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Abstracts of Presentations at the 2012 (122nd) Annual Meeting of the Tennessee Academy of Science.

Vanderbilt University

Nashville, Tennessee

16 November 2012

Botany

Roger McCoy, Chair

Ecological variation and the population dynamics of Astragalus bibullatus. Matthew A. Albrecht, Andrea Bishop, and David Lincicome, Conservation and Sustainable Development, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri (MA), Division of Natural Areas, Tennessee Department of Environment (Cc Conservation, Nashville, Tennessee (AB, DL). A major challenge in recovering this species has been defining suitable habitat and management regimes. The objective of this study was to quantify demographic and ecological variation in permanent plots at sites with contrasting management histories (mowed vs. unmowed). Mowed sites were more open and dominated by forbs whereas unmowed plots were more shaded and dominated by moss and graminoids. Demographic traits varied along this successional gradient. Seedling recruitment decreased as forb cover increased, suggesting sensitivity to competition. Light was the most important predictor of fiTennesseeess. Legume production increased as canopy cover decreased and as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) increased. In conclusion, management efforts for A. bibullatus should focus on applying disturbances (e.g., fire and thinning) in the woodland/forest matrix surrounding glades to reduce woody encroachment and create spatially heterogeneous microenvironments.

Impacts of large mammal herbivory on Scutellaria montana Chapm, at the Tennessee Army National Guard Volunteer Training Site, Catoosa County, Georgia. Andrea R. Benson*, Joey Shaw, and Jennifer Boyd, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee. Scutellaria montana Chapm. (large-flowered skullcap) is a federally listed herbaceous perennial with a population in the Tennessee Army National Guard Volunteer Training Site, Catoosa County, Georgia. To investigate the impacts of large mammal herbivory on S. montana there, we implemented a field experiment consisting of five herbivore exclosure treatments: small and large herbivores exclosed, large herbivores exclosed, open exclosure frames, flat PVC squares, and non-exclosed controls. Results from this 2-yr study indicate that stem height did not increase and leaf number per individual decreased across all treatments. Compared to control individuals, plants accessible to herbivores through a PVC frame or square showed a significant decrease in mean stem height while plants protected from herbivores did not experience a significant change in mean stem height. Decrease in leaf number was not significantly different between treatments. Results suggest white PVC pipe attracted herbivores causing increased browsing pressure for those accessible plants.

Population genetics of Boechera perstellata (Brassicaceae), an endangered plant with a disjunct distribution. Carol J. Baskauf, Jennifer R. Mandel, and David E. McCauley, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee (CJB), University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (JPM), and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (DEM). Boechera perstellata is an endangered plant found only in middle Tennessee and north-central Kentucky. Nineteen microsatellites revealed 74% polymorphism at the species level, averaging 21% at the population level. Relatively little genetic variation was found within each population, and observed heterozygosity was extremely low (0.000 to 0.005). High FIS values (0.93) suggest that B. perstellata is a primarily selfing species. Tennessee populations have more genetic diversity than Kentucky populations, and there is substantial genetic divergence between the states (49% of the species' genetic variability), as well as genetic differences among populations within each state (42% of the species' genetic variability). Fixed differences between the states were also observed for three chloroplast markers. These data indicate that there is very little gene flow among populations of B. perstellata, and that it is important to protect as many populations as possible in order to conserve the genetic diversity of this rare species.

Analysis and mapping of soils in the Bryan College Arboretum. Michael R. Bautista* and Roger W. Sanders, Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee. Soil samples from twenty-seven areas, each of uniform landscape, of the Bryan College Arboretum were analyzed for major nutrients and texture. Nutrients were analyzed by the University of Tennessee Extension Service using the Mehlich test; soil texture was determined manually with the ribbon-squeeze test, supplemented by sedimentation tests. Soils varied from silt to silt loam and from a pH of 5.2 to 7.4. Mehlich ratings for calcium and magnesium were uniformly "sufficient", for phosphorus varied from low to high, and for potassium, low to very high. The map produced from these data complemented the national soil survey map of the area with more detail. Variance from the national survey relates primarily to construction with heavy machinery that has altered soil profiles and removed original forest cover. The map produced will be used as a guide for selection of trees adapted to soil qualities, conservative soil amendment, and future research.

The distribution and status of Ribes aureum var. villosum, Golden or Buffalo Currant, in Tennessee. Edward W. Chester, Austin Peay State University. Clarksville, Tennessee. Ribes aureum Pursh var. villosum DC. = R. odoratum Wendl. (Grossulariaceae) is found on rocky bluffs, slopes, and riparian sites, mostly in the Great Plains and ostensibly, Tennessee. It is widely cultivated east of the Mississippi. It was first found in Tennessee in 1948 by Mr. Alfred Clebsch on high exposed Cumberland River bluffs ("Red Paint Rocks") near Clarksville. The Red Paint Rocks population is intact and the species is Tennessee-listed as threatened. Some consider the Tennessee population to be introduced, perhaps by Native Americans. The lower Cumberland River area is known to have been long-inhabited by Native Americans, evidenced by nearby mounds, village sites, and cemeteries with stone-box graves. One such cemetery is adjacent to the extant Ribes population, adding credence to the possibility that the species was introduced. However, without further evidence, the Tennessee population should be considered a disjunction from populations west of the Mississippi River.

Winter warm spell effects on seed germination among native and non-native plants in a riparian community. Noah P. Flanigan*, Jeffrey L. Walck, Siti N. Hidayati, Middle Tennessee State University, Muifreesboro, Tennessee. Warm spells are forecasted to increase in the future potentially impacting germination of plants that require winter for dormancy break. Since riparian areas are vulnerable to exotic invasion, we selected floodplain species representative of southeastern United States. We hypothesized that warm spells would differently affect germination (via dormancy induction) of native vs. non-native species. We performed two experiments: (1) interrupting the early (3 week), middle (6 week), and late (9 week) stages of 12-week cold stratification for 1-5 days at 20/10 or 25/15DC or (2) giving cumulative 5-day interruptions at 20/10[degrees]C during cold stratification at weeks 3, 6, or 9; 3 + 6; 3 + 9; 6 + 9; or 3 + 6 + 9. Warm spell effects had no consistent differences among interruption times, lengths, or temperatures when seeds were incubated at simulated spring temperatures. However, nonnative species germinated to higher percentages and faster than native species.

Rare plants and habitat delineation of the Ocoee River Gorge, Polk County, Tennessee. Sunny Hart*, Dwayne Estes, B. Eugene Wofford, Aaron Floden*, Rob Sheppard*, Mason Brock* and Joey Shaw, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee (JS,SH), Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TENNESSEE (DE,RS,MB), and The University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee (BW,AF). The Ocoee River Gorge (ORG) lies entirely within the Cherokee National Forest and is bisected by US Hwy 64; a major east-west corridor through the southern Appalachian Mountains. Our research focuses on documenting the plant communities and flora. We also documented and mapped the distributions of 20 rare plant species, two of which are potentially undescribed. Southeast Gap Analysis data (SEGAP) combined with orthoi-magery were used to delineate habitat types through the ORG. Field data were gathered between the 2010 and 2012 growing seasons and used to refine the areal extents of the remotely sensed delineations. Comparing data from randomly selected field sites assessed accuracy of remote sensing methods. We documented eight ecological systems and estimate between 3545 associations. Some of these associations are rare and are tracked as G1, G2, or 03 ranked communities by NatureServe. One association, within the Appalachian Shale Barren system is potentially new to science.

Current status of Boechera perstellata (E.L. Braun) Al-Shehbaz, Braun's rock-cress, in Tennessee. Roger McCoy and Todd Crabtree, Tennessee Division of Natural Areas, Nashville, Tennessee. The state and federally endangered Boechera [Arabis] perstellata was described from Kentucky by E. Lucy Braun in 1940 and first documented from Tennessee in 1960. Upon its federal listing in 1995, only two extant occurrences were known from Tennessee. Since 2000, Division of Natural Areas botanists have undertaken a number of projects to search for and monitor the species. In 2004, the US Fish and Wildlife Service designated ca. 320 ha. of Rutherford and Wilson counties as critical habitat for the species. Today six known extant populations occur in Tennessee, all within the Central Basin of Rutherford, Wilson, and Smith counties. Based on our observations, the species' preferred habitat includes calcareous, often north-facing outcrops within mesic or dry-mesic forests. None of the known Tennessee populations occur within public lands, but one land owner in Rutherford County has entered into a non-binding natural areas registry agreement with the division.

Seed viability and vitality in Clematis fremontii (S. Watson). WA. Weber, Joseph R. Turk*, Joey Shaw, and Jose Barbosa, University of Tennessee Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee. Clematis fremontii (S. Watson) W.A. Weber is a non-climbing clematis found primarily in the limestone glades of Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. A small, disjunct population exists in an industrial park in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Seeds from this population as well as seeds from plants in cultivation at the University of Tennessee Chattanooga were stratified and planted in sand under greenhouse conditions. These seeds and those from a Missouri population were treated with tetrazolium to test for seed viability. Preliminary germination results show low germination >1%. Viability tests show a detectable difference between wild collected seeds and seeds from plants in cultivation.

