ASTM Committee D01 reports on June 2006 subcommittee activities.
A Few Highlights
D01.08 on Environmental Concerns had its usual highly informative meeting with much information on regulatory activities, including Canada's plans for new regulations. Subcommittee 15 on Lectures and Symposia announced that the January 22, 2007 Technical Seminar (formerly called the Minisymposium) will be on "Recent Developments in Accelerated Weathering," and will be a joint activity of D01 and G03.
Subcommittee 21 on Analysis of Whole Paint and Paint Materials had much to report. One group is working on a new method for water content based on reaction with calcium hydride, which may give better results for difficult samples. Another group is working on a method to measure water evolved when a paint cures, so that it can be accounted for when calculating VOC content. Work has been completed on a 5-10 min method for nonvolatile or volatile content that can be correlated to Reference Method 24 (ASTM D2369). Work continues on a method, based on headspace-GC, to measure VOC content in emulsion polymer based paints at very low levels. Unfortunately, the results of a round robin of USEPA Method 311 for HAPs in coatings will not be published due to the possibility that ambiguities would lead to misinterpretation by regulatory agencies. A new round robin is being considered. The group on ISO/ASTM coordination of VOC methods had the first-ever joint meeting between ISO and ASTM task groups. The objective is to coordinate work to harmonize where possible and minimize redundant efforts. The group dealing with fast cure multi-component paints reported that ASTM had balloted the wrong method and it would be reballoted. At the same meeting, it was decided to revise D2369 with a new format, containing separate sections for solvent-based coatings, water-based coatings, multicomponent coatings, and very high-solids coatings. The objective is to reduce confusion caused by numerous footnotes. Finally, in the Exploratory Research group, where new proposals and findings are considered, Eastman showed data indicating different results for Texanol[R] depending on how D2369 is run, with or without dilution. Coatings that were compliant without dilution were noncompliant with dilution. This is an issue where Texanol[R] or other semivolatiles are added as a coalescing agent for emulsion-based paints.
D01.46 on Industrial Protective Coatings had another lively set of meetings discussing topics such as adhesion, graffiti resistance, field measurement of surface profiles, repainting, surface alkalinity, and inspection. Subcommittee 53 on Coil Coated metal discussed the measurement of pretreatment coating weights, accelerated weathering, and the measurement of dry film thickness.
DIVISION 1 ADMINISTRATION
D01.06, International Coordination and US TAG to ISO/TC35
T. Sliva, Chair
ASTM Task Group D01.21.16 on ISO Liaison for VOC Methods will become a joint activity with WG 1 of ISO TC 35 to work on VOC test methods. Its new purpose will be to coordinate VOC method development with ISO in a way that minimizes duplication so that international consensus standards will be available for measurement as much as possible. Co-Chairs H. Nissler, the convener of WG 1, and G. Janezic, of D01.21, will coordinate activities. ASTM D01 will host ISO TC35/SC 9 at our June 2008 meetings in Vancouver, B.C.
T. Brooke, ASTM Staff, discussed work on the Memorandum of Understanding between D01 and TC 35 and the principles and objectives of the CAG IAC (Chairman Advisory Group ISO-ASTM Cooperation). D01 and TC 35 have been having joint meetings since 1996. The Memorandum of Understanding was signed in 2001 and implementation guidelines were developed. Issues have been resolved. The MOU is an agreement to not develop standards that cover the same methods. The aim is to reduce duplication and prevent the creation of new parallel standards. The ultimate goal is one global standard for each method. Cooperation will be based on a team approach to implement the MOU and review standards. TC 35 has ~260 standards, D01 has ~700 standards. The working groups will check the TC 35 standards when they come up for their five years reviews. D01/TC 35 will set up ad hoc groups to review duplicate or similar standards and give advice. They will need assistance in identifying standards that need to be discussed. The new secretary of TC 35, Paula Bohlander, will be an important contact for all of this activity. There is interest in further cooperation: PSDO, Partner Standard Development Organization, to provide a framework for cooperation, but it has not yet been authorized by either ASTM or ISO. There is a question of its possible impact on the MOU, but until decided otherwise, we will work under the MOU.
D01.08, Environmental Concerns
J. Berry, Chair
D01.08 is a point of contact for ASTM, Federal and State agencies. It helps coordinate the testing needs of agencies with analytical talents within D01. It also provides a forum for the presentation and discussion of environmental programs and issues. B. Golton began the meeting by summarizing ongoing work within Subcommittee 21 involved with environmental issues (the vast majority of work in that subcommittee). F. Gelfant reported that his task group had responded to the need for a test method to measure the VOC content of ultra high-solids (>90% nonvolatiles) created by new regulations by the South Coast Air Quality Management District that become effective on July 1, 2006. To that end, D2369, which is limited to measuring VOC of "solvent and waterborne coatings," is being modified by including a method for measuring the VOC content of "ultra high-solids" (UHS, >90% nonvolatiles) coatings that are neither solvent nor waterborne.
D. Darling, NPCA, reported on regulatory activities underway by the "Ozone Transport Region" ["OTC", a pool of 12 Northeast state agencies (from PA to NJ including VA to ME) and the District of Columbia.] Eight have adopted a model rule for Architectural and Industrial Maintenance (AIM) coatings that was developed by the OTC. The OTC had initially planned to adopt the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) Rule 1113 for AIM coatings but at its February meeting voted instead to "work with" the California Air Resources Board. Two states, PA and NY, have conducted a SCAQMD-type survey of AIM coatings sold; it's not yet clear whether the others will do so. Perhaps of most consequence, at its June meeting, the OTC asked the EPA to revise the Federal AIM Rule--so they can get upwind VOC reductions from Southeast and Midwest states.
The Lake Michigan Air Director's Consortium (LADCO, made up of WI, IL, IN, MI, and OH) has developed a list of 17 candidate suggested control measures (white papers) for VOC including: architectural coatings (OTC or SCAQMD levels); nonindustrial solvents--consumer products; industrial surface coatings; and auto refinishing.
LADCO estimated that SCAQMD AIM rule would cost $20,000 per ton, the most expensive control measure listed. LADCO is participating with the OTC on monthly conference calls; it is now unclear whether it will recommend the OTC or Rule 1113 for AIM coatings.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) oversees the State's air districts. Its survey of AIM coatings is nearly complete with results due this summer. CARB plans to issue new Suggested Control Measure (SCM) for AIM coatings in mid-2007 with lower VOC mass limits or reactivity limits or some combination. Their decisions are important since both the OTC and LADCO will consider adopting those control measures.
Copies of four slides that are summarized above are available from Tim Brooke at firstname.lastname@example.org or 610.832.9729.
A. Cavadias, Head, VOC Section, Chemicals Sector Division, Pollution Prevention Directorate, Environment Canada, provided an overview of plans for new regulations to limit emissions from architectural and industrial maintenance coatings and auto refinish paints. The EC is considering the implementation of the limits now (as of July 1) in place in California and under consideration by the Ozone Transport Region in the Northeast U.S. It was noted that until 2003, Environment Canada did not have the necessary authority to regulate VOC content in products. More details are available on the Environment Canada's website, www.ec.gc.ca/nopp/voc. Copies of the slide presentation by Mr. Cavadias may be obtained from Tim Brooke at email@example.com or 610.832.9729.
