AWARENESS AND PERCEPTION OF HIV/AID PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES AMONGST UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF ADELEKE UNIVERSITY, EDE OSUN STATE. NIGERIA.
Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa with a population of about 180 million people is not ruled out of countries facing and suffering under the dangerous claws of HIV/AIDS. Owing to this, there came the need to get the masses more sensitized on how to curb the spread of the disease and if possible, what to do with the cooperation of government and non-government agencies to totally obliterate the disease from the society.
Per Bertrand (2004), HIV/AIDS has emerged as one of the greatest public health challenges that has proved difficult to stop despite the public health community having dramatic success in other areas of disease prevention. With the way, the disease is spreading and killing victims, it has become a menace that must be tackled using all available and reachable means. Thus, in line with this, Letamo (2005) posits, that "there is a dire need to do everything possible whether through education or what have you, to work on people's psyche on the ideas they tend to hold about the disease."
The spread of HIV/AIDS among the productive age group especially young adults is a public health concern in Nigeria. HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic and has a great impact on the society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination to its patients. Nigerian students have come under serious attack because of their lack luster response to HIV/AIDS.
Research in Nigeria indicates that the lifestyles of student on campuses are placing them at the risk of contracting HIV/AID, as the university environment has been shown to promote sexual activity among the general students' population. Additionally, the pressure from fellow students to live up to the standard such as buying latest mobile phones, expensive clothes, jewelry has been shown to influence young women to engage in transactional sex.
One of the major tools in use by the Nigerian government and other concerned agencies within the country is the mass media. The media is believed to be the most appropriate channel through which the far-flung heterogeneous peoples within the country could be reached as quickly as possible and subsequently informed and/or educated about the disease and what is needed to prevent, curb, and hopefully totally overcome it.
When a disease is a multifaceted malady, which impacts and affects a society, remedies must be multi-pronged. More so, when the disease defies treatment, cure must precede and be synchronous with efforts to identify treatment. Such can be the process to combat and control the menace of HIV/AIDS. Thus, media is one of the instrumentalities, which facilitates and gives a directional thrust to the efforts to cure the disease if not to treat it.
The mass media in a way have been involved in spreading educative information about the menace in our society both developed and under-developed. In Nigeria, for example, one form among others through which this information about HIV/AIDS is disseminated is through the placement of advertisements on radio and television. Series of advert messages of HIV/AIDS are created and packaged in ways that they are easy to understand; appeal to the people; and subsequently, the hope to change their beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes towards the HIV/AIDS issues.
Obviously, the mass media have largely and effectively created room for interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers, among others. This has been consciously done to help put the spread of the disease under control just as scientists are simultaneously and unrelentingly working around the clock with the aim of producing medications that will cure the disease if contracted.
Statement of the Problem
It has been noted that HIV/AIDS are no longer public health issues rather it has become a serious socio-economic and developmental concern that need quick and intensive check. The media is believed to be the most appropriate channel through which the far-flung heterogeneous peoples within the country could be reached as quickly as possible and subsequently informed and/or educated about the disease and what is needed to prevent, curb, and hopefully totally overcome it. Without mincing words, it could be said that the major objective of running these advertisement messages is to get the masses aware of the disease and subsequently to reduce the level of contracting the disease and/or outright stoppage of tendencies of contracting the disease. It is becoming evident however, that these advertisement messages may have not been targeted at university students and this is jeopardising efforts to make students aware of the disease and subsequently to reduce the level of contracting the disease and/or outright stoppage of tendencies of contracting the disease. There is therefore a need to examine the framework for dissemination of HIV/AIDS information to universities students and underscore the need to focus on the extent to which mass media are been engaged to do this so as to fill the knowledge gap on the role of the mass media in creating awareness and perception of HIV/AIDS preventive strategy in tertiary institutions in Osun State and further arm health educators, peer counselors, and other stakeholders with the necessary information to address the information needs of university students in Nigeria on HIV/AIDS.
Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to find out awareness and perception of HIV/AID preventive strategies amongst tertiary institution students regarding Adeleke University, Ede. Osun State.
The specific objectives are:
1. To determine student pre-university awareness of HIV/AIDS
2. To find out about students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission through the various university programmes.
