Printer Friendly

About the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.

The FBI's UCR Program is a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of more than 18,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention. Since 1930, the FBI has administered the UCR Program and has continued to assess and monitor the nature and type of crime in the nation. The program's primary objective is to generate reliable information for use in law enforcement administration, operation, and management; over the years, however, the data have become one of the country's leading social indicators. Criminologists, sociologists, legislators, municipal planners, the media, and other students of criminal justice use the data for varied research and planning purposes.

In 2012, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represented more than 308 million United States inhabitants (98.1 percent of the total population). The coverage amounted to 98.9 percent of the population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 93.3 percent of the population in cities outside metropolitan areas, and 94.2 percent of the population in nonmetropolitan counties.

UCR advisory groups

The Criminal Justice Information Systems Committees of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the National Sheriffs' Association (NSA) provide vital links between local law enforcement and the FBI in the oversight of the UCR Program. The IACP, representing the thousands of police departments nationwide, and the NSA, serving sheriffs throughout the country, encourage agencies to participate fully in the program. Both committees fulfill advisory capacities concerning the UCR Program's operation.

In 1988, a Data Providers' Advisory Policy Board was established to provide input for UCR matters. That Board operated until 1993 when it combined with the National Crime Information Center Advisory Policy Board to form a single Advisory Policy Board (APB) to address all issues regarding the FBI's criminal justice information services. The current APB ensures a continued emphasis on UCR-related issues. In addition, the

Association of State UCR Programs (ASUCRP) focuses on UCR issues within individual state law enforcement associations and promotes interest in the UCR Program. These organizations foster widespread and responsible use of uniform crime statistics and lend assistance to data contributors when needed.

Historical background of UCR

Recognizing a need for national crime statistics, the IACP formed the Committee on Uniform Crime Records in the 1920s to develop a system of uniform crime statistics. After studying state criminal codes and making an evaluation of the recordkeeping practices in use, the Committee completed a plan for crime reporting that became the foundation of the UCR Program in 1929. The plan included standardized offense definitions for seven main offense classifications known as Part I crimes to gauge fluctuations in the overall volume and rate of crime. Developers also instituted the Hierarchy Rule as the main reporting procedure for what is now known as the Summary Reporting System (SRS) of the UCR Program.

The seven Part I offense classifications included the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault as well as the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. By congressional mandate, arson was added as the eighth Part I offense category in 1979.

In January 1930, 400 cities representing 20 million inhabitants in 43 states began participating in the UCR Program. That same year, Congress enacted Title 28, Section 534, of the United States Code authorizing the Attorney General to gather crime information. The Attorney General, in turn, designated the FBI to serve as the national clearinghouse for the crime data collected. Every year since, data based on uniform classifications and procedures for reporting offenses and arrests have been obtained from the nation's law enforcement agencies.

Redesign of UCR

Although the data collected and disseminated by the UCR Program remained virtually unchanged throughout the years, in the 1980s, a broad utility had evolved for UCR. Recognizing the need for improved statistics, law enforcement called for a thorough evaluative study to modernize the UCR Program. The FBI concurred with the need for an updated program and lent its complete support, formulating a comprehensive three-phase redesign effort. The first two phases of this effort, guided by input from representatives of the FBI, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the IACP, and the NSA, culminated with the release of a comprehensive report.

The final report, the Blueprint for the Future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (Blueprint), was released in May 1985. It specifically outlined three areas of enhancement to help the UCR Program meet future informational needs. First, agencies would use an incident-based system to report offenses and arrests. Second, the national UCR Program would collect data on two levels (i.e., limited and full participation), and third, the national UCR Program would introduce a quality assurance program.

In January 1986, the FBI began phase III of the redesign effort guided by the general recommendations set forth in the Blueprint. Contractors developed new data guidelines and system specifications while the FBI studied various state systems to select an experimental site to implement the redesigned program. Upon selecting the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division (SLED), which enlisted the cooperation of nine local law enforcement agencies, the FBI developed automated data capture specifications to adapt the SLED's state system to the national UCR Program's standards, and the BJS funded the revisions. The pilot demonstration ran from March 1-September 30, 1987, and resulted in further refinement of the guidelines and specifications.

March 1-3, 1988, the FBI held a National UCR Conference to present the new system to

law enforcement and to obtain feedback on its acceptability. Attendees of the National UCR Conference passed three overall recommendations without dissent: first, that there be established a new, incident-based national crime reporting system; second, that the FBI manage this program; and third, that an APB composed of law enforcement executives be formed to assist in directing and implementing the new program. Furthermore, attendees recommended that the implementation of national incident-based reporting proceed at a pace commensurate with the resources and limitations of contributing law enforcement agencies.

Establishing the NIBRS

From March 1988 through January 1989, the FBI proceeded in developing and assuming management of the UCR Program's National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), and by April 1989, the national UCR Program received the first test submission of NIBRS data. Over the course of the next few years, the national UCR Program published information about the redesigned program in five documents:

* Data Collection Guidelines (revised August 2000) contains a system overview and descriptions of the offense codes, reports, data elements, and data values used in the system.

* Data Submission Specifications (May 1992) is for the use of local and state systems personnel who are responsible for preparing magnetic media for submission to the FBI.

* Approaches to Implementing an Incident-Based System (July 1992) is a guide for system designers.

* Error Message Manual (revised December 1999) contains designations of mandatory and optional data elements, data element edits, and error messages.

* Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, NIBRS Edition (1992) provides a nontechnical program overview that focuses on definitions, policies, and procedures of the NIBRS.

Since then, the national UCR Program staff has presented additional documents including the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Technical Specification (Version 1.0 dated April 16, 2012) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) User Manual (Version 1.0 dated January 17, 2013).

Originally designed with 52 data elements, the NIBRS captures up to 57 data elements via six types of data segments: administrative, offense, victim, property, offender, and arrestee. Although, in the late 1980s, the FBI committed to hold all changes to the NIBRS in abeyance until a substantial amount of contributors implemented the system, modifications have been necessary. The system's flexibility has allowed for the collection of four additional pieces of information to be captured within an incident: biasmotivated offenses (1990), the presence of gang activity (1997), data for law enforcement officers killed and assaulted (2003), and data on cargo theft (2005). It has also permitted the addition of new codes to further specify location types and property types (2010).

The FBI began accepting NIBRS data from a handful of agencies in January 1989. As more contributing law enforcement agencies became educated about the rich data available through incident-based reporting and as resources permitted, more agencies implemented the NIBRS. Based on 2012 data submissions, 15 states submit all their data via the NIBRS and 32 state UCR Programs are certified for NIBRS participation.

The FBI suspends the Crime Index and Modified Crime Index

In June 2004, the CJIS APB approved discontinuing the use of the Crime Index in the UCR Program and its publications, and it directed the FBI to publish a violent crime total and a property crime total. The Crime Index, first published in Crime in the United States in 1960, was the title used for a simple aggregation of the seven main offense classifications (Part I offenses) in the SRS. The Modified Crime Index was the number of Crime Index offenses plus arson.

For several years, the CJIS Division studied the appropriateness and usefulness of these indices and brought the matter before many advisory groups including the UCR Subcommittee of the CJIS APB, the ASUCRP, and a meeting of leading criminologists and sociologists hosted by the BJS. In short, the Crime Index and the Modified Crime Index were not true indicators of the degrees of criminality because they were always driven upward by the offense with the highest number, typically larceny-theft. The sheer volume of those offenses overshadowed more serious but less frequently committed offenses, creating a bias against a jurisdiction with a high number of larceny-thefts but a low number of other serious crimes such as murder and forcible rape.

Recent Developments in the UCR Program

At the fall 2011 CJIS APB meeting, the APB recommended, and FBI Director Robert Mueller III approved, changing the definition of rape. Since 1929, in the SRS, forcible rape had been defined as "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will," (UCR Handbook, 2004, p. 19). Beginning with the 2013 data collection, the SRS definition for the violent crime of rape will be:

"Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim."

This definition can be found in the Summary Reporting System [SRS] User Manual, Version 1.0 dated June 20, 2013. The FBI is developing reporting options for law enforcement agencies to meet this requirement which will be built into the redeveloped data collection system.

In addition to approving the new definition of rape for the SRS, the APB and Director Mueller approved removing the word "forcible" from the name of the offense and also replacing the phrase "against the person's will" with "without the consent of the victim" in other sex-related offenses in the SRS, the NIBRS, the Hate Crime Statistics Program, and Cargo Theft data collections.

In response to a directive by the U.S. Government's Office of Management and Budget, the national UCR Program has expanded its data collection categories for race from four (White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Other Pacific Islander) to five (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander). Also, the ethnicity categories have changed from "Hispanic" to "Hispanic or Latino" and from "Non-Hispanic" to "Not Hispanic or Latino." The collection of race and ethnicity data in accordance with the revised categories began in 2013; those data will be reflected in future presentations.

Also, the national UCR Program staff has developed data collection methods to comply with both the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 and the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crime Prevention Act of 2009. As a result, the FBI began accepting data on human trafficking as well as data on crimes motivated by "gender and gender identity" bias and "crimes committed by, and crimes directed against, juveniles" from contributors in January 2013. The new data will be reflected in future presentations.

UCR Redevelopment Project Update

The UCR Redevelopment Project (UCRRP) is in full swing as staff members work to improve the efficiency, usability, and maintainability of the UCR Program's submission processes, databases, and quality control activities. Through the UCRRP, the UCR Program will improve customer service by decreasing the time it takes to analyze data and by decreasing the time needed to release and publish crime data. The program will also enhance its external data query tool so that the public can view and analyze more published UCR data from the Internet.

Another major goal of the UCRRP is to reduce, to the point of elimination, the exchange of printed materials between submitting agencies and the FBI. Beginning with the 2013 data collections, all data must be submitted electronically, and after July 2013, the UCR Program will no longer accept paper submissions or the electronic submission of documents (i.e., Portable Document Format files). Currently, the UCRRP is working with agencies to help them adopt electronic submissions via the NIBRS, electronic SRS, or Extensible Markup Language.
FBI Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
Contacts

Program Office

Program administration; management; Telephone: (304) 625-4830
policy; processing of UCR Program Facsimile: (304) 625-3566
data; reporting problems; requests E-mail: ucrstat@leo.gov
for reporting forms; data quality

Information Dissemination

Requests for published and Telephone: (304) 625-2000
unpublished data; printouts, Facsimile: (304) 625-3566
electronic media, and UCR E-mail: cjis_comm@leo.gov
information and Web help

Requests for Publications

All requests for manuals, FBI's Web site:
publications, UCR reporting www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr
material or other published E-mail: cksupply@leo.gov
products

National Incident-Based Reporting
System (NIBRS)

Information for law enforcement Telephone: (304) 625-3092
agencies regarding the NIBRS Facsimile: (304) 625-3566
certification process; federal E-mail: cjis_comm@leo.gov
funding for NIBRS-compliant records Attention: NIBRS Coordinator
management systems; and data
submission specifications

Quality Assurance

Assistance for law enforcement Telephone: (304) 625-2941
agencies in assessing the integrity Facsimile: (304) 625-3457
of their data and complying with E-mail: acjis@leo.gov
program requirements

Training/Education for Law
Enforcement

Law Enforcement requests for Telephone: 1 (888) UCR-NIBR
training; information on police [827-6427]
reporting systems; technical Facsimile: (304) 625-5599
assistance for law enforcement E-mail: UCRTrainers@leo.gov
personnel

Send correspondence to:

Federal Bureau of Investigation
Criminal Justice Information
Services Division Attention:
Uniform Crime Reports 1000 Custer
Hollow Road Clarksburg, West
Virginia 26306-0159

Directory of State Uniform Crime Reporting
(UCR) Programs (1)

Alabama Alabama Criminal Justice Information Center
 Suite 300
 201 South Union Street
 Montgomery, Alabama 36130
 (334) 517-2400
 http://www.acjic.alabama.gov/

Alaska Alaska Department of Public Safety
 Criminal Records and Identification Bureau
 5700 East Tudor Road
 Anchorage, Alaska 99507
 (907) 269-5767
 http://www.dps.alaska.gov/ statewide/ucr.aspx

American Samoa Department of Public Safety
 Uniform Crime Reporting Record Office
 Post Office Box 1086
 Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
 011 (684) 633-1111

Arizona Access Integrity Unit
 Uniform Crime Reporting Program
 Arizona Department of Public Safety
 Post Office Box 6638

 Phoenix, Arizona 85005-6638
 (602) 223-2488
 http://www.azdps.gov/

Arkansas Arkansas Crime Information Center
 One Capitol Mall, 4D-200
 Little Rock, Arkansas 72201
 (501) 682-2222
 http://acic.org/Pages/default.aspx

California Department of Justice
 Criminal Justice Statistics Center
 Post Office Box 903427
 Sacramento, California 94203-4270
 (916) 227-3515
 http://oag.ca.gov/ crime

Colorado Uniform Crime Reporting
 Colorado Bureau of Investigation
 Suite 3000
 690 Kipling Street
 Denver, Colorado 80215
 (303) 239-4222
 http: //www.colorado.gov/ cs/Satellite/CDPS-
 CBIMain/CBON/1251621089773

Connecticut Crimes Analysis Unit
 Connecticut State Police
 1111 Country Club Road
 Middletown, Connecticut 06457-9294
 (860) 685-8030
 http:/ / www.ct.gov/despp/site/default.asp sp

Delaware Delaware State Bureau of Identification
 Post Office Box 430
 Dover, Delaware 19903-0430
 (302) 672-5341

District of Crime Data Quality Division
Columbia Metropolitan Police Department
 Room 4016
 300 Indiana Avenue, NW
 Washington, DC 20001-2188
 (202) 727-7765
 http://www.mpdc.dc.gov/

Florida Uniform Crime Reports
 Florida Department of Law Enforcement
 Post Office Box 1489
 Tallahassee, Florida 32302-1489
 (850) 410-7121
 http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/home.aspx

Georgia Georgia Crime Information Center
 Georgia Bureau of Investigation
 Post Office Box 370748
 Decatur, Georgia 30037-0748
 (404) 270-8523
 http://gbi.georgia.gov/

Guam Guam Police Department
 Planning, Research and Development
 Building #233
 Central Avenue
 Tiyan, Guam 96913
 011 (671) 475-8422
 http://www.guampolice.com/GUAMPOLICE/Welcome.html

Hawaii Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division
 Department of the Attorney General
 Suite 401
 235 South Beretania Street
 Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
 (808) 586-1150
 http ://ag.hawaii.gov/ cpj a /

Idaho Bureau of Criminal Identification
 Idaho State Police
 Suite 120
 700 South Stratford Drive
 Meridian, Idaho 83642
 (208) 884-7156
 http://www.isp.idaho.gov/

Illinois Uniform Crime Reporting Program
 Illinois State Police
 Post Office Box 19461
 Suite 400A
 801 South Seventh Street
 Springfield, Illinois 62794
 (217) 557-6482
 http://www.isp.state.il.us/

Iowa Iowa Department of Public Safety
 Program Services Bureau
 215 East Seventh Street
 Des Moines, Iowa 50319
 (515) 725-6232
 http://www.dps.state.ia.us/

Kansas Kansas Bureau of Investigation
 Incident Based Reporting Section
 Information Services Division
 1620 Southwest Tyler Street
 Topeka, Kansas 66612
 (785) 296-8279
 http://www.accesskansas.org/kbi/

Kentucky Criminal Identification and Records Branch
 Kentucky State Police
 1266 Louisville Road
 Frankfort, Kentucky 40601
 (502) 227-8700
 http://www.justice.ky.gov

Louisiana Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement
 Louisiana Incident-Based Reporting/Uniform Crime
 Reporting Unit
 Post Office Box 3133
 Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70821
 (225) 342-1569
 http://www.lcle.state.la.us

Maine Records Management Services
 Uniform Crime Reporting Division
 Maine Department of Public Safety
 Maine State Police
 Suite 1
 45 Commerce Drive
 Augusta, Maine 04333
 (207) 624-7276
 http:/ / www.maine.gov/dps/

Maryland Central Records Division
 Maryland State Police
 1711 Belmont Avenue
 Baltimore, Maryland 21244
 (410) 298-3444

Massachusetts Crime Reporting Unit
 Commonwealth Fusion Center
 Massachusetts State Police
 124 Acton Street
 Maynard, Massachusetts 01754
 (978) 451-3731
 http://www.mass.gov/portal/

Michigan Crime Reporting Section
 Michigan State Police
 Post Office Box 30634
 Lansing, Michigan 48909
 (517) 241-1704
 http://www.michigan.gov/msp

Minnesota Minnesota Justice Information Services
 Bureau of Criminal Apprehension
 Minnesota Department of Public Safety
 1430 Maryland Avenue East

 St. Paul, Minnesota 55106-2802
 (651) 793-2400
 http s://dps. mn.gov/ divisions/bca/Pages/default.aspx

Missouri Missouri State Highway Patrol
 Criminal Justice Information Services Division
 Post Office Box 9500
 1510 East Elm Street
 Jefferson City, Missouri 65102-9500
 (573) 526-6278
 http://ucr.mshp.dps.mo.gov/ucr/ucrhome.nsf/

Montana Montana Board of Crime Control
 Statistical Analysis Center
 Post Office Box 201408
 Helena, Montana 59620-1408
 (406) 444-4298
 http://www.mbcc.mt.gov/

Nebraska Uniform Crime Reporting Section
 The Nebraska Commission on Law Enforcement and
 Criminal Justice
 Post Office Box 94946
 Lincoln, Nebraska 68509-4946
 (402) 471-3982
 http://www.ncc.state.ne.us/

Nevada Uniform Crime Reporting Program
 Records and Technology Division
 Nevada Department of Public Safety
 Suite 100
 333 West Nye Lane
 Carson City, Nevada 89706
 (775) 684-6262
 http://www.nvrepository.state.nv.us/

New Hampshire Uniform Crime Reporting Unit
 New Hampshire State Police
 New Hampshire Department of Public Safety
 33 Hazen Drive
 Concord, New Hampshire 03305
 (603) 223-3869

New Jersey Uniform Crime Reporting Unit
 New Jersey State Police
 Post Office Box 7068
 West Trenton, New Jersey 08628-0068
 (609) 882-2000 x2392
 http:// www.njsp.org/

New York Office of Justice Research and Performance
 New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services
 8th Floor
 4 Tower Place
 Albany, New York 12203
 (518)485-7942
 http://www.criminaljustice.state.ny.us/

North Carolina Crime Reporting
 State Bureau of Investigation
 Post Office Box 29500
 Raleigh, North Carolina 27626-0500
 (919) 662-4500
 http:/ / www.ncdoj .gov/

North Dakota Information Services Section
 Attorney General's Office
 Bureau of Criminal Investigation
 Post Office Box 1054
 Bismarck, North Dakota 58502-1054
 (701) 328-5527
 http://www.ag.nd.gov/

Ohio (2) Ohio Department of Public Safety
 Office of Criminal Justice Services
 1970 West Broad Street
 Columbus, Ohio 43223
 (614) 466-7782
 http://www.ocjs.ohio.gov/

Oklahoma Uniform Crime Reporting Section
 Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation
 6600 North Harvey
 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116
 (405) 879-2533
 http:/ / www.ok.gov/ osbi/

Oregon Oregon Uniform Crime Reporting
 Oregon State Police
 Post Office Box 14360
 Salem, Oregon 97309-5074
 (503) 378-3055 x55002
 http://www.oregon.gov/ osp/cj is/Pages/index.aspx

Pennsylvania Bureau of Research and Development
 Pennsylvania State Police
 1800 Elmerton Avenue
 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17110
 (717) 783-4776
 http://www.paucrs.pa.gov/UCR/ ComMenuUI.asp

Puerto Rico Statistics Division
 Puerto Rico Police
 Post Office Box 70166

 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8166
 (787) 793-1234 x3114
 http://www.policia.gobierno.pr/

Rhode Island Uniform Crime Reporting Unit
 Rhode Island State Police
 311 Danielson Pike
 North Scituate, Rhode Island 02857-1907
 (401) 444-1156
 http://www.risp.ri.gov/

South Carolina South Carolina Law Enforcement Division
 Post Office Box 21398
 Columbia, South Carolina 29221-1398
 (803) 896-7981
 http://www.sled.sc.gov/

South Dakota South Dakota Statistical Analysis Center
 George S. Mickelson Building
 Suite 5
 1302 East Highway 14
 Pierre, South Dakota 57501-8505
 (605) 773-6312
 http://www.dci.sd.gov/

Tennessee Tennessee Bureau of Investigation
 Crime Statistics Unit
 901 R.S. Gass Boulevard
 Nashville, Tennessee 37216-2639
 (615) 744-4014
 http://www.tbi.state.tn.us/

Texas Uniform Crime Reporting
 Crime Information Bureau
 Texas Department of Public Safety
 Post Office Box 4143
 Austin, Texas 78765
 (512) 424-2418
 http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/

Utah Uniform Crime Reporting
 Bureau of Criminal Identification
 Utah Department of Public Safety
 Post Office Box 148280
 Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-8280
 (801) 965-4454
 http://publicsafety.utah.gov/bci/

Vermont Vermont Criminal Information Center
 103 South Main Street
 Waterbury, Vermont 05671
 (802) 244-8727
 http://dps.vermont.gov/

Virginia Criminal Justice Information Services Division
 Virginia State Police
 Post Office Box 27472
 Richmond, Virginia 23261-7472
 (804) 674-2143
 http://www.vsp.state.va.us/Crime_in_Virginia.shtm

Virgin Islands Planning, Research, and Development Bureau
 Virgin Islands Police Department
 Alexander Farrelly Justice Complex
 Charlotte Amalie
 Saint Thomas, Virgin Islands 00802
 (340) 715-5505

Washington Uniform Crime Reporting Program
 Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs
 3060 Willamette Drive, NE
 Lacey, Washington 98516
 (360) 486-2380
 http://www.waspc.org/

West Virginia Uniform Crime Reporting Program
 West Virginia State Police
 725 Jefferson Road
 South Charleston, West Virginia 25309
 (304) 746-2474
 http://www.wvsp.gov/Pages / default.aspx

Wisconsin Statistical Analysis Center
 Wisconsin Office of Justice Assistance
 Suite 615
 1 South Pinckney Street
 Madison, Wisconsin 53703
 (608) 266-3323
 http://www.oja.wi.gov/

Wyoming Uniform Crime Reporting
 Division of Criminal Investigation
 208 South College Drive
 Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002
 (307) 777-7625
 http://wyomingdci.wyo.gov/

(1) The following states do not have State UCR Programs: Indiana,
Mississippi, and New Mexico. Participating agencies in these states
submit their data directly to the FBI.

(2) The Ohio State UCR Program collects data only from agencies that
report via the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Ohio
agencies that use the Summary Reporting System submit UCR data
directly to the FBI.
COPYRIGHT 2012 Federal Bureau of Investigation
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Uniform Crime Reports: Hate Crime Statistics
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:3792
Previous Article:Tables by title.
Next Article:Feedback for Hate Crime Statistics, 2012.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters