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AWARENESS OF DENTAL IMPLANTS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL AND DENTAL STUDENTS: A SURVEY STUDY.

Byline: KHALID MAHMOOD SIDDIQI, MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN BAIG and ZARMINA IFZAL

Abstract

Dental implants are becoming the everyday practice in dental office now a day. The present study was conducted to evaluate the awareness about dental implant in undergraduate medical and dental students. A cross sectional survey was done. All undergraduate students of first and second year medicine and dentistry program were approached and invited to participate in the study. A paper based self-administered questionnaire was distributed in a class room setting. A total of 277 participants (189-Medicine, 88-Dentistry) participated in the study. Response rate was 92.3%. The participants who know dental implants as treatment option for replacing missing tooth/teeth were 178(64.3%). Friends and relatives were the major source of information (55.1%).

In response to question whether they will choose dental implant as replacement method for their missing tooth in future, only 131 out of 178 gave positive agreement. The main reason for refusing to implant treatment is the involvement of surgical phase in it. With this study, it can be concluded that the level of understanding and awareness among the dentistry students are higher than medicine students regarding dental implants.

Key Words: Tooth replacement, Advancement in dentistry, Treatment awareness, Knowledge, Oral health awareness, Missing teeth.

INTRODUCTION

Implant dentistry has evolved into the mainstream of restorative procedures worldwide. It has been recorded as the most noteworthy advancement in dentistry within the last five decades.1 Dental implants placement is increasing as time passing. According to an estimate in 2010 about 100,000-300,000 dental implants are placed per year.2 Dental implants are considered the most equivalent replacement for the natural teeth. They are a useful addition in the dental management of patients who lost their teeth because of any systemic/ oral disease, trauma or any developmental anomalies.3

A number of dental implant systems are available in market with varied rate of price and scientific research and trials backup.4

Dental implants have given the profession and the patient an effective and revolutionized means of tooth replacement.5 It is the responsibility of health care providers to update the general population about the new technologies in the field of medicine/dentistry. Awareness amongst the undergraduate medical/dental students concerning any new update in their field will be beneficial in educating the general population. Undergraduate students are considered the ambassadors of the specialty. Student's awareness regarding the dental implant can help in eradicating any negative reflection of this procedure that may have been caused due to lack of adequate information.1

Literature showed various levels of awareness among patients, general population and undergraduate students.6-9 There is scarcity of literature in which comparison was done regarding undergraduate students of BDS and MBBS programs. A study was planned to evaluate the awareness regarding dental implants in 1st and 2nd year MBBS and BDS students.

After getting to know more about this advancement, further tooth or bone loss can be prevented with more options for esthetics being provided. Awareness regarding any new advancement increases its acceptability especially if it is an elective procedure.10 It was assumed that based on this study results necessary changes can be suggested in the curriculum regarding dental implant teaching and learning.

METHODOLOGY

A cross sectional study was done to evaluate the awareness about dental implants among undergraduate students of medicine and dentistry programs. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and piloting was done on a group of fifteen students for correction and modifications. Approval of the study was obtained from the Institutional review board. Study objectives were explained to the participants and a self-administered questionnaire was distributed in a class room setting and collected in the same visit. Collected filled questionnaire were coded and data were entered in SPSS version 23. Descriptive analysis was carried out and results were presented in table and figures. Comparison of first year and second year as well as medicine and dentistry was also done using chi square test. P-value of < than 0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered significant.

RESULTS

A total of 277 students participated in the study. The students registered in MBBS program were 189 (68.2%) and in BDS 88 (31.8%). The distribution of students in first and second year according to study programs are shown in Table 1. Regarding the replacement of missing teeth, 151(54.5%) participants had the knowledge of partial denture as replacement and 113(40.8%) had the knowledge of bridge. The participant who were familiar with dental implant as replacement method were 178(64.3%) (Distribution according to program and year are given in Table 2) out of which 111(40.1%) knows anybody who underwent implant rehabilitation. When knowledge of implant as replacement method was compared between MBBS and BDS, statistically highly significant difference (p-value0.05) was found when compared 1st year with 2nd year.