3. To establish student knowledge of transmission of HIV/AIDS infections.
4. To determine students' perceptions on preventive strategies.
5. To establish student's most preferred HIV/AIDS preventive strategies.
1. What is the level of student awareness of HIV/AIDS before entering the Institution?
2. What is the level of student's HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge from the various university programmes?
3. What is the level of student knowledge of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection?
4. What are students' perception on preventive strategies?
5. What are student's most preferred preventive strategies?
Significance of the Study
The study hopes to enlighten the undergraduate about the importance of safe sexual practice. It hopes to specifically identify and clarify the role played by the mass media in disseminating useful information to a large heterogeneous audience. It also hopes to throw light on the importance of protecting oneself from HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
The study hopes also aim to prevent HIV by increasing knowledge, improving risk perception, changing sexual behaviors, and questioning potentially harmful social norms. It hopes to help the student to understand that HIV/AIDS is real and an incurable disease.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope was limited to university students of Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. For this study, only students in 100 to 400 levels are covered. As with most studies, this study only captured the circumstances prevailing as at the time of data collection. In addition, the researcher did not do a comparative study of different media sources availability and utilize by the students.
Review of Related Literature
Nigeria, like many other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, initially did not recognize the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a serious health problem. The first case of HIV was diagnosed in Nigeria in 1986 in a thirteen-year-old girl, four years after the disease was first identified in Africa (FMOH, 2005). However, at that time, studies showed that the virus was not widespread, which "played into the hands of those who doubted or disbelieved the existence or gravity of AIDS, because almost nobody was dying" (Schoolfs, 1999). The perception of AIDS then was a disease of distant land, that of western world associated with men who have sex with men, the practice that had no place in the Nigerian culture. The AIDS issue was viewed as a hoax and a strategy by Americans to discourage sex, thus one of the many common acronyms developed for AIDS then was ' 'American Idea for Discouraging Sex". The erroneous belief that AIDS was a foreign disease and could not affect Nigerians made the public to under-react and the government took no concerted attempt to curb the spread of AIDS (Orubuloye and Oguntimehin, 1999).
Information is very vital for decision making, for problem solving and answering questions. Kaniki (2001) pointed out that accessing and putting information to use could help in improving the physical, economic, psychological and social level of people's lives. In the early stage of the HIV epidemic, many countries used mass media to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS about its transmission routes, and methods of prevention (Myhre and Flora, 2000). In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, mass media intervention programs focused on behavioral change that limited one's risky behaviour and promoted safer sex. More recent mass media intervention programs have expanded to address the full continuum of HIV/AIDS issues, from prevention to treatment to care and support (McKee, 2004). The target audience of most mass media campaigns has been the public, especially youths (Bertrand etal., 2006). Smoot (2009) posited that "mass media remains the most practical means of conveyance of accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS, given the high level of public accessibility to various forms of media, particularly.
Media campaigns incorporating popular arts and entertainment have proven particularly useful in achieving some of the goals of health promotion, such as changing attitudes toward what is considered acceptable behaviour. In United States of America, 72% of Americans identified television, radio and newspapers as their primary sources of information about HIV/AIDS, while in India more than 70% of respondents said they had received their information about HIV/AIDS from television (Global Media AIDS Initiative, 2004). Harding, Anadu and Gray (1999) in the study of HIV/AIDS knowledge of 380 students of a Nigerian university observed that students obtained information about HIV/AIDS primarily from the media rather than from school, classrooms and homes. Tan et al. (2006) in the study of HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and behaviours among undergraduate students in China found that the sources of HIV/AIDS information were diverse. Most students reported that mass media (newspapers and magazines, 64%; television and radio, 48.8%) were the major sources of getting information about HIV/AIDS, followed by schools (32.9%) and public health promotions (22.9%). Some students received their information from friends (20.9%) or from other sources (19.8%) such as the Internet. Information from doctors and nurses were the least chosen method among the students.