D01.15, Lectures and Symposia
W. Golton, Chair
This subcommittee is responsible for arranging lectures at meetings and occasional symposia. The program typically is a seminar with a few speakers on a topic of interest, staged annually at the January meeting. At the last meeting it was decided that the January 22, 2007 Technical Seminar (formerly called the Minisymposium) would have as its title, "Recent Developments in Accelerated Weathering," and would be a joint activity of D01 and G03. W. Ketola, Chairman of G03, volunteered to organize the seminar. He was so successful that he ended up with five speakers and a poster presenter. This posed a problem, as only two hours are available for the seminar. It was decided to limit the talks to 20 minutes plus five minutes of Q & A. All of the speakers will be offered the option of having a poster presentation in addition to their talks.
The speakers will be:
Dr. Ken White, 3M Weathering Resource Center: "Assessing Variability in Accelerated Weathering Testing,"
Warren D. Ketola, 3M Weathering Resource Center: "Characterization of New Filters and Lamps for Xenon-Arc Devices,"
Artur Schoenlein, Atlas Material Testing GmbH: "New Calibration Method for Black Standard and Black Panel Thermometers Used in Weathering Instrument,"
Mark Goettsegen, Subcommittee D1.57 Chair: "Lightfastness Testing of Artists' Materials, Results, Unanswered Questions and Current Research," and
Patrick Brennan, Q-Panel Corporation: "Refined Acid Etch Procedure Enhances Correlation."
The poster presentation will be by K. Adamsons of DuPont.
The tentative topic for the 2008 Technical Seminar is "New Solvents and Formulating Techniques for Attaining Low VOC and HAP Coatings." Since it involves solvents, we are considering scheduling it for the Summer D01 meeting to enable interested D02 members to attend. R. Montemayor, who is an officer in both committees, and J. Lawniczak, Eastman, will identify possible speakers on this topic. We briefly considered scheduling the seminar for the June 2007 meeting, but it is more likely to be in January or June 2008.
J. Bryson, Chair
The Chair submitted new draft sections for Terminology Standard D16 for discussion. These sections are: Scope, Referenced Documents, Terminology, Reference, and Summary of Changes. To comply with negatives on recent ballots, Bryson proposed the following revised definitions for discussion:
A. drying oil: n -- an oil that can oxidize and polymerize into a strong, flexible, cured film when exposed to air as a thin coating.
B. crawling, n -- (1) for wet coatings, a defect in a coating film, in which the coating recedes from areas of the substrate, resulting in an uneven coating. DISCUSSION: Crawling is usually caused by nonuniform wetting of the substrate. (2) over caulk, the cracking of dried paint applied over paint-resistant or incompletely dried caulk.
Or an alternate definition: crawling, n -- (1) for wet coatings, the formation of an uneven coating film, caused by nonuniform wetting of the substrate. DISCUSSION: Uneven wetting causes the film to recede from small areas of the substrate. (2) same as above.
C. paint, n -- general (1) a liquid, paste, or powdered coating material, containing binder, and typically containing pigment(s) and additives. (2) the coating resulting from the application of such a coating material. DISCUSSION: Most paints are intended to form a solid coating, by evaporation, polymerization, or cooling. Note: The present D 16 definition of paint (specific) is obsolete, and should be balloted for removal.
D. tint, v -- (1) to mix a white paint with a colorant, or to mix a colored paint with a white colorant. (2) to adjust the color of a test specimen to be a closer color match to the standard, E 284 Or an alternate definition: tint, v--(1) to treat a white paint with a small amount of a colorant, or to treat a colored paint with a white colorant. (2) same as above. This necessitates a definition for colorant, perhaps the following: colorant, n--a source of color in a paint formulation, typically a color concentrate or a pigment.
D01.94, Awards and Memorials
T. Sliva, Chair
Instead of presenting awards at this meeting, Tom Sliva received a very important one himself, the Award of Merit.
L. Pattison, Chair
At the January 2006 meeting, Joe Peters asked attendees to note a few reasons why they attended D01 meetings, why their bosses sent them. He worked up a poster-like hand-out based on the responses. Interestingly enough, most of the reasons were personal rather than corporate. A number of comments were made regarding the need to make task group (TG) meetings more interesting in order to hold on to newcomers and not drive them away. It was pointed out that TG meetings should begin with an explanation of the purpose of the group and that the background of the method or methods should be given. It was suggested that TG chairs look for new methods, new ways of doing things in order to interest individuals and companies in ASTM.
The results of the recent ASTM D01 questionnaire showed that 100 of the 103 who responded said that ASTM and its methods were respected by their companies, but a number of them also said that their managers did not understand ASTM and did not see why more ASTM work needed to be done. We need insight as to why managers do not support ASTM even if they do use the methods.
DIVISION 20 RESEARCH
D01.21, Analysis of Whole Paints and Paint Materials
H. Fujimoto, Chair
The group on Rapid Measurement of Nonvolatiles has finished its work and will be put on inactive status. It produced a new method, D7232, "Rapid Determination of Nonvolatile Content by Loss in Weight," that allows measurements in just 5-10 min.
The group on ISO Liaison for VOC Methods met with H. Nissler and G. Janezic as Co-Chairmen. The meeting began with a statement of purpose of the task group. In the past the intent has been to report on activities of ISO TC35 WG1 on VOC Methods. Different groups in the U.S. and Europe have collaborated on various VOC methods and issues over the past several years. In 2005, Dr. H. Nissler, Convenor of the ISO work group, proposed a joint working group between ASTM D01.21 and ISO TC35 WG1 on VOC methods. This is the first such formal meeting of the two groups. The joint task group is to coordinate activities to minimize duplication so that international consensus standards will be available. This seems logical since both groups are working on similar methods and should adopt common methods for use by paint companies, their suppliers and customers, and regulatory agencies worldwide.
Dr. Nissler discussed the highlights of the last ISO TC35 WG1 meeting on May 16, 2006 in Berlin, and the regulatory process in Europe. The main issue at the moment is the European Decorative Paints Directive, which comes into force next year. With phase I starting in 2007, certain VOC limits are set, which will be reduced in phase II in 2010. While the EU sets VOC limits, individual countries can act independently on further reducing these limits and, in the beginning of this process, on selecting test methods. Now, ISO 11890-2 is the selected VOC test method as an integral part of the directive. This is due to the activities of EPDLA (European EPC counterpart). The definition of VOC in Europe is any organic compound which has an initial boiling point less than 250[degrees]C. In case of waterborne coatings, diethyl adipate is the marker compound. There was discussion about the need for a similar compound in the U.S., as it makes paint VOC analysis much simpler as Federal EPA Method 24 provides poor precision at low VOC.
There was some discussion of ISO Method 11890-2, a GC Method for VOC similar to ASTM D6886, and ISO 17895, a headspace VOC method for very low VOC containing coatings (< 1000 ppm). Method 11890-2 will ballot in July 2006 and be published by the end of the year.
Since communication of mutually beneficial issues was seen by many as critical to our task group mission, we discussed areas of interaction and exchange, which included: round robin test participation; ASTM attendance of ISO TC35 meetings; commentary of ballot issues; and establishing an ASTM website for correspondence/communication (Tim Brooke who attended our session will try to establish an ASTM website for VOC issues by late 2006).