Cell and Molecular Biology

Greg A. Johansen, Chair

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) generate small laminin peptides that activate endothelial cells through focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Kyle Joiner*, Amanda Williams, Beth Conway. Lipscomb University, Nashville, Tennessee. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) is a pro-angiogenic cell-surface peptidase. Previously, we demonstrated that PSMA digests laminin downstream of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) to activate endothelial cell adhesion through the integrin 131 pathway, suggesting the presence of a novel laminin-derived PSMA substrate. To begin the process of identifying this novel PSMA substrate, we used size exclusion centrifugation chromatography to isolate small laminin peptides (less than 3 kDa) generated by MMP-2 and PSMA from the large fraction. Here, we report that the presence of these small peptides activates endothelial cell adhesion and acts as a chemoattractant for endothelial cell migration. These findings are consistent with the predicted size range for PSMA substrates based on previously published structural and enzymatic studies. Additionally, in-cell ELISAs show that the MMP-2/PSMA laminin peptides increase phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (P-FAK), an early indicator integrin 131 activation of angiogenesis.

Chemistry

Daniel J. Swartling, Chair

Potassium organotrifluoroborates and their use in microwave irradiated Pd--catalyzed cross--coupling chemistry for new C-C, C-N, C-0 bond forming products. Mohammad Al-Masune, Nabil Saleh, Kwei Liu, Shahrina Alam, Maya Wei, Eunice Ng. Department of Chemistry. Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling chemistry has dramatically changed the concept of classical organic transformations into modern organic transformations. Potassium organotrifluoroborates are new boron reagents successfully applied in cross-coupling chemistry for various important organic transformations. In our laboratory, these reagents are used for new carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bond forming reactions under microwave system. This green chemistry focused minute reactions and their mechanism will be presented.

Theoretical Investigation of p-benzoquinone reactivity with N-containing nucleophiles. Lasantha Rathnayake* Scott Northrup and Titus Albu, Tennessee Technological University. Cookeville, Tennessee. Quinones are a class of organic compounds with a six-membered unsaturated ring with two carbonyl groups, either adjacent to each other or separated by a vinyl group. Because of their biological and industrial importance, quinones have been studied for decades and are still subject to recent investigations. Although a number of experimental and theoretical investigations are found in the literature, there is still a lack of detailed information about nucleophilic addition reactions to quinones. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap of information by focusing upon N-containing nucleophilic addition reactions of selected quinones in the gas phase and solution phase. This study investigates the reaction between quinones such as p-benzoquinone, chloro-p-benzoquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone and N-containing nucleophiles such as ammonia, methylamine and ethylamine. All the theoretical calculations are being performed using Hybrid Density Functional Theory (HDFT) of mPW1B95-44 in conjunction with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set.

A QTAIM investigation of the generalized anomeric effect. Jordan G. Dodson* and Preston J. MacDougall, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The generalized anomeric effect (GAE) can be defined as the preference for gauche conformations in the segment R-X-C-Y. Here, Y is an electronegative atom and X possesses lone pairs of electrons. This research has used concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules to study the origin of the GAE. Specifically, we have sought to determine whether the GAE can be viewed as an intramolecular case of the Laplacian complementarity principle (LCP). This principle states that maxima and minima in V2 p tend to combine or align. To test this hypothesis, we have modeled a series of compounds containing the segment described above. Our data show a strong correlation between (3,+3) and (3,-1) critical point alignment in [[delta].sup.2] p and molecular energy. Moreover, gauche conformations consistently increased the alignment of these maxima and minima. This suggests that the GAE can indeed be viewed as an intramolecular case of the LCP.

Paper--based microfluidic devices for simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite. Jyothir Ganesh Ummadi Reddy* and Andrew F. Callender, Department of Chemistry, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. Paper-based microfluidic devices use inexpensive materials and fabrication processes to perform sophisticated chemical assays. Previous work in the field has focused primarily on fabrication techniques and application to biomedical samples, including remote diagnostics. Inexpensive disposable sensors will also be very useful in environmental monitoring and public health efforts, particularly in developing countries. We have developed simple devices which can simultaneously detect nitrate and nitrite ions as intensely colored diazonium salts. The color intensity is quantified using a home-office grade scanner. Vanadium(III) is used as a less-toxic reducing agent, minimizing the environmental impact of disposal. Response to both ions is linear over the range 5 to 100 ppm. The simplicity of the design and ease of use suggest that such devices may find use in both "citizen science" water quality monitoring in the US and in public health and agricultural efforts abroad.

Comparative proteomic study of triclosan toxicity to green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Halambage U. Deepthike and Jeffrey 0. Boles, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. Triclosan is broad spectrum antimicrobial agent commonly found in many domestic, healthcare, and industrial products. Increased usage of triclosan in recent decades has led widespread presence of trace amounts of triclosan in the environment. This has become an environmental concern as triclosan shows higher toxicity to microalgae than its intended target microbial species. However, mode(s) of action of triclosan in microalgae is still unknown. This study intends to provide insights into the possible mechanism(s) of toxicity, and investigate the feasibility of using molecular-level techniques such as proteomics in detecting toxic effects that remain undetected in conventional toxicity assays. Two dimensional electrophoresis gels of the extracted proteomes of control and triclosan-treated C. reinhardtii cultures showed a significant difference in protein expression. Mass spectrometric analysis and subsequent fragment ion search identified many of those differentially expressed proteins which are mostly related to photosynthesis mechanisms, suggesting that triclosan adversely effects photosynthesis in microalgae.

Engineering and Engineering Technology

Ismail Fidan, Chair

Blind sound separation using source localization method. Na Zhu and Sean Wu, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee, and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. A blind sound separation method, called point source separation (PSS), is developed to separate multiple sound sources or extract target sound source from a mixture of directly measured data. The input information required by PSS includes the mixed sound signals recorded at individual microphones whose coordinates are pre-determined and the coordinates of the sound sources. The coordinates of target sources are determined by using a separate localization method. To examine the effectiveness of source separation using PSS, various types of signals such as human voices, music sounds, machine noises, and gun shots are tested through numerical simulations. Also, the impacts of localization errors on sound separation using PSS are analyzed. Simulation results have shown that the PSS method can successfully separate and extract sound signals from the directly measured data in three-dimensional free space. The fidelity of source separation. however, is influenced by the accuracy in source localization.

The development of superinsulations for buildings and industrial use. David W. Yarbrough, R&D Services, Inc., Cookeville. Tennessee. Superinsulations provide thermal resistance values that are at least five times greater than those of conventional thermal insulation used in buildings or for industrial applications. The enhanced thermal performance is generally achieved by one of three strategies. The first is removal of the gas phase from the insulation material by evacuation: vacuum insulation panels. The second is the use of low thermal conductivity gases such as the noble gases in place of air: gas-filled packets. The third strategy uses fine fibers or particles to interfere with gas-phase molecular collisions: aerogels and nano-fibers. These techniques can be used to produce a insulation with thermal resistivity (R-per-inch of thickness) that exceeds 25 [ft.sup.2] h*[degrees]/Btu. Commerical products now exist that make use of these concepts. Selected properties, test results, and applications for superinsulations will be discussed.

The Engineering Technology curriculum faces challenges of instructional diversity and delivery methods that will lead to effectively using online and blended course delivery. Sue C. Evans and lhab Habib, Austin Peay State University. Clarksville, Tennessee. Universities are faced with decisions in regards course delivery methods to include traditional classroom, totally online, video/audio instruction, and/or blended instruction. The creative, technology-assisted delivery options offered by many colleges and universities are having an impact on decisions made regarding traditionally-taught curriculum. The student body of the Engineering Technology program at Austin Peay State University is often comprised of non-traditional students as well as active duty military personnel. Many of these students need flexible scheduling as they pursue their degree, and course redesign has been implemented for many courses in order to provide both online and blended approaches to the curriculum. The objectives of this endeavor have been to provide credible, high-level engineering technology courses without sacrificing quality. Course redesign and implementation of online and blended offerings have been met with positive results, and the student population has benefitted from these endeavors and flexible scheduling.

Network traffic analysis on Hadoop based cloud computing system. Waled M. Tayib*, and Sachin Shetty, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. The increased amount of inter-networked and online services produces an increased amount of user-generated content and metadata. These data are too numerous for people working for companies to examine. Instead, these organizations rely on data analysis by executing data-processing tasks on a single-sever. This approach is not scalable during analysis of a few tera or peta-byte network traces simultaneously. Advances in cloud computing platforms have expanded the applications distributed parallel computing. Here, we focus on analysis of network traffic using the MapReduce programming model on Hadoop, a cloud computing platform. Network traffic generated in these platforms contains information on performance and cloud security. To provide fast and reliable analysis of network traffic, I have developed a MapReduce program on the Hadoop framework to extract network level features. Experimental results show that the network traffic analysis can extract information from massive network trace files in the order of few minutes.

