparian zones and stream systems suggest that physical and chemical factors of streams can be affected by the presence of tree canopy. These abiotic factors can then influence the presence of biota in a stream. Waterpennies (beetle larvae) are common indicator species used to assess the health of streams. As part of a national study examining the influence of riparian tree canopy on stream temperature, the occurrence of waterpennies was determined and correlated with stream temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total dissolved solids. Waterpennies were counted on 45 rocks distributed among riffles in both open canopy and closed canopy reaches once per month for five months (June--October, 2011). Number of waterpennies will be correlated with presence of tree canopy, size of rock, and abiotic factors to assess the impact that tree canopy has on stream quality.

Phylogeographic Comparisons of the Centruroides vittatus (Say) Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 (001) Gene in Populations from Middle Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. Thomas Homonnay *, John H. Niedzwiecki, and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. An isolated population of Centruroides vittatus (Say) exists in middle Tennessee. We used phylogeographic methods to make a preliminary determination of whether this represents a relic population, a recent expansion from the nearest populations in Arkansas, or a very recent human-assisted accidental introduction. The gene we chose to use to test phylogenetic relationships is cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (C01). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify extracted DNA. Sequences of C01 were used to establish relationships between the populations. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were utilized using established software programs. Statistical tests were used to establish whether our preferred tree was statistically better than the alternatives. This allowed us to place the middle Tennessee population into a tree of populations from its contiguous range. Our preliminary conclusion is that the middle Tennessee population is most closely related to Arkansas populations, and seems to be following a range extension.

Infection Rates of Ttypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis virginiana from Suburban Areas of Middle Tennessee. RaeAnne N. Lauffer and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease and is enzootic in the Southeastern United States. The number of wildlife species infected by this parasite, which is transmitted by conenose bugs (Triatoma spp.), may vary depending upon whether they occur in suburban or rural areas. Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were live-trapped in Davidson and contiguous counties and blood samples were obtained under veterinary supervision. Serum samples obtained by centrifugation were tested for the presence of T. cruzi using an indirect immune-fluorescent assay. Infection rates of opossums collected in suburban areas will be presented and compared to those reported from opossums collected in rural areas.

Infection Rates of Trypanosome cruzi in Didelphis virginiana from Rural Areas of Middle Tennessee. Rachel K. Serfass and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University. Nashville, Tennessee. Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and is enzootic in the Southeastern United States. The number of wildlife species infected by this parasite, which is transmitted by conenose bugs (Triatoma spp.), may vary depending upon whether they occur in rural or suburban areas. Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were live-trapped in Davidson and contiguous counties and blood samples were obtained under veterinary supervision. Serum samples obtained by centrifugation were tested for the presence of T. cruzi using an indirect immuno-fluorescent assay. Infection rates of opossums collected in rural areas will be presented and compared to those reported from opossums collected in suburban areas.

Avian Counts as a Test for Riparian Corridor Fitness along Mill Creek in Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee. Nicholas W. Kirk * and John H. Niedzwiecki, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Riparian zones are important areas of animal habitat; historically they have also been areas of human activity and industry. There are many ways to assess the health of a riparian ecosystem, but many require extensive sampling and training. Bird identification and watching are skills of many amateur naturalists. We wanted to see if bird diversity or density varied with human disturbance along a corridor and therefore be used to assess the quality of a riparian system. We did this by observing the effect of industry on a riparian corridor through avian counts in three distinct areas, two forested park areas surrounding an industrial complex. Two counts were used, visual species densities and auditory population densities. The auditory counts were significantly different between the forest areas and the industrial complex, but were not different from each other. Avian counts should be investigated further as a gauge of riparian corridor fitness.

Elevation and its Effect on Tornado Touchdowns across Tennessee. Bryant Davis, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville. Tennessee. This study is an attempt to distinguish a correlation between tornado touchdown density and elevation and to identify areas in Tennessee that are more prone to tornadoes in general, as well as to distinguish areas that are at a greater risk for higher intensity storms. A density map was generated for all reported tornado touchdowns in Tennessee from 1950 to 2008. Density maps were also generated for each category of storm. Cumulatively, tornado density was greatest for the western portion of the Highland Rim into the Nashville Basin. F3 tornadoes occurred most prominently on the western and eastern portions of the Highland Rim with a lesser density in the Nashville Basin. The density of F5 and F4 tornadoes is greatest on the western portion of the Highland Rim. Therefore, people living on the western portion of the Highland Rim are more susceptible to tornadoes of high intensity.


DAF-2/DAF-16 Is Not Immunologically Necessary for the Pathagenic Resistance of S. typhimurum in the Model Organism C. elegans. Roxy Musharrafeia * and Nick Ragsdale. Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Salmanellosis is a serious infection caused by the gram negative bacterium S. typhimurium. There are multiple immunologic pathways in the human body that have essential roles in defending the body against pathogenic invasion of S. typhimurium. One such pathway is the Insulin/IGF-I pathway that is commonly known to play a role in organism longevity. This study explored the role of the Insulin/IGF-I pathway by testing the genetically homologous pathway DAF-2/DAF-16, present in the model organism C. elegans. Also, the insulin-like pathway is compared to another pertinent immunologic pathway, the PMK-1 pathway, homologous to the MAP-K pathway in humans. Results did not demonstrate a significant difference in the percent mortality between worms lacking DAF-2/DAF-16 expression and non-mutated worms. Though these results are nonsignificant, their trends suggest that DAF-2/DAF-16 expression could still play a role in the pathogenic resistance of S. typhimurium should the experiment be replicated.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Respiration Rates of C. elegans. Monique J. Parrish * and Robert T. Grammer, Belmont University, Nashville. Tennessee. As part of an ongoing program of research on the response of C. elegans to fluctuations in environmental variables such as chemo-effectors, pathogens, and food sources, we developed a technique for measuring respiration in C. elegans by an assay utilizing spectrophotometry. In the assays performed, we observed the effect of a mitochondrial inhibitor. We have shown changes in absorbance of a pH indicator which are dependent in both time and concentration of glucose. Several experiments have been conducted thus far to support the hypothesis that a known mitochondrial inhibitor, sodium azide, can inhibit acidification of C. elegans. The baseline experiment confirmed that acidification of C. elegans occurs over a sixty minute time period. The sodium azide experiment showed that inhibition of this acidification occurs over a sixty minute time period as well. The glucose experiment showed that different concentrations of glucose gave small inhibitory and stimulatory effects on C. elegans. The worm viability experiment showed that a percentage worms died over the sixty minute time period.

Dissolved Oxygen Utilization as a Technique for Determining Metabolic Activity of Caenorhabditis elegans Exposed to Pathogenic Bacteria. Laura A. Muck * and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens capable of causing severe infections in humans. Previous research has investigated virulence factors produced by the bacteria, the host's immune system response, and potential treatments. However, the purpose of this experiment was to investigate the occurrence of metabolic changes during a P. aeruginosa or S. aureus infection within a Caenorhabditis elegans host. Metabolism was measured using a dissolved oxygen sensor probe after growing C. elegans on lawns of either S. aureus or P. aeruginosa. C. elegans grown on NGM/OP50 E. coli plates served as the control. A one-way unstacked ANOVA was performed on the three groups, which provided a P-value of 0.01. Tukey's confidence intervals determined a significant difference between the control and S. aureus-infected C. elegans, but there was not a significant difference between the control and P. aeruginosa-infected C. elegans.