Among those who were familiar with implant only 38 BDS and 17 MBBS students (30.9%) had the knowledge about implant placement procedure. Statistically highly significant difference (p-value0.05) was found in when compared MBBS with BDS and 1st year with 2nd year. Reasons for not giving consent were shown in Fig 2.

TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS IN YEARS AND PROGRAMS

###Year of study###Total

###1st Year###2nd Year

MBBS###91(32.9%)###989(35.4%)###189(68.3%)

BDS###46(16.6%)###42(15.1%)###88(31.7%)

Total###137(49.5%)###140(50.5%)###277(100%)

TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO YEAR AND PROGRAM OF IMPLANT AWARENESS AS REPLACEMENT METHOD

###Yes###No###Total

MBBS###1st Year###39###52###91

###189

###2nd Year###62###36###98

BDS###1st Year###38###8###46

###88

###2nd Year###39###3###42

###Total###178###99###277

TABLE 3: SOURCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING IMPLANT IN YEARS AND PROGRAMS

###MBBS###BDS

###Total

###1st###2nd###1st###2nd

###Year###Year###Year###Year

Dentist###17###20###16###18###71

Books/###5###12###6###17###40

magazines

Internet###8###19###8###13###48

Friends/###19###45###18###16###98

relatives

College###--###--###1###5###6

TV###2###--###--###--###2

DISCUSSION

General health of the individuals is influenced by many factors including dental health. Loss of teeth not only effect general or dental health but also psychological status of the individual.11 It is not only the functions which are compromised by losing teeth rather aesthetic, phonetics and face shape are also affected with this. Replacing missing tooth/teeth are mandatory to avoid the worsening of oral and general health as well as to maintain aesthetic, phonetics and face shape.12

Present study gives us an overview about the knowledge and awareness of undergraduate (1st and 2nd Year) medical and dental students regarding replacement methods of tooth/teeth. More participants were aware of dental implant (64.3%) as replacement method as compared to partial denture (54.5%) and bridge (40.8%). A study from Lahore-Pakistan reported awareness of dental implants in patients only 39.8%13 but study from India reported up to 75%.9 Another study reported 46.6% dental students to be aware of dental implant.8 Dental implant is newer method as compared to others. This difference of awareness could be attributed to the information technology boom in the last ten years. Dental implant treatment is now also available in many public/teaching as well as private dental setting. More BDS student's awareness as compared to MBBS students can be related to their dental program and their rotations in clinical departments.

Awareness regarding any treatment modality can be created in masses by media, professionals and word of mouth. Regarding dental implants friends/relatives found to be major source of information in this study followed by dentist. Books/magazines and internet also played their role to aware the students regarding dental implants. Same finding was reported in a study conducted in Karachi14 and Lahore.13 Media is leading source of information in some countries while dentists and casual advise from friends and relatives in others.9,14 Many social, religious and cultural factors affect attitudes and beliefs regarding any dental treatment acceptance.15

Among the participants who are familiar with dental implants, more (73.6%) are willing to choose dental implant as treatment of their missing tooth/ teeth in future. More of dentistry students give consent for future dental implant treatment as compared to medicine students. Same results are reported in other studies.13,16

The reasons of not giving the consent for dental implant treatments by participants are surgical phase is involved and secondly they are not clear about the procedure. Other reasons include cost and risk of infection during procedure. High manufacturing cost, high dentist cost, long duration of treatment were reported by another study.16 High cost as reason for refusing the implant treatment was also reported in couple of studies.13,14

Significant difference is observed in dentistry and medicine students regarding the awareness of dental implants. It is important to inculcate the awareness and knowledge about dental implants right from the undergraduate level so that message can be spread to masses of community by these ambassadors. Necessary arrangement should be made for medicine students so they can be made more aware about dental advancements.

CONCLUSION

This study concluded that the understanding and awareness among the dentistry students was quite good as compared to the medical undergraduate students. Students in 2nd year were more aware as compared to 1st year. Surgical phase and clarity about the procedure are main reasons for not choosing the dental implant as treatment.

REFERENCES

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Publication:Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 30, 2017
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