The group on VOC of Fast Cure Multicomponent Paints discussed the results of the ballot for WK11028 "Test Method for Volatile Content of Fast Cure Multicomponent Paint." It was noted that the version that was distributed for balloting was not the latest draft of this test method. There were "numerous" negatives, mostly due to grammatical errors and lack of details on the precision and bias. No specifics were discussed about these negatives as the item will be withdrawn and H. Fujimoto will follow up by retrieving the round robin results and submitting them to ASTM for statistical analysis and make other corrections before resubmittal.
F. Gelfant gave some background on the issues with testing "100% solids" or "high-solids" coatings by the current ASTM D2369 and RM24. J. Berry updated the Task Group on previous exemptions and additions to RM24 by the EPA and discussed the recent correspondence on the topic of testing "high-solids" coatings and the use of RM24 and D2369 by various states (especially CA). Results of lab testing were distributed and the deficiencies in the current methods were discussed. Another manufacturer agreed that the current test methodology is incorrect at determining VOC with these materials. Specifically, the use of a diluent, the induction time, and the sample size were identified as problematic. It was decided, after a lengthy and lively discussion, to rewrite D2369, Determination of Volatile Content of Coatings, to accommodate testing of "high-solids" materials, and to change the scope including specifically methods for high-solids and multicomponent coatings. This will be accomplished by breaking D2369 into four sections/methods, (or more), and reformat so that there are separate parts to deal with the four different types specifically. These are waterborne, solventborne, multicomponent, and high-solids. All common parts will be retained. TG24 (Revision of D2369) will be reactivated at the next meeting to deal with this.
The group on GC Analysis of Specific Volatile Components of Paints met under the leadership of M. Wills. The following areas of research were discussed at the meeting: static headspace analysis for HAPs in various coatings; analysis of two-component architectural coatings; and analysis of coatings containing semivolatile components by direct GC, static headspace, and extraction of paint films after total volatile analysis by ASTM D2369.
One of the goals of this group is to develop methodology for analyzing coating HAP and exempt compound content of virtually any. The method of static headspace analysis described previously appears to work particularly well and may represent a replacement method for the current EPA Method 311. In the present study the coatings tested were the same solventborne coatings analyzed in an NPCA Method 311 round robin conducted in 2003. The coatings analyzed consisted of a nitrocellulose lacquer, a melamine-cure automotive primer, a melamine-cure automotive topcoat, and a UV-cure sealer. The study was conducted to evaluate the method since Method 311 round robin data were available for comparison. The headspace method has also been employed to measure the VOC content of one powder coating and one two-component waterborne polyurethane architectural coating.
In addition to the 28 single component architectural coatings submitted to Cal Poly by the SCAQMD for their Rule 1113 assessment, six two-component (2K) architectural coatings were also submitted. These consisted of two waterborne polyurethane coatings, two nonwater containing epoxies, and two waterborne zinc rich primers. One of the 2K polyurethane coatings was analyzed using the EPA Method 24 procedure, an EPA Method 24 procedure using an internal standard, and a static headspace procedure using an internal standard. What we believe to be prudent changes in the methodology were incorporated. Details can be obtained from Prof. Wills.
In the course of analyzing the 28 samples for the South Coast's Rule 1113 VOC assessment it was found that some coatings contain semivolatiles with boiling points higher than Texanol[R], which is itself considered a semivolatile compound. These included dibutyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate. In carrying out ASTM Method D6886, "Determination of the VOC Content of a Coating Containing Semivolatile Components," the semivolatile component is measured in its entirety. The current U.S. definition of VOC content is defined as the amount of VOC that evaporates from a sample during a specified heat/time cycle (Method D2369). There exists, therefore, a disconnect between the amount of semivolatile component that evaporates during a D2369 determination and a D6886 determination with the former giving lower numbers by an amount related to the nature of the semivolatile component and the matrix that it is in. We have addressed this problem by analyzing the paint film after a D2369 determination for residual semivolatiles and subtracting this amount from the amount of the same component found during a D6886 determination. This procedure can be done, but adds an additional step to the D6886 procedure and makes it more time consuming. The ISO community has gotten around this complication by defining VOC on boiling point and a GC boiling marker. For waterborne coatings this marker is diethyl adipate which has a boiling point of 250[degrees]C. Use of such a boiling point marker greatly simplifies the definition of VOC and would be very useful in simplifying the laboratory VOC determination by gas chromatography in this country. Additionally, a boiling point marker would allow us to integrate the static headspace method into the arsenal of new VOC methods with ease in that the equilibration temperature used in the static headspace method could be increased and give nearly complete evaporation of all the volatile and semivolatile components in a coating.
The group on Headspace GC Method for Low VOC Levels in Waterborne Products received an update from L. Linder, Chair, on the work currently being done with the headspace VOC method. Data was presented from a round robin study that was done with a common test mixture supplied to participating labs. Results from the study showed that there was still an issue with lab to lab (instrument) variability and there was also a problem with the accuracy that was related to the use of Jorgenson Effective Carbon Numbers. To address both of these issues, it was proposed that the method be modified to determine response factors for each instrument by the use of standards prepared in an appropriate solvent and free of the rest of the material's matrix. It was noted that this should work for most materials which are fully volatilized under the conditions of D2369, as well as some materials (such as Texanol[R]) which are fully volatilized in the absence of a retaining matrix. There may be additional procedures required for rare materials which contain semivolatile materials with low vapor pressures, but response factors for these materials could be done by liquid injection if needed.
In addition to these changes, it was recognized, based on the headspace results of Max Wills, that it may be necessary to adjust the temperature of the headspace equilibration to somewhere between 110 and 150[degrees]C in order to mimic the volatility of higher boiling materials that is observed under the conditions of D2369. Max Wills expressed his support for the development of the headspace method, and has graciously agreed to join the EPC analytical group working on the headspace method development.
There was lots of good discussion and participation from those in attendance at the meeting. There was some discussion of the need to mimic the conditions of D2369 and the possible use of a retention time (boiling point) cutoff for which materials would be considered VOCs. From a test method point of view, this would be highly desirable. There was concern expressed by others that what amounts to changing the definition of VOC could be problematic for some existing air permits, and could potentially be unfair to some companies. It was also noted that the headspace method presents advantages in the determination of cure volatiles and VOC in two component curable systems. Material introduced into the sealed headspace vial can be easily subjected to a variety of cure conditions prior to analysis. This suggests that the headspace method would be readily extensible to a variety of special situations in the future. In general, there was considerable support for developing the method and getting it on the books as soon as possible in light of the known deficiencies of EPA method 24 for waterborne systems. The future plans of the group are to revise the method as indicated above and run experiments to reoptomize the headspace temperature to better reflect the volatility of high boiling compounds that are observed with D2369.
The purpose of the VOC Credit for Cure Water Group is to develop a test method to quantify the amount of water produced during a condensation reaction under heat conditions similar to ASTM D2369. Current methodology is capable of measuring water in the liquid coating. When heat is applied, as is the case in volatile determination of D2369, any water resulting from a condensation reaction is treated as a VOC by default. This proposed test method is to provide a means to measure both the water, if any, present in the liquid state and that water produced during a condensation reaction. Thus, a more accurate VOC picture can be achieved for the coating.