Treating Danio rerio with the Neurotixin 6-ohda to Study Movement Deficits. Tristan Daniel * and Lori L. McGrew, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from a loss of dopamine producing neurons. Dopamine is important for proper motor function, and this loss of dopamine signaling causes the signs of PD. In the US alone PD currently affects one million individuals. Because zebrafish are vertebrates with significant homology to humans, this study was designed to target the dopaminergic neurons of the zebrafish to mimic the signs present in individuals with PD. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been shown to kill dopaminergic neurons and mimic Parkinson's disease in other animal models. In this study zebrafish treated with 6-OHDA exhibited motor dysfunction. There was a dramatic decrease in the distance the zebrafish could travel after treatment. Additional fish were treated with the toxin in the presence of a dopamine transporter blocking agent to determine whether 6-OHDA was acting on central dopaminergic neurons or locally at the peripheral motor neurons.

Parkinson-Like Disease in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Treated Caenorhabditis elegans: Protective Effect of Super Oxide Dismutase. Samera Berhane * and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative neurological disorder, characterized by asymmetric onset of resting tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia in the limbs followed by postural instability (1). It is identified by the degeneration of dopamine neurons, which are located in the susbstania nigra and hypothalamus of the midbrain. It is believed that dopamine degeneration is in response to neurotoxins triggered in the presynaptic dopamine transporters. Previous research conducted by Richard Nass and Randy Blakely hypothesized the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine as the cause of Parkinson Disease. 6-hydroxydompaine (6-OHDA) releases free oxygen radicals, which then inhibits protein and mitochondrial functions (2). Nass and Blakely contributed the enzyme super oxide dismutase SOD, as the potential to block free radicals in cells. Using Caenorhabditis elegans helped identify the latent role of SOD and 6-OHDA in neurons. C-elegans are model organism for experiments in dopamine receptors, therefore treating them with 6-OHDA attributed in analyzing the mechanism of the neurotoxins. The C. elegans were treated and evaluated through chemotaxis assay, to determine the speed, rigidity and overall movement between the different mutants. The overall chemotaxis index indicates there is a difference between the treated and untreated nematodes' speed and movement.

The Effects of D1-like Dopamine Receptors on the Chemotaxis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Sylvia Chac and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Dopamine (DA) is a major neurotransmitter that plays a role in coordinating movement in the mammalian central nervous system. Past studies indicate that the chronic neurodegenerative disease Parkinson's Disease (PD) is associated with the death of such DA neurons. Symptoms of those affected by PD include resting tremors and gait disturbances. Because DA is associated with the coordination and movement of mammals, studies to elucidate the workings of the neurotransmitter are invaluable to a potential cure for PD. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of the antagonistic effects of the drug SCH23390 on the excitatory D1-like DA receptor on the chemotaxis of Caenorhabditis elegans to a chemo-attractant. It was hypothesized that C. elegans would slow down, thus yielding a longer amount of time needed for a worm to travel across a petri dish. The results yield that the model organism C. elegans' chemotaxis toward an attractant is not affected by treatment with the [D.sub.1]--like receptor inhibitor. However, there was no significance in the chemotaxis times between the treated and untreated C. elegans.

Study Role of PMK-1 in C. elegans Infected with E. faecium. Azad Karim and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic human pathogen that one of the most common organisms recovered from nosocomial infections. E faecium is beginning acquire antibiotic resistance; therefore, scientists are looking to find its mode of infection. Caenorhabditis elegans are used as the model organism to determine if PMK-1 is a successful defense mechanism against E. faecium infections. In order to answer this question, three different worm strains were tested against E. faecium for an eight hour period. The ancestral strain ([N.sub.2]) worms are used as control, while the NSY-1 and SEK-1 worms are knockout strains with defunct PMK-1 pathways. The mortality rate of each type of worm exposed to the bacteria was recorded and analyzed to answer the research question, is the PMK-1 pathway necessary in C. elegans defense against E. faecium infections?

West Region

LeMoyne-Owen College

Memphis, Tennessee

31 March 2012

Oral Presentations

Session I: Cell/Molecular Biology & Chemistry

Detection of Tissue or Temporal Specific p75 Protein Expression Via Flow Cytometry. Kelly Jeu * and Christopher Dillon, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Apoptosis is a process of cell death that maintains homeostasis in eukaryotes. It differs from necrosis in that it normally promotes immune tolerance rather than activation. The mitochondrial protein p75 may help prevent activation when cleaved by caspases. We sought to characterize a transgenic animal that had a mutated cleavage site in p75, in which we would predict apoptotic cells convert tolerance to activation. We generated two lines of animals; one where the mutated p75 is turned on only in T cells and the other where p75 expression is turned on only after tamoxifen treatment. They used a fluorescent reporter transgene as a marker for cells where p75 should be expressed. Blood was collected from the mice to determine the extent of p75 expression in immune cell populations using flow cytometry. FACS analysis revealed a complicated phenotype that suggests that expression of the p75 transgene might be toxic to cells.

The Role of GD3 Synthase in Alzheimer's Disease. Porsha A. Chillis *, Shailaja K. Rao, and Michael P. McDonald, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (PC) and University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences, Memphis. Tennessee (SR, MM). Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. This disease is characterized by the accumulation of plaques and tangles of amyloid [beta]-protein (A[beta]). The amyloid [beta]-protein has a strong binding affinity towards gangliosides. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the role of GD3 synthase in Alzheimer's disease and offer a new dimension in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. In the current study, we analyzed the expressions of amyloid [beta]-protein (A[beta]) in Alzheimer's mice models along with GD3 synthase expression levels. Our results indicate high expression of amyloid [beta]-protein (A[beta]) in the Alzheimer's mice models even at a very young age, with a significant increase in the GD3S mRNA expression levels. These results suggest that knocking down GD3 synthase may significantly reduce amyloid [beta]-protein (A[beta]) and could function as a therapeutic target in treating the disease. Supported by: NIH R01AG040230 and RO1AG031253.

Altered Ultrasonic Vocalizations in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Nick Watkins *, Snighda Roy, and Detlef Heck, Christian Brothers University, Memphis. Tennessee (NW) and University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Memphis, Tennessee (SR, DH). Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of mental retardation, found predominantly in males, resulting from a mutation in the fragile-X-mental-retardation-1 (Fmr1) gene on the X chromosome. Fmr1 encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and absence of FMRP results in symptoms of FXS, including developmental delay and speech/articulation deficits. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are a major mode of mouse social communication, and can be investigated in Fmr1-K0 mouse to address possible ultrasonic communication deficits. We recorded USVs of 8-day-old Fmr1-KO and WT pups (N = 6), grouped the calls emitted into ten categories, and conducted statistical analysis of the calls identifying three deficits: the number of downward calls was reduced in Fmr1-KO compared to WT littermates, the average frequency of flat calls of KO mice was higher than in WT mice, and call frequency modulation was significantly increased in complex calls of Fmr1-KO compared to WT pups.

The Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Cartilage Metabolism. Dana Pabalate *, Christy Patterson, Elsa Stephen, and Karen Hasty, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (DP), and University of Tennessee Health Science Centre, Memphis, Tennessee (CP, ES, KH). The presence of ascorbic acid in the nuclear factor (NF)-[kappa]B pathway allows degradation of transcription factors that lead to the destruction of articular cartilage. Under low oxygen conditions, vitamin C acts as a cofactor to a prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) that in turn hydroxylates hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2[alpha]. HIF-2[alpha] thereupon is degraded, stopping the process of cartilage degradation by enzymes like MMP-13. Cartilage explants and cells were subjected to varying amounts of vitamin C under normoxic or hypoxic oxygen conditions to determine if gene activity would be modified, especially HIF-2[alpha] and MMP-13. Explant and monolayer cell culture data differed in the amount of gene activity observed, especially for aggrecan and Collagen Type X, but MMP-13 was reduced by vitamin C at both normoxic and hypoxic levels. A reduction in HIF-2[alpha] was observed, but it was not statistically significant. Vitamin C, at the levels investigated suggests a protective effect on the articular cartilage. Supported by: Veterans Administration.

Evaluation of the Vasoactive Effects of Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Bhavyata Parag *, Anna Bukiya, and Alex Dopico. Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (BP), and [.sup.2] The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (AB, AD). Systemic hypertension is usually linked to increased arterial constriction and/or decreased dilation. The deficiency of vitamin D3 in the body is often associated with systemic hypertension. Thus, we hypothesized that acute application of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (the active form of vitamin D3 in the body) resulted in dilation of resistance-size arteries. We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 vasoactive properties on isolated and pressurized segments of rat mid-cerebral artery. High [K.sup.+] (KCI-based) saline, lithocholic acid, and [Ca.sup.2+] -free solution were used as tools to assess depolarization-driven arterial constriction, pharmacologically-induced, and nonspecific arterial dilation, respectively. Our study shows that acute application of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (0.1-40 [micro]M) fails to evoke significant dilation of arteries that dilated appropriately in response to lithocholic acid. Thus, acute vasodilation is an unlikely contributor to vitamin D3 antihypertensive effect.

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) and Inhibitor (PAI-1) Expression in Cultured Adenocarcinoma Cells. David Kim *, Megan Moshea, Ashlee R. Franklin, Aleena Shahiryar, M. Margaret Jefferson, Edwin L. Thomas, and Mustafa Kh. Dabbous, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (DK), and College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (MM, AF, AS, MJ, ET, MD). Urokinase PA and PAI-1 are biomarkers used to manage cancer therapy. High uPA and PAI-1 in a tumor biopsy is indicative of a metastatic phenotype. The purpose of this study was to compare uPA and PAI-1 expression by cultured cancer cells. The levels of uPA and PAI-1 were measured by ELISA in conditioned media from fibroblasts and adenocarcinoma cell lines that differ in metastatic potential. The data from this study showed uPA levels were much higher in media from highly-metastatic MTLn3 cells (193 [+ or -] 38 ng/mg) than from non-metastatic MTC cells (22 [+ or -] 7 ng/mg protein). uPA was not detected in fibroblast media. In contrast, PAI-1 levels were not significantly different in media from fibroblasts and MTC cells, (17 [+ or -] 9 and 20 [+ or -]9 ng/mg). PAI-1 was low in media from MTLn3 cells (0.09 [+ or -] 0.04 ng/mg). In conclusion, uPA was highest and PAI-1 was lowest in media from metastatic cells. High PAI-1 levels in tumor tissue may be produced by tumor stromal cells including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells rather than cancer cells. Supported by: UTHSC College of Dentistry.

Comparison of siRNA Transfection Rate between L2 and L4 Larval Stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. Shanandria Jackson *, Larry Anderson, Lynda Miller, and Malinda E. C. Fitzgerald Christian Brothers University, Memphis. Tennessee. This study investigated the timing of silencing RNA gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans, a free living Nematode. Two different larval stages, L2 and L4 were used to determine if a higher transfection rate would be obtained using the earlier L2 stage instead of L4. Three different genes were chosen: dumpy-13, rol-5, and unc-22. The larval worms were exposed to one of the three siRNAs and allowed to develop into adults. The transfection success was determined for each gene by observing adult phenotypes. The transfection rate was two times greater in the L2s when compared with L4s. These results show that the earlier the C elegans are exposed to the siRNA, the greater the interference with the gene expression.

Synthesis of 5-[2-(diphenylphosphanyl)pethyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrame thylcyclopentadienyl Ligand. Justin Jacobs * and Randy Johnston, Union University, Jackson, Tennessee. Dimetallic cyclopentadiene compounds can theoretically be used as catalysts for various reactions common in industrial settings. The ligand of interest in this work is the 5-[2-(Diphenylphosphanyl)pethyl]-1,2,3,4-tetramethylcy-clopentadienyl ligand. With this ligand, the cyclopentadiene part would bond to one metal, manganese, and a tethered diphenylphosphane to a second metal. Multiple methods to synthesize this ligand were attempted. The results from these synthetic methods will be presented.

Low-Toxicity Perlite as a Fiber Fire Retardant Thermal Insulator. Brent Rainwate, Union University, Jackson, Tennessee. Perlite, a common industrial material consisting mostly of silicon dioxide, has properties that could make it commercially appealing as a non-toxic asbestos alternative in some high temperature insulation applications, such as heat-insulating fire-resistant plates from perlite/glass fiber composites. The focus of this research uses expanded perlite, which is developed by heating the crude mineral allowing the water inside the pores of the rock to evaporate out, creating bubbles which cause the mineral to expand and give it an extremely low density. Expanded perlite was to be incorporated into a foam that could be studied for its physical properties and utilized in further insulation applications. The properties of the foam were measured and it was concluded that it was stable and could be utilized in further application development.

Session II: Environmental Science

Isolation of Bacteriophages from Soil that Infect Escherichia coli. Justin King *, Brittany Wilburn *, Malinda E. C. Fitzgerald, and Sandra Thompson-Jaeger. Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous throughout domestic soil. We attempted to isolate, annotate, and characterize these phages in order to examine the structure and identify the specific genome of the phage. These microbes were safe and do not harm humans. Initially, we followed the protocol to isolate bacteriophages that infected Mycobacterium smegmatis from the soil. However, after several trials, we were unsuccessful in isolating any phages. E coli bacterial colonies were then used as an alternate bacterial strain and after two attempts, plaques were identified. Once plaques were isolated, confirmation of plaque formation was done using E. coli and tryptic soy broth as a control. While initially literature indicated that these phages were relatively easy to isolate, we found it difficult to isolate plaques from soil and that some bacterial strains worked better than others. In this presentation, we will discuss the pros and cons of using these techniques to isolate bacteriophages and how to proceed once isolated.

Flooding and Wetland Plants: Localized Versus Whole-Plant Response. Carey A. Bowen *, Melissa B. Koontz, Lyndsay E. Saunders, and Samuel C. Pierce. Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (CB). The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (MK, LS), and Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi (SP). Clonal wetland plants may simultaneously exploit both flooded and non-flooded soils through vegetative propagation and clonal integration; however, to do so, plants must acclimate to this heterogeneous environment at a hierarchical level below that of the genetic individual. In this study, genetic individuals of Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) were exposed to three flooding treatments: drained, flooded, and heterogeneous flooding. The heterogeneously flooded treatment included individuals exposed to either flooded or drained conditions at the sub-individual level. There were local morphological responses reflected in heterogeneous soil conditions. Plants in drained environment had more biomass than flooded plants. Flooded plants had a higher survival rate and maintained the integrity of their rhizomes. Plants adapt to their environment and share nutrients with their clonal self increasing survivorship. This species can be considered for a buffer for excess nutrients from surface waters prior to their flow into receiving waters.

An Assessment of Population Abundance and Morphological Abnormalities in the White-footed Deermouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Mario A. Sauceda * and Michael L. Kennedy, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee and University of Memphis, Memphis. Tennessee. Morphological abnormalities are well documented within populations of small mammals. However, the relationship of such variation with population abundance is not well studied. Using live traps baited with rolled oats during spring and summer of 2011, white-footed deermice (Peromyscus leucopus) were sampled at three sites in western Tennessee. Upon capture, the tail and ears of deermice were examined for signs of aggressive interaction (damaged tail or torn ears). Abundance of P, leucopus at each site was determined using catch-per-unit effort procedures. Relationships between morphological abnormalities and population abundance were assessed statistically. Results reflected a relationship between the variables. Results are discussed in light of previous literature.

Long-Term Population Demography of Trillium recurvatum Beck on Loess Bluffs in Western Tennessee. A. Garrett Burton *, James E. Moore, Scott B. Franklin, and Beverly Collins, Christian Brothers University, Memphis. Tennessee (AGB, JEM), The University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado (SBF), Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina (BC). The objectives of this study were to understand the dynamics of a clonal forest herb, Trillium recurvatum, by examining temporal and small-scale demographic patterns. Census data were collected on the total number of stems in the population from 1990 to 2007 and placed within one of three life stages (juvenile, three-leaf non-flowering, three-leaf flowering). Overall population density fluctuated over time, possibly due to storm events, but remained at some dynamic stable density. The juvenile age class had greater variability for the duration of this study and population growth rate was greatest for non-flowering ramets.

Comparison of Community Structure of Fish of the Wolf River. Seth A. Carson * and Lynda R. Miller, Memphis University School, Memphis, Tennessee, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. Trophic level determinations of fish communities in the Wolf River were examined and compared from the preserved fish collection at the University of Memphis. Specimens that were collected from 1967-1968 were used and compared with specimens from 1999. Forty-eight sites were sampled along the river starting with the headwaters and ending at the mouth of the Wolf River where it empties into the Mississippi. We found that this community exhibits top-down regulation but has a low number of apex predators. Regulation is by midlevel consumers.

Dynamics of Fish Communities in the Wolf River. Francisco E. Neal * and Lynda R. Miller, Christian Brothers High School, Memphis, Tennessee and Christian Brothers University. Memphis, Tennessee. The Wolf River is an impacted waterway that runs through the city of Memphis. The lower part of the river was channelized in the 1960's to help with flood control. The purpose of this study is to examine the fish communities of the Wolf River in the lower area where channelization has occurred and in areas above channelization up to the headwaters. Preserved fish from the University of Memphis that were collected between 1967-1968 were analyzed for species richness, diversity, and evenness. Species richness was also compared to collections that were made in 1999.

Detection of Heavy Metals in Fish of the Wolf River. Andrew Parmenter * and Lynda R. Miller, Christian Brothers High School, Memphis, Tennessee, and Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The Wolf River runs through Memphis, Tennessee and is vulnerable to point source and non-point source pollution. The objective of this study was to provide historical proof of heavy metal contamination in fish. Preserved fish samples collected from 1967-1968 were obtained from the University of Memphis Fish Collection. Tissue samples from the gills and muscle were collected and dried. Scanning Electron Microscopy--Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) was used to identify the type of metal present in the fish tissue. Heavy metals were found in gill tissue but not in muscle.

Examining Herpetofauna Richness and Diversity in Shelby Farms Park with Respect to Land Utilization. Joseph Alfonso * and Lynda Miller, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. As part of an all-biota survey at Shelby Farms Park and Lucius Burch State Natural Area, we examined how richness indices of indigenous reptile and amphibian communities were affected by recreational utilization. Census data were collected for one year using standard herpetological sampling techniques. A total of 1080 individuals recorded, 709 amphibians and 371 reptiles, represented thirty-one different species identified between the two parks. Richness calculations between communities showed lower species diversity in areas with high recreational activity and management.

Activity Budgets of Two Captive Red Pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Sarah Ferguson *, Sarah Boyle, and Andy Kouba, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (SF, SB) and Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tennessee (AK). The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an herbivorous, primarily nocturnal and solitary animal native to the Himalayas. Little is known of red panda behavior, so we collected 132 hours of data (May 2011-March 2012) in order to determine an activity budget for two individuals. Data were collected using scan sampling at 2-minute intervals on one male and one female red panda housed together. The female red panda spent more time sleeping than the male red panda (90.26% and 78.57%, respectively). The male red panda spent more time moving and slightly more time grooming than the female red panda (male: 11.64% moving, 8.18% grooming; female: 2.86% moving, 5.65% grooming). Similar percentages were found for both sexes' eating behaviors. Future research can compare these activity budgets to wild red panda activity budgets to gain a better understanding of red panda behavior.

Session III: Health Care, Pharmacokinetics & Microbiology

Effect of Bracing for Impact on Patient Recovery Time. Anthony Ford * and Bobby Myers Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and James Chiropractic and Rehabilitation, Whitehaven, Tennessee. This study consisted of a retrospective analysis of patients who sought chiropractic treatment after an automobile accident to determine if a correlation existed between recovery time and a patient's "braced" or "unbraced" impact status. Ninety-five patients were selected (from over 900 screened patients) that had attended James Chiropractic and Rehabilitation Whitehaven Tennessee office and indicated "braced" or "unbraced" for impact on their information sheet. When data on pain, time to recover, and number of visits were compared for braced patients, the correlation coefficient was 0.0004; for unbraced patients, the coefficient of correlation was 0.0213. Neither reached statistical significance. Results from an independent samples t-test showed a 0.162 significance comparing the number of chiropractic visits versus the visit the patient indicated a 5/10 pain intensity level (indication of recovery). Data did not support a trend between recovery time and pain level; we were not able to achieve a statistically significant confidence interval (0.05%). There was a high degree of variability in the patient sample, number of visits, and initial perception of pain. In order to assess the effect of bracing vs unbracing for impact a more elaborate, different questionnaire should be designed to eliminate problems incurred with this review.

Healthcare and Malaria in the Pallisa District, Eastern Uganda. Samantha Sol Bownes *, Dustin James, Chris Moore, Veronica Wittman, and Luis Sanchez, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennesse (SSB, DJ); Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (CM); Florida International University, Miami, Florida (VW, LS). The purpose of this research was to identify the major components of health as defined by the community of the Pallisa District in Eastern Uganda. The main focal points of this research includes, but is not limited to, factors contributing to the profusion of malarial cases in this region such as profession, access to medication, perception of health care facilities, etc. Semistructured and structured interviews as well as day-long ethnographic case studies were analyzed and results were grouped into statistical categories. One of the major deterrents to malarial treatment found was the lack of access to proper medication, with a low 29% of our informants being able to afford their malarial medication and only 14% of our informants reporting sufficient drug supplies in health facilities. However the barriers to proper health care extend far beyond access to medication. In order for Pallisa to overcome the extreme burden of malaria in the community, it must start with work on prevention, community empowerment, and community education. Supported by: NIH 5T37MD001378-11

Determination of Baseline CRP Values in Post-Operative Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Patients. Adrienne Renfro * and Patrick M. Curlee. Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and Southern Spine Specialists, Germantown, Tennessee. Currently, there is not an established range for C-reactive protein (CRP) levels post transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). CRP is known to rise after surgical procedures, and it is a useful indicator of infection in post-operative patients. However, there is no baseline value that can be used for comparison. This study reviewed CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and white blood count (WBC) for three days postoperatively of patients who had undergone a TLIF and did not have infection in order to establish an expected range of CRP levels. A range was established with CRP levels becoming more elevated each post-operative day. This information will be useful for surgeons in determining whether a patient's elevated CRP levels are normal or are due to infection.

Comparative Efficacy of Autologous Blood and Platelet Rich Plasma in Treating Tendinopathy. Jonathan Timmerman * and Richard Smith, Christian Brothers University Memphis, Tennessee and University of Tennessee Health Science Center Memphis, Tennessee. Many degenerative tendon diseases facing surgeons today have few effective treatments. Lateral epicondylitis, also called "tennis elbow", was once thought to be an inflammatory response yet recent evidence shows the condition may instead be due to degeneration rather than inflammation. There is evidence to support that treatment with Autologous Blood (AB) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) may be superior to corticosteroid injections for tendon diseases such as lateral epicondylitis. Five different treatments groups were made using male Sprague-Dawley rat, with each group receiving an injection of AB, PRP, corticosteroids, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and no injection (control). Measurements of the length and width, along with a histological grading on a scale of 1 to 4, did not show any particular correlation between the treatment groups. Results from biomechanical testing and immunohistochemical analysis for inflammatory and vascular tissue are needed in order to determine the efficacy of AB or PRP injections.