The Nigerian Demographic Health Survey of 1999/2000 reported that radio, relatives and friends are the most commonly cited sources of information about HIV/AIDS (NARH, 2003). Akande (1994) also cited television as the most commonly used source about HIV/AIDS. Other researchers have identified these channels as the leading sources of HIV information (Montazeri, 2005). In a related development, Svenson, Camel and Varnhagen (1997) in the review of the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of university students concerning HIV/AIDS reported that mass media (television, magazines, newspapers and pamphlets) rather than family members, friends or medical personnel, are the major sources of information about AIDS-related issues for the students and that relatively high percentages of them indicated that they do not receive information from parents and medical professionals. Chapin (2000) noted that television has become so influential that it serves as a teacher to young adults. Omoera et al. (2010) noted that television regarding programmes such as "Images", "Behind the Siege" "Wetindey", among others, has could create awareness on HIV/AIDS. In Tanzania, increased condom use was found to be associated with exposure to a radio soap opera programme that aimed at increasing knowledge of AIDS, change attitude and encourage HIV prevention behaviour (Vaughan et al., 2008).
Over the past two decades, mass media have been used all around the world as a tool in the combat against HIV/AIDS (Myhre & Flora, 2000) but per Bertrand et al. (2006), there have been theoretical debates on how and why mass media communications influence behaviour, there is considerable empirical evidence showing that the mass media can be used for attitude and behavioural changes associated with HIV/AIDS. In the same vein, they pointed out that many countries used mass communication to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS, its transmission routes and methods of prevention.
Furthermore, Myhre & Flora, (2000) argue that those that employ television media appears to be the most cost-effective, as television broadcasts reach most the population. The effectiveness of interventions is influenced not only by the type of channel of delivery but also by the level of exposure to media messages. For example, a study of an HIV/AIDS mass media campaign media led to more favorable outcomes such as safer sex, higher perceived self-efficacy in condom use negotiation and higher perceived condom efficacy.
The educational role of the mass media is very crucial, as HIV/AIDS communication is most often received from this channel rather than from interpersonal sources. Moreover, there is evidence that mass media exposure may promote interpersonal communications about HIV/AIDS. Although mass media campaigns have shown improvements in knowledge of HIV transmission, their implications for HIV- related discrimination are not well documented. This is unfortunate since HIV/AIDS related stigma has been identified as a key barrier to fighting the epidemic. This now forms the trust of this study.
The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey research design of the expost facto type. This design was considered appropriate since the variables of interest have all existed and are studied as they are. The study is confined to the study of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of preventive strategies of HIV/AIDS among undergraduates drawn from the sixteen (16) departments of Adeleke University, Ede Osun State. The population (see Table 1 below) is considered the ideal group for this study since they are the most likely to fall within the age range of 15-24 years defined as young people, which is the age group considered to be at the greatest risk of HIV infection than other age groups.
Random sampling method was used to select the respondents. The researcher made sure that all departments were adequately represented. Out of one hundred and twenty-five randomly selected students across all the departments, only ninety students completed and returned their questionnaires. This is representing approximately 10 percent of the total number of students in the institution.
For this research the instrument employed was the questionnaire, copies of questionnaire are a less expensive way to reach more people, including people at some distance. Moreover, its anonymity ensures more valid responses.
Prior to the administration of the instruments, (questionnaire) a pre-test of the instrument was carried out using selected students that did not form part of the study All observations made at this stage partly informed the amendments in terms of reframing; reducing the number of questions and the removal of some of the questions most respondent were not comfortable with.
The questionnaire was administered by the researcher and other assistants. it was administered to the students at the beginning of lecture periods in lecture theatres and it was collected from them immediately after it has been completed. The participants were encouraged to keep their response confidential and not to consult textbooks or other reference materials in answering the questions. The information obtained was made confidential with no names or identifying information appearing in the write up for the studies.
The data collected was entered Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science).
Data Presentation and Discussion of Findings
Table 2 showed that the highest percentage of the respondents 48.8% were below the ages of 20 years, followed by those in the ages of 21-30, representing 46.4% while 4.8% were between the ages of 31-40 years. The table also show that majority of the respondents, 56% were females while males accounted for 44%. Furthermore, 94% of the respondents were singles while married and divorced accounted for 6%. Also, majority of the respondents, 81% were from Yoruba ethnic background while Igbo's accounted for 11.9% and Hausa 3.6% while others accounted for 3.6%. With regards to religious affiliation, 86.9% of the respondents were Christians while Muslims accounted for 13.1%. When it comes to the level of study, the highest percentage 34.5% of the respondents were in 100 levels, followed by 27.4% in 200 levels, followed by 22.6% of those in 300 levels while 14.3 and 1.2 were in 400levels respectively.