Chair Brunner mentioned when the group had last met in January in Ft. Lauderdale, this method had just completed main balloting with several comments and three negatives. Two of the negatives were deemed nonpersuasive while the third was persuasive due to lack of a precision and bias statement. The Chair explained that between the meetings the method had been revised. The precision and bias statement was updated to include a statement reflecting repeatability based on the initial work performed in one lab and other changes were made, including a test limitation statement. On balloting at the D01 level, the method received one multiple-part negative. One aspect was on the use of MPK as a diluent for sample preparation. The group was reminded that on the last ballot a negative voter questioned if there was a concern with MPK adding additional water to the test. Even though test results showed MPK to be anhydrous, the group at that time decided the easy route is to add a line stating to run a blank on the MPK and adjust accordingly should water be present. The adjust accordingly statement is the main concern. Prior to the meeting, the issue got as far as to either rewrite a section or incorporate an annex. During this meeting, it was decided the Chair was to include some language to instruct the end user how to adjust accordingly and work with the negative voter for satisfactory language.
The group on Calcium Hydride Method for Water in Paint, T. Lynn, Chair, discussed the recent round robin. The general comments on the method communicated to the Chair, along with the results, were that the new method was easy to learn, easy to use, and produced consistent results in a short time. For the round robin, each lab ran each sample in duplicate by both the Calcium Hydride method and by Karl Fischer. The results underwent statistical analysis according to E691. The results were distributed at the group meeting, June 26, 2006 in Toronto. There was some discussion of the rational for comparing the Calcium Hydride and Karl Fischer. The initial reasons for the comparison were to facilitate easy identification of extreme matrix effects and/or user effects on the data. After discussion by the group, it was pointed out that a bias statement relative to Karl Fischer would be helpful to future users of the method. To this end, the Chair will analyze the round robin data to determine a bias statement if applicable. It was also suggested that the repeatability and reproducibility data be pooled to produce an overall r and R statement.
The Exploratory Analytical Research group, H. Fujimoto, Chair, discussed ASTM D2369 extensively. K. McCreight presented information with respect to the impact of the dilution step on the results of the method. It was shown that the dilution step impacts the drying mechanism and the subsequent retention of semivolatiles by creating an unrealistic "paint" dissimilar to what a consumer would apply. Results were shown that indicate that the removal of the dilution step has minimal impact on the standard deviation of the test method and yields results that are more closely aligned with true volatility observations.
This topic generated a great deal of discussion, and it was asked if D2369 was still applicable based on current paint technology. The history of D2369 was revisited. One of the original driving forces for usage of the diluent was to meet film thickness requirements for automotive applications. The question was raised as to whether this dilution makes sense for architectural coatings. When EPA developed its Reference Method 24 almost three decades ago (when solventborne coatings with 50 to 80% solvent were commonplace), the Agency was well aware, and made known in the Method, that it gave poor results as the water to VOC ratio increased. That "limitation" was not important because it was believed that waterborne would comply with any regulation the Agency might develop. Since then, a number of influences have focused attention on measuring parameters of coatings with VOC contents so low that they never were envisioned as being subject to regulation.
For example, industry petitioned to allow "bubbling" or averaging of VOC contents of coatings for compliance determinations. Less expense would be incurred if the emissions from a "noncomplying" coating could be offset if "credit" were available for using a coating with very low VOC content. To include low VOC products in such calculations, one needed a method for their measure. Industry also petitioned the Agency to have many organics deemed to have low photochemical reactivity. This created a need for a test method that would speciate the organics released from a coating. Congress, in the 1990 Clean Air Act, instructed EPA to limit the amount of hazardous air pollutants that evolve from use of coatings, placing still another demand for analyzing the type and quantity of volatile organics in paint. More recently, State, local and regional (but not Federal) regulations have increased the stringency of rules, causing additional pressure on the need for a better way to measure the VOC in waterborne coatings with very low VOC content. Further, recent work indicates that the apparent VOC in waterborne coatings varies as a function of the diluent to coating ratio varies when conducting RM 24 testing.
A portion of the conversation centered on the delineation of VOCs. In Europe, materials with boiling points in excess of 250[degrees]C are considered to be VOC-exempt. These are tested by ISO 11890-2, which incorporates diethyl adipate as a boiling point marker. ASTM D6886 is a direct injection GC technique that was developed by Max Wills for use with lower VOC waterborne paints. This method does not currently take into account semivolatility under conditions of D2369, but could be modified to subtract out any residual volatiles that are extractable from the dried paint residue. It was recognized that future VOC methods will likely be GC-based and will speciate VOCs. With the encouraging work by the Emulsion Polymers Council and Max Wills on a variety of quantitative GC methods, the question was raised, "is it time to replace the Agency's indirect and inadequate reference method (that measures total mass of volatiles and then, by difference, quantifies the volatile organics by subtracting non-VOCs) with a method that identifies and quantifies the volatile organics directly?" Of course, only the Agency can make the regulatory changes that would be required but ASTM is considering posing the question and offering the solution. Meanwhile, Mr. McCreight was encouraged to pursue development of further data to illustrate that the dilution step may not be required in the case of architectural coatings.
D01.23, Physical Properties of Applied Paint Films
P. Guevin, Chair
P. Guevin reported to the group on adhesion that Dr.Y. Korobov held a successful, in-house educational meeting to discuss the critical points on the use of Test Method D6991 to measure a coating's internal stress. It was suggested that Dr. Korobov hold a similar session at the next D01 meeting in Ft. Lauderdale, FL (January 2007). A discussion followed concerning the need for a test method to measure the adhesion of organic coatings to wood. It was pointed out that many users are currently using Test Method D3359 to determine the adhesion of organic coatings to substrates such as wood that are not applicable with this method.
A. Freidenfelds, Chair, reported to the group on Dry Film Thickness that D1005, "Standard Test Method for Measurement of Dry-Film Thickness of Organic Coatings Using Micrometers" is up for review. Mr. J. Fusco of the Paul N. Gardner Co. and J. Fletcher of Elcometer have agreed to review the method. D4138, "Standard Test Method for Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Protective Coating Systems by Destructive Means," was transferred from Committee D33 to D01.23 after a vote at the January meeting. This standard is now in need of review. Initial evaluations indicate this standard requires updating resulting in a possible revision, including changing it from a Test Method to a Practice. Mr. D. Beamish has volunteered to take on this task. At the January 2006 meeting, it was decided to withdraw both D1186 and D1400 and replace them with the newly developed D7091, "Standard Practice for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to Ferrous Metals and Nonmagnetic, Nonconductive Coatings Applied to Non-Ferrous Metals."
Discussions have been underway regarding the section in Appendix 2 of ASTM D7091 where it is stated that precoated standards are the preferred method for gauge verification. This discussion resulted in negatives from D. Beamish. The task group will continue discussions with manufacturers of coating thickness testing devices and report these discussions at the next meeting.