The Effects of Amino Acid Enriched Diets on Hematologic Development of Prenatal Pigs. Sarah Hill * and Randall Buddington, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee and University of Memphis, Memphis. Tennessee. Premature babies are prone to a number of hematologic deficiencies such as increased capillary friability, a slow reduction in red blood cell counts, hyperbilirubinemia, and an increased tendency to bleed (Kansas State University). Piglets were pre-maturely delivered via Cesarean section at 107d gestation. An umbilical catheter and feeding tube were inserted immediately. Piglets were fed parenteral nutrition for days 1-4, then for days 5-9, enteral according to one of six nutrition groups (either lacto, alanine, or leucine at high or low feeding rates) that they were split into. Blood was drawn each day from the catheter and processed for hematologic data. Data were highly variable; however, piglets in the low feeding rates of leucine and alanine produced the most consistent data. These amino acids produced variable data relative to the hematologic development, but it was observed that low feeding rates of leucine and alanine produce stabilization in hematologic development.

Examinations of Adult Human Cadavers for the Incidence of Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna. Robert Banks *, Eldridge F. Johnson, and Paul Madubuonwu, Christian Brothers University (RB), Memphis, Tennessee, and The University of Tennessee Health Science Center (EJ, PM). Memphis. Tennessee. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a condition that is characterized by thickening of the frontal bone. The cause of this condition is unknown but it has been associated with frontal headaches and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders have been said to be among the most common symptoms of HFI. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the frequency, possible gender relatedness and unilateral or bilateral HFI in formalin fixed human cadavers. The frontal bone of 21 normal adult cadavers ranging in age 60-89 (12 males and 9 females) were observed for HFI following surgical removal of the calvarias. Twenty-five percent of the male cadavers demonstrated HFI. All three males with HFI had bilateral HFI. Sixty-seven percent of the female cadavers demonstrated HFI. There was an equal amount of bilateral and unilateral cases of HFI among the females. This study suggests that HFI can also be found in normal populations.

Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Measurement of Methotrexate (MTX) 7-OH-MTX, and 4-Amino-4-Deoxy-N-Methylpteroic Acid (DAMPA) by Online Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Kyle Smith *, Thandra Owens, Feng Bai, Stacy Throm, and Clinton F. Stewart, Christian Brothers University (KS), Memphis, Tennessee and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (TO, FB, ST, CS), Memphis, Tennessee. A sensitive and precise HTLC-LC-MS/MS method using an advanced online sample preparation system was developed for the simultaneous determination of MTX, DAMPA, and 7-OH-MTX in human plasma using the internal standard MTX-d3. This method reduced the time required for offline-sample preparation and increased productivity. Ion transitions monitored by the API 3000 LC-MS/MS system were m/z 455.2/308.2, m/z 326.3/175.0, m/z 471/324.4, and m/z 458.1/311.3 for MTX, DAMPA, 7-OH-MTX, and ISTD respectively. The method was linear in the range of 2.5-7000ng/ml for MTX, 4.0-5000ng/ml for DAMPA, and 5.0-15000ng/ml for 7-OH-MTX. Within-day and between-day accuracies for MTX, DAMPA, and 7-OH-MTX were 3.15 to 6.60%, -0.58 to 6.80%, and - 7.58 to 6.53%. Also, within-day and between-day precisions for MTX, DAMPA, and 7-OH-MTX were <7.35%, <5.79%, and 15.51%, respectively. In the future, this method will be used to measure MTX, DAMPA, and 7-OH-MTX concentrations in plasma samples obtained from infants and young children with primary CNS tumors. Supported by ALSAC.

Purell[R] Resistant Bacillus and Suppression of Normal Biota Succession. Charlotte A. Joure, The University of Memphis. Memphis. Tennessee. The short term and long term effects of alcohol and glycerol-based hand sanitizer on bacterial growth was investigated. Hypothesis was alcohol-based sanitizer would kill normal biota rapidly. After the alcohol evaporated, the remaining glycerol would serve as a nutrient in support of the remaining resistant bacteria to achieve exponential growth on the skin surface. Bacterial populations were monitored before and after application of hand sanitizer at 30 minute intervals for 3 hours in triplicates for one individual. Results showed that hand sanitizer inhibited growth of most bacteria for up to 3 hours. However, 2 strains of Bacillus species were isolated. These bacteria are highly resistant to hand sanitizer, as found in agar-well plate tests.

Modeling the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis System with Dexamethasone Treatment. Carolyn M. Drobak, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) system regulates stress in the brain. When this system experiences a dysfunction, such as during chemotherapy treatments, there can be a number of unwanted side-effects such as depression or chronic fatigue syndrome. In this paper, I utilize systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations to adapt pre-existing models for the HPA system to account for the administration of Dexamethasone, a pharmaceutical drug used to lessen side-effects of some cancer treatments and to prevent some HPA dysfunctions. My adaptations will account for the administration of this pharmaceutical drug and hopefully uncover new medical information for treatment of cancer. Through the use of models, I understand the biological system, and continue to explore more deeply. Latin hypercube sampling, a form of uncertainty analysis, is used to model the variability in the model parameters; concurrently, sensitivity analysis to determine how sensitive the model is to small parameter changes. Preliminary results will be shown.

Session IV: Vision Science and Behavioral Science

Determining the Effectiveness of Systemic Gene Therapy with EPO-R76E in Protecting Axons after Optic Nerve Crush. Claire C. May * and Tonia S. Rex, Christian Brothers University, Memphis. Tennessee, and The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Hamilton Eye Institute. Memphis, Tennessee. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone secreted from the kidneys whose primary function is regulation of red blood cell production. In addition, EPO possesses neuroprotective capabilities, which potentially can be beneficial in treating neurodegenerative diseases. Systemic gene therapy with a mutant form of EPO, EPO-R76E, produces prolonged hormonal expression of EPO and neuroprotection without a large increase in hematocrit levels. The present study tested the effectiveness of this treatment on axonal regeneration in mice subjected to optic nerve crush. Optic nerves from BALB/cByJ mice were labeled with anti-[beta]-tubulin and were imaged on an epifluorescence microscope. Treatment with Epo-R76E indicated slight axonal protection against degeneration subsequent to the nerve crush, but no signs of regeneration were observed. Supported by: Crane Vision Research Fellowship.

Retinal Pathology Following Interruption of Autonomic Regulation of Choroidal Blood Flow. Corey Haughey *, Malinda E. C. Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li, and Anton Reiner, Christian Brothers University. Memphis, Tennessee (CH, MECF) and The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis. Tennessee (MECF, NDM, CL, AR). The pterygopalatine ganglion mediates parasympathetic control and the superior cervical ganglion mediates sympathetic control of choroidal blood flow (ChBF). We examined the effects on retinal health in rats after disruption of either parasympathetic or sympathetic control of ChBF. The retinal injury response was assessed by blinded image analysis of retinal Muller cell immunolabeling for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). A statistically significant increase in GFAP was observed in retinas from both rats with disrupted parasympathetic and sympathetic control of ChBF. Because the function of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems decline with age, we also evaluated and found increased GFAP immunolabeling in aged rats (>1 yr). These findings indicate that autonomic regulation of ChBF plays a role in maintaining retinal health, and that similar age-related retinal declines occur and may be attributable to diminished autonomic control of ChBF. Supported by NIH EY 05298 (AR).

Categorizing Glaucomatous Phenotypes in Recombinant Mice to Determine the Genes that Modulate Glaucoma Severity. Rachel I. Reese *, Elizabeth Beebe, Christie Brough, Rohit Reddy, and Monica Jablonski, Christian Brothers University. Memphis. Tennessee (RR, EB) and Department of Ophthalmology. Hamilton Eye Institute. Memphis, Tennessee (CB, RR, MJ). Characterized by peripheral vision loss and optic nerve damage, glaucoma shows great phenotypic and genetic complexity. Two mutations in genes encoding melanosomal proteins, Tyrpl and Gpnmb, were investigated for their correlation with pigmentary dispersion glaucoma. Using BXD recombinant mice that develop age-related pigmentary dispersion depending upon their allelic composition, the optic nerve was removed, processed, and morphometrically analyzed. The nerves were graded according to the amount of gliosis and degenerated axons. Preliminary analysis revealed the development of glaucoma even in mice with the wild type alleles of these genes. A more extensive analysis of optic nerves from all 100+ BXD strains will identify other candidate genes for primary open angle glaucoma. Supported by Ophthalmology Fellowship.

Color Discrimination Task Using Pseudoisochromatic Stimulus: Luminance Noise Variation Provides Better Sensitivity than Noise Mean Luminance. Teaire L. Carmichael *, Bruno D. Gomes, Mellina M. Jacob, Eliza Maria C. Lacerda, Givago S. Souza, Malinda E. Fitzgerald, and Luiz Carlos L. Silveira, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem. Brazil (BDG, MMJ, EMCL, GSS, LCLS). Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (TC, MECF), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis.

Tennessee (MECF). Through the use of the Mollen Reffin method of the Cambridge Color Test, six normal color vision individuals, 19-27 (23.2 [+ or -] 3.3 year-old) were tested at seven different luminance mean levels and seven different luminance noise levels, to determine what effect these luminance differences had on their ability to discriminate color. Results were obtained using the vector length from test responses through the Cambridge Color Test. The subjects were instructed to determine the direction of the C Landolt gap while the color chromatic vector was decreased. The chromaticity of the target varied along eight chromatic lengths. Two-way ANOVA tests were used to compare the performance for luminance noise and mean conditions. Results showed poor color discrimination when the mean luminance of luminance noise was low and further decreased when mean luminance was raised. In the luminance noise test, the vector length varied around a mean value at all tested noise mean levels. Supported by NIH 5T37MD001378-11.

Excitability and Suppression of Fear in the Basolateral Amygdala. Michael W. Hankins, Jr., * and Scott Heldt. Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee. This study investigated the effect two drugs on the ability to block fear conditioning responses in the test animals. Zolpidem, a known GABA receptor agonist and 1390, is a NMDA receptor antagonist. Other studies have shown that the basolateral amygdala is highly involved in fear and the memory of fear associated with learning. Fear conditioning involved training mice using a program that administered a foot shock coupled with a tone in order to potentiate fear. The animals then received one of the two drugs or a control carrier solution directly into the amygdala. While all groups demonstrated fear, the group that received Zolpidem showed significantly less fear than either the control group or the 1390 group. Animals in the 1390 group showed a significant greater amount of fear, when compared to the control but not Zolpidem. These data suggest that Zolpidem and 1390 can potentially block the fear conditioning but 1390 to a lesser degree.

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Response to Alcohol Exposure. Grace Hutchison, * Candis DuBose, and Kristin Hamre, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (GH) and The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (CD, KH). Among the adolescent population, sleep deprivation and alcohol exposure are common. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exposure to ethanol and sleep deprivation contributed to an alteration in locomotor activity, including in an age-related manner. The 56 subjects were Balb/C mice that were divided into two age groups: adolescents, 30-60 days old, and adults, 90 days or older. These groups were divided further into non-sleep deprived versus sleep deprived, and saline versus ethanol. The ethanol groups displayed enhanced locomotor activity in both adult and adolescent groups. There was a statistically significant increase in ethanol-induced locomotor activity in adolescents after sleep deprivation. Our conclusions were that responses to sleep-deprivation and alcohol exposure are age-related.

The Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine in Inbred Mice. Madeline Reynolds *, Trevor Sweatman, Jennifer M. Paxson-Saputra, and John D. Boughter, Jr., Christian Brothers University. Memphis, Tennessee (MR), and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis. Tennessee (TS, JPS, J8). Caffeine is widely used, but its range of actions on behavior is still largely unclear. Previous research showed that caffeine-induced behavior significantly differed in two inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6J(B6) and DBA/2J (02). In this study, we attempted to measure whether these genetically based behavioral differences were related to variation in caffeine levels in the brain following administration. A behaviorally relevant dose of caffeine (66 mg/kg) was injected into male and female mice from these strains. Blood and brain samples were collected from the mice after five different injection time points, and analysis was completed via High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results showed that concentration levels of caffeine were higher in the D2 strain than the B6 strain of mice, which corresponds with previous behavioral data. Thus genetic differences in caffeine metabolism and disposition may indeed impact upon comparative behavioral analysis with this agent.

Fear Acquisition and Changes in GABAergic mRNA. Catherine Gluszek * and Scott Heldt, Christian Brothers University and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis. Tennessee. Previous research has shown that the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex play critical roles in the acquisition and expression of fear in both animals and humans. Activity in these brain regions is regulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which serves to control fear in the mammalian brain. In this study, we examined whether the acquisition of fear induced changes in GABA transmission by using rtPCR to measure mRNA levels of GABA-related genes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex after the acquisition of Pavlovian fear in mice. Behavioral results revealed that protocols used to examine training-induced mRNA changes produced reliable acquisition of tone-induced fear as measured by conditioned freezing. All brain areas showed changes in mRNA levels of GABA receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) which is known to be involved in trafficking of GABA receptors to and from the plasma membrane. These results suggest that fear training induces learning-related changes in GABA transmission which may be important for the acquisition and/or expression of conditioning fear. Supported by the Neuroscience Institute Merit Fellowship.

Poster Presentations

Mechanism of TNF--[alpha]. Induced Inhibition of [Na.sup.+] Dependent Glutamine Cotransport ([B.sup.0]AT1) in Intestinal Epithelial (IEC-6) Cells. Brittney Boyd *, Tonickee Banks, and Jamil Talukder, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, Tennessee. Exogenous Gln absorption in the gut is important in extreme conditions such as exercise and chronic diseases including Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Inflammatory cytokine, TNF--[alpha], induces apoptosis and inhibits [Na.sup.+]-Gln cotransport in IEC-6 cells. However, the mechanism of this inhibition is unknown. Aim: To elucidate the mechanism of TNF--[alpha] mediated inhibition of [B.sup.0]AT1 in enterocytes. Methods: IEC-6 cells were grown on plates and were treated with TNF-[alpha], ERK/JUNK pathway inhibitor or placebo. [[.sup.3]H]-L-Gln uptake was performed. [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+]-ATPase activity, [B.sup.0]AT1 mRNA abundance by [.sub.q]RT-PCR, and protein expression by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting were performed. Results: [Na.sup.+]-Gln cotransporter activity was inhibited 75% by TNF-[alpha], exposure. TNF-[alpha], did not alter either [B.sup.0]AT1 mRNA abundance, protein expression or [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+]-ATPase activity. However, immunocytochemistry showed that TNF-[alpha] significantly reduces florescence and kinetic studies reveal that TNF-[alpha], inhibits [Na.sup.+]-Gln cotransport by reducing the affinity of [B.sup.0]AT1 for Gin. In addition, TNF-[alpha], induced inhibition of [Na.sup.+]-Gln cotransport activity was reversed by geneistin, an ERK/JUNK pathway inhibitor. Conclusion: These studies revealed that TNF-[alpha], inhibits [B.sup.0]AT1 through ERK/JUNK pathway in IEC-6 cells.