Analysis of Research Objectives
Objective 1: Students Pre- University Awareness of HIV/AIDS
Table 3 showed that majority of the respondents were aware of the various causes, effects and prevention of HIV right from when they were in secondary school. For example, majority of them agreed and strongly agreed that they already had pre-university awareness about HIV through sexual education that has been given to them when they were young. As shown in the table, major sources of information on HIV before their university admission included but not limited to the internet 88.1%, parents or relatives 92.8%, media such as the newspapers and magazines 87%, television and radio 85.5%, government programs 83.3%, HIV testing and counseling unit 80.7% to mention a few. It means that majority of the students who constituted the population of this study already had good knowledge of HIV and Aids before gaining admission into the university.
Objective 2: Students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission through the various university programmes
The table above showed that 61.4% of the students agreed and strongly agreed that there is HIV/AIDS information on campus, also, the highest percentage of the respondents 44% agreed and strongly agreed that university has an HIV/AIDS policy, besides, 43.4% others agreed and strongly agreed that there is free distribution of condoms for men. However, parameters on the university programme of HIV/AIDS awareness primarily designed for students with high level of disagreement and strongly disagreed include free distribution of condoms for men 68.7, free distribution of condoms for women 71.1%, everyone is left to live independent lifestyle on campus 54.2%, occasional awareness programmes by NGO's on HIV/AIDS 45.1%, an HIV/AIDS testing and counselling clinic on HIV/AIDS 41%, student representative council HIV/AIDS runs programmes 47.5% and Faith groups run awareness programmes on HIV/AIDS 40.2% respectively.
Objective 3: Students' knowledge of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection
Table 5 showed mixed responses on students' knowledge on the transmission of HIV/AIDS infection. The table showed that the parameters where students agreed and strongly agreed that HIV and Aids can be contacted or transmitted include Unprotected sex 92.8%, Transfusion of unscreened blood 90.5%, mother to a child during birth 83.1%, Sharing of blade/injection needles 84.5%, Breast feeding by HIV positive mother 65.4%, Incorrect/inconsistent use of condom 61.9%, Having sex with menstruating partner 45.2% among others. On the other hand, most of the students disagreed and strongly disagreed that Insect bites or domestic animal bites 52.6%, Sharing the same room or bed with an HIV positive 57.9%, Use of public toilets 50.6, Body sweats from an HIV positive person 46.3% among others. One could deduce from the table that the respondents had a clear understanding of the various mode of HIV/AID mode of transmission which is expected to contribute to their level of understanding on its prevention strategies.
Objective 4: Students' perceptions on preventive strategies
Table 6 revealed that all the respondents agreed and strongly that HIV and AIDS can be protected by consistent use of condoms is effective against HIV infection, by using condom when I have sex with a casual partner, by abstinence from sex totally, by being faithful to sexual partner, by keeping to one partner at a time, by trusting god for protection, no matter how many persons one has sex with, by keeping to my religion which is against the use of condom, by keeping to my culture which is against the use of condom, by reducing the number of my sexual partner, by knowing the HIV status of partners before having sex, by knowing the HIV status of partners before marriage, by avoiding sharing toilets with people living with HIV, by avoiding shaking hands with people living with HIV/AIDS, by avoiding any social situations which might lead to forced sex, by having good knowledge of HIV/AIDS which helps in taking the right decisions against infection, by changing one's sexual behavior if one lived a reckless, by keeping religious teaching that discourages having sex before marriage, by keeping the cultural value of remaining a virgin until marriage, by keeping the cultural value of remaining a virgin until marriage, by not engaging in sex for money trade under any circumstance and by avoiding friends who can influence you into undertaking risky sex.
Objective 5: Most Preferred HIV/AIDS preventive strategies
Table 7 revealed that the most preferred HIV/AIDS prevention strategies with high level of agreed and strongly agreed responses was avoid sharing injection needles/blades followed by using a condom correctly and always while the least preferred was circumcised men are less at risk of HIV infection. It is obvious from the above that the students' responses to each of the variable was quite encouraging meaning that they do not only understood the concept of HIV and AIDS but also had a clear understanding of its causes, effects and prevention strategies.