The Group on Hardness, Mar and Abrasion Resistance, Paul Guevin, Chair, discussed the negative votes on the revision of Test Method D4060, "Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser," which were found persuasive. Technical and editorial changes will be made based on the comments and negative votes and the revision of D4060 re-balloted. A status report on the round robin work to develop a precision and bias statement on D4060 was presented. The Sward Hardness test method, D2134, will be reviewed before the January 2007 meeting. The revision of D968, "Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Falling Abrasives," had no negatives but will be revised editorially on comments received.
The purpose of the Contact Angle Measurements Group is to develop methods using contact angles on surfaces in order to characterize substrates, pretreatments and coatings. Chair C. Schoff handed out draft methods for the following: (1) measuring wettability by contact angles and (2) measuring solid surface tension. After a brief discussion, the group agreed that there should continue to be two methods and that they should not be rolled into one. The two methods differ enough and adding one to the other would probably cause confusion. The Chair will continue to revise the two methods and submit them to subcommittee ballot.
D01.24, Physical Properties of Liquid Paints and Paint Materials
C. Schoff, Chair
The Viscosity Methods group discussed two new draft standards. One is a standard practice for rheological characterization of architectural coatings using three common bench viscometers (WK12492) that should be useful to the industry. The other is a cone/plate viscometer measurement at 500 [sec.sup.-1] that is of interest to auto makers and their paint suppliers as a replacement for efflux cups for measurements on topcoats. The group on Electrical Resistivity discussed the need for revision for D5682, "Electrical Resistivity of Liquid Paints and Related Materials." The method was reapproved in 2002, but is out-of-date with respect to many ASTM rules and guidelines and needs to be revised. The group on Exploratory Research suggested working on a practice or guide for measuring yield stress--what it is and how to measure it. Other suggestions for new projects included a penetrometer method for gel strength, a melt viscosity method, a freeze thaw method, a method for measuring heat age stability and a guide to measurement of viscosity as a function of temperature.
K.P. Roberts, Chair
P. Hargrove, Chair, led the New Environmental Chamber Method group through discussions about the draft for the new environmental chamber method. The draft had been balloted prior to the June meeting and negative comments, both from the ballots and from individuals at the meeting were worked on by the task group. A round robin will be conducted testing wallboard, ceiling tile and cement board using the spray and spread methods of inoculation. Grading will be done on a percent coverage basis and on the original 0-10 scale. Samples will also be run in the original D3273 chamber method to determine if the new method is an improvement over the original. Seven different laboratories volunteered to participate in the testing. Test samples will be provided by various group members.
M. Crewdson, Chair, led the group on revision of D3274, "Evaluation of Fungal Disfigurement of Paint Films," in a discussion of specimen evaluation. The results of an earlier round of evaluations that were performed at the June 2005 meeting were found to be too scattered to be statistically valid, so a second round of specimen evaluations was performed by the group after Crewdson had trained the participants in the evaluation techniques. The results will be tabulated and presented to the group at the next meeting. The revised D3274 method will be reballoted at both the main and subcommittee levels.
DIVISION 30 PAINT MATERIALS
D01.31, Pigment Specifications
J. Peake, Chair
J. Peake reported on ballot activity since January. D185, "Standard Test Methods for Coarse Particles in Pigments, Pastes, and Paints," was balloted for withdrawal to see if there was any interest in keeping the standard. The ballot item received three negatives saying that the standard was still used. The negatives were found persuasive, so J. Peake will revise the method for subcommittee ballot. D280, "Standard Test Method for Hygroscopic Moisture in Pigments," was balloted for withdrawal to identify interest in the standard. Two negatives were received indicating the standard is still used. We found the negatives persuasive. We will ballot for reapproval with a statement that we are beginning a round robin study to determine precision and bias. D283, "Chemical Analysis of Cuprous Oxide," also was balloted for withdrawal. The ballot item received two negatives because the standard is still used. One of the negative voters provided suggestions for revision. These suggestions will be incorporated into a revision to be balloted at subcommittee level. A round robin study to determine precision and bias for this method needs to be planned.
D01.34, Naval Stores
J. Russell, Chair
J. Russell, Chair, reported to the group on Determination of Neutral Content that the aim of the work continues to be the development of a more rapid method for the measurement of the neutral content of tall oil fractions without the use of diethyl ether. The basis of the method is the use of solid phase extraction columns to separate the neutrals from the acid components of the tall oil fractions and weigh neutral material that is not retained by the column. Since the last meeting, emphasis on the experimental work had been to evaluate the suggestion from J. Harrison that the method be converted to a batch rather than a column method. Again, however, the results obtained with the batch method varied widely and in all cases were well below the expected value indicated by the ASTM standard test method for unsaponifiable matter. It appears that some neutral fraction is being retained on the basic alumina rather than remaining in the solvent.
It was agreed that an extraction resin that would adsorb all the acids and none of the neutrals was needed. It was decided that group members should discuss this subject with experts in the chemical composition of tall oil fatty acids and report their findings at the next meeting.
The group on Color of Rosin and its Derivatives heard a report on the status of the project from J. Russell, Chair. The goal is to have the FDA change the wording of their regulations covering the use of rosin to reflect that the industry now uses Gardner colors and not the USRG scale. It was originally decided to amend the specifications of the rosin derivatives listed in the Food Chemical Codex prior to approaching the FDA. J. Russell reported that no progress had been made with this approach and a letter has now been sent directly to the FDA asking what procedure should be followed to achieve change. In the course of this work it was realized that the FDA regulations also did not recognize the use of the Mettler Cup and Ball method, an ASTM method, for measuring the softening point of rosin and rosin derivatives. Consequently the letter to the FDA also included a request that that method be recognized. J. Russell also reported that as part of this program, a global round robin is underway to compare the Gardner scale, both neat and in solution, with the USRG scale. The round robin is being organized by ISO TC35/SC10/WG5 and the final results will be available later this year and will be discussed at the next D01.34 meeting.
D01.35, Solvents, Plasticizers and Chemical Intermediates
R.G. Montemayor, Chair
A number of standard test methods and specifications under the responsibility of this subcommittee will be reviewed and revised to include reference to ASTM E29 "Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Determining Conformance to Specifications," and ASTM D5386 "Standard Test Method for Color of Liquids by Tristimulus Colorimetry." Problems associated with insufficient attendance at the subcommittee meetings continue, and efforts to maintain the various standards under the jurisdiction of the subcommittee are being impacted negatively. The table below summarizes the standards that are being reviewed and revised, and will be balloted concurrently at D01 and D01.35 level this coming semester.
D01.38, Hydrocarbon Resins
J. Bryson, Chair
The Instrumental Color Determination group heard that N. Barnes is writing a method for Gardner color determination for low-color resins. He will distribute copies to subcommittee members for comments. The group on New Instrumental Methods discussed the revision of Molecular Weight by GPC/SEC (D6579, "Practice for MW Average and Distribution Determination by Size Exclusion Chromatography") and [T.sub.g] by DSC (D6604, "Practice for Glass Transition Temperature by DSC"). J. Bryson, Chair, noted that the revisions will be submitted for subcommittee balloting.