Prostaglandin [E.sub.2] Inhibits Na-dependent Glucose Cotranspor-ter (SGLT1) in Enterocytes. LaTia Johnson * and Jamil Talukder, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, Tennessee. SGLT1 is important for glucose absorption in the intestine. Inflammatory mediator, Prostaglandin [E.sub.2] (PG[E.sub.2]) is known to be elevated in the mucosa during enteritis. However, whether PG[E.sub.2] may mediate the inhibition of SGLT1 during enteritis is unknown. Aim: to determine the effect of PG[E.sub.2] on SGLT1 in enterocytes. Methods: rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were grown on plates and treated with PG[E.sub.2]. Tritiated glucose ([.sup.3]H-glucose) uptake was performed in placebo and treated cells. [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+]-ATPase activity was measured. SGLT1 message and protein levels were determined by [.sub.q]RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: PG[E.sub.2] inhibits Na-dependent glucose transport without a change in [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+]-ATPase activity, [.sub.q]RT-PCR and Western blot results indicate that SGLT1 message and protein levels are also decreased in PG[E.sub.2] treated IEC-6 cells. The kinetic studies reveal that the mechanism of inhibition of SGLT1 by PG[E.sub.2] is due to a decrease in the number of the cotransporter without a significant change in affinity of the cotransporter for glucose. Conclusion: these results reveal that PG[E.sub.2] inhibits SGLT1 in intestinal epithelial cells by decreasing the number of cotransporter.

Analysis of Behaviors and Spatial Preferences in Snow Leopards (Uncia uncia) Housed at the Memphis Zoo. Kimber Jones *, Sarah Boyle, and Andy J. Kouba, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (KJ, SB) and the Memphis Zoo, Memphis. Tennessee (SB and AK). Attempts at breeding snow leopards (Uncia uncia) in captivity are generally unsuccessful but could be improved by environmental enrichment in the form of pair bonding. In order to access if a pair bond exists, behavioral and location data were recorded for a male and female snow leopard pair housed at the Memphis Zoo. Both leopards spent a higher percentage of time exhibiting social behaviors than self-interactive behaviors (social = 8.57% [+ or -] 2.86% SE self-interaction: [female]: 0.83% [+ or -] 0.21% [male]: 1.20% [+ or -] 0.27%). Stereotypies were one of the two behavior categories exhibited for the smallest percentage of time for both cats ([female]: 0.478% [+ or -] 0.32% SE [male]; 1.62% [+ or -] 0.78%). ArcGIS analysis will reveal possible patterns of spatial patterns shared between the cats. Further studies could help determine if the leopards have made a bond that could predict successful matings after sexual maturity and reduce stereotypies.

The Relationship between Social Distance and the Stigma of PTSD. Ariel Kingsley, Terrica Brown, and Alison Welch, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. Due to the current numbers of disasters and wars, the diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are on the rise. Previous research shows that many victims of traumas do not seek mental health treatment due to stigma and social distancing. The current study examined the relationship between stigmatization of those with PTSD and the level of social distance desired from them by the people stigmatizing against them. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between the stigmatization of those with PTSD and the level of social distancing desired from them. Participants read a scenario about a person experiencing PTSD symptoms then completed the Modified Attribution Questionnaire, which measures stigma, and a Social Distance Scale. As hypothesized, a moderate positive correlation was found between stigmatization and social distancing. The findings of the study have many implications for mental health professionals.

Activity Budgets and Group Dynamics of Captive African Penguins. Madeline McCann * and Sarah Boyle, St. Mary's School, Memphis, Tennessee (MM) and Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (S8). Recent years have seen the mass decline of African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) populations due to commercialization and environmental change. This trend has led to an increased presence of African penguins in zoos worldwide. The primary goal of this study was to construct baseline activity budgets detailing normal behaviors of captive African penguins and to analyze correlations between background variables, behaviors, and group sizes. Using 1-minute scan sampling, behaviors, locations, and group sizes of 14 individuals (1-24 years old) were recorded. Penguins spent their time with an average of 66.9% ([+ or -] 3.4 SE) of the total group. Swimming underwater was the most common behavior, occurring 31.9% ([+ or -] 4.9 SE) of the time, but 28.2% ([+ or -] 6.2 SE) of time was spent on land. Overall, animals were active and social with the larger group. We hope to promote better understanding of captive African penguin behavior and more effective caretaking of this endangered species.

The Relationship between Extroversion and Preferences in Modes of Communication. Jose Villa *, Taylor Salton *, and Dominique Williams *. Christian Brothers University, Memphis. Tennessee. In today's world, technology has tremendously increased the means of communication available at society's disposal. Preferences for a type of communication can vary as much as the communication means available. Some of the most common means of communication include face-to-face interaction, Facebook, Twitter, text messaging, and over the phone talking. Two well identified personality types are introversion and extroversion. Each personality type has characteristics that are specific to it. The reviewed literature shows that these characteristics can help determine the preference for a type of communication. It is expected that individuals low in extroversion will prefer to communicate through written means and individuals with high extroversion will prefer to communicate through oral means. This research examined the relationship between how each personality type chooses to communicate and whether they prefer to use media or face-to-face interaction to communicate with others.

Reactions of the Agonist Clofibric Acid with [Cr.sup.3+]. Britney Yates *, Jessica Hayes *, Yahia Hamada, and Mostafa Badr, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, Tennessee (BY, JH. YH) and University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri (MB). This research is part of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) research. PPARs are a group of receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes. Articles published for the PPAR research are increasing exponentially. An American Chemical Society SciFinder library research found 38,000 papers by using PPAR as the key search term in the title of the paper. The following are two examples 1-A forum for a highly important and ever-expanding field of study, M. Badr, PPAR Research, 2006, 1-2. 2- Activation of member of steroid hormone receptor super family by PPAR, Nature, 1990, 347, 645650. 2-(p-Chlorophenoxy)-2-Methylpropionic acid or (Clofibric acid; [C.sub.10][H.sub.11]Cl[O.sub.3])) is an agonist that binds to PPAR. The objectives of this work are: 1-to find whether there is a binding between [Cr.sup.3] and Clofibric acid, and 2- to find what is the binding mode if there is binding. From potentiometry, UV-Vis, and IR spectroscopy work it appeared that there is strong binding. These data will be presented.

East Region

Walters State Community College

Morristown, Tennessee

13 April 2012

Oral Presentations

Industrial Chemistry

Synthesis of (2S)-(methanesulfonyloxy)propanoyl Chloride, a Key Intermediate in the Asymmetric Synthesis of Naproxen. Kyndal T. Brock * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. Approximately two-thirds of the production cost of naproxen is in the resolution step. In investigating an asymmetric synthesis, we describe the conversion of ethyl lactate to the mesylate ester. The ester is then saponified with sodium hydroxide. The resulting carboxylic acid is converted to the title compound with thionyl chloride.

Process Development Chemistry

Synthesis of N-octylglucamine by a Continuous Catalytic Hydrogenation Process. Savannah Hammer * and Lawrence F. Kennard. Walters State Community College. Morristown, Tennessee. Glucose and 1-aminooctane are heated in methanol until solution is achieved. At this point N-octylglucosamine is produced. The glucosamine is then hydrogenated over a catalyst to give N-octylglucamine. There are many impurities produced when attempting to do low pressure hydrogenations with noble metal catalysts or higher pressure hydrogenations with Raney nickel. We had been doing these hydrogenations in a batch process. We found that by switching to a continuous process for the hydrogenation step, we could produce a high yield of very pure N-octylglucamine.

Physical Organic Chemistry

Mechanism of Impurity Formation in N-octylglucamine Chemistry. Ivan C. Haworth * and Lawrence F. Kennard. Walters State Community College, Morristown. Tennessee. Early attempts to prepare large quantities of N-octylglucamine were beset with problems. Chief among these problems was the thermal instability of N-octylglucosamine, the intermediate formed when 1-aminooctane and glucose are combined. It does not take long for the methanolic solutions to become a tarry mess. On a catalytic surface, the intermediate also rearranged to give troublesome bi-products. We will describe how N-octylmannamine and N, N-diglucamine form in the N-octylglucamine process.