Summary of Findings
This study assessed the awareness and use of preventive strategy about HIV/AIDS amongst Adeleke University undergraduate students, Ede, Osun State through the administration of questionnaire to a sample of ninety students by means of simple random sampling technique. Analysis of data collected was done using descriptive statistics. As shown from this study, HIV/AIDS has emerged as one of the greatest public health challenges that has proved difficult to stop despite the public health community having dramatic success in other areas of disease prevention.
The Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is usually found in the body fluids like blood, semen, vagina fluids, and breast milk of infected persons. The study specifically considered students' preuniversity awareness of students on the causes, mode of transmission and preventive strategies. The study thus revealed that the students understanding of the causes of HIV and AIDS as well as its preventive strategies before their admission into university significantly contributed to the understanding of the most preferred strategies of prevention and control. In all, the study showed that the student was highly knowledgeable about the best way to prevent HIV and AIDS from spreading from one person to another.
The major findings are as follows:
* Students have already been aware of various causes, effect and prevention of HIV right from when they were in secondary school.
* There is HIV/AIDS awareness programs in the institution.
* The institution has an HIV/AIDS policy.
* Majority of student had a clear understanding of the various mode of HIV/AIDS mode of transmission
* Majority of the student are very much knowledgeable about the preventive measure that is available to avoid contacting AIDS.
* The student understands the concept of HIV/AIDS and has a clear understanding of its causes, effect and prevention strategies.
This study concludes that the media and the university have contributed significantly to students' knowledge about the causes, mode of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS through its various health programmes such as a provision of HIV/AIDs policy as a means of encouraging hard work, and encouraging the prevention of HIV and Aids among the undergraduate students in the university. Besides, parents and government was equally helpful in assisting the students to gain the basic knowledge about HIV/AIDS before they were even admitted for sustainable university education.
Based on the findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are recommended:
* The media should direct more advertisement and campaign towards undergraduate.
* The university should continue to provide adequate HIV/AIDs information to students with a view to help reduce or eliminate the transmission of the deadly disease among its undergraduate and by extension to its postgraduate students.
* Parents and guidance should join hands with the university authority in the prevention of HIV and AIDS among students through parent-school consultative programmes
* Government should complement the efforts of the school authority and parents through media advocacy programme on the prevention of HIV/AIDS among undergraduate students in Nigeria.
* Undergraduate Students in the university should form a group of individuals who will serve as advocates of diseases prevention and control among students
* The university authority should provide advertising bill boards that will help disseminate public awareness programmes on HIV/AIDs prevention and control.
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Ibidapo OKETUNJI BLS; MLS; PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Library and Information Science, Adeleke University, Ede