DIVISION 40 PAINT PRODUCTS APPLIED ON SITE
D01.42, Architectural Finishes
N. Rogers, Chair
The following activities are currently underway in Subcommittee D01.42 on Architectural Finishes: The Water Repellency of Wood group reported progress on Work Item WK 4926, "Standard Test Method for Anti-Swelling Effectiveness of Water Repellent Formulations and Differential Swelling of Untreated Wood When Exposed to Liquid Water Environments." The group on Wet-Edge Time of Latex Paints announced the start of round robin testing for "Test Method for Open Time of Latex Paints." The group on Low Temperature Application of Latex Paints proposed changes to the draft of "Standard Test Method for Low Temperature Application of Latex Paints." The Low Temperature Film Formation group will submit "Standard Practice for Testing Low Temperature Film Formation of Latex Paints" for subcommittee ballot. Progress was reported on including clear water repellents to the "Standard Guide for Testing Exterior Wood Stains."
D01.46, Industrial Protective Coatings
L. Smith, Chair
R. Stachnik led the Surface Preparation group in a discussion of D4417, "Field Measurement of Surface Profile of Blast Cleaned Steel, Method C." There were additions to the document such as describing the burnishing tool, requirements for the micrometer, and a more detailed description of the rubbing method. He then handed out the latest version of the written protocol for performing the round robin test for Method C. A discussion was held on whether a marked spot should be used. H. Roper pointed out that the abrasive mix and the blaster affect the anchor profile (by the angle and distance they blast from the surface). His experience is that anchor profile measurements vary [+ or -] 0.4 mils for a well-graded mix and [+ or -] 1 mil for a poorly graded mix. L. Smith pointed out that Methods A and B measure anchor profile over a large area, so marking a spot for the replica tape may give the impression that Method C is more accurate than Methods A and B. It was decided that a pilot study should be performed comparing repeated spot measurements to measurements varied over the surface. R. Stachnik volunteered to perform the pilot study and present the results at the January meeting.
L. Smith reported that SSPC has graciously donated a room at PACE 2007 (February 11-14) for D01.46 to perform the round robin testing. A proctor will be needed to assure that the people performing the test are working independently. R. Stachnik stated that he had enough panels covering the range of anchor profiles for the tape. He also indicated that a minimum of seven participants would be preferred. Four people volunteered and other testers will be solicited. R. Stachnik then stated that he had developed a new instrument for measuring peak count, which the task group may want to consider by broadening D7127, "Test Method for Measurement of Surface Roughness of Abrasive Blast Cleaned Metal Surfaces Using Portable Stylus Instruments." The sense of the group was not to do it, but to possibly consider the method for a separate standard. This led to a discussion of the round robin test for D7127. It was decided that the task group and subcommittee had so much to do, that the round robin test should be put off for two years.
L. Smith gave an update of his discussions with ASTM staff about this subcommittee developing a test method around a patented system, specifically the replica putty method for measuring concrete surface preparation roughness demonstrated by R. Glover at the last meeting. He stated that ASTM does not bar this activity, and has a template for wording to solicit information on similar instruments or methods that meet the intent of the method. L. Smith also pointed out that the Tooke Gage was a patented piece of equipment when it was introduced to the industry. An ASTM standard was written, which now contains other instruments. A vote was held and the task group decided that there was interest to move forward on this document. L. Smith will contact R. Glover for an initial draft.
The Repainting group, D. Allerton, Chair, reported that D5402, "Practice for Assessing the Solvent Resistance of Organic Coatings Using Solvent Rubs," had received negatives and comments on the recent ballot. There were questions regarding confusion in wording and the reporting of the timing between testing and making gloss, hardness, and thickness measurements. These were considered editorial in nature. There was a negative concerning the exclusion of the cotton swab test method that was found to be nonpersua-sive. The round robin testing results proved that method to be neither reproducible nor repeatable, as is stated in Note 3 in the standard.
W. Corbett reported that one negative and five comments were received on WK6346, "Practice for Determination of Surface Amine Exudate (Blush) of Polyamide and Polyamine-Cured Epoxy Coatings." R. Schwab's negative concerned the validity of the procedure for detecting amine blush, when it actually measured surface alkalinity. The negative was found to be persuasive. It was decided to change the title and to be more specific in the document in explaining that the Practice evaluates surface alkalinity, which could be from another source rather than blushing. He also pointed out that the length of cure of a coating is not addressed in the document which is important since amines and amides are alkaline materials. R. Schwab also had numerous comments on the measurement procedure as to the specifics on sizes and quantities. It was decided to delay further balloting on this document until further information on cure times was available.
The group on Adhesion, L. Smith, Chair, gave an update on the D4541 round robin test performed in Tampa, FL. Five people participated, but one of the instruments (Type III used for Method C) was not delivered in time. L. Smith vouched for the validity of the data collected in Tampa in that the testers all worked independently even when two or more were in the room together. All of the data collection sheets are in his possession. The panels and test equipment were shipped to Pittsburgh, PA, where two more laboratories will participate. The HATE instrument, dollies, and panels will then be shipped to the people who performed the test in Tampa once the Pittsburgh-area firms have completed their testing. After all the testing is completed, the data will be sent to ASTM for development of the precision statement. L. Smith will also edit the method to change its focus strictly to metal substrates.
F. Gelfant led a discussion on performing a round robin test on D7234, "Test Method for Pull-Off Adhesion Strength of Coatings on Concrete Using Portable Pull-Off Adhesion Testers." It was decided to focus on performing the round robin testing in the 2007/2008 time frame. A discussion was held on using coated test blocks which could be shipped to different laboratories versus pouring a slab and having the testers come to a central location. It was decided that the variability in substrate would be less if a slab was fabricated. The location where the pull testing should be performed was discussed, with Pittsburgh, Cleveland, or Philadelphia identified as potential sites. It was decided that the variables should be coating thickness and scoring (for thin-film coatings). Six instruments will be used. Practicalities such as using an adhesive that will allow pulling the dollies the same day as attaching them was also raised. It was decided that a task group should be established to lay out the plan and develop a budget estimate. Both financial and technical assistance will then be solicited from the ASTM Interlaboratory Study (ILS) program.
The Inspection group, L. Smith, Chair, reported that one negative and five comments were received on the ballot of D3276, Guide for Painting Inspectors (Metal Substrates). B. Corbett's negative related to the statement in section 8.7 that written specifications should augment dry film thickness requirements with wet film thickness measurements calculated from the paint composition. He argued that good painting practice includes wet film thickness as an applicator's aid while the specifier's interest is solely in dry film thickness. The negative was found to be persuasive. Section 8.7 will be rewritten and sent to ballot. The comments received addressed the withdrawal of D1186 and D1400, and their replacement with D7091, or editorial items.
The Testing Guide group heard a report from R. Schwab, substituting for T. Smith, Chair, that D6577, "Guide for Testing Industrial Protective Coatings," received two negative votes and two comments on Committee ballot. A. Berejka's negative concerned the exclusion of D5403, "Volatile Content of Radiation Curable Materials," in the referenced document section. This was found to be nonpersuasive as D5403 is not discussed in the document, so it would not be appropriate to reference it, and radiation-cured coatings are not considered to be industrial protective coatings, which are the subject of D6577. N. Searle voted negative to section 11.5.4, which was supposed to be combined with Section 11.5.3 but it had not been removed, though the change to 11.5.3 had been made. This was determined to be a mistake in making revisions from the last ballot and should be considered an editorial issue. N. Searle agreed to remove her negative if the offending section was removed.
The group on Graffiti Resistance heard a report from D. Allerton, Chair, that D6578, "Practice for Determination of Graffiti Resistance," had received negatives and comments on the last subcommittee ballot. One negative was because the illuminant was not specified and a Delta E of 1 was too stringent. Another negative was based on confusion in preparing panels that have been subjected to outdoor exposure (Section 11.1), and the need to identify the mild detergent used as a cleaning solution. The final negative indicated that more definition is needed for outdoor weathering and accelerated laboratory weathering. Changes will be made and the document will be resubmitted for subcommittee ballot.
The Salt Measurement group--W. Corbett, Chair, reported that one negative and one comment were received on WK11333, "Practice for Assessing the Concentration of Soluble Chlorides on Metallic Substrates." R. Montemayor voted negative, stating that the document should be a test method and not a practice. The negative was found to be persuasive. A discussion ensued on whether the analytical test procedure of the extraction procedure should be the basis for a round robin. It was decided to change the document to a test method with a statement that precision and bias will be determined, and to postpone the discussion on how to perform the round robin to the next meeting.
The Hydrogen Sulfide Chamber group, R. Schwab, Chair, reported that the results of the subcommittee ballot were that 14 voted to develop the document within D01.46, 5 voted to discontinue any work, and 25 voted to move it to another subcommittee. It was decided to contact D01.27 to see if they were interested in developing the document as there was overwhelming support. The Testing of Applied Coatings group, L. Smith, Interim Chair, reported that D33 had balloted D4787, "Practice for Continuity Verification of Liquid or Sheet Lining Applied to Concrete Surfaces," for withdrawal and nobody expressed a major objection. The task group then decided to expand D5162, "Practice for Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing of Nonconductive Protective Coatings on Metallic Substrates," to include concrete surfaces. J. Fletcher volunteered to be Task Group Chairman and develop the first draft of the expanded document.
D01.47, Masonry Treatments
V. Huey, Chair
The group on Water Vapor Transmission of Treated Substrates, T. Sliva, Chair, discussed the need to start a round robin on ASTM D6490, "Standard Test Method for Moisture Vapor Transmission of Non Film Forming Treatments Used on Cementitious Panels."
The Alkali Resistance of Masonry Treatments group, P. Zeh, Chair, discussed work on developing a proposed standard practice for determining alkaline resistance on concrete and masonry. He will have a draft of the standard prepared and get feedback from members on the need for a standard.
The group on Anti-Graffiti Coatings for Use on Concrete, Masonry and Natural Stone, V. Huey, Chair, produced "Standard Practice to Determine the Effectiveness of Anti-Graffiti Coatings for Use on Concrete, Masonry and Natural Stone Surfaces by Pressure Washing," which has completed society ballot and has been published as ASTM D7089. As the task of the group is complete, it is being disbanded. The group on Effectiveness of Field Applied Water Repellent Treatments Using a RILEM Tube discussed the proposed standard. In the absence of the Chair, T. Sliva distributed copies of the document, which already had been sent to members of D01.47 for review prior to the meeting. The comments received were reviewed and additional comments from attendees will be included in the next revision.
D01.51, Powder Coatings
J. Hadden, Chair
The group on Predicting Cured Film Thickness will be reactivated in January (under new work item WK12323), as two other companies, DeFelsko and Electro-Physik, have gauges they would like to propose for measuring the film thickness of coating powders before cure. Elcometer personnel expressed interest in doing a round robin for their device when they have equipment available. D. Beamish will Chair this group.
The following D1.51 standards are due for review in 2007, so the process must begin in 2006. Fifteen (15) minutes will be scheduled in January '07 for each. Responsibilities were assigned as follows: D2967--Corner Coverage (Boni); D4217--Gel Time (Boni); D4242--Inclined Flow (Hadden); D5382--Optical Properties (Hadden); D5861--Particle Size (Pont); and D5695--Specific Gravity (Boni/Pennington).
The group on Consideration of New Methods (Hadden) reviewed the VOC test method for coating powders proposed by PCI (316Cd). It was agreed not to pursue this test method in D01.51.
D01.52, Factory Coated Wood Products
M. Foster, Chair
The subcommittee has disbanded due to lack of participation. M. Foster has been working with T. Brooke to place the standards that need to be maintained in other subcommittees and let the rest drop off as they expire.
D01.53, Coil Coated Metal
C.A. Gosselin, Chair
The group on Pretreatment of Substrates discussed the need for analytical methods for pretreatment weights for the new nonchromium pretreatments in the marketplace. At a previous meeting, J. Pierce had reported working on a Portaspec procedure for coating weights of pretreatments containing Zr, Mo, and V, but was not present at this meeting to report on progress. R. Cianflone will obtain a work item number for a new zirconium pretreatment method. R. Cianflone and S. Seelig (or P. Friedhoff on his behalf) will research existing standards to see if any already exist for those metals or for surface phosphate. Regarding D 5723, "Standard Practice for Determination of Chromium Treatment Weight on Metal Substrates by X-Ray Fluorescence," the round robin study of several years ago yielded data that suggested less than anticipated precision. T. Best will see what he can find out about that round robin study. C. Gosselin will contact J. Favilla to see if she can obtain the data for a precision and bias statement, which is needed for the next reballoting of D 5723.
The Accelerated Weathering group discussed need for the results from the recently completed study comparing real-time (10 years) south Florida weathering to a variety of accelerated methods to be distributed. J. Smith will obtain the data from D. Cocuzzi to distribute in a usable form. Then J. Smith, D. Cocuzzi, and C. Gosselin will have a conference call to discuss what to do with the material. The objectives are to make the data widely available, analyze it, and distil it into conclusions. This likely will result in new follow-up studies, so it is important to publish the data. The task group next discussed a draft proposal for a wet stack exposure method. T. Best will now be the technical contact for this method and will proceed with preparing the document for ballot.
The Dry Film Thickness group discussed a modified interlaboratory study that was carried out using D5796, "Standard Test Method for Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Thin-Film Coil-Coated Systems by Destructive Means Using a Boring Device." The results had been distributed in advance of the meeting. Task group Chair J. Henderson was not present to explain the experimental design and results but will statistically analyze the results for the next meeting. The Solvent Rub Test group has been working on a new method, Z9495Z, "Test Method for Determining the Relative Resistance of a Coated Surface to Solvents using a Mechanical Rubbing Machine," that was to be rebal-loted in April. A round robin study was also to be planned. The method has not yet been reballoted. Task group Chair J. Henderson was not present to report on the status. C. Gosselin will communicate with John to determine the status and encourage progress.
Attendees at the D01.53 Coil Coated Metal Subcommittee meeting heard that Chair C. Gosselin will contact B. Rieder to see if D4145, "Standard Test Method for Coating Flexibility of Prepainted Sheet," needs to be revised. J. Peake is writing a report detailing the results of a study looking at the effects of panel preparation factors on total solar reflectance (TSR). Upon completion, a draft will be sent to the members of D01.53.
J. Smith is working on revising D3794, "Standard Guide for Testing Coil Coatings," targeting a September ballot. Revision to D3794 will reflect that film thickness methods D1186 and D1400 have merged into Practice D7091, and that E903, E1918, and D4518 have been discontinued with no replacement. (C. Gosselin will contact a representative of the subcommittee responsible for E903 to see why those methods were discontinued and to see if there are plans to reinstate them.) The alternative (Devices and Services instruments) methods for determining TSR and emissivity will be added to D3794. D6665-01, "Standard Practice for Evaluation of Aging Resistance of Prestressed, Prepainted Metal in a Boiling Water Test," is due for review. S. Seelig volunteered to review. He will verify that the boiling time is one minute, clarify the wording, and ballot for reapproval.
D01.56, Printing Inks
P. Ford, Chair
The Membership group is looking for new members. P. Ford will speak with J. Coleman of NAPIM in hopes of soliciting new ink company membership to D01.56. The subcommittee is also seeking ideas for new topic test methods and laboratory procedures from NAPIM/NPIRI.
The Fineness of Grind group, chaired by R. Incontro, heard that the revision of D1316, "Fineness of Grind by NPIRI Grindometer" has been approved for publication. The method had been revised and updated to include references to the automatic pull-down device along with a new precision statement. The precision statement includes round- robin grind reading data from readings produced using the automatic pull-down device.
Chair J. Fetsko reported to the group on Tinting Strength that the revision of D2066, "Relative Tinting Strength of Paste-Type Printing Ink Dispersions," was recently approved for publication. The revised standard contains an alternate method for preparation of the tint which utilizes the Hauschild/FlackTek mixer. Due to a poor response to an extensive round robin organized by Jackie Fetsko, D2066 does not contain any precision information relating to this particular method of preparation.
P. Ford reported that he is in the early stages of working with the ASTM ILS program on a simple round robin. This would involve a grand total of six ink samples (two test reds and a standard along with two test blues and a standard). These will be tested in duplicate utilizing only the FlackTek method of tint preparation and spectrophotometer or spectrodensitometer measurement and computation of strength. Around a dozen labs have agreed to participate in this relatively limited exercise. Once a precision statement is available from this round robin, it is also planned to modify the method by removing all references to the use of an auxiliary fan to cool the FlackTek mixer. More recent inquiries have determined that this is rarely if ever used and there is little data to back up the claims in D2066-06, Note 7.
The Ink Emulsification group heard from Chair P. Ford that B. Cook had organized a pilot Lithotronic round robin test about a year ago. Only two labs participated in this initial effort, which produced wide result variations between the two participant labs. The repeatability within each lab however was good. Novomatics Germany have agreed to lead the future effort to establish a method with good reproducibility. They will consider upgrading hardware and software to a common platform in order to achieve this goal. To assist them in this, the Chair asked those present who had Lithotronic machines to advise him of their instrument serial numbers. He will also get this information from Wikoff and Ink Systems, since they had both previously agreed to participate in Lithotronic round robins.
The group on Setting of Heatset Ink using the Sinvatrol Dryer, D. Ness, discussed D6073, which is up for five-year review. P. Massolt is supposed to send a new version of the Sinvatrol to C. Dalton for trial purposes, but it has not been received. As the Sinvatrol is no longer produced by Flint Group, the new Testprint dryer could potentially become an alternative and could be written into the standard as it will be (as the Sinvatrol) an exclusive product. The group on Drying of Oxidizable Inks, B. Blom, Chair, discussed D5909 based on the dried ink film's resistance to squalene, which is up for five-year review. Under WK11600, this test method has been submitted to ASTM for reapproval.
The VOC of Energy Curable Inks group heard a review of prior work in the group from S. Nyarady, Chair. The difficulties in establishing an appropriate method are: (1) The difficulty of weighing a sufficiently large area of aluminum foil; (2) The restricted availability of UV equipment for curing wide prints; and (3) The current use of calculated VOCs.
The Chair and R. Waldo agreed to check with RadTech to get a wider industry perspective on the priority that should be given to overcoming these hurdles.
D01.57, Artists' Paints and Related Materials
M.D. Gottsegen, Chair
W. Berthel, Chair, reported to the Specifications Group that testing by three different parties on the acrylic primers he had previously prepared had been completed but that he was two weeks away from analysis of the results. He also said that he would have a report/PowerPoint presentation at the January 2007 meeting.
Chair W. Stopford reported to the Toxicity group that he had completed testing of oils other than art material oils, such as food oils, for autocombustibility and that the reactions were the same, i.e., these oils on dirty rags did pose a risk of spontaneous combustion. He presented a paper reporting the results of this additional testing and a proposed revision to ASTM D6801 that would allow its use for oils other than art material oils. He said that it would be beneficial to government agencies such as Health Canada since they require labeling for such a risk and need a test to determine the spontaneous combustion potential of materials other than art materials. He reported that Canada's CCCR regulations were being integrated into ACMI's certification program and that he was in the process of harmonizing his risk assessments and labeling for LHAMA requirements in the U.S. with those in Canada. During discussion, it was agreed to change the wording in the title of the standard to "Standard Test Method for Measuring Maximum Spontaneous Heating Temperature of Art and Other Materials." Dr. Stop-ford agreed to make this change and to add a section on assessing the results of such tests. This revision would then be sent for Subcommittee/Main concurrent ballot.
W. Stopford, Chair, reported to the Toxicity Determination group that the Subcommittee had voted at its January 2006 meeting to develop a test methodology for determining aspiration hazards for aerosols. He presented a draft Provisional Standard Test Method for Measuring Aspiration Potential of Aerosol Products, adapted from the paper he presented at the January 2006 Subcommittee meeting. He was asked to add language on the interpretation of the results of the deposition rate and the spray pattern of the aerosol product tested. This revision would then be sent for Subcommittee/Main concurrent ballot.
The Pastels group heard a report from V. Elliott, Chair, that there had been a number of negatives cast on the Subcommittee ballot of the Pastels Standard. A lengthy discussion followed including issues specific to this standard and issues involving the philosophy of all the Subcommittee's standards. Some of these issues included the following:
(1) Lightfast ratings of pigments do not mean that the art materials they are used in will have the same lightfast ratings. The art material itself, not just the pigment(s), should be tested and retested every time the formula is changed.
(2) Testing products by two different methods would be very expensive and prohibitive.
(3) Loss of accuracy using only one test method would be far outweighed by the accuracy of testing the art material itself.
(4) Tests should be relative to future use and placement of the finished artwork.
(5) Appropriate sections of D4303 should be added to each individual media standard.
(6) A testing mechanism should be set up so that all manufacturers could use, the same, i.e., labs or university situations.
(7) Consider the effect on manufacturers and artists of discarding all the standards already developed and developing new ones.
(8) Involve more retailers in the ASTM process to encourage more use of our standards.
It was unanimously voted to make the ad hoc Sunday meeting in January 2007 an official Subcommittee meeting with one agenda item of discussion of the philosophy of our standards and the issues discussed at this meeting.
D01.61, Paint Application Tools
J.D. Feathers, Chair
The Paint Rollers group, D. Punches, Chair, reviewed the progress on WK 6749, "Proposed Test Method for Fiber Shedding of Paint Roller Covers." Photos will be inserted in the method to clarify the types of defects that should and should not be counted as fibers. The data from the recent round robin testing will be submitted to the ASTM ILS group for calculation of a Precision and Bias statement. Upon completion of this statement development, the method will be submitted for balloting