Large-Scale Production of Naproxen. Paige Hubard* and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. Naproxen is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Starting with 2-naphthol, naproxen is produced in a series of reactions. Among these reactions are an electrophilic aromatic substitution, a Williamson ether synthesis, a Grignard coupling reaction and a Hell-Volhard-Zelinski reaction. The racemic acid produced in these reactions is then resolved to give S-naproxen.

Agricultural Chemistry

Synthesis of Oxfendazole. Abigail L. Horner * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. Oxfendazole is a broad spectrum anthelmintic used in protecting livestock. We treated 5-chloro-2-nitroaniline with benzenethiol to obtain a sulfide which was then oxidized to a sulfone with peracetic acid. The nitro group on the sulfone was reduced to give an ortho-diamine. Addition of 1,3-bis(methoxycarbonyI)-S-methylisothiourea to the diamine gave oxfendazole.

Medicinal Chemistry

Resolution of R/S-acid with Cinchonidine to Give S-naproxen. Hillary D. Morgan * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. Since the starting materials used in the production of naproxen are achiral, the product acids must necessarily be a racemic mixture. We will show how the mixture of R-acid and S-acid can be resolved with cinchonidine to give S-naproxen.

Natural Products Chemistry

Resolution of Racemic Acids with N-octylglucamine to Give S-naproxen. Elisabeth A. Pitt * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. At one point the world-wide supply of cinchonidine began to dry up and a search was made to find a suitable substitute to use in the resolution step of naproxen production. N-octylglucamine worked very well in the resolutions and its synthesis in the laboratory is fairly simple. However, there were many issues with large scale work. We will describe our work in solving the large scale difficulties. We will also describe the reaction of glucose and 1-aminooctane to give N-octylglucosamine and the catalytic hydrogenation of the glucosamine to give N-octylglucamine.

Chemical Engineering

Process Development Research on (2S)-(methanesulfony-loxy)propanoyl Chloride, a Key Intermediate in the Asymmetric Synthesis of Naproxen. Michael G. Jarnagin * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown, Tennessee. While the three reactions leading to the title compound are simple and can be found in a standard text on organic chemistry, large scale production of the compound is much more complex and detailed. We will present our flow diagram of the process and discuss the solvent recovery and purification steps. We will describe the neutralization of the acidic off gases from this process.

Environmental Engineering

Design of a Cost Effective Scrubber System. Daniel S. Crandelr and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. The asymmetric synthesis of naproxen has a step in which hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide are released during the reaction. These gases must not be released into the environment and are generally neutralized by using a caustic scrubber. However, in this process using the caustic scrubber made production of (2S)-2-(methanesulfonyloxy)propanoyl chloride, a key intermediate in the asymmetric synthesis, cost prohibitive. Several million dollars were spent on environmental engineering studies during a two year period before we became aware of the problem. Although we were told that a solution to our problem was impossible, we solved it in twenty minutes with a little high school chemistry. We will discuss our design work at the TAS meeting.

History of Science

The Scientific Method and the Intelligence Community. Eugenie de Silva * and Eugene de Silva, American Military University, Charles Town, West Virginia. (EDS) and Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee (EDS). This work will highlight how scientific methods play a role in the Intelligence communities. If these communities had used strategic scientific methods, the past failures within the field could have been easily prevented. The events leading up to the 9/11 terrorist attacks will be highlighted to show how the use of proper scientific methods would have been the most appropriate solution to prevent the event.


The Use of Biometrics to Determine Deception. Eugenie de Silva *, Eugene de Silva, and Waqar Ahmed, American Military University, Charles Town, West Virginia (EDS), Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee (EDS), and University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, United Kingdom (WA). This work will research whether the use of biometrics is a reliable method to determine deception. Facial expressions and bodily movements will be analyzed while the subjects answer a series of questions. The answers are compared against facial and bodily expressions to determine the true and false nature of answers.

Poster Presentations

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

An Improved Synthesis of Sulfathiazole. Kyndal T. Brock * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. Pyridine, an unpleasant smelling substance, is used in the traditional synthesis of sulfathiazole. In an organic chemistry laboratory where many students with varying degrees of expertise are working, the aroma can be challenging. We have studied a pyridine free synthesis of sulfathiazole. Details of our synthesis will be presented.

Product Drying Technology

Demonstration of Drying Techniques for Organic Solids. Stephen Carpenter* and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown, Tennessee. Historically when students prepare a solid product in organic chemistry laboratory, the product is air dried in the desk drawer until the next laboratory meeting. We have demonstrated techniques to quickly dry solid products. Results of work with an Abderhalden apparatus, a ChemDry apparatus, and a vacuum oven will be presented.

Separation Science

Sublimation of Caffeine. Daniel S. Crandell * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown, Tennessee. Sublimation of caffeine is presented as a purification of caffeine in most organic chemistry laboratory manuals. However, this technique frequently causes us some stress. We have investigated three successful techniques and will present the results of our study.

Medicinal Chemistry

Synthesis of Sulfapyridine and Sulfanilamide. Savannah Hammer * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown. Tennessee. The synthesis of sulfapyridine and sulfanilamide was demonstrated. The results of the synthesis will be presented.

Natural Product Chemistry

Extraction of Diallyl Thiosulfinate from Fresh Garlic. Ivan C. Haworth * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown. Tennessee. Diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin) is a well-known therapeutically active compound formed by the reaction of alliin and alliinase when fresh garlic cloves are crushed. Allicin is suspected of being the most active compound contributing to the antimicrobial properties of garlic. The aim of this research project is to extract allicin from fresh garlic and to determine its effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Results of our work will be presented.

Catalysis Chemistry

An Improvement for Low Pressure Hydrogenations. Abigail L. Horner * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown. Tennessee. A frequent bottleneck in doing low pressure hydrogenations in organic chemistry laboratories is at the hydrogen cylinder. The bottleneck is caused by the alternate use of vacuum to remove air, then introduction of hydrogen usually through a hypodermic needle attached by a hose to the hydrogen cylinder. We have solved this problem by constructing a control panel to control the vacuum and hydrogen and using a 3-way stopcock attached to the student hydro-generators. The results of our work will be presented.

Chemical Education

Demonstration of Short-Path, Vacuum Distillations. Paige Hubard * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown. Tennessee. When doing research, one frequently encounters very viscous, high boiling liquids. We demonstrated how such liquids are purified. The results of our work will be presented.

Chemical Engineering

Production of Diacetone Alcohol in a Soxhlet Extractor. Michael G. Jamagin * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. Diacetone alcohol is a common synthetic intermediate used for the preparation of many compounds and commercial products. Diacetone alcohol was prepared from acetone by utilizing a Soxhlet extractor. Barium Hydroxide, catalyst, was placed in a thimble and loaded into the main chamber of the Soxhlet extractor. After several hours of reflux, a high yield of product was obtained.

Environmental Chemistry

Regeneration of Drying Agents. Jessica R. Kelley * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown. Tennessee. Anhydrous salts are used as drying agents in organic chemistry labs. However, over time the salts absorb water from the atmosphere and rehydrate. We used a Thermolyne Type 6000 Muffle Furnace to regenerate several drying agents. The results of our study will be presented.


Biological Activity of Sulfa Drugs. Hillary D. Morgan * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College. Morristown, Tennessee. The sulfa drugs sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, and sulfathizole prepared by organic chemistry students were tested in microbiology experiments. Results of the study will be presented.

Physical Organic Chemistry

Fisher Esterification of Pentyl Acetate Using a Dean Stark Trap. Elisabeth A. Pitt * and Lawrence F. Kennard, Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. To yield a purer ester from molar equivalents of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, a Dean Stark trap is used. The Dean Stark Apparatus is a piece of laboratory equipment used to remove water constantly during a Fisher esterification. The heterogeneous acid catalyst used is this study was a Dowex resin. The synthesis was successful, and the details will be presented.

* Student presenter.
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Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Article Type:Conference notes
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2012
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