Table 1: Students Enrolment in the University Department No of Students Mass communication 100 Political science 58 Public administration 30 Accounting 120 Business Administration 50 Library and Information science 60 Bio chemistry 40 Micro biology 70 Computer sciences 94 Engineering 28 Law 18 Literary studies 25 History and international relation 70 Religious studies 12 Economics 60 Public Health 69 Total 904 Table 2: Socio-demographic characteristics Parameter Classification Percentage Age 10-20 48.8 21-30 46.4 31-40 4.8 Total 100.0 Gender Male 44.0 Female 56.0 Total 100.0 Marital status Single 94.0 Married 4.8 Divorced 1.2 Total 100.0 Tribe Hausa 3.6 Yoruba 81.0 Igbo 11.9 Others 3.6 Total 100.0 Religious affiliation Christianity 86.9 Islam 13.1 Total 100.0 Level of study 100 34.5 200 27.4 300 22.6 400 14.3 500 1.2 Total 100.0 Table 3: Pre- University Awareness of HIV/AIDS Pre-university Awareness of HIV/AIDS SA A U Sexuality education in the high/secondary school 50.0 36.9 3.6 During orientation in high/secondary 48.8 32.1 8.3 Seminars/ open lectures at public places 45.2 36.9 7.1 Subject/module that includes topics on HIV/AIDS 50.0 35.7 6.0 Student body activities on HIV/AIDS 36.9 39.3 10.7 AIDS campaign by high/secondary 48.2 22.9 13.3 Non-Governmental Organization 43.4 32.5 13.3 Religious programme on HIV/AIDS 58.3 33.3 3.6 Internet 60.7 27.4 8.3 Parents"/relatives' guidance 63.9 28.9 6.0 Television/radio advertisements 57.8 27.7 10.7 Newspapers/magazines 56.0 31.0 9.5 Friends 44.0 36.9 17.9 Government programme 47.6 35.7 11.9 AIDS-related death or illness 38.1 36.9 9.5 HIV/AIDS testing and counseling clinics 47.0 33.7 6.0 Pre-university Awareness of HIV/AIDS D SD Sexuality education in the high/secondary school 2.4 7.1 During orientation in high/secondary 2.4 8.3 Seminars/ open lectures at public places 3.6 7.1 Subject/module that includes topics on HIV/AIDS 3.6 4.8 Student body activities on HIV/AIDS 7.1 6.0 AIDS campaign by high/secondary 8.4 7.2 Non-Governmental Organization 3.6 7.2 Religious programme on HIV/AIDS 1.2 3.6 Internet 1.2 2.4 Parents"/relatives' guidance -- 1.2 Television/radio advertisements 3.6 -- Newspapers/magazines 3.6 -- Friends -- 1.2 Government programme -- 4.8 AIDS-related death or illness 4.8 10.7 HIV/AIDS testing and counseling clinics 2.4 10.8 Table 4: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission through the various university programmes The University programme of HIV/AIDS awareness SA A HIV/AIDS information on campus 26.5 34.9 University has an HIV/AIDS policy 24.1 19.9 Topics on HIV/AIDS are included in courses 16.9 26.5 Free distribution of condoms for men 8.4 12.0 Free distribution of condoms for women 4.8 16.9 Everyone is left to live independent lifestyle on campus 12.0 19.3 There are occasional awareness programmes by NGOs on 11.0 22.0 HIV/AIDS There is an HIV/AIDS testing and counselling clinic on 15.7 25.3 campus Student Representative Council runs HIV/AIDS 11.0 23.2 programmes The Faith groups run awareness programmes on HIV/AIDS 12.2 30.5 The University programme of HIV/AIDS awareness U D HIV/AIDS information on campus 13.3 7.2 University has an HIV/AIDS policy 20.5 14.5 Topics on HIV/AIDS are included in courses 14.5 18.1 Free distribution of condoms for men 10.8 22.9 Free distribution of condoms for women 7.2 26.5 Everyone is left to live independent lifestyle on campus 14.5 10.8 There are occasional awareness programmes by NGOs on 22.0 19.5 HIV/AIDS There is an HIV/AIDS testing and counselling clinic on 18.1 14.5 campus Student Representative Council runs HIV/AIDS 18.3 20.7 programmes The Faith groups run awareness programmes on HIV/AIDS 17.1 19.5 The University programme of HIV/AIDS awareness SD HIV/AIDS information on campus 18.1 University has an HIV/AIDS policy 21.7 Topics on HIV/AIDS are included in courses 24.1 Free distribution of condoms for men 45.8 Free distribution of condoms for women 44.6 Everyone is left to live independent lifestyle on campus 43.4 There are occasional awareness programmes by NGOs on 25.6 HIV/AIDS There is an HIV/AIDS testing and counselling clinic on 26.5 campus Student Representative Council runs HIV/AIDS 26.8 programmes The Faith groups run awareness programmes on HIV/AIDS 20.7 Table 5: Students' knowledge of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection Knowledge of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection SA A U Unprotected sex with infected partner(s) 82.1 10.7 -- Transfusion of unscreened blood 75.0 15.5 1.2 Infected mother to a child during birth 60.2 22.9 9.6 Sharing of blade/injection needles 70.2 14.3 7.1 Insect bites or domestic animal bites 12.0 15.7 19.3 Intravenous drug use (injection of drugs) 27.7 22.9 19.3 Men having sex with men 25.3 16.9 30.1 Having unprotected