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Abstracts of Poster Presentations at the 2012 ([122.sup.ND]) Annual Meeting of the Tennessee Academy of Science.

Botany

Roger McCoy, Chair

Tree Diversity of Gee Creek Recreation Area, Hiwassee/Ocoee State Park, Polk County, Tennessee. Jordan Bean*, Stephanie Breeden*, Janelk Johnson*, Bobbi Stone*, Allen D. Moore, Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens, Tennessee. The purpose of this study was to document tree species diversity in a small area of East Tennessee using a method previously employed by other field workers. The Gee Creek recreation area is located within the Hiwassee/Ocoee State Park located near Etowah Tennessee. The study site is adjacent to the Hiwassee River and is composed of primarily upland habitat with one seasonally flooded lowland area. Ten 100 [m.sup.2] (total 0.1 ha) plots were surveyed. All trees above 2.5 cm dbh were measured for diameter. A total of 129 individuals were measured revealing 26 species in 16 families, a total basal area of 3.97 and a Fishers alpha value of 9.81. We conclude that tree diversity data collected at Gee Creek recreation area is comparable to those data observed in other areas with similar environments.

Stomatal density and photosynthesis rates in the exotic vines Euonymus fortunei and Lonicera japonica. Emma Ghulam Jan* and A. Darlene Panvini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Invasion by exotic species is a critical component of global change and primary threat to native biodiversity, resulting in ecological and economic consequences. Thus, there is a need to understand the biophysical traits that enable species to function as invaders. Leaf traits of two exotic vines (Euonymus fortunei and Lonicera japonica) and two native vines (Parthenocissus quinoquefolia and Smilax rotundifolia) were compared to determine the relationship between photosynthesis and stomatal density. Photosynthetic rates in relation to varying internal leaf C[O.sub.2] concentrations were measured in the field with a LI-6400XT. Stomatal density was determined using abaxial leaf epidermal impressions. Exotic vines had significantly higher stomatal density than native plants; however, their photosynthesis rates fluctuated more. Euonymus fortunei had similar average photosynthesis rates as L. japonica but a lower average stomatal density. The correlation between stomatal density and photosynthetic rates is not correlated, suggesting that other factors may affect photosynthesis more. Ridge-top forest comparison at Radnor Lake State Natural Area. Samuel R King*, James Helton*, and Robert E. Loeb, Lipscomb University, Nashville, Tennessee (SRK, JH), and Pennsylvania State University Dubois Campus, Dubois, Pennsylvania (REL). This is a continuation of previous work that studies the composition of ridge-top forest communities at Radnor Lake State Natural Area. The authors worked at one previously studies site (Ganier ridge) as well as two previously unstudied sites (Harris ridge and the ridge at Cherrywood). Each site consisted of 30 tree plots 16 meters in diameter as well as 30 ground cover plots 4 meters in diameter. All plants within the plots were identified and categorized by size. We were able to identify keystone species on the ridges such as Quercus montana (chestnut oak) and Carya ovata (shagbark hickory). We were also able to monitor the progression of Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in this urban forest.

Comparing a visual estimation method to the use of acorn traps to determine an appropriate method for correlating mast production to red-headed woodpecker abundance in a bottom-land hardwood forest. Judy Redden*, Lisa Krueger, and H. Dawn Wilkins, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennesse. Wintering red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) cache acorns. Our goal was specifically to compare two different methods for estimating mast production in order to later correlate woodpecker abundance with acorn production. To census woodpeckers, we established five points 250 m apart along a trail. We set up nine 50 m x 50 m plots, parallel to the trail, each containing four lmx lm PVC acorn traps. Collected acorns were identified to species, counted, and weighed to estimate biomass. Using a visual estimation method, we counted acorns at each oak for 30 sec. Red and white oak densities were 29 and 14 trees per ha, respectively. We visually detected 343 red oak acorns and 15 white oak acorns. We collected 1,172 red oak acorns and 8 white oak acorns. While the two methods were not directly comparable, we saw a similar pattern in mast production.

Comparison of stomatal densities and photosynthesis rates in two exotic and two native vine species. Jessica Braden* and A. Darlene Panvini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Numerous studies have compared the relative performance of physiological and morphological traits exhibited by cohabitating native and non-native plants in order to understand which factors account for the success of invasive species. The purpose of this study was to determine if the photosynthesis rates and stomatal densities of exotics were higher than co-occurring natives and to draw a correlation between the relationships of these two characteristics. The photosynthesis rates of two native and two exotic vine species were measured using a LI-6400XT. Stomatal density on the abaxial side of leaves was determined using epidermal impressions. The exotics exhibited higher stomatal densities and photosynthesis rates than the natives, suggesting that these characteristics may contribute to the successful invasion of exotic species. Within a species however, the photosynthesis rates and stomatal densities were not significantly correlated suggesting that stomatal density may have limited impact on rates of photosynthesis.

Impacts of Nonpoint-Source Pollution on the Diatom Assemblage, Periphyton Characteristics, and Algae Growth in the West Fork of the Red River in North-Central Tennessee. Jefferson Lebkuecher, Kelly Anderson*, Courtney Gorman*, Anna Guyer*, Alex Hall*, Rebecca Johnson*, Elizabeth Slade*, Chelsea Williams*, and Lyddia Wilson*, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. We used diatom indices to assess the structure of the diatom assemblage, measurements of pigment concentrations to evaluate the health of photoautotrophic periphyton, and growth dynamics of the green alga Selenastrum capricornutzim to evaluate the potential for excessive algal growth in the West Fork of the Red River. Habitat impairment by eutrophication is demonstrated by a low value of the Pollution Tolerance Index for the diatom assemblage. Poor physiological condition of photoautotrophic periphyton is indicated by high concentrations of pheophytin a. Low maximum specific growth rate and high carrying capacity for S. capricornutum reveal the presence of contarn-inants and eutrophic conditions, respectively. The results demonstrate that the periphyton community is negatively impacted by poor quality water and that nutrient enrichment from nonpoint sources may be the most serious threat to the biotic integrity of the West Fork of the Red River.

Root Development in Relation to Time of Harvest, Scion Maturity, and Diameter in Cuttings of Vitis aestivalis 'Cynthiana / Norton.' Tori Newton*, Warren Anderson, and Nathan C. Phillips, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The objective of this study was to evaluate the success of 'Cynthiana / Norton' grape cuttings in relation to the timing of the cutting harvest and cutting maturity. Cuttings were dipped in rooting hormone (IBA), along with bottom heat on a timed mist bench. All cuttings were measured for scion diameter (mm), length of the longest root (mm) and the total number of roots. Cuttings were placed in perlite and set on the bottom heated mist bench in a greenhouse. Data collection occurred bi-weekly and aforementioned characteristics were examined. This study was comprised of 71 cuttings of new growth and 72 cuttings from old growth for a combined analysis of 143 cuttings. The highest rooting percentage occurred with cuttings taken mid-May, after which rooting success diminished significantly. Scion diameter did not appear to influence rooting. However, cuttings from new growth developed roots more successfully compared to old growth scions.

The correlation between photosynthesis and stomatal density in Lonicera japonica compared to native vines. Anna Witherspoon* and A. Darlene Pan vini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Lonicera japonica is considered to be invasive in Tennessee and many parks actively manage this species. Some studies have suggested that high rates of photosynthesis in exotic species can contribute to their invasiveness. Other studies have indicated a correlation between photosynthetic rates and stomatal density, yet few studies have examined these factors on vines. Leaves from two native vine species Parthenocissus quinquefolia and Smilax rotundifolia were compared to the exotic invasive vine L. japonica to see if stomatal density of the plants has an impact upon the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis was measured using a LI-6400XT in the field and leaf impressions were used to determine stomatal densities. Lonicera japonica had significantly higher stomatal density than the native vines. Analysis of the correlation between stomatal density and photosynthesis will be presented.

Cell and Molecular Biology

Greg A. Johansen, Chair

Investigation of CED-1 receptor in bacterial pathogen recognition of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Acinetobacter baumannii. Anderson Webb* and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Acinetobacter bau-mannii is a gram-negative bacteria that infects immunocompromised organisms. The Ced-1 receptor has been shown to influence the immune systems response to bacteria, specifically gram-negative bacteria. Caenorhabditis elegans missing the Ced-1 receptor were exposed to A. baumannii to determine the role Ced-1 receptor played in the immune response to this bacterium. It was found that the Ced-1 receptor is not necessary for surviving infection from A. baumannii.

The affect of temperature on the mortality rate of Caenorhabditis elegins infect with Staphylococcus aureus. Brad R. Gill* and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The purpose of this experiment was to test the relationship between temperature and the infection rate of an organism infected with Staph vlococus aureus bacteria. As many as twenty five percent of people carry the S. aureus bacteria in their body, and it is the number one cause of the deadly "staph infection" common in humans and animals. The objective was to infect Caenorhabditis elegans with S. aureus, place them in varying temperatures, and see how they affected their mortality rate. As was hypothesized, C. elegans placed in warmer temperatures died faster than those in cooler temperatures. From these results, it can be concluded that temperature does in fact have an affect on the mortality rate of C. elegans infected with the S. aureus bacteria. Further speculation might indicate that warmer temperatures or climate could affect S. aureus infection rates in humans.

Investigation of CED-1 receptor in bacterial pathogen recognition of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Liberty Foye* and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The CED-1 receptor is characterized as an apoptotic receptor in the organism C.elegans. It has also been implicated in the protection against gram-negative bacteria and fungal infection. We sought to determine whether this CED-1 receptor was necessary in an immunological response to a pathogenic gram-postive bacterium. We exposed loss-of-function (CB3203), frameshift (MT1440), and wild-type (N2) worms (three days old) to S. aureus. Test plates were checked 24 hours after infection to determine survival rates. A two-way ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference between survival rates of CB3203, MT1440, and N2 strains. It appears that the CED-1 receptor is not necessary for an immunological response to gram-positive bacteria; however, further studies using other types of gram-positive bacteria should be conducted.

Acinetobacter baumannii deos not infect Caenorhabditis elegans with normal immune function and inconsistently infects PMK-1 deficient Caenorhabditis elegans. Scott Kim* and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The purpose of this experiment was to examine whether Acinetobacter baumannii can be a bacterial pathogen leading to death in Caenorhabditis elegans. The data collected showed A. baumannii to not have significant kill wild-type N-2 compared to control. However, inconsistent deaths resulted in the immunosuppressant C. elegans interactions with A. baumannii. This showed, as in humans, it is highly unlikely for A. baumannii to cause a bacterial infection in C. elegans with a normally functioning immune system.

Effects of superoxide dismutase knockout genes on chemotaxis in 6-0HDA -exposed Caenorhabditis Elegans. Rachel Garland* and Nick Ragsdale, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Parkinson's disease is defined by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, the major motor center in the midbrain, and is characterized by tremors, poor balance, and muscle rigidity. Neuronal death may occur when the superoxide dismutases (SODs) are altered. SODs are responsible for converting oxygen free radicals into less toxic byproducts. This experiment investigated the copper and zinc SOD and the manganese SOD found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix respectively. Knockout strains for specific SOD genes, sod-I and sod-2, were exposed to neurotoxin 6-0HDA and the chemotactic index was recorded. The sod-2 knockout was found to be much more susceptible to oxidative damage. The sod-2 gene encodes for the MnSOD isoform, indicating that the MnSOD in the mitochondrial matrix has a stronger role in decreasing motor impairment caused by 6-0HDA.

Calpain-6 Expression in cervical cancer cell lines that are both positive and negative for Human Papilloma Virus. Kailee L. Hawkins* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive cervical cancers make up over 90% of all cervical cancers; however only a small percentage of HPV infections turn cancerous. Recent evidence suggests that a bacterial infection causing inflammation, alongside an HPV infection may be enough to induce such transformation. Calpain-6 is a cell signaling protease used to modify many cellular proteins, and it is known to be amplified in certain cancerous cells. Elevated expression of calpain-6 has been linked with the promotion angiogenesis and prevention of apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines. In this study, the expression of calpain-6 was analyzed in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines that were also co-infected with various microbes. Understanding the expression of calpain-6 after a co-infection may shed light on the transformation of a normal HPV infection and its progression to cervical cancer.

E-cadherin levels in cervical cancer cells influenced by interaction of Human Papillomavirus and microorganisms. Haley F. Kinney* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. It is estimated that as high as 80% of women will get Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in their lifetime, but of that, less than 1% will progress into cervical cancer. The absence of E-cadherin, a tumor suppression adhesion protein, has been linked to cancers. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that secondary infections beyond HPV infection, may lead to cancer progression. Through gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, E-cadherin levels will be measured in HeLa cell lines (HPV positive) and C33A cell lines (HPV negative) that have been infected with microorganisms. An analysis of adhesion proteins, such as E-cadherin, and secondary infections in the presence of HPV may shed light on this important cancer.

Effects of liquid growth versus plate growth of Caenorhabditis elegans on chemoresponse to pathogenic bacteria. Megan Rock* and Robert Grammer, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. In laboratory settings, Caenorhabditis elegans are not grown with food from their natural habitat but rather E. coli. Little research has focused on determining when or whether a prior diet of plate or liquid-based E. coli play a role in adulthood bacterial interactions. Other studies have found that C. elegans can learn to avoid pathogenic bacteria after initial exposure, but fewer studies investigate if prior exposure to bacterial food influences this defensive behavior. We investigated assays between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in order to observe differences in behavior when worms were exposed to plate grown E. coli or when worms were exposed to liquid medium E. coli. Thus, liquid or plate bacterial growth media may determine adulthood bacterial susceptibility.

Effect of angle of presentation on olfactory response in Caenorhabditis elegans. Emma E. Reeves* and Robert Grammer, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Caenorhabditis elegans are used for experiments to investigate the effects of various olfactory agents. Therefore, understanding the characteristic movement responses of C. elegans to attractants and repellents is vital. It has been observed that C. elegans gradually turn towards higher concentrations of attractants, termed the "weathervane mechanism," and when acting in parallel with the pirouette of C. elegans, both contribute to chemotaxis. We are using capillary tubes to observe the response of C. elegans to the presentation of attractants and repellants at varying degrees. We hypothesize that a standardization of movement response will be obtained. Specifically, for use in experimentation, the strongest response by C. elegans will be obtained when the olfactory agent is presented at 90[degrees], 1800, and 270[degrees].

Phototaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Fahimeh Nazi* and Robert Grammer, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Much is known about the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, however, little knowledge is known about their response to light. We propose that C. elegans will prefer darkness over light because they live in dark environments. We are conducting research to investigate phototaxic response in adult, wild-type C elegans. We put the worms into a plate that is completely covered with four holes for the light source to go through. We shine the light source on them over four hours and then observe the worms under a stereomicroscope every hour. Thus far, very preliminary findings of C. elegans' response to light have indicated that there is a negative response, meaning they prefer darkness over light.

The associative learning paradigm of Caenorhabditis elegans in olfactory chemotaxis response to isoamyl alcohol. Lacey R. Dunkley* and Robert Grammer, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely useful and applicable research tool within the scientific community. In this evaluation the functional memory techniques of the species will be examined, with specific emphasis upon learning paradigms and ability to utilize memory pattern formation over time. The primary objective is to understand whether or not the species is capable of utilizing associative learning paradigms, rather than habituation or adaptation, according to a classical conditioning test. To achieve this result an olfactory chemotaxis is applied to determine whether a combination of variables, including starvation coupled with exposure to the odorant isoamyl alcohol, induce the nematodes to model behavioral alterations. We expect to conclude that the nematodes utilize a memory pattern formation that is gradually modified over time.

Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Fatin Jweinat* and Robert Grammer, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Caenorhabditis elegans has been widely used in research laboratories, therefore, much is known about its behavior. However, less is known about its response to different pathogens. Previous research in this lab showed that C elegans is attracted to Serratia marcescens, a Celegans pathogen. We propose that, C.elegans will be attracted to its pathogens as they smell and taste them. We are conducting research to investigate response to pathogenic bacteria in adult, wild-type C. elegans. Specifically, the response of Celegans to Bacillus thuringiensis, a known nematode pathogen that is not a human pathogen, is being studied.

Chemistry

Daniel J. Swartling, Chair

Nitrocyclopropanation of amino acid derived enones. Norma Dunlap, Jacob Basham*, Will Shelton*, and Matthew Wright*, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Peptidomimetics play a central role in the treatment and management of a number of diverse conditions. Some examples include BACE inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors, HCV NS3 inhibitors, and renin inhibitors. In particular, cyclopropyl peptidomimetics have been reported to show anti-tumor activity, antidepressant activity, and antiviral activity. Our interest is in the natural anti-tumor product belactosin A that, while not a peptidomimetic, contains a cyclopropyl amino acid. An efficient three-step method to generating cyclopropyl peptidomimetics has been reported by this lab whereby addition of ethyldimethylsulfuranylidene (EDSA) to amino acid derived enones affords cyclopropyl keto-esters in good yield. Another reported approach to cyclopropyl generation is the addition of bromonitromethane to electrophilic alkenes to yield nitrocyclopropyls. The versatility of the nitro group is that it may be converted in to several other functionalities. Reported here is the method for the conversion of various Cbz-protected amino acid-derived enones to their respective nitrocyclopropyl analogs.

Synthesis and Anti-HIV Evaluation Of Tris (Cyc/oSaligenyl) Pronucleotides. Yousef Beni*, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (Y A), and University of Rhode, Kingston, Rhode Island (RT, KP). Anti-HIV nucleosides such as FLT, AZT and 3TC monophosphates have low cellular uptake due to the presence of negatively-charged phosphate group and the initial phosphorylation step of nucleosides is the rate-limiting step in the activation of these nucleosides. Tris(cycloSaligenyl) derivatives of 4,4',4"-methanetriyltris(2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol) containing three anti-HIV nucleosides, FLT, AZT, and 3TC were synthesized for potential intracellular delivery of three nucleoside monophosphates simultaneously. 4,4',4"-methane-triyltris(2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol) was selected as a tridentate scaffold and was synthesized from 5,5',5"-(hydroxymethane-triy1)tris(2-hydroxybenzoic acid) in two step reduction reactions with H2/Pd and BH3 respectively. The reaction of this tridentate scaffold with phosphorous trichloride in the presence of 2,6-lutidine at low temperature, followed by sequential conjugation reaction with, FLT, AZT and 3TC. The final oxidation reaction with Iodine in pyridine afforded Tris(cycloSaligenyl) FLT-AZT-3TC product in 37% overall isolated yield. Anti-HIV evaluation of this compound showed 9.3 fold higher potency compare to physical mixtures of nucleosides.

Site-Directed Mutagenesis, Expression, Purification and TLS Analysis of Human DNA Polymerase /1 Mutations found in XP-V and Melanoma Patients. Mukesh Kumar*, Adali J. Valdez*, and Xiaohua Jiang, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. The variant form of human syndrome Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP-V) is caused by mutations in DNA polymerase (hpoln). XP-V patients are deficient in repairing the DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light in the form of cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Many missense mutations in hpoli catalytic core (1-432aa) have been identified in XP-V patients, and mutations have also been implicated in Melanoma. The aim of current research is to confirm that the catalytic core of hpoln is 1-432aa. Hpolri (1-432aa) has been constructed. It will be expressed in E.coli and tested in primer extension assays to assess its effectiveness during translesion synthesis (TLS). Several of the point mutations have been successfully introduced in to hpoln (1-432aa) by site-directed mutagenesis. Those mutants will be expressed and examined for their activity during TLS.

Functional studies of XPV mutation--G295R in human DNA polymerase 11 catalytic core. Adali J. Valdez*, Mukesh Kumar*, and Xiaohua Jiang, Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, Tennessee. The human DNA polymerase i (hPoln) specializes in repairing UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) formed from adjacent thymine bases by pairing the corresponding adenines during a process known as translesion synthesis (TLS). Patients with the a variant form of Xeroderma Pig-mentosum (XPV) have a deficiency in hPoln and are very sensitive to sunlight and develop skin cancer in their early ages. Research shows that mutations in hPoln of XPV patients are directly linked to skin cancer development. To understand the mechanism of how those mutations cause defects in protein function, we have successfully created the G295R point mutation in the catalytic core (1-432 amino acids) of hPoln by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant protein will be expressed in E. coli and the cause for its ineffectiveness will be investigated.

Extraction of iron from basalt and scoria and quantification by redox titration. Jeff McDonald* and Jerry Burns, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, Tennessee (JM) and Pellissippi State Community College, Knoxville, Tennessee (JM, JB). In connection with an upcoming TnCIS course to Iceland, efforts are being made to integrate the unique geology of Iceland into the laboratory component of general chemistry. This will involve gathering soil and rock samples while in transit around the country, followed by analysis in the laboratory of the University of Akureyri. Toward this goal, samples of Icelandic black sand and scoria were obtained and procedures developed to extract and quantify the iron content. A systematic method was achieved producing yields of iron and 5.6% iron in black sand and scoria, respectively. As a modification of a traditional redox titration experiment, this laboratory method provides a wider scope of chemical understanding (by incorporating solubility and extraction principles) and fosters cross-discipline applications (by incorporating basic geologic composition principles).

Optimization of Tyrosol, Tryptophol and Phenylethanol Yields in Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 96581. Adam A. Banach* and Beng Guat Ooi, Department of Chemistry, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Tyrosol, tryptophol and phenylethanol are phenolic compounds or fusel alcohols formed via the Ehrlich pathway by yeast metabolism. These compounds have health benefits as well as contribute to the flavors and aromas of fermented food and beverages. A particular strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 96581 was found to produce high amounts of these compounds. The aim of this research is to determine the optimal conditions under which the highest yield of these compounds can be achieved. Chardonnay concentrate each supplemented with tyrosine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine fermented by S. cerevisiae 96581 was compared with the control sample prepared without the three supplementary amino acids. The fusel alcohol components in the fermentation samples were purified and concentrated using the solid phase extraction technique and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

The Biocidal Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation on Microbes. Basal Hassan* and Beng Guat Ooi, Department of Chemistry, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. One of the major problems after a flood is the infestation of the affected homes with household molds and various microorganisms. Inadequate remediation may potentially pose a health issue for the returning residents. This study investigates the biocidal effect of chlorine dioxide fumigation and cryoblast on microbes. The microbes used in this study include two strains of fungus, Penicillium digtatum and Penicillium chrysogenum, as well as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C, and the bacteria, Escherichia coli K-12. These microbes were grown for 72 hours on household materials such as wood and carpet before fumigating with approximately 8.2 ppm of chlorine dioxide gas for 48 hours. The biocidal effect was determined to be greater than 90% by comparing the number of microbial colonies from the C102 fumigated samples that grew on nutrient plates after treatment versus untreated samples.

Solar Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene with isobutyryl chloride. Brian M. Agee* and Daniel J. Swartling, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions are useful because they provide a means of attaching monoacylated substituents to an aromatic ring through electrophilic aromatic substitution. Many chemical reactions, including Friedel-Crafts reactions, require a source of heat to drive the reaction to completion. A method has been developed

in which the heat source can become solar through the repurposing of unused satellite dishes into reflective parabolic mirrors to supply the heat and drive the chemical reaction to completion. The acylation of benzene with isobutyryl chloride was attempted using this solar heat source. Results showed that the acylation successfully produced isobutyrophenone with a greater yield than the a comparative reaction using an electric heat source. Future work includes attempting other reactions, including Wolff-Kishner reduction reactions, with the solar heat source. Since the catalysts that are used in acylation reactions are not green, attempts are also being made to develop green solvent systems for these reactions.

An ab initio study of XN[O.sup.y] and XP[O,sup,Y] (X = H, F, Cl, Br and y = +1, 0, -1) interstellar species. Uttam Sharma* and Sujata Guha, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Ground states of interstellar XN[O.sup.y] =Y and XP[O,sup,Y] (X = H, F, Cl, Br and y = +1, 0, -1) were examined at the B3LYP level using Density Functional Theory (DFT). Geometries were optimized up to the 6-311-H-G(3df,3pd) level and frequencies calculated at that level. Energies of XN[O.sup.Y] and XP[O.sup.Y] were also examined. Ionization potentials of HNO, FNO, C1NO, and BrNO were 235.2, 294.6, 266.7, and 253.4 kcal [mo1.sup.-1], respectively, while those of HPO, FPO, C1PO, and BrPO were 237.3, 274.3, 250.9, and 244.7 kcal mol-1, respectively. Electron affinities of XN[O.SUP.Y] and XP[O.sup.Y] were also calculated. Dissociation of HNO into H + NO requires 45.6 kcal mol-1 and the N-0 bond energy is 228.5 kcal [mo1.sup.-1]. Structures and energies of XNO and XPO ions, using DFT, are reported for the first time. Computational estimates of structures and energies of halide ions of XNO and XPO are provided for the first time.

* Student presenter.

Vanderbilt University

Nashville, Tennessee

16 November 2012cave. The first option is a u-shaped trench to catch storm runoff and redirect it into the sanitary sewer. The second option is a gently elevated barrier that will impede the flow of runoff from the impacted area. Additional background, IDF calculations and design parameters will be provided in the poster.

Sorption isotherm of copper and quaternary ammonia compounds to zeolite-perlite-granular activated carbon in a stormwater filter. Hung-Wai Ho*, Rick Toomey, and Thomas Byl, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (WH, TB), Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky (RT), U.S. Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee (TB). Sorption has been widely used as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly water treatment technology. A large variety of adsorbents with different adsorption mechanisms have drawn interests, and combinations of adsorbents will enhance sorption of mixed solutions. However, current sorption research tends to focus on single material. The objective of this study was to develop sorption isotherms for ZPG[R], (Zeolite, Perlite, Granular Activated Carbon), used in a stormwater filter cartridge. Contaminants of concern include C[u.sup.2+] and quaternary ammonia compounds. The best fit for the C[u.sup.2+] preliminary sorption isotherm data was a Langmuir isotherm, [q.sub.e] = K[Q.sub.ce] / 1 + KC (Empirical Constant ([Q.sub.0])= 46.08mg/L; Equilibrium Constant (K) = 1.01x [10.sup.-5]L/mg). Adsorption isotherm, adsorption rate, and maximum adsorption capacity are used as the criteria, and the result will be used for performance evaluation with the safety limits for the aquatic organisms presented in the Mammoth Cave National Park.

Nanosensors for explosive detection. Jonathan Mallard*, Terrence Thompson*, Jonathan Reynolds*, Charles Davis Jr.*, Hazzan Mafuz, Mohan Malkani, Lizhi Ouyang, S.K. Hargrove, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee (JM, TM, JR, MM, LO, SH), Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida (CD, HM). Nanosensors are sensors that can detect an array of events in the nanoscale such as low vapor emissions. There's a need for sensors that can detect Improvised Explosives Devices (IED). Due to the volatile nature of these devices they emit low concentrations of chemical vapor. We're developing a sensor that focuses on detecting ammonia, a surrogate for LED's. The sensor will use a micro-cantilever system that detects changes in frequency when mass is added. In order to test our proposals the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) will be used as a test platform. The AFM is used to detect the different frequencies of the cantilever before and after coating with a polymer. Preliminary results show that we can detect changes in mass with the AFM. Detecting the change in frequencies of the cantilever allows us to test different polymers on the cantilevers using the (AFM) to serve as a testing platform.

Geology and Geography

Robert Mark Simpson, Chair

Effects of scavenging on avian bone preservation potential. Eleanor E. Gardner and Sally E. Walker, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee, and The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. Many taphonomic studies have examined the impact of scavenging on the preservation of mammalian bone, but relatively few have investigated its effect on avian bone deposits. Forty experimental arrays with femur and tibiotarsus bones of adult vs. juvenile male and female Gallus gallus were deployed in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal marine settings in the southeastern US to establish the relative effects of depositional environment, climate, and scavenging. For this portion of the project, scavenging by insects, marine invertebrates, and mammals was recorded over a year. The results indicate that avian bones deposited in more remote areas, such as isolated barrier islands, are less likely to undergo extensive scavenging than those in more accessible locales. Additionally, the larger (typically male) avian bones suffered more intense scavenging than smaller (typically female) avian bones. These results suggest scavenging may bias both the size and sex of avian bones preserved in the fossil record.

The effects of stream flow alteration produced by dams in the southeast United States. Richard H. Kittrell*, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. The aim of this research is to produce a geographic information system database that delineates the streams in the southeast United States which are at the highest risk for flow alteration due to dams. This dataset may ultimately be incorporated into modeling which will produce water release guidelines to mitigate the adverse effects of dams on aquatic ecosystems. Hopefully, this would increase aquatic biodiversity by providing the best possible habitat. In the southern US, areas east of the Mississippi River have the greatest amount and percentage of streams which are closest to their natural flow, while the area west of the Mississippi contains many streams with a high risk of flow alteration due to dams. Texas and Oklahoma contain the largest number of critical streams for aquatic habitat at risk of flow alteration. Therefore, this is the largest area in need of stream flow restoration.

Modeling the Rate of Sedimentation for Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques. Johanna S. van Zyl*, Terri Keel, and Stan Dunagan, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee. The purpose of the study is to create a model that would indicate the rates of sedimentation for Reelfoot Lake in West Tennessee to determine the lifespan of the lake and identify key areas with higher sedimentation rates. Historic maps with depth information for 1942 and 1984 of the study area were incorporated into ArcGIS and geo-referenced, along with depth measurements for summer 2012. Landsat imaging is used to do a shoreline study as another method. Preliminary results suggest that the depth of the lake has significantly decreased from previous measurements.

To Zone or Not to Zone? Travis L. Smith* and Peter Li, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. This projects analyzes the impacts of soft school zoning versus hard school zoning, and analyzes the effects they play on carbon emissions and the local economy. Data of schools and their enrollments were used in this study to find what zoning techniques have the greatest positive effects on gasoline consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These results will be gained through setting up hypothetical scenarios in GIS (Geographic Information Systems). The GIS tools used to set up these scenarios and to obtain the results are as follows: Network Analyst, geocoding, and statistical analysis. The goal is to find out scientifically what is the best practice of school zoning in Putnam County, Tennessee.

Health and Medical Science

Nick Ragsdale, Chair

ECE-1 and CD10 protein expression in invasive breast cancer. Mary E. Belles*, Amanda D. Williams, Rebecca E. Conway, Lipscomb University, Nashville, Tennessee. Endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) and CD10 are two metalloproteases that have been linked to breast cancer progression through undefined mechanisms. In other cell types, ECE-1 increases invasion by activating the vasoconstricting peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1), whereas CDI 0 degrades ET-1. We hypothesize that in breast cancer cells ECE-1 promotes invasion and CD10 inhibits it. To test this, ECE-1 and CD10 protein expression levels were measured in the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 and the low invading MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Unexpectedly, ECE-1 protein was increased in MCF-7 cells. While this finding appears to contradict the hypothesized invasive effect of ECE-1, further study of isoform-specific functions may clarify this result. Interestingly, we did observe decreased expression of CD-10 in the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells; this observation supports our hypothesis that CD-10 negatively regulates breast cancer cell invasion and suggests that down-regulation of CD-10 may contribute to the invasive phenotype of these breast cancer cells.

CD-10 function on human breast cancer cell invasion. Brenna Cosminsky*, Amanda D. Williams, Beth Conway, Lipscomb University, Nashville, Tennessee. CD-10 is a cancer-relevant protease that degrades endothelin-1, a peptide that stimulates cell signaling cascades leading to proliferation and invasion. We hypothesized that when CD-10 is over-expressed in a highly invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, cell invasion would decrease. We used PCR to amplify CD-10 from a cloning vector and subcloned the gene into a TOPO-TA mammalian expression vector. Next, we performed restriction enzyme analysis to verify that CD-10 inserted into the expression vector in the correct direction. One clone with CD-10 inserted in the forward direction, and a control clone with CD-10 inserted in the reverse direction were selected for transfection into MDA-MB-231 cells. We then confirmed through RT-PCR that CD-10 was over-expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. From two independent transfections, we observed a decrease in breast cancer cell invasion in CD-10 transfected cells. These preliminary results suggest that over-expression of CD-10 inhibits invasion in breast cancer cells.

Gardnerella vaginalis causes cytokine release in human monocyte-like cells. Eric Vick*, Krista Huff, Mary B. Farone, and Anthony Farone, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Purpose: Gardnerella vaginalis is a gram variable rod associated with bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, bacteremia, and preterm birth. It produces a toxin (vaginolysin), which is a cholesterol dependent cytolysin (CDC). Similar CDCs have been shown to have intracellular activity capable of up regulation of the innate immune system and activation of the NLRP3 inflarnmasome. Inflammation within the uterus during pregnancy can cause prenatal brain injury, and has been associated with preterm birth. Methods: We set out to determine if G. vaginalis causes inflammation relative to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), high extracellular ATP, or both when exposed to phorbol-12- myristate-13-acetate (PMA) differentiated human monocytes (THP-1) and if so, what inflammasome components were recruited by ELISA and immunofluorescence. Results: A significant increase in IL-113, IL-18, and TNFoc activity were detected over LPS after 12 hours. Immunofluorescence for apoptosis associated speck like protein containing a CARD (ASC) showed aggregations in G. vaginalis treated samples.

Impact of infectious agents on the expression of IFI-16 interferon-inducible protein in cervical cancer cell lines. JoAnna B. Adkisson* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Every year, over 12 thousand women develop cervical cancer due in part to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections. HPV promotes cervical cancer by attacking tumor suppressor proteins, like p53, and inhibiting immune responses that occur in healthy cells. The IFI-16 interferon-inducible protein acts as a transcriptional repressor and is involved in the regulation and activation of p53 in cancer cells. However, modification of p53 is not the only factor needed to initiate cervical carcinogenesis. Research suggests that secondary inflammatory effects caused by microbial infectious agents influence carcinogenesis, as well. Western blot analysis of IFI-16 will be performed on cervical cancer cell lines (HPV-positive and HPV-negative) exposed to various infectious agents to determine if IFI-16 levels are altered. It is possible that alteration of this innate immune sensor protein may contribute to the ability of HPV to interrupt the system's immune response and progress into cervical cancer.

Analysis of IRF-3 levels in cervical cancer cell lines expressing Human Papillomavirus and the contribution of other microbial Infections. Kathryn E. Rush* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Cervical cancer originates in the cervix of women and is commonly linked with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Because less than 1% of women infected with HPV develop cervical cancer, it is hypothesized that additional pathogenic infections may lead to carcinogenesis with HPV that otherwise would not occur. In addition, some researchers speculate that HPV's ability to evade the human immune system contributes to the development of cancers. Therefore, in this project, it will be determined if levels of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), an important protein in the human immune response, are altered in the presence of HPV alone and in combination with different pathogens. The pathogens chosen include Gram-negative bacteria; Gram-positive bacteria; a mycobacterium; and a fungus. My results may contribute to our understanding of the role of non-viral microbes and immune evasion in cervical cancer development.

Implementing a point-of-purchase messaging program at an urban university food court. Sarah L. Bursi, Terra L. Smith, Beth M. Egan, and Robin R. Roach, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. The obesity epidemic in the United States is effecting the college population with an average of 33% of college students overweight or obese. The purpose of the study was to determine if sales of identified low-calorie, low-fat menu items increased in a university food court as a result of a point-of-purchase messaging program. The sales data for select menu items was collected for 11 weeks. During the 4-week intervention phase, the program manager implemented 1 intervention. The 4 intervention designations were the following: low-calorie sticker, low -fat sticker, low-calorie sticker and flyer, and low-fat sticker and flyer. Two statistical differences were located using a t-test. Throughout both the intervention phase (p=0.001) and follow-up phase (p=0.05) significantly more sandwiches were sold than during the baseline phase. The outcome of the study indicates that implementing point-of-purchase messaging program in a university food court may increase the sales of healthy food items.

Detection of Rickettsia Species DNA in Birds and Ticks in Middle Tennessee. Jennie A. Hamilton*, Evan R. Scott*, Steven W. Hamilton, and Stephen M. Wright, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee (JH, ES, SW) and Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee (SH). Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tick-borne disease due to the bacterial pathogen Rickettsia rickettsii. The American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis is the primary vector responsible for transmission in Tennessee. This study evaluated D. variabilis collected from middle Tennessee for evidence of Rickettsia spp. DNA. Additionally, blood from migratory waterfowl and turkeys was tested for Rickettsia since studies have suggested that avians contribute to Rickettsia distribution. DNA was extracted from 58 pooled ticks (2 adult ticks/ pool) and 315 bird blood samples. Following primary and nested amplification, positive samples were cloned and sequenced. Three birds (0.9%) had evidence of Rickettsia DNA although no distinct species could be identified. Seven tick pools (12.1%) were positive for Rickettsia montana, a Spotted Fever Group rickettsial organism. These results demonstrate that Rickettsia spp. are present among D. variabilis in middle Tennessee and suggest that avians may have a role in dissemination of some rickettsial species.

Math and Computer Science

Ben Ntatin, Chair

Predicting Rising State in the Music Industry. Angela R. Gaetano*, Daniel Biles, and Barbara Ward, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Mounds and mounds of data could be excavated regarding the music industry. Past hits, tours, album sales, and internet popularity are just a few of the variables that can be associated with the popularity of a particular musical band or artist. Some of this information can be substantial enough to predict and detect an artist who will soon have the number one spot on the Billboard charts before record labels, the public, or even the artist him/herself knows it. Using a variety of methods in predictive analytics, significant predictions can arise out of these mounds of data. Such methods would be very useful in the music industry, for example, to record labels wanting to invest in the perfect artist to maximize revenue for their companies. These mathematical methods could be a gold mine for the competitive music industry.

When to get a Fastpass: A Prediction Analysis of Disneyland Theme Park Ride Wait Times. Anne Brunelle*, Wesley Whitson*, Daniel Biles, and Barbara Ward Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. How can we predict when riders will flock to specific rides or congregate to Disneyworld in general? What external factors determine which ride a customer will choose? Finally, how can we beat the lines and get the shortest wait times? Like many areas of life, we found that this psychological phenomenon can be predicted using math. We analyzed past wait times for Disneyland's most iconic rides and cross referenced with factors including popularity, season, weather, and day of the week in order to create a predictive model. We found that some factors had greater weight than others.

An Investigation of IPO Secondary Returns since 2004 and Analysis of Sector Allocation on such Returns. Ayesha Ghaffar*, Daniel Biles, John Gonas, and Barbara Ward, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. This research analyzes aftermarket returns on the first day after an initial public offering between 2004 and 2011, discovering if there is a statistically significant return in those years and understanding the specific variables that might influence said returns. Specifically, the project focuses on finding correlation between aftermarket returns on IPOs and their specific sector to conclude whether certain sectors have a higher probability of offering greater first day returns to secondary investors.

Weeding Out Risky Business Ventures. Daniel A. Huenecke*, Daniel Biles, and Barbara Ward, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. In the world of private equity determining which companies to acquire is of the utmost importance. It is typical for some companies to go by their gut feeling when contemplating an acquisition. However there is way to eliminate much of the risk that comes with an emotional decision. I intend to create an effective model for determining the potential risk and reward of acquisitions. The model will be generated by looking at key components of a company. A few examples are potential risks, future outlook of the market, and possibility of expansion. A model is constructed that can give a purchasing company the right information to make an informed decision. By providing information for an informed decision such private equity firms can sustain growth and eliminate bad purchases.

Microbiology

John M. Zamora, Chair

Designing multiplex PCR for the identification of selected microbes. Ashley Roby*, Eric Powers, Paige Walker, Barbara Johnson and Chad Brooks, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Standard microbiological practices generally take 18h to determine the identity of many microbes and in some instances, twice as long depending on secondary testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a cheap and quick tool to identify the DNA signature of a microbe. However, conducting several hundred PCR reactions becomes cost and time prohibitive. Multiplex PCR is an adaptation of traditional PCR by having multiple primer pairs within the same reaction. Hypothetically, each primer set will retain high-specificity to a particular DNA sequence and therefore multiplex PCR will specifically target the genome of the unknown microbe or even microbes in a single reaction, saving time and resources. This presentation showcases multiplex PCR used to identify approximately 14 microbes found commonly in introductory microbiology courses.

Characterization of CspZ--proposed primary virulence factor for Borrelia burgdorferi infecting dogs. Megan J. Walker*, Matthew T. Martin, and Chad S. Brooks, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Once Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, enters an animal host, the bacteria must contend with the complement cascade. Currently, five complement regulatory associated surface proteins (CRASPs) expressed by B. burgdorferi have been identified. Several of the CRASPs have been characterized to specifically bind to the host-derived complement regulatory protein factor 11 (FH). Hypothetically, CRASPs bind to FH and inactivate the complement protein C3b on the cellular surface of the bacterium, thus allowing evasion of host complement-mediated lysis. But since not all animal FH proteins are the same, it is suggested the CRASPs behave in an animal host-dependent manner. This study suggests that CRASP-2, also known as CspZ, is responsible for binding to canine FH and therefore CspZ is principally responsible for early infection and potentially, the duration of infection.

A floating-type photobioreactor for algal growth and oil production. Lynsey Beiermann* and Sergei A. Markov, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The photobioreactor for algal growth and oil production was constructed at APSU. The 25 L plastic bag containing microalga Neochloris oleoabundans (Neo) were placed on the surface of water in a small swimming pool. The photobior-eactor was supplied with gas mixture (5% CO2 and air). Continuous light was provided by cool white fluorescent lamps (170-180 p.mol * [m.sup.-2] * [s.sup.-1] on the surface of the culture). Algal biomass was harvested and concentrated by sedimentation with subsequent drying under 70[degrees]C. The amount of dry algal biomass from 25 L photobioreactor was estimated. The separation of oil from dried algal biomass was accomplished with help of methanol and heating with subsequent drying. The amount of oily material was expressed as a percentage of algal dry weight.

AIM2 protein levels in response to a Human Papillomavirus and the impact of infectious microbes in cervical cancer cell lines. M. Shea Harrison* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Cervical cancer, affecting over 12,000 women annually, requires a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a precursor. Some HPV infections can evade the immune system and progress to cervical cancer. It remains unclear why only I% of HPV infections are able to do so. Recent research has suggested chronic inflammation or an additional infection may be necessary for the development of cervical cancer from HPV. AIM2 is a human antiviral proinflammatory protein that may be important in HPV's immune evasion. The levels of AIM2 will be compared in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Additionally, AIM2 levels will be compared when cancer cells are exposed to six infectious agents. AIM2 levels are hypothesized to be decreased in HPV-positive cervical cancer and rise in response to a secondary proinflammatory infection. This may indicate both AIM2's role in HPV's immune evasion and the role of inflammation in HPV's progression to cervical cancer.

The impact of microbial infection on the expression of AP-1 in HeLa and C33A cervical cancer cell lines. Shannon G. Rigell* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. AP-1 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in cell proliferation. Evidence suggests increased expression of AP-] in cancers. Cervical cancer is the excessive proliferation of cells found in the cervix and is frequently associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) of the high-risk types; low-risk types commonly present with warts. While cervical cancer has a close correlation with HPV, less than one percent of all women infected with HPV ever progress to cervical cancer. We will infect our cell lines with microbes to examine if an accompanying infection could impact the expression of AP-1. This could indicate that cells with HPV and an additional microbial infection increase cell proliferation, leading to the development of cervical cancer.

Physics and Astronomy

Eugene de Silva, Chair

Dynamical variables in idealized inertia experiment of Galileo. Arjun Tan, Dontrell ReynoleLs*, and Mostafa Dokhanian, Alabama A & M University, Normal, Alabama. Galileo's Inertia Experiment is approximated by the motion of a particle sliding on an exponential incline, under gravity, without friction. The equation of motion is not easily amenable to integration in the closed form. However, the various dynamical variables associated with this motion, including the velocity, acceleration and jerk vectors, along with kinetic, potential and total energies, curvature and centrifugal force can be expressed explicitly in terms of the abscissa or the ordinate, as the particle undertakes its journey. The velocity attains a constant limiting value, illustrating Galileo's notion of inertia. The velocity vector rotates counter-clockwise through an acute angle. The acceleration and jerk vectors, too, rotate counterclockwise, the former through an obtuse angle and the latter through 1800. The magnitude of the acceleration diminishes from a maximum to zero during the motion. The magnitude of jerk starts from and ends at zero, attaining a maximum in between. Jerk, curvature and torsion in motion of charge particle under crossed electric and magnetic fields. Arjun Tan, Angelicia Thomas*, and Mostafa Dokhanian, Alabama A & M University, Normal, Alabama. The existence of the jerk vector, the resulting curvature, and torsion are investigated for a motion of a charged particle under crossed electric and magnetic fields. If the velocity of the particle has no component along the magnetic field, the motion happens on a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and the torsion becomes zero. If, in addition, the initial velocity of the particle has no component along the electric field, then the general trajectory of the particle is a trochoid. Four special cases are, (1) If this component is positive, the trajectory is a curtate cycloid; (2) If this component is negative, the trajectory is a prolate cycloid; (3) If this component is zero, the trajectory is a cycloid; and (4) If this component is equal to the electromagnetic drift velocity, the trajectory is a straight line; both the curvature and torsion of the path are zeros.

Jerk vector in general motion of charged particle under electric and magnetic fields. Arjun Tan and Mostafa Dokhanian, Alabama A & M University, Normal, Alabama. The existence of the jerk vector and the resulting curvature and torsion are investigated under the combined action of electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary orientations. Zero torsion provides a sufficient condition that the trajectory of the particle lies in a plane. This happens if: (1) The electric field has no component parallel with the magnetic field; and (2) The initial velocity of the particle has no component in the direction of the magnetic field. If the curvature is zero, then the charged particle travels in a straight line. The conditions for this are, (1) The electric field had no component parallel with the magnetic field; (2 & 3) the initial velocity had no components in the directions of the electric fields and the magnetic field; and (4) the initial velocity in the orthogonal direction was equal to the electromagnetic drift velocity.

Science and Math Teaching

Kim C. Sadler, Chair

AIM2 protein levels in response to a Human Papillomavirus and the impact of infectious microbes in cervical cancer cell lines. M. Shea Harrison* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Cervical cancer, affecting over 12,000 women annually, requires a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a precursor. Some HPV infections can evade the immune system and progress to cervical cancer. It remains unclear why only 1% of HPV infections are able to do so. Recent research has suggested chronic inflammation or an additional infection may be necessary for the development of cervical cancer from HPV. AIM2 is a human antiviral proinflammatory protein that may be important in HPV's immune evasion. The levels of AIM2 will be compared in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Additionally, AIM2 levels will be compared when cancer cells are exposed to six infectious agents. AIM2 levels are hypothesized to be decreased in HPV-positive cervical cancer and rise in response to a secondary proinflammatory infection. This may indicate both AIM2's role in HPV's immune evasion and the role of inflammation in HPV's progression to cervical cancer.

The impact of microbial infection on the expression of AP-1 in HeLa and C33A cervical cancercell lines. Shannon G. Rigell* and Jennifer T. Thomas, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. AP-1 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in cell proliferation. Evidence suggests increased expression of AP-1 in cancers. Cervical cancer is the excessive proliferation of cells found in the cervix and is frequently associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) of the high-risk types; low-risk types commonly present with warts. While cervical cancer has a close correlation with HPV, less than one percent of all women infected with HPV ever progress to cervical cancer. We will infect our cell lines with microbes to examine if an accompanying infection could impact the expression of AP-1. This could indicate that cells with HPV and an additional microbial infection increase cell proliferation, leading to the development of cervical cancer.

Mentoring authentic research in the high school classroom. Julie A. Folks*, Mary B. Farone, Kim Cleary Sadler, and Anthony L. Farone, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Graduate students participating in the National Science Foundation GK-12 fellowship TRIAD program at Middle Tennessee State University are bringing authentic scientific research to high school classrooms in Middle Tennessee. Biology and chemistry graduate students are partnered with high school science teachers in Rutherford and Davidson counties for an entire school year. This partnership enables the graduate fellows to improve their communication skills while fostering inquiry in the classroom. Under the leadership of the graduate fellow scientists, high school students plan and conduct year-long research projects culminating in presentations and research posters displaying their projects. Students submit their projects to state-wide or area competitions such as the Tennessee Junior Academy of Science or the Forensic Research Symposium. The TRIAD program brings together the classroom teacher, graduate fellow, and high school student and enables them to embark on an authentic journey through the scientific research process.

Relating the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology to High School Students. Corbett C. Ouellette*, Adam Taylor, Mary C. Farone, Kim Cleary Sadler, and Anthony L. Farone, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee and John Overton High School, Nashville, Tennessee. A goal of the NSF GK-12 TRIAD program is to increase understanding about the molecular biosciences in middle Tennessee high school classrooms through interactions with graduate fellow scientists. From my experience as a graduate fellow, I often see students getting confused about abstract concepts because they can't relate these ideas to their life. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (CDMB) is one of the most pivotal biological concepts, and yet not well understood by the high school students I teach. A novel representation of this process was presented to students at John Overton High School by relating the process to making a copy of a compact disc. After instruction about the CDMB using the CD analogy, students who were taught this concept in a previous biology course reported via on-line survey, an increased understanding. Relating an abstract concept to something students know could ultimately help their comprehension in biology.

Karst and Cumberland for the Classroom: A Geoscience Survey of Eastern Middle Tennessee. Jennifer Pollock, Tullahoma High School, Tullahoma, Tennessee. Providing real-life application of scientific topics to high school science students is a perpetual challenge. Fortunately the topography of Tennessee provides many real-life applications of science. This use of local geosciences offers tangible and relevant examples for study. This project involved field study and research of locations in Eastern Middle Tennessee significant to geosciences but easily applicable to all areas of science. As a result of the research, a field guide to the geosciences locations of Middle Tennessee and the Cumberland Plateau has been created for use by teachers. Students and many teachers are unaware of these locations and their possibilities for classroom use or field study. The field guide provides possible uses of the locations, as well as the significance of each to the geosciences. The guide can be used to build a field methods course for the Cumberland Plateau and surrounding area.

Sixteen years of Expanding Your Horizons across Tennessee. Lauren LaBeffk, Rachel Davies*, Katrina Smith*, Amity Sneed*, and Judith Iriarte-Gross, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Recruitment, retention, and graduation of women with STEM training are critical needs. The low rate at which women are entering the STEM pipeline is troubling, especially since even low-paying jobs require a fundamental knowledge of STEM. Girls in Tennessee need a competitive edge in order to make an economic impact for their families and to find career satisfaction. There is a lack of information about high paying STEM jobs, lack of funding for education and training, and lack of basic needs such as childcare and transportation in urban and rural Tennessee. We recognize the need to raise awareness of STEM careers and to change the stereotypes about STEM jobs for women. We also recognize that girls in middle and high school are a large untapped source of STEM majors. We propose to build STEM capacity for Tennessee girls through Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) Conferences.

APEX project at AAMU. Mostafa Dokhanian, Barbara Cady, Marius Schamschula, and Arjun Tan, Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, Alabama. Recently the Department of Physics at Alabama A&M University (AAMU), has been awarded an MSP-TARGETED grant entitled "Alliance for Physics Excellence (APEX)" by NSF. APEX is led by AAMU and includes as core partners the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa (UA), Drake State Technical College (DSTC), American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teaching Resource Agents (AAPT/PTRA), and Huntsville City School System (HSVCS). The partnership also includes supporting partners from the 11 Alabama Math Science and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) regional in-service centers. As an agent of holistic systemic change, APEX envisions to transform secondary physics education in Alabama by enabling physics teachers to acquire a deeper knowledge of physics content and employ more effective pedagogical strategies based on physics education research, enabling students to achieve higher gains. The pillars of APEX physics teacher preparation include deepening content knowledge in: 1) the discipline (DCK), 2) its pedagogical approach (PCK), and 3) technology as it applies to physics pedagogy (TCPK).

Zoology

Michael L. Kennedy, Chair

Effects of Marine Hydrokinetic devices on benthic habitats in rivers. Constantin C. Scherelis* and Mark Bevelhimer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Marine Hydrokinetic devices (MHK) are large underwater turbines that are installed at the bottom of a river and are propelled by the flow velocity of the river. Thereby, these MHK turbines could possibly raise a variety of environmental issues by directly influencing the benthic habitat surrounding the Hydrokinetic devices. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigates the sediment redistribution and fish density changes that may be affected by the deployment of these devices. By using boatmounted sonar technology and Echosounder analysis software ORNL researches potential sites for installment and examines the environmental impacts that result from MHK devices. Among the possible places for construction is a site in the Mississippi River in Memphis that was surveyed in depth and found to be a feasible location.

Macroinvertebrate biodiversity in open canopy pools in the Little Harpeth River, Nashville, Tennessee. Sylvia Alsup* and A. Darlene Panvini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Anthropogenic activities, such as cutting or mowing vegetation along stream banks, can affect macroinvertebrate biodiversity and overall stream health. Macroinvertebrate biodiversity was assessed at the Little Harpeth River, Nashville TN using rock picking and D-net sweep methods. An open canopy pool and riffle were compared with a closed canopy pool and riffle. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured to compare the effect canopy cover had on water quality. The hypothesis was that open canopy areas would have lower levels of dissolved oxygen due to higher stream temperatures, therefore lower water quality and less biodiversity. The data suggest that open stream reaches had higher temperatures than closed canopy sites. In the open pools, a positive correlation was found between the Simpson's Index of diversity and dissolved oxygen. Measures of stream diversity and environmental variables have implications for stream management.

Biodiversity of macroinvertebrates in open canopy riffles in the Little Harpeth River, Nashville, Tennessee. Lauren Land* and A. Darlene Panvini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Tree canopy cover is an influencing factor in the overall health of stream ecosystems. Temperature differences caused by the presence or absence of canopy cover have been shown to impact macroinvertebrate diversity within streams. To see if this phenomenon holds true in Middle Tennessee streams, the occurrence of macroinvertebrates was determined in six weekly sampling sessions in riffles and pools in both open and closed canopy stream reaches in the Little Harpeth River, Nashville, Tennessee. Simpson's Index, Shannon Weiner Index, and Equitability Indices were determined and correlated with water quality variables. This study reports on the relationship between macroinvertebrate diversity in open-canopied riffles. Results show that temperatures were higher in open canopy areas. Also, a significant correlation between overall water quality and Simpson's Indices in open riffles was found. Data collected can be used as a baseline for future studies and management of the Little Harpeth.

Biodiversity of macroinvertebrates in closed canopy riffles and pools in the Little Harpeth River, Nashville, Tennessee. Lida Ghulam Jan* and A. Darlene Panvini, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Tree canopy cover can affect chemical and physical factors of pools and riffles in a stream and consequently affect the biodiversity of macroinvertebrates. The occurrence of macroinvertebrates was determined in the Little Harpeth River, Nashville, TN using a rock-picking technique on rocks in riffles and dip net sweeps in pools in closed and open-canopied stream reaches. Simpson's, Shannon Weiner, and Equitability Indices were correlated with dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, temperature, and percent canopy cover. This part of the study focused on closed canopy areas. Macroinvertebrate diversity did not differ between closed riffles and pools, nor between closed and open-canopied sites. While stream temperatures were higher in open canopy sites, this did not affect macroinvertebrate diversity. There was a positive correlation between Shannon diversity and dissolved oxygen. In general though, macroinvertebrate occurrence did not vary with differences in the environmental variables.

Use of silent point counts and aural stimuli to detect Barred Owls in the area surrounding Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. Heather Meadors*, Sarah E. Redding, and H. Dawn Wilkins, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee. Barred Owls are important nocturnal predators in forested ecosystems such as those surrounding Reelfoot Lake. Protocols for censusing Barred Owls vary between researchers. Our goal was to compare silent counts to counts using aural stimuli. Ten points were sampled twice monthly from February to March 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. At each point, we conducted 5- and 10-minute silent counts followed by playback of Barred Owl calls. We divided post-playback counts into 5- and 10-minute intervals. Ten-minute silent counts detected approximately the same number of owls as 5-minute post-playback counts but significantly fewer owls than 10-minute post-playback counts. Ten-minute post-playback counts may increase detectability because it allows owls to move closer to the source of stimuli before responding. Effectiveness of using aural stimuli may be impacted by breeding season, proximity to territorial boundaries, and moon phase.

The resting metabolism of the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina). Eva M. Grebe* and C M. Gienger, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Measuring the Standard Metabolic Rates (SMR) of ectotherms is key to understanding their thermal physiology and understanding the potential impacts of an altered global climate. We measured SMR of box turtles from a population in Tennessee (USA) and determine how variation in body size and temperature influence patterns of resting energy use. Our results indicate that across both juvenile and adult body sizes, individuals tested at 30C have approximately double the SMR as individuals tested at 20C. There is also no indication that a difference exists in male versus female SMR at the two temperatures. This information will also aid in assessing potential effects of global climate change on alterations of energy budgets of free-ranging box turtles.

Influence of food availability on schooling preference in two cyprinid fish. Helana Anderjack*, Josh Cherry*, Lindsay Davidson*, and J. Jeffrey Green, Nashville State Community College, Nashville, Tennessee. Schooling behavior in fish is a favorable trait that aids in resource acquisition and protection from predators. Understanding what influences this behavior is vital since schooling fish are an integral resource to freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. This pilot study investigates the influence of food availability on schooling preference in rosy minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). When P. promelas was fed prior to trials, small individuals spent more time with other small schoolmates (i.e.. familiars). Behavior differed in D. rerio when the fish were fed following trials. Small D. rerio spent more time with conspecifics from another school (i.e., strangers). Data for large P. promelas was mixed. However, large D. rerio, like their small counterparts, would school with "strangers" when fed following trials. The converse to the above trials will be run; however, this pilot data suggest that food availability can influence schooling preference in fish.

Survey of bird diversity and abundance along an urban greenway in Middle Tennessee. Ben Hampson*, Erin Pitts*, and J. Jeffrey Green, Nashville State Community College, Nashville, Tennessee. Understanding how bird species are distributed in an urban environment is essential for preserving the health and integrity of ecosystems already damaged by fragmentation. Urban greenways frequently serve as the only natural conduit for wildlife to traverse through metropolitan areas, and afford an excellent opportunity to investigate how birds utilize these maintained natural areas. Due to their transient nature, birds especially can be negatively impacted by urban sprawl. We established six transects along Richland Creek Greenway, an urban greenway in Nashville, TN, to survey bird diversity and species abundance. This pilot study revealed that bird species can be abundant along urban greenways, with a total of 17 species observed during the month of July 2012. Funds to establishment greenways through urban environments might serve to aid bird populations, but could also benefit people by reducing insects and other pests that could spread diseases such as West Nile virus.

Preliminary checklist of the spiders of Harpeth River State Park. Joel Harp, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Harpeth River State Park is located in Middle Tennessee in Davidson and Cheatham counties. It is unusual in consisting of a number of disjoint units located along the Harpeth River. In addition to river access points, the state park consists of several State Natural Areas such as Hidden Lake in Davidson County and Gossett Tract and Narrows of the Harpeth in Cheatham County. A survey of the spider fauna has been undertaken using standard collecting techniques such as sweep net and beat sheet. A collection and database for the spider fauna has been constructed. Although the inventory is still incomplete, the number of identified and cataloged species is currently over 70 species in 49 genera and 18 families.

Land snail ontogeny, preservation and size distribution. Cassie Henegar*, Mackenzie Hodges*, Morgan Livingston*, and Michael L. McKinney, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. Terrestrial snails are among the least studied groups of animals. Their taxonomy is poorly understood and little is known about their ecology and the impacts of human activities on snail communities. We sampled several localities for snails within a radius of 60 miles of Knoxville, Tennessee. These localities represent a wide range of habitats from relatively undisturbed forest habitat to highly disturbed urban habitats. To better understand ontogeny, we analyzed snail size ranges. We hypothesized that smaller snails would be more common. The size distribution of the snails was analyzed by sieving many soil samples, with sieve sizes ranging from 0.518 to 0.0041 inches. We found that snails were most abundant in the intermediate size classes of 0.131-0.0394 inches. This is not a sampling artifact because most sediment was in the larger size classes. We also found that empty shells composed the minority of specimens implying rapid decomposition of shells.

Land snails of Franklin County, Tennessee. Mackenzie Hodges*, Gerry Dinkins, and Michael L. McKinney, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. Land snails are a highly diverse but poorly studied group in Tennessee. A total of 1063 empty shells of land snails were collected from Franklin County, Tennessee, including the federally threatened species, Anguispira picta, commonly called the painted tigersnail. Detailed examination allowed us to identify the large majority of specimens. We found 31 species belonging to 17 genera. The most common genera, comprising nearly 30% of the total, were Anguispira (312 individuals), followed by Stenotrema (180 specimens), Mesodon (91 specimens), Mesomphix (75 specimens), and Patera (75 specimens). The most common species by far was Anguispira cumberlandiana with 283 specimens. The most species-rich genus is Mesodon, which has 6 species represented. A few of these specimens may represent first reported occurrences of their species for Franklin County although further taxonomic work is required to verify this.

The effect of habitat type on bat activity and species richness monitored via acoustic survey at Reelfoot Lake in Northwest Tennessee. Christine Hassell* and Nancy Buschhaus, University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee. Bats capture insects while flying in the dark using a sophisticated system of echolocation. Presently, bat species diversity is declining in the Eastern United States due to a deadly fungal disease known as White Nose Syndrome (WNS). Therefore, documenting any fluctuations in bat species diversity is essential. Bats often congregate near large bodies of water due to high levels of aquatic insect emergence. The focus of our study was to determine the most effective sampling sites for bats near Reelfoot Lake in Northwest Tennessee. We used hand-held bat detectors to document bat ultrasonic calls at four different sampling sites that varied in the amount of open water foraging area at Reelfoot Lake June-August 2012. We found that four sites varied in the amount of bat activity observed Summer 2012. We concluded that sampling site at Reelfoot Lake did influence the efficacy of recording bat activity and species richness.

Repellent properties of glade savory, Clinopodium glabellum, against the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Gabrielle N. Hampton* and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Ticks vector are second only to mosquitoes in transmitting harmful diseases to humans and domestic animals. Due to public concerns about the synthetically produced repellent DEET, research has focused on the production of plant-based products which are equally as effective. In this study, the repellency of the mint Clinopodium glabellum against Demacentorvariabilis was studied using an in vitro assay. The essential oil was isolated using steam distillation of a blended slurry solution followed by chemical separation techniques. The effective repellency of the essential oil at 10%, 25%, and 50% concentrations in acetone will be presented.

Repellent properties of the invasive beefsteak plant, Perilla frutescens, against the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Amber D. Hopkins* and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick, is responsible for transmitting Rocky Mountain spotted fever to humans in the eastern United States. In recent years public demand for natural products has led to research focused on plant-based repellents which are as effective as their synthetic equivalents. In this study, the repellency of the invasive mint Perilla frutescens against Dermacentor variabilis was studied using an in vitro assay. The essential oil was isolated using steam distillation of a blended slurry solution followed by chemical separation techniques. The effective repellency of the essential oil at 10%, 25%, and 50% concentrations in acetone will be presented.

Repellent properties of mountain mint, Pycanthemum virginianum, against the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Anna Beth Jones* and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The threat of contracting diseases from ticks has become a dominant cause for the production of novel tick repellents in the United States. One focus of research has been towards developing botanical repellents from species in the mint family Lamiaceae. In this study, the repellency of Pycanthemum virginianum against Dermacentor variabilis was studied using an in vitro assay. The essential oil of Pycanthemum virginianum was isolated using steam distillation of a blended slurry solution followed by chemical separation techniques. The effective repellency of the essential oil at 10%, 25%, and 50% concentrations in acetone will be presented.

A comparison of bird and plant diversity in two middle Tennessee wetlands. Erin Helen Pitts* and C. Steve Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. Tennessee wetlands can support a wide diversity of plant species which attract both resident and migratory bird populations. Wetland ecosystems are fragile, and certain plants rely on birds for seed dispersal while other plants are used by birds for protection from the elements and predators. It is expected that a greater diversity of bird species will be found in wetlands with diverse plant communities. Bird and plant diversity was assessed at a small wetland on the Nissan North America campus in Franklin and the larger Shelby Bottoms wetland in Nashville. The results of Chi-Square tests for independence, used to determine any association between bird diversity and vegetation analysis at and between the two wetland sites, will be presented.

Using GIS to identify important habitat types for amphibians and reptiles at Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Tennessee. Kayla Key*, Melody Sain*, and Tom Blanchard, University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee. The availability of appropriate habitat is known to be important to maintaining diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and many wildlife refuges are large enough to incorporate a variety of habitat types. At the Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuge (LINWR) in northwest Tennessee, little is known about how amphibians and reptiles utilize available habitats. In this study, we used GIS technology to identify specific habitat types that could potentially support a higher diversity of amphibians and reptiles at LINWR. A hand-held GPS was used to mark the boundaries of various habitat types within the refuge, and a habitat map was created in ArcMap. We used visual encountered surveys to locate animals along transects that were evenly spaced throughout the study area. Searched transects and animal locations were overlaid onto the habitat map. We have recorded positions of 69 individuals represented by 14 species.

Repellent properties of wild peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Rachel K. Hewlett* and C. Steven Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. The threat of contracting diseases from ticks in the United States has led to the production of tick repellents using essential oils from plants. One focus of research has been towards developing botanical repellents from species in the mint family Lamiaceae. In this study, the repellency of Mentha piperita against Dermacentor variabilis was studied using an in vitro assay. The essential oil of Mentha piperita was isolated using steam distillation of a blended slurry solution followed by chemical separation techniques. The effective repellency of the essential oil at 10%, 25%, and 50% concentrations in acetone will be presented.
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Author:Tennessee, Nashville
Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6TN
Date:Sep 1, 2013
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