Measuring network vulnerabilities in cloud environments. Swetha R. Lenkala*, Sachin Shetty, and Samuel Keith Hargrove. Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. The security and performance of cloud data centers has been extensively studied for the past several years. However, there is lack of study on both security and performance of cloud networks including the networks among cloud data centers and between cloud users and a cloud provider. There is a need for an auditing tool to assess router vulnerabilities along the wide-area network path for commercial cloud providers (Amazon, Microsoft, Rackspace and Google) and provide a mechanism to identify the data centers which belong to the most secure network path. Here, we analyze vulnerabilities on the routers along the wide-area network between cloud subscriber and cloud provider based on the data provided by National Vulnerability Database (NVD) which uses the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS). We propose and calculate three metrics--Confidentiality impact, Integrity impact and Availability impact to characterize the security of the network path between cloud user and provider.

Functional degradation of regenerative hydraulic systems resulting from fluid flow frictional losses. John L. Byrd, Austin Peas' State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. It is often desirable to use regenerative hydraulics for the design of hydraulic systems where the use of a second fluid pump is prohibited by cost or space. The application of regenerative systems is often hampered by fluid flow frictional losses due to discharge coefficient restrictions or accumulation of component K values resulting in system backpressures that prevent functional stability of the regenerative circuit. This research mathematically and experimentally examines methods of reducing discharge losses and component K values, and selecting an appropriate fluid viscosity range to provide guidelines for designing regenerative circuits. Results indicate that limiting turbulence caused by inappropriate internal component geometry and selecting the correct fluid viscosity range can result in a reduction of backpressure that would normally prevent the regenerative action. It is concluded that for most applications of hydraulic regeneration, there are design steps that can provide for viable regenerative operation with minimal functional degradation.

Network traffic analysis on Hadoop based cloud computing system. Waled M. Tayib*, and Samuel K. Hargrove, Tennessee State University, Nashville. Tennessee. The increased amount of inter-networked and online services produces an increased amount of user-generated content and metadata. These data are too numerous for people working for companies to examine. Instead, these organizations rely on analysis by executing data processing tasks on a single-sever. This approach is not scalable during analysis of a few tera or peta-byte network traces simultaneously. Advances in cloud computing platforms have expanded the applications distributed parallel computing. Here, we focus on analysis of network traffic using the MapReduce programming model on Hadoop, a cloud computing platform. Network traffic generated in these platforms contains information on performance and cloud security. To provide fast and reliable analysis of network traffic, I have developed a MapReduce program on the Hadoop framework to extract network level features. Experimental results show that the network traffic analysis can extract information from massive network trace files in the order of few minutes.

Secure IP geolocation for cloud auditing. Biswajit Biswal*, Sachin Shetty and Samuel Hargrove, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Cloud subscribers who have entrusted their files to the cloud want to accurately verify where exactly their cloud files are? Recently latency-based geolocation approach has been proposed to verify storage location of files in the cloud. This approach doesn't verify exact locations of cloud files and gives inaccurate results of moved files. We propose machine learning based secure IP geolocation approach for accurately estimating the exact geolocation of cloud file hosts. Our approach supersedes existing latency measurement based approaches by extracting seven features from network measurements. These features allow us to solve problems of finding exact geolocation of cloud files, even when these move. To demonstrate the accuracy of our approach, we evaluate the performance on Amazon CloudFront and Windows Azure using ping and traceroute measurements from all globally available PlanetLab nodes with known geographic placement. Our results demonstrate that our approach is more accurate to the true geographic location.

Secure radio resource management in cloud computing based cognitive radio networks. Khurram Roza*, Samuel K. Hargrove, Dand B. Rawat and Sachin Shetty, Tennessee State Universit. v. Nashville, Tennessee, and Eastern Kentucky State University, Richmond, Kentucky. With the rapid development of cognitive radios, spectrum efficiency in cognitive radio networks (CRN) has increased by secondary users (SU) accessing the licensed spectrum dynamically and opportunistically without creating harmful interference to primary users. We propose secure radio resource management algorithm for CRN where cloud computing unit stores the spectrum occupancy information of heterogeneous wireless networks in CRN and facilitates access of spectrum opportunities for secondary users. The proposed algorithm leverages the geolocation of secondary user and idle licensed bands to facilitate secure allocation of radio resources to SU. Furthermore, secondary users who provide high benefit are admitted while satisfying the quality of service requirement of secondary users. We also present the design to implement the proposed algorithm on Cloud computing platform, and propose a scalable mapping method under the Storm, realtime processing model. Simulation results presented demonstrate the performance of the proposed secure radio resource management algorithm.

Mining concept drifting network in cloud computing environments. Sai Kiran Mukkavilli, Sachin Shetty, Tennessee State University, Nashville. Tennessee. Anomaly-based network Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) model patterns of normal activity and detect novel network attacks. However, these systems depend on the availability of the systems normal traffic pattern profile. The changes in normal traffic patterns over time lead to concept drift. These changes in traffic patterns are a cause of concern for IDSs as they can lead to a significant increase in false positive rates, thereby reducing the overall system performance. In this paper, we present a integrated supervised machine learning and control theoretic model for detecting concept drift in network traffic patterns. In our proposed system, any intrusion activity will cause significant variations, thereby causing a large error, while a minor aberration in the variations (concept drift) will not be immediately reported as alert.

Review of incident transportation emergency evacuation systems for populated areas. Heather Housel* and Samuel Hargrove, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Over the past ten years emergency response has witnessed dramatic increase in government and public support due to events such as September 11, 2001, Virginia Tech Massacre, and Hurricane Katrina. In many emergency situations, the best option is to relocate affected, or to be affected, populations to safer areas--this may be complex given the fact that evacuees must be routed to shelters or safety under dynamic hazard and traffic conditions. The focus of this research involves developing incident management and evacuation plans based primarily on transportation for Tennessee State University. The study includes literature review of different evacuation studies and architectures from various researchers, governmental departments and agencies, and international organizations. Simulation modeling software, Synchro, is used to create the framework for this case study and to test and evaluate the measures of effectiveness (MOE's) of the determined evacuation strategy.

Efficacy of stormwater filters at Mammoth Cave National Park. David Solomon*, Ashley West, Sean McMillan, Rick Toomey, Thomas Byl, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee, (DS, AW, SM, TB), Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky (RT). U.S. Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee (TB). Mammoth Cave NPS host over 500,000 visitors per year with concerns about threats to quality of water. This project objective was to determine if stormwater filter-systems, in different stages of service, attenuated runoff at parking lots in Mammoth Cave National Park. The original leaf-pack material filters were switched to zeolite-perlite-activated carbon systems. Flush samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the filter systems, and analyzed for petroleum compounds, Quaternary Ammonia Compounds (QAC), nutrients (NO3, NH3, PO4, SO4), hardness, zinc, copper, and chemical oxygen demand (COD). First round filter sampling removed very little due to filter age. Two-year old filters removed approximately 70% of the nitrate, 90% of the sulfate, 50% of the sediment and iron, with no zinc reduction. New filters removed up-to 99% of the aromatic hydrocarbons, and, up to 90% of the turbidity, COD and iron, but only 30-70% of QAC in storm runoff.

Real-Time wireless video transmission using Software Defined Radio. Come! Zlibut*, Liang Hong, Sachin Shetty and Keith Hargrove, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Mobile multimedia communications is an emerging area which has experienced lots of growth and success. However, interference, energy constraints, limited bandwidth, and time-varying characteristics of wireless channel bring up challenges for wireless system design to meet Quality of Service (QoS) requirement. A user's wireless node needs to adaptively select the optimal communication parameters to satisfy the user's QoS according to the transmit power, bandwidth, and channel quality. These parameters also should be reconfigurable on-the-fly. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology increases spectrum efficiency and service offerings through temporal allocation of extra frequency band, facilitates reconfigurability and run-time reconfiguration. Therefore, we develop a SDR based real-time wireless video transmission systems which can also be used for offline multimedia traffic transmission. Experiments with a variety of files and real-time video transmission verified that this system can be used as the basis for the design and evaluation of the mobile multimedia communications system.

Fate and transport of chemicals in stormwater runoff at Mammoth Cave National Park. Ashley West*, Rick Toomey, Thomas Byl, Roger Painter, Dafeng Hui. Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee, (AW, TB, RP, DH), Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky (RT), U.S. Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee (TB). Mammoth Cave National Park has identified parking-lots as potential sources of contaminants endangering the cave. However, the NPS lacks some essential quantitative information with regards to contaminant transport from land surface into the cave ecosystem. The objective of this investigation was to characterize storm flow from potential source areas on the surface into the cave. A quantitative tracer study found it took one hour for dye to move from land surface, along the main flowpath, and into the cave. Constituents, such as quaternary ammonia compounds (QACs), chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and diesel range aromatic ring compounds, decreased exponentially along the flowpath, to below detection levels in the cave. Zinc, copper and nitrate concentrations were in the lower part per million range and decreased along the surface flow path, but then held steady at ppb concentrations in the cave flowpath. This information is useful when designing a stormwater mitigation plan.

Effects of machine material removal rate limits on burr formation when machining face centered cubic crystalline structured metals. John L. Byrd, Austin Peay State University. Clarksville. Tennessee. Machine material removal rate limitations are a key factor in competitive manufacturing when machining metals. Burr formation during machining processes can rapidly decrease profitability due to the costly processes of removing burrs. Metals having the face centered cubic crystalline structure are extremely susceptible to the formation of burrs during machining and are the material of choice for this study. This research investigates the possibility of increases in burr formation when the machining process approaches, reaches, or exceeds the limitations of the machine's material removal rate. Research results indicate that burr formation rapidly increases, regardless of cutter geometry, when the material removal rate approaches or exceeds machine limitations. It can be concluded that, for most applications, machine manufacturer's stated maximum material removal rates cannot be used as the upper cutter load limit and still maintain burr free, or limited burring, during machining operations.

Assessment and development of a Virtual and Augmented Reality Based Assembly Design System. Stephanie Starling* and S. Keith Hargrove, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Virtual Assembly Design System (VADS) is a Virtual and Augmented Reality (VAR) based engineering application which allows engineers to plan, analyze, and evaluate the assembly of mechanical systems. In our proposed VADS, we implement a six-bar quick return mechanism made up of six links and 2 to 3 grounds. The objective of this project is to provide a VAR environment for Tennessee State University's Mechanical Engineering students. Currently, students learn the development and assessment of assembling the six-bar return mechanism by using physical prototyping, a very time-consuming and expensive method that is difficult or impossible to modify. Our project will help students understand the assembly and function of this mechanism, allowing them to virtually assemble and interact with the mechanism. We use Vizard. ARToolkit, video vision goggles, and a head mounted display to overlay virtual images on real mechanical parts and superimpose instructional and feedback messages on students' camera view.

Motorized Christmas carousel. Amy Cranfield* and Chin-Zue Chen. Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The motorized Christmas carousel is based off the original German Christmas carousels, which run off the hot air produced by their candles. For the carousel being presented, there is a snowflake rotating about an axis, which has a rod through it to spin the fan at the top at a different direction. On the base are 3 LED's that will light up the star. Underneath the base of the carousel is a motor and gear train assembly that had to be made especially for this application, so the fan and snowflake spin in opposite directions. There also is a programmable LED display at the side panel of the base. Most all of the parts were drawn in AutoDesk Inventor, converted to an .STL file, then printed in 3D printers. Showing our school spirit is our school "AP" logo on the snowflake.

Design of motorized bi--directional rotation function for a Christmas carousel. Lindsay D'Albani* and Chin-Zue Chen, Austin Peay State University. Clarksville, Tennessee. A challenge: using available donated parts from various models of Minolta copy machines to design the function for a bi-rotational Carousel. A component consists of a 9v DC motor with a gear train was selected and redesigned to a coaxial drive mechanism, in which the inner axle rotates in one direction and the outer axle rotates the opposite direction. The presentation explains how the gear train was redesigned to fulfill the function required.

Hydraulic connections between the Cumberland River and groundwater in nearby wells at Tennessee State University. Aras Barzanji*, Mike Bradley, Thomas Byl, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (AB, TB), U.S. Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee (MB, TB). Communities along the Cumberland River are interested in using groundwater as their water supply rather than pay for surface water. It is not known if these supply wells in close proximity to the river are drawing river water or intercepting groundwater. Tennessee State University has 3 wells that are located within a mile of the Cumberland River. The objective of this study was to determine the hydraulic gradient of groundwater in the bedrock aquifer and to ascertain groundwater flow directions during different weather conditions. Geophysical logging indicates the top of bedrock is approximately 40-60 feet below ground surface, with openings at 72- and 108-feet below land surface. Water elevations were measured in the wells and compared to Cumberland River (USGS gage). The hydraulic gradient was calculated using the triangulation method. It was apparent that water in the well and river would rise and fall almost simultaneously. The general water gradients suggests groundwater in the study area is moving toward the Cumberland River. On rare occassions, such as the flood of May 2010, the river rose faster than the groundwater and the gradient reversed.

As mobile technology advances so does the desire to integrate the tool into daily life. Adel Salama, Travis Broyles, John Jackson*, Adam Wilson, and Michael Wright, Austin Pear State University, Clarksville. Tennessee. Portable electronic devices continue to become more powerful and more ingrained in the daily lives of their users. As users come to rely more on the constant stream of data, they may become divorced from their surroundings. Loss of situational awareness is not only a drag on the efficiency of the user; it may also endanger the user as they engage in tasks such as driving or walking across the street. The goal is to provide a seamless interface device that integrates both voice and motion controls to create a virtual tablet like interface. Such a device will allow the user to employ the data of the device toward practical uses while remaining in touch with the surrounding environment.

Capstone project to design a robot for electrical engineering technology. Adel Salama, Lindsay D'Albani* and Enrique Perez, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The purpose of this project was to apply and demonstrate the knowledge and skills we have learned in the engineering technology program here at Austin Peay State University. This involved the application of engineering practices in mechanical, electrical, and additive manufacturing; as well as work-environment--related skills such as team work, time management, and product development. The project is to design and build a robot on a tracked platform with a useable plow mounted on the front. The robot contains an IP camera as well is radio controlled, allowing it to be used as an inspection robot for place which people cannot easily access. The original intent of the project was to design a robotic snow plow, but as we progressed, we realized that our original scope was too narrow, and our project in fact could be used in many other applications.

Xylitol-daptomycin bone cement. Ali Salehi* University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. The purposes of the present work were to determine 1) the optimum amount of xylitol to use in a daptomycin-xylitol-Orthoset[R] 1 cement; and 2) the influence of xylitol on the elution mechanism of this cement. In support of these purposes, five properties of the xylitol-daptomycin-loaded cement (with four different xylitol loadings) were determined: daptomycin elution rate, daptomycin diffusion coefficient, index of the activity of the daptomycin eluate against S. aureus, rate of polymerization of the cement at 37 [degrees]C, and diffusion coefficient of phosphate buffered saline into the cement specimen. It was found that the optimum xylitol loading is 4 wt./wt.% (equivalent to 2 g of xylitol mixed with 1.4 g of daptomycin and 40 g of cement powder) and, regardless of the amount of xylitol in the cement, the applicable daptomycin elution mechanism is initial burst followed by slow Fickian release.

Application of a gamma-derived residence time distribution function for Karst aquifers. I. Embry*, V. Roland*, A. Kalyanapu, T. Byl, R. Painter, R. Toomey, L. Sharpe, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (1E, VR, TB, RP), Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (1E, AK), United States Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee (TB), Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (RT), and Massie Chair of Excellence, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (LS). The gamma residence time distribution (RTD) function and its first and second moments are derived from the individual two parameter gamma distributions of the randomly distributed variables tracer travel distance and linear velocity which is based on their relationship with time. The purpose of this project was to compare the novel gamma RTD model to the traditional ADE RTD model for a quantitative field tracer study performed at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. The normalized gamma RTD had a lower mean-absolute deviation (MAD) 0.038] than the normalized advection dispersion equation 0.161 when compared to the normalized tracer RTD. The gamma RTD function is tied back to the actual physical site due to its randomly distributed variables. This verification suggests that the gamma RTD function is a suitable alternative to the advection dispersion equation RTD function for quantitative tracer studies of karst aquifers and other non-ideal flow systems.

Geology and Geography

Robert Mark Simpson, Chair

Geologic controls on contaminant transport at the Velsicol dump, Hardeman County, Tennessee. Michael W. Bradley and Thomas D. Byl, U.S. Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee. The Hardeman County landfill was used as a disposal site for industrial waste prior to 1973. Continued release of organic compounds to surrounding aquifers and surface water bodies is an ongoing problem. An evaluation of the hydrologic and geologic controls was needed to better understand contaminant transport and potential remediation at this site. The investigation included the collection of water-quality samples for organic compounds, geochemical, and bacterial conditions and a definition of the geologic feature affecting groundwater movement and contaminant transport. Additional samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen from select sites. Two sources of surface-water contamination were identified: seeps occurring along reaches of major tributaries of Clover Creek and seeps along the edge of the Clover Creek wetland. The investigation identified that specific point seeps provided the highest concentration and largest contaminant load for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform to surface water near the site.

Distinguishing the Millbrig bentonite from the Deicke bentonite along the Kingston thrust sheet in Eastern Tennessee. David M. Buhl*, H. Wayne Leimer, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. Identification of the Deike and Millbrig K-bentonite layers along the Kingston thrust sheet in East Tennessee can be done through the examination of phenocryst mineralogy prominent within each deposit. These bentonites were deposited from independent volcanic ash fall events that occurred some 450-460 million years ago. Contained within the bentonites are remnant diagnostic mineral phenocrysts that are unique to the composition of each volcanic ash deposit. Bentonites were collected along a fourty-five mile section of the Kingston thrust sheet and were compared to a control obtained from Nyrstar NV using x-ray diffraction methods and optical properties of the diagnostic minerals. Methods used proved to be reliable in distinguishing the Deike and Millbrig bentonites. These bentonites provide identifiable marker beds that could assist associating largely disconnected stratigraphic elements within the Valley and Ridge physiographic region of Eastern Tennessee.

Background trace metal concentrations in east Tennessee red clay soil samples. Randy M. Canis, Gresham, Smith and ParTennesseeers, Nashville, Tennessee. Red clay subsoils at two locations in east Tennessee were sampled for trace metal concentrations. After analysis, the concentrations of metals in the soils were compared to published information on concentrations recommended for Preliminary Remediation Goals used by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Some trace metals, such as arsenic, were found to naturally occur at levels above recommended remediation goals for contaminated soils in residential areas. The median concentrations of trace metals detected in the unaffected background subsoil samples ranked from high to low as: V>Zn>Cr>Ba> Pb>Ni>Co>As>T1>Cd>Be>Hg. The values in the red clay subsoils were perceptibly less than some of the published background soil concentrations for trace metals. Some published shallow soil trace metal concentrations for background conditions at contaminated sites may have been affected by highway run-off, atmospheric deposition, or other anthropogenic sources.

Trials and tribulations of teaching introductory geology online: insights and questions to ponder. Thomas A. DePriest and Michael A. Gibson, University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin. Tennessee. Online courses offer convenience for students pursuing educational goals hampered by family responsibilities or work. Benefits include: control over schedule, less driving and gas savings, multitasking home, work, and education, comfort of familiar surroundings, and asynchronous classwork scheduling. Negatives to online courses to consider: loss of student-teacher verbal-visual cue interactions, interruptions of home and work during "online class time", inefficient or nonexistent peer support group for assignments, and technology issues, including student inexperience with computers and software. Most sciences require the completion of a lab component as part of the course. Labs are inherently hands-on interactive in an apprentice fashion; difficult to emulate online. This is especially true with introductory geology, which involves considerable experiential learning. Student consideration of online geology courses should include an honest assessment of their learning style, overall academic strength, and computer savvy in their decision, as well as the convenience of the technology.

Online geoscience education and teacher Earth science literacy in Tennessee. Michael A. Gibson and Thomas A. DePriest, University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee. Earth Science education in Tennessee (numbers of courses in Tennessee and grade level taught) has downgraded from 9`h grade level established by 1960's national education reform (ESCP) to middle school content level through the 1990's and early 2000's NCLB reform. By 2010, Earth Science was being dropped from most 8-12 curricula or being pushed down to 6`h and 7th grades with reduced content. The lack of Earth Science certified teachers resulted in many schools allowing teachers with certifications in other science areas to teach Earth Science courses. Existing workforce teachers had no avenue for content certification training in Earth Sciences at the graduate level to help fill the need of retraining existing teachers for the new specialty. Two programs now exist for this purpose: Mississippi State's Teachers In Geoscience (TIG) program and University of Tennessee at Martin's MSEd: Interdisciplinary Option with concentration in Geoscience Education (GEDU) program.

Sedimentation rates in the Upper Blue Basin (Reelfoot Lake) using Cesium-137, Northwest Tennessee. Terri L. Keel*, Johanna Van Zyl*, Stan P. Dunagan, and Viktor Polyakov, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee (TK, JVZ, SD) and USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (VP). Reelfoot Lake sedimentation rates have historically been a concern to stakeholders with recreational, economic, and environmental interests in this lake found in the northwestern corner of Tennessee. Our research focuses on using the Cs-137 method on five vibracores collected from the Upper Blue Basin of Reelfoot Lake in June 2012. Using established Cs-I37 chronostratigraphic markers at 1954 and 1963, calculated sedimentation rates yield an average aggradation of 0.78 cm/yr over 58 years and 0.61 cm/yr over 49 years. In comparison, Cs-137 studies conducted in 1984 yielded an average sedimentation rate of 1.7 cm/yr indicating that the average sedimentation rate for the Upper Blue Basin has dropped by approximately 60% over the past 28 years. This research points toward improved lake longevity when compared to previous studies suggesting ongoing conservation efforts within the Reelfoot Lake watershed have reduced sediment input into the Upper Blue Basin.

Shifts in microbial community function associated with the flow path of groundwater recharge at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Petra K. Byl*, Shannon Trimboli, Rickard Toomey, David Solomon*, and Thomas D. Byl, U.S. Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee (PKB intern, TDB), Hume-Fogg Academic HS, Nashville, Tennessee (PKB), Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky (ST, RT), Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (DS, TDB). The objective of this project was to characterize the flow path from the Park Post Office down to the lower cave level, and determine the microbial capabilities along the flow route. This was achieved using tracer data, measuring discharge along the flowpath, measuring microbial resistance to 5 antibiotics (Quaternary Ammonia Compounds, erythromycin, kanamycin, gentamycin, and tetracycline) and quantifying utilization of 31 substrates (Ecolog). Five locations along the flow route were monitored for a year. The discharge in the upper level ranged from 3 L/m to 200 L/m. Discharge increased proportionally 3-fold by the time it reached the lower level. Cave microbial communities along the flow path were resistant to kanamycin and stimulated by low doses of erythromycin (0.1-1.0 mg/L). Resistance to the other antibiotics varied by cave level. Microbial ability to consume simple carbohydrates and amino acids decreased 90%. in lower passages, but ability to utilize fatty acids increased 50%.

One hundred years of tornadoes in Tennessee: An overview of tornado climatology research in the state. Robert M. Simpson, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee. Tennessee has seen its share of violent tornadoes over the past 100 years, but long-term research in tornado climatology has been hampered by a more regional approach to the subject and by changing population, settlement patterns, and the technology used to detect them. This study cobbles together the work of many researchers over the past century to provide a more holistic view of tornado activity within the state. A picture emerges that while population plays a significant role in tornado observation, topography clearly guides where tornadoes are likely to form. However, some significant tornadoes occur in surprising places.

Health and Medical Sciences

Nick Ragsdale, Chair

Screening four putative anti-androgenic compounds, Tartrazine, Bisphenol A, Allantoin and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using MDA-kb2 cells. Amelia K. Rinehart* and Sarah Lundin-Schiller, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, found in many consumer products, can interfere with endogenous signaling pathways. MDA-kb2 cells, a stably transformed cell line with a luciferase reporter gene downstream from the androgen receptor response element, was employed to screen Tartrazine, Bisphenol A (BPA), Allantoin, and Di-n-butyl phthalate for androgenic/anti-androgenic properties. Assays were conducted in quadruplicate. Positive control dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at .01, .1, and 1 nM induced a concentration dependent increase in luciferase activity. The effect of 1 nM DHT was inhibited significantly by hydroxy-flutamide (OHF), a known androgen receptor antagonist. Tartrazine and Allantoin exhibited neither androgenic nor antiandrogenic activity. Di-n-butyl phthalate induced a slight inhibition of DHT effect but failed statistical significance. BPA induced highly significant inhibition of DHT. Di-n-butyl phthalate nor BPA mimicked DHT in this assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer HSD comparison of means (alpha .05). Detailed mechanistic studies of BPA and Di-n-butyl phthalate are warranted.

Anti-tumor activity of a novel HS-mimetic-vascular endothelial growth factor binding small molecule. Kuntebommanahalli N. Thimmaiah*, J. L. Sylvester, Mark Montgomery, T. Padma, P. Adris, P. Grisham, Sarah Mattox, Ray Cox, Darrell Barnes and P. J. Houghton. Northwest MS Community College, DeSoto Center, Southaven, Mississippi and Center for Childhood Cancer, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. The angiogenic process is controlled by variety of factors of which the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway plays a major role. A series of heparan sulfate mimetic small molecules targeting VEGF/VEGFR pathway has been synthesized. Among them, compound 8 was identified as a significant binding molecule for the heparin-binding domain of VEGF. Molecular docking studies showed that compound 8 binds at the heparin binding domain of VEGF. In vitro studies showed that compound 8 inhibits the VEGF-mediated proliferation, VEGF-induced migration and tube formation of mouse vascular endothelial cells, and finally the invasion of a murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8G7) which secrets high levels of VEGF. In vivo, these effects produce significant decrease of tumor burden in an experimental model of liver metastasis. In conclusion, compound 8 could normalize the tumor vasculature and microenvironment in tumors probably by inhibiting the binding of VEGF to its receptor.

History of Science

Brother Kevin Ryan, Chair

The fusion of HUMINT operations and the scientific method. Eugenie de Silva* and Eugene de Silva, American Military University, Charles Town, West Virginia. (EDS) and Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee (EDS). This work will offer an in-depth analysis of the use of the scientific method in the Human Intelligence (HUMINT) operations of the United States (U.S.) Intelligence Community (IC). HUMINT operations related to the Cold War spy Pyotr Semyonovich Popov and the recent U.S. killing of Osama Bin Laden will be used to exemplify the vital and useful nature of the scientific method. The effective combination of science and intelligence will be portrayed through the analysis of the scientific method and HUMINT missions.

Tennessee women in science: the bio project. Marleyna Daughters*, Rachel Davies*, Elizabeth Sharp*, Angel Tala-mantes*, Judith Iriarte-Gross, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Despite great progress, Tennessee women are still underrepresented in many STEM fields. Positive role models can likely be an influence on the career choices of women and girls. However, possibly due to a more conservative culture, the history of women in science in Tennessee is especially silent. In an effort to promote women role models in STEM from Tennessee, as well as shine light on the amazing contributions of women to STEM over the years, we have created The Bio Project, for which we have researched the lives of Tennessee women in STEM. The women featured have swum against the stream to create a path for women's participation in the sciences. Pioneers in fighting discrimination while balancing their family and working lives, they have made great strides in the name of science.

Frances Ranney Bottum, President of the Tennessee Academy of Science 1949. Teresa Lane Fulcher, Pellissippi State Community College, Knoxville, Tennessee. Women have participated in activities of the Tennessee Academy of Science since its founding in 1912, including at least five female charter members. However, Dr. Frances R. Bottum has the distinction of being the first female president of the Tennessee Academy of Science. Prior to Dr. Bottom's tenure, only one other female had served as an officer of the Academy, Miss Jeannette Moore King, who served as Vice President in 1920. This paper is an effort to recognize female pioneers in the Academy, and to pay tribute to Dr. Bottum, her work in the Academy, and her accomplishments in science.

Math and Computer Science

Ben Ntatin, Chair

Colossal corn, colossal consequences. Alice E. Curtis*, Daniel Biles, Barbara Ward, and Keeley White, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. When food is cheap and bountiful, humans will eat more. The average American's daily calorie intake has increased by more than ten percent since 1977. Corn accounts for most of these extra calories and is processed into hundreds of goods such as emulsifiers and fast food. Even the beef and poultry that we consume are being adapted to a diet of corn, which increases the rate of growth. The decreasing prices of fast-food may seem advantageous to an increasing population, but the consumer is paying a price for these cheap calories. Type II Diabetes, originally known as adult-onset diabetes, was recently renamed because it began to occur frequently in children. This study shows a correlation between the growing number of deaths due to Type II Diabetes and heightened production of corn. Predictive analytic models are used to make future predictions about the number of deaths due to Type II Diabetes.

The case of the smudged map. Lucas Johnson, Justin Cook, Reed Curtis, Larry Nelson, Stephen Stone, Donny Peay, and Cory Medlin*, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The case of the smudged map is investigated through geometrical arguments. Because the wedge must be equally divided by a straight fence such that an east to west and north to south fence built anywhere on the dividing fence will create two areas, beginning at the point of the wedge, with equivalent areas. Based on these restrictions, the wedge was determined to be in the shape of an isosceles triangle positioned such that the dividing fence points 45[degrees] north of due east. This statement is proved using geometric equivalencies for the case where the north-south and east-west fences extend fully, dividing the wedge into six sections and where the north-south and east-west fences extend in only two directions.

A road between two towns. Rachel Balthrop*, Elizabeth Dodds*, Jessica Dotson*, Michael McAllister*, Derek Nobes*, and Brandy Smith*, Austin Pear State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. In this presentation, we found the shortest route connecting the two towns via the existing road while trying to be cost conscious. Our group used two different methods to approach this problem. In the first method we used, we created triangles between the two towns and the existing road. We applied the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometry of angles to discover the shortest paths from the towns to the main road. In the second method, we applied the ellipse reflective property to determine the shortest length between the two towns and the existing road. Ultimately we discovered that the ellipse method was the most effective method and provided us with the shortest route between the two towns and the existing road.

Population growth with migration. Reneice Glasper*, Ashley Heinreich*, Patrick Shelton*, and Murphy Rogers, Austin Peay State University. Clarksville, Tennessee. This presentation helps its readers to figure out how to find the proportion of people living in California to the total population of the U.S. using appropriate growth models. We calculated the specific birth, death, and migration rates for both California and the rest of the U.S, by creating difference equations for both regions in order to provide a means of predicting future data. Based on our assumptions our results predict that California's and the U.S.'s populations will stabilize around the year 2350 with approximately 98 out of every 100 Americans living in California. After reviewing the results that our population growth models provided us and comparing them to the official estimates that were researched, it is clear that our growth models need further manipulations to increase accuracy.

Students' mathematical beliefs--pictures tell the story better. Stephanie Jessie, Austin Peay State University, Tennessee. We study beliefs and attitudes of Austin Peay State university students (sample size = -300) towards mathematics learning using mathematical pictures drawn by the students themselves. An analysis of these pictures for encoded mathematical beliefs showed in general, that we could divide the belief structure and attitudes of students into categories that were consistent with established categories. However, there emerged a new category that showed a belief system inconsistent with known categories.

River pollution. Zaklina Cetic*, Sean Cather*, Michael Kuwonu*, Skylar Sullivan*, and Justin Cook*, Austin Pear State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. 'River Pollution' is an exercise that applies the mathematical modeling process to theoretical data of pollution concentration levels in a two-river system. The modeling process in this case provides a practical means for predicting the future pollution concentration levels that will exist in the two rivers based on the theoretical data. Our research team approached this exercise by first developing a discrete dynamical system to describe the data that were obtained from the two rivers. Then we applied elementary linear algebra theory to the system in order to develop the estimates that we needed to complete the problem. Based on this exercise, we concluded that discrete dynamical system techniques and the mathematical modeling process are useful and effective tools that can be used in real life situations to make reasonable predictions about future events.

Graduate mathematics program admissions prediction. Mary L. Yang*, Daniel Biles, and Barbara Ward, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Prospective students' self-reported information from previous years will be used to predict acceptance into American graduate mathematics programs. Analytics techniques will be used to discover data trends that include but are not limited to demographics, standardized test scores, undergraduate performance, area(s) of study, and work experience. This predictive model would aid prospective students in determining which graduate mathematics program would be a tailored good fit as well as the probability of acceptance into the desired program.

Effects of harvesting deer population in Tennessee. Preston Mathews*, Janica Bolden*, Dusty Adkins*, and Jessica Dodds*, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. We have developed a strategy for optimum habitat development of the population of the deer in Tennessee, thereby, which the TWRA will be able to decide how many hunting licenses to be issued in the state. We used three models: Logistic, Constant yield harvesting and constant effort harvesting to study the problem. Given the excess of deer in Tennessee the best method to use will be constant effort harvesting because it is going to take that many years to get the deer population under control and it is going to take a constant effort based on the population each year in order to bring the population down to meet the carrying capacity.

Friezine triangulated polygons. Emarus D. Shay*, and Ramanjit K. Sahi, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. For centuries, mankind has been creating frieze patterns seen in metal, pottery, fabrics, automobile tire treads, marble, ornaments, currency etc. Specifically, a frieze pattern is a sequence that repeats itself in one dimension. In this presentation, we will consider the relationship of frieze patterns in triangulated polygons. Through mathematical representations, we will show the simple arithmetic in creating frieze patterns by triangulating convex polygons.

Interplay of words with knots through Markov's Chain. Liliana M. Alvarez*, Anne M. French*, and Ramanjit K. Sahi, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Using computer programming to analyze literature and generate data for Markov chains, this presentation demonstrates the possible origins of nonsense texts of the mathematician Charles Dodgson, who is also known as Lewis Carroll. Further, we will look how the data created via n-length words generates Markov chains that can be transformed into knots. The analysis of these knots demonstrates the connections between knot theory and Markov chains.

On the gamma--half normal distribution and its applications. Knight, Kristen*, and Alzaatreh, Ayman, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The need for generalized distributions arises when the known distributions do not provide adequate fit to the data of interest. Hence, a new distribution must be developed which allows for greater flexibility in modeling real life scenarios. In this talk, a new distribution, namely, gamma-half normal distribution is defined and studied. Various properties of the gamma-half normal distribution are obtained. The distribution can be unimodal or bimodal. Results for moments, limiting behavior, mean deviations, Shannon entropy and Fisher information matrix are provided. The method of maximum likelihood estimation is proposed for estimating the model parameters. Real data sets are used to illustrate the applications of the gamma-half normal distribution.

Using Twitter to forecast and track the perceived value in a company. Andrew Trask*, Daniel Biles, and Barbara Ward, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The value of a stock is based on the market's perception of value of a company. The movements in the price of a stock have a strong correlation to the beliefs that shareholders of a corporation maintain, and potentially even the beliefs of their peers. This belief network is what other expressions of value (product purchases, stock purchases, interpersonal referrals, etc.) are derived from. On a micro level, a customer decides they like a product before they buy it. Thus these shareholder beliefs must change before the various expressions of that change can take place. This universal process of "belief then buy" requires a window of opportunity between when the belief is created and when it's capitalized upon. In light of this, this research seeks out ways to adequately track, with the intention of forecasting, perceived value in a company through the medium of recorded expression known as Twitter.

Self starting trignometrically--Fitted Second Derivative Method for Orbital Problems. Ramanfit K. Sahi, and Samuel N. Jator, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Several numerical methods have been developed for solving second order ordinary differential equations whose solutions exhibit oscillatory behavior. Using interpolation and collocation procedures a trigonometrically-fitted second derivative method is developed to solve periodic initial-value problems without the need for starting values. Numerical experiments are conducted on well-known orbital problems.

A study of the gamma--Pareto (IV) distribution and its applications. Ayman Alzaatreh and Indranil Ghosh, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Pareto distribution and generalizations provide very flexible families of heavy-tailed distributions which may be used to model income distributions as well as a wide variety of other socio-economic distributions. On the other hand, gamma distribution has wide applications in various socioeconomic spheres such as survival analysis, to model aggregate insurance claims and the amount of rainfall accumulated in a reservoir etc. Combining the above two heavy tail distributions, using the technique by Alzaatreh, et al. (2012 a), we define a new distribution, namely, gamma-Pareto (IV) distribution, hereafter called as GPD (IV) distribution. Various properties of the GPD (IV) are investigated such as limiting behavior, moments, mode and Shannon entropy. Also some characterizations of the GPD (IV) distribution are mentioned in this paper. Maximum likelihood method is proposed for estimating the model parameters. For illustrative purposes, real data sets are considered as an application of the GPD (IV) distribution.

Geometry of the finite element method for solving elliptical partial differential equations. Ben Ntatin, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. It is well known that many physically significant problems can be modeled into a partial differential equation. The finite element method is one of the most effective methods used to tackle these problems. In this talk we give a geometrical consideration of this method and show how under steady state conditions the problem can be reduced to an equation of the form Ax = b where A is possibly a nonlinear symmetric operator. Typical examples of how such equations arise are found in models involving the heat, the wave or the Schrodinger equation.

Physics and Astronomy

Eugene de Silva, Chair

Spin-spin dependence in large scale binary black hole simulations. Scott H. Hawley, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. We present results of highly accurate simulations of binary black hole initial data. In order to help scientists detect true gravitational wave signals amid noise, researchers in the field of Numerical Relativity run simulations to generate template gravitational waveforms. The research presented entails a study of a type of binary black hole initial data, calculated to high accuracy using hundreds of processors and terabytes of RAM. The software itself is a multigrid solver for the Einstein field equations, which will be made available as open source and interfaced via the Cactus high-performance computational toolkit. This solver provides for a variety of other initial data sets which yield low-noise gravitational waveforms. The new physics investigated is a study of spinning black holes and the effect on spin angle on gravitational field strength. This study provides a tool for predicting the outcomes of full time evolution simulations of spinning black holes.

Fabrication and characterization of molybdenum disulfide monolayers. Stephen J. Robinson, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an interesting semiconductor with recently discovered emergent properties seen in thin layers. Namely, as it moves from a bulk material to an atomically thin sheet, its band gap changes from indirect to direct, allowing fluorescence in the visible range. While highlighting potential applications, this presentation focuses on the procedures to fabricate and characterize this novel material.

Science and Math Teaching

Kim C. Sadler, Chair

Tennessee Junior Academy of Science: A look at present day activities and how the program has evolved over time. Jack Rhoton, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee. The Tennessee Junior Academy of Science (TJAS), sponsored by the Tennessee Academy of Science (TAS), is one of the oldest secondary science competitions in the state and nation. Since its inception in 1942 at the George Peabody College in Nashville, the TJAS objective has been to promote science education in Tennessee high schools by encouraging original scientific research by secondary school science students. The program director solicits research papers from high school students from throughout the state. The top students' papers are selected by a panel of readers for presentation at an annual meeting. The top presenters at the annual meeting are then designated by the judges, with their papers being published in the Handbook and Proceedings of the Tennessee Junior Academy of Science. This session will provide an overview of the TJAS activities as well as how the program has evolved over time.

Community College Undergraduate Research Initiative (CCURI). Parris Powers, Phil Clifford, Christopher Beals, James Neilan, Joe Dolan, Clark Cropper, Nancy Morris and Mariah Hughes*, Volunteer State Community College, Gallatin, Tennessee. The Community College Undergraduate Research Initiative (CCURI) is a national consortium of community colleges and parTennesseeers committed to the development, implementation, and assessment of a sustainable model; Integrating an undergraduate research experience into community college STEM courses. Central to this reform is the integration of inquiry-based methods of teaching and the inclusion of an undergraduate research experience as early as practical in the education of STEM students. National data reports that there are 11.8 million community college students; 43% of all U.S. undergraduates. The CCURI model includes (l) Problem Based Learning for instruction, (2) Opportunities for advanced exploration of research questions, (3) customized faculty development program and (4) Develops a compatible community college faculty model. Faculty at Volunteer State Community College report findings of the obstacles, barriers, successes and number of students impacted in the collaborative during year one.

Impact of the inverted curriculum and modeling instruction on student performance in science. Jennifer Dye, Ginger Rowell, Angela Barlow, Tom Cheatham, Pope John Paul II High School, Hendersonville, Tennessee and Middle Tennessee State University (GR, AB, TC), Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Two strategies that have shown individual success in improving student learning in high school science have been tested together at Pope John Paul II High School (JP2). The strategies are the "inverted curriculum" (IC) which reverses the traditional sequence of science courses (B-C-P) in high school to P-C-B, and "modeling instruction" (MI), pioneered for physics at Arizona State in the mid 90's, that uses inquiry methods, Socratic discourse and team solutions to learning. Data from JP2 will be presented that clearly shows steady improvement in the percentage of students meeting ACT college ready (CR) benchmark in science at graduation as they moved from the traditional (B-C-P and no MI) to IC (P-C-B and no MI) to IC with MI. Also evident from the data is the percentage of students who moved from NOT CR in science when they began high school to CR in science when they graduated.

Reflections on research in an undergraduate program: lessons learned. Terra L. Smith, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. After a decade and a half of teaching dietetic students about how to conduct undergraduate research, the program has come full circle back to the basics. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the journey taken to develop an undergraduate research curriculum in an urban university, detailing the bumps and scenic detours taken along the way. The results in terms of the number of students who presented in local, state, and national presentation will be described. The hope is to inspire other faculty to incorporate undergraduate research programs into the curricula.

Arboretum project exemplifies biology undergraduate education reform. A. Darlene Panvini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The AAAS initiative to reform biology undergraduate education (Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action) encourages learning experiences based on reinforcement of the scientific process and key competencies, relevancy and authenticity, informal and informal assessment, and collaboration. An arboretum project spanning four semesters and numerous botany students at Belmont University exemplifies these concepts. Students in botany have identified, inventoried, mapped, and made herbarium specimens of trees on campus. The fruition of this work has resulted in the campus achieving arboretum status through the Nashville Tree Foundation. The presentation will describe the arboretum project and how it correlates to the goals of the AAAS initiative for promoting biological scientific literacy. Ideas for expansion of the arboretum project with future botany students will also be presented.

Correlation of students' careless test-taking behavior to their grades. Donald Shaw, The University of Tennessee Martin, Martin, Tennessee. The objective of this study is to find whether there is a correlation of careless test-taking behavior (intentional or unintentional) to academic grades in college students who take either biology or anatomy and physiology classes. We hypothesize that students show careless test-taking behavior are likely to have lower academic grades. Students' (n=300) grades and their scantron sheets of all tests were examined. When students missed any multiple-choice questions, the subject (made anonymous) was flagged. The grades (both of the specific test and of the course final grade) of these subjects were recorded. Repeated careless test-taking behavior was also monitored. Our results showed that students with careless test-taking behavior their average score were significantly lower than those without any careless test-taking behavior. These results suggested academic failure correlates with careless test-taking behavior.

The effect of time on academic success in a content-intensive course. Amy E. Jetton and Jeffery W. Bonner, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. In Human Anatomy and Physiology students need to master a large content base while grasping complicated physiological processes. Classes include senior science majors to college-naive, working parents with GEDs. Pressure mounts for shorter semesters, fewer meetings per week and less class time/course. We analyzed data from Human Anatomy & Physiology I summer semesters with the same instructors and textbook (2 editions) to see the influence of semester length and of efforts to increase study time, namely quizzing and tutoring. No differences were seen in semester length and no effects of tutoring or quizzing was observable. Additional data will be analyzed in an effort to elucidate possible differences.

Using non-fiction to achieve learning goals in undergraduate biology courses. Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Development of learning goals has become an essential part of the assessment process for many in higher education. While learning goals vary from institution to institution, areas such as content, critical thinking, and development of technical skills are not uncommon for a biology program. These goals can often be met through traditional means in lecture and laboratory settings. Other seemingly less defined goals such as historical context, application of knowledge, and social consequences of knowledge may be more difficult to achieve. I have utilized non-fiction books in my biology courses (from introductory to upper-level courses) and have found that class discussions of these books not only address goals such as historical context and social consequences, but also complement "textbook" knowledge for a more thorough understanding of biology. I will discuss selection of books, format of discussions, and goals achieved.

Collaboration is critical for the success of Tennessee girls in STEM. Judith Iriarte-Gross, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The continuing success of the Tennessee workforce requires the full participation of women in STEM. It is clear that our economic future is directly linked to STEM education. Yet only 21.8% of women in Tennessee hold a four year degree or better. After examining the data concerning the status of women in STEM education and careers, the Women in STEM (WISTEM) Center at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) was established. MTSU already plays a strategic role in encouraging young women in STEM through successful K-16 programs such as the MTSU Expanding Your Horizons Conference, GRITS (Girls Raised In Tennessee Science) Collaborative Project, and WISE. The WISTEM Center provides a "home" for these signature programs, resources and STEM mentors. By maximizing access to shared resources and leveraging a collaborative network, WISTEM plays a critical role in the STEM education for girls and women in Tennessee today and in the future.

The Next Generation Science Standards in Tennessee. Linda Jordan and Kim Cleary Sadler, Tennessee Department of Education, Nashville, Tennessee, and Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Since their inception in the mid-nineteen nineties, state standards have been the driving force behind the dramatic changes witnessed over the ensuing period in student assessment, curriculum, and instruction. Now we face the rather revolutionary concept of national standards for the four major disciplines. This session will introduce the Next Generation Science Standards and address the implications of a new educational landscape for learning about science.

Zoology

Michael L. Kennedy. Chair

A genetic assessment of the southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) in the southeastern United States. A. Christopher Grow*, Juliann L. Waits, Melvin L. Beck, and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee (ACG, MLB, MLK), and Southwest Tennessee Community College, Memphis, Tennessee (JLW). The southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) has a known distribution throughout the mid-southern United States. In this study, our focus is primarily in the southeastern portion of its distribution. Karyotypically the species displays a wide range of diploid numbers in this region but remains somewhat similar morphologically throughout its distribution; therefore, this makes the species an interesting model for examining genetic structure within the region. Interlocality variation and genetic differences among southern short-tailed shrews (e.g., differences between animals on the eastern and western sides of the Mississippi River) have been noted in previous studies. Such investigations have suggested the need for additional assessments in order to better understand genetic variation within the species. Methods included the utilization of molecular procedures to analyze the D-loop, or control region, of mitochondrial DNA within the species. Knowledge of genetic variation within the taxon and current results are discussed.

Response of soil arthropods to controlled burning at Haynes Bottom Wildlife Management Area, Montgomery County, Tennessee. Brittny M. Jones*, Willodean D. S. Burton, and Don L. Sudbrink, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Controlled burning is an essential ecological practice that has been utilized by native people for hundreds of years. This process is still used today to manage vegetation growth along with providing open areas for hunters to easily find game. Many studies have looked at controlled burning affecting mammals and birds such as deer and quail, but very few have observed soil arthropods' response to this type of fire management. This study evaluated soil arthropod response to controlled burning at the 1,000 acre Haynes Bottom Wildlife Management Area (HBWMA). Several leaf litter samples have been collected from burned and unburned sites before and after burning. Arthropods were extracted from litter samples using Tullgren-Berlese funnels, and have been identified to appropriate taxa level for biodiversity analysis. A majority of the collection consisted of springtails (Order: Collembola), and mites (Superoder: Acariformes).

Phylogeography of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina) of southeast Tennessee. Casey Carpenter*, Tim Gaudin, Thomas Wilson, and Joey Shaw, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee. Shrews of the genus Blarina are among the most common small mammals of the southeastern United States. Two species are found in the area surrounding Chattanooga, Tennessee: Blarina brevicauda, northern short-tailed shrew; Blarina carolinensis, southern short-tailed shrew. To clarify geographic ranges of the two species in southeastern Tennessee, mitochondrial DNA cytochrome h genes were isolated and sequenced. Sequences were compared to GenBank data, and phylogenetic relationships were determined. A molecular clock was estimated using fossil data and BEAST. Results indicate B. brevicauda is in areas north and west of the Tennessee River and B. carolinensis is in areas south and east of the Tennessee River. Most B. brevicauda sampled had haplotypes similar to those classified as 'Appalachian' or 'East-Central' in previous publications. Blarina carolinensis specimens were monophyletic and more similar to B. carolinensis from Arkansas, Illinois, and Loiusiana than to those from Georgia, Florida, and Virginia.

Summer movement and activity of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) in Middle Tennessee. Eric J. Nordberg* and Vincent A. Cobb, Tennessee State University, Murfreeshoro, Tennessee. Seasonal movement patterns and habitat selection for 8 individuals in a Middle Tennessee population of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) were monitored throughout their 2012 active season. Snakes were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and located every 2-3 days. Snakes emerged from hibernation in March-April and exhibited extensive movement through forested areas early in the season to reach areas of core activity. By late spring and throughout summer, movement bouts shortened and snakes commonly chose open canopy habitats (old growth fields and cedar barrens), often in close proximity to habitat edges. Snakes were typically observed coiled on the ground surface in dense vegetation, or close to cover objects (brush piles or rocks). Net movement varied considerably among individuals (total distance 0.986.02 km). All snakes spent multiple days at each location (145 d) and averaged 26 movements throughout their active season.

Scavenging of internal organs of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Edward O. Zahed*, Steve W. Stephenson, and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (EOZ, MLK), and American Ordnance LLC/Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee (SWS). Internal organs from field-dressed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) provide a novel food patch for scavengers during the annual hunting season. However, utilization of the food patch is poorly understood. Therefore, we studied scavenging on internal organs of deer in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee, during 2011 and 2012. We collected internal organs from field-dressed deer at locations in western Tennessee and later placed them at selected sites. Infrared-triggered cameras were established at sites and recorded the arrival of scavengers and the scavenger assemblage. Vulture (Cathartes spp.), coyote (Canis latrans), raccoon (Procyon lotor), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) were among the scavengers recorded.

Interspecific relationships of white-tailed deer and eastern wild turkey in western Tennessee. Lauren A. Madeira*, Allan E. Houston, Steve W. Stephenson, and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (LAM, MLK), Ames Plantation and University of Tennessee AgResearch, Grand Junction, Tennessee (AEH), and American Ordnance LLC/Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee (SWS). Interspecific association between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was studied during 2011 and 2012. The investigation was conducted at the Meeman Biological Station, Milan Army Ammunition Plant, and Ames Plantation in western Tennessee. We used time-stamped remote photography with infrared-triggered cameras at bait stations to assess co-occurrence. Data were analyzed using Cole's coefficient of association and chi-square tests. Co-occurrence of the species was documented. Results are discussed in light of previous works relating to interspecific associations.

Habitat selection of Agkistrodon piscivorus in Cheatham County, Tennessee. Michael C. Fulbright* and C. M. Gienger, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Reptiles exhibit non-random habitat selection to meet various ecological needs based on potential resources available (i.e. cover, prey items, thermal opportunities). We studied a population of Agkistrodon piscivorus at the Cumberland River Bicentennial Trail (CRBT) in Cheatham County, TENNESSEE. Our objectives were to quantify the biotic and abiotic variables they were associated with differences in habitat selection, among sexes and age classes. From May-September 2012, we conducted visual encounter surveys around a slough adjacent to the CRBT. At each point of capture, we recorded sex, age, snout-vent length, mass and a suite of 24 habitat variables. A randomly selected comparison site was similarly measured for each snake captured. We found that snakes showed habitat selection that differed from random sites, and site selection varied among individuals and across an ontogenetic range of body sizes.

Geographic distribution of the herpetofauna of Southern Middle Tennessee. Nicole Y. Foster, Colleen Conway* and Michael Williams*, Columbia State Community College, Columbia, Tennessee. Reptiles and amphibians of Southern Middle Tennessee have been drastically underreported. It is the aim of this research to locate and identify new county records of herpetofauna. To date, 33 new country records (8 Testudines, 6 Anura and 19 Squamata) have been verified and another 30 (12 Testudines, 7 Anura and 11 Squamata) await verification in Maury, Marshall, Hickman, Lawrence, Williamson, Lewis, Wayne and Giles County. Anaxyrus americanus and Hyla versicolor/chrysoscelis complex distribution gaps have now been closed in the Southern Middle Tennessee Region but more work is needed to close distribution gaps of the more common herpetofauna.

An assessment of interspecific associations of the Virginia opossum and raccoon in western Tennessee. Rebecca M. Bingham*, Lauren A. Madeira*, Edward 0. Zahed*, Steve W. Stephenson, and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (RMB, LAM, EOZ, MLK), and American Ordnance, LLC/Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee (SWS). Interspecific associations between the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) were investigated at the Meeman Biological Station and Milan Army Ammunition Plant in western Tennessee during 2011. Assessments were made utilizing bait stations and camera-trap procedures. We determined the level of association (positive, negative, or neutral) between individuals of the two species using Cole's and Hurlbert's indices in a 2X2 contingency table. Results were compared to previous studies of interactions relating to the species. Co-occurrence occurred less frequently than expected. Additional studies are needed in varying habitats to more clearly understand the degree of spatial and temporal associations between Virginia opossums and raccoons.

Population demographics and site-fidelity among cave-dwelling bats of Dunbar Cave, Montgomery County, Tennessee. Veronica B. Mullen* and Andrew N. Barrass, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Cave-dwelling bat populations of the United States are rapidly declining. There is a general lack of information regarding details of population dynamics among these populations. The purpose of this study was to provide such details for the bat populations of Dunbar Cave. Specifically, to determine whether bat populations at Dunbar Cave have increased or fluctuated over time. Bats were captured at the cave entrance from May through August of 2011 and 2012. All captured individuals were banded and species, sex, age, and reproductive status were determined. A total of 443 bats were captured (410=banded and 33=recaptures (<10% recaptured individuals)), and four bat species were observed using Dunbar Cave. The tricolored bat (Periniyotis subflavus) was the most prevalent species, and the majority of bats observed were adult males. Comparison of these results to those of previous studies indicates that overall, the bat population densities at this cave continue to increase.

Teresa L. Fulcher, Secretary TAS

Pellissippi State Community College, Knoxville, Tennessee

Respectfully submitted, Teresa L. Fulcher

Secretary, TAS

Pellissippi State Community College
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Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6TN
Date:May 1, 2013
Words:13942
Previous Article:Distinguished Secondary School Teacher Award: 2012.
Next Article:Student Presentation Awards at the 122nd Meeting of the Tennessee Academy of Science.
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