heterosexual sex with many 41.0 15.7 22.9 Sharing the same room or bed with an HIV 9.6 18.1 14.5 positive Having sex with menstruating partner 34.5 10.7 20.2 Having sex with partner with an open injury 27.4 16.7 29.8 Kissing 15.7 10.8 27.7 Use of public toilets 8.4 12.0 28.9 Body sweats from an HIV positive person 11.0 11.0 31.7 Oral sex 21.7 14.5 27.7 Incorrect/inconsistent use of condom 36.9 25.0 17.9 A health looking person 16.9 16.9 27.7 People with previous record of sexually 13.3 28.9 30.1 transmitted Rich people/sugar daddies/sugar mummies 27.4 19.0 17.9 Breast feeding by HIV positive mother 45.2 20.2 15.5 Knowledge of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection D SD Unprotected sex with infected partner(s) 1.2 6.0 Transfusion of unscreened blood 3.6 4.8 Infected mother to a child during birth 4.8 2.4 Sharing of blade/injection needles 4.8 3.6 Insect bites or domestic animal bites 39.8 13.3 Intravenous drug use (injection of drugs) 20.5 9.6 Men having sex with men 19.3 8.4 Having unprotected heterosexual sex with many 8.4 12.0 Sharing the same room or bed with an HIV 41.0 16.9 positive Having sex with menstruating partner 19.0 15.5 Having sex with partner with an open injury 13.1 13.1 Kissing 32.5 13.3 Use of public toilets 41.0 9.6 Body sweats from an HIV positive person 31.7 14.6 Oral sex 20.5 15.7 Incorrect/inconsistent use of condom 9.5 10.7 A health looking person 24.1 14.5 People with previous record of sexually 14.5 13.3 transmitted Rich people/sugar daddies/sugar mummies 15.5 20.2 Breast feeding by HIV positive mother 6.0 13.1 Table 6: Perceptions on preventive strategies Preventive strategies SA A By consistent use of condoms is effective against HIV 50.6 28.9 infection By using condom when I have sex with a casual partner 46.4 31.0 By abstinence from sex totally 66.7 16.7 By being faithful to my partner 66.7 17.9 By keeping to one partner at a time 54.8 21.4 By trusting God for protection, no matter how many 16.9 14.5 persons one has sex with By keeping to my religion which is against the use of 21.7 10.8 condom By keeping to my culture which is against the use of 20.5 10.8 condom By reducing the number of my sexual partner 26.5 28.9 By knowing the HIV status of partners before having sex 48.2 21.7 By knowing the HIV status of partners before marriage 58.3 20.2 By avoiding sharing toilets with people living with HIV 25.3 14.5 By avoiding shaking hands with people living with 18.3 18.3 HIV/AIDS By avoiding any social situations which might lead to 45.1 26.8 forced sex By having good knowledge of HIV/AIDS which helps in 60.2 24.1 taking the right decisions against infection By changing one's sexual behavior if one lived a 50.0 20.7 reckless By keeping religious teaching that discourages having 69.9 12.2 sex before marriage By keeping the cultural value of remaining a virgin 75.3 12.3 until marriage By not engaging in sex for money trade under any 61.0 20.7 circumstance By avoiding friends who can influence you into x 61.0 24.4 until risky sex Preventive strategies U D By consistent use of condoms is effective against HIV 9.6 7.2 infection By using condom when I have sex with a casual partner 14.3 7.1 By abstinence from sex totally 7.1 7.1 By being faithful to my partner 13.1 1.2 By keeping to one partner at a time 9.5 9.5 By trusting God for protection, no matter how many 12.0 19.3 persons one has sex with By keeping to my religion which is against the use of 14.5 18.1 condom By keeping to my culture which is against the use of 14.5 20.5 condom By reducing the number of my sexual partner 18.1 9.6 By knowing the HIV status of partners before having sex 16.9 7.2 By knowing the HIV status of partners before marriage 8.3 8.3 By avoiding sharing toilets with people living with HIV 14.5 21.7 By avoiding shaking hands with people living with 4.9 26.8 HIV/AIDS By avoiding any social situations which might lead to 9.8 3.7 forced sex By having good knowledge of HIV/AIDS which helps in 9.6 1.2 taking the right decisions against infection By changing one's sexual behavior if one lived a 22.0 2.4 reckless By keeping religious teaching that discourages having 14.6 - sex before marriage By keeping the cultural value of remaining a virgin 7.4 2.5 until marriage By not engaging in sex for money trade under any 7.3 2.4 circumstance By avoiding friends who can influence you into x 6.1 4.9 until risky sex Preventive strategies SD By consistent use of condoms is effective against HIV 3.6 infection By using condom when I have sex with a casual partner 1.2 By abstinence from sex totally 2.4 By being faithful to my partner 1.2 By keeping to one partner at a time 4.8 By trusting God for protection, no matter how many 37.3 persons one has sex with By keeping to my religion which is against the use of 34.9 condom By keeping to my culture which is against the use of 33.7 condom By reducing the number of my sexual partner 16.9 By knowing the HIV status of partners before having sex 6.0 By knowing the HIV status of partners before marriage 4.8 By avoiding sharing toilets with people living with HIV 24.1 By avoiding shaking hands with people living with 31.7 HIV/AIDS By avoiding any social situations which might lead to 14.6 forced sex By having good knowledge of HIV/AIDS which helps in 4.8 taking the right decisions against infection By changing one's sexual behavior if one lived a 4.9 reckless By keeping religious teaching that discourages having 3.6 sex before marriage By keeping the cultural value of remaining a virgin 2.5 until marriage By not engaging in sex for money trade under any 8.5 circumstance By avoiding friends who can influence you into x 3.7 until risky sex Table 7: Most Preferred HIV/AIDS preventive strategies Most Preferred HIV/AIDS preventive SA A U strategies Avoid sharing injection needles/blades 75 17.9 4.8 Using a condom correctly and always 69 23.8 6 Undertaking HIV test before marriage 81 10.7 6 Avoid any social gatherings which might lead to 66.7 23.8 6 forced sex Abstaining from/avoiding sex altogether 71.4 19 8.3 Knowing the HIV status of partners 67.9 21.4 6 Insist on screened blood for transfusion 69 17.9 9.5 Avoid having many sexual partners at the same 59.5 27.4 10.7 time Delaying sexual relationship until marriage 68.7 18.1 4.8 Avoid having sex with anyone your safety from 60.7 25 11.9 infection you cannot negotiate Avoid having unprotected sex with partners with 58.3 26.2 11.9 partners with open injury on their penis/vagina Keeping to one faithful sex partner 60.7 17.9 15.5 Avoid company of any known drug users 39.3 22.6 15.5 Avoid company of heavy alcohol drinkers 28.6 26.2 17.9 Circumcised men are less at risk of HIV infection 21.7 15.7 27.7 Most Preferred HIV/AIDS preventive D SD strategies Avoid sharing injection needles/blades 1.2 1.2 Using a condom correctly and always -- 1.2 Undertaking HIV test before marriage 1.2 1.2 Avoid any social gatherings which might lead to 1.2 2.4 forced sex Abstaining from/avoiding sex altogether 1.2 -- Knowing the HIV status of partners -- 4.8 Insist on screened blood for transfusion -- 3.6 Avoid having many sexual partners at the same 1.2 1.2 time Delaying sexual relationship until marriage 1.2 -- Avoid having sex with anyone your safety from 1.2 1.2 infection you cannot negotiate Avoid having unprotected sex with partners with 1.2 2.4 partners with open injury on their penis/vagina Keeping to one faithful sex partner 3.5 2.4 Avoid company of any known drug users 10.7 11.9 Avoid company of heavy alcohol drinkers 13.1 14.3 Circumcised men are less at risk of HIV infection 14.5 20.5 Most Preferred HIV/AIDS preventive Ranking of strategies responses Avoid sharing injection needles/blades 1 Using a condom correctly and always 2 Undertaking HIV test before marriage 3 Avoid any social gatherings which might lead to 4 forced sex Abstaining from/avoiding sex altogether 5 Knowing the HIV status of partners 6 Insist on screened blood for transfusion 7 Avoid having many sexual partners at the same 8 time Delaying sexual relationship until marriage 9 Avoid having sex with anyone your safety from 10 infection you cannot negotiate Avoid having unprotected sex with partners with 11 partners with open injury on their penis/vagina Keeping to one faithful sex partner 12 Avoid company of any known drug users 13 Avoid company of heavy alcohol drinkers 14 Circumcised men are less at risk of HIV infection 15
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|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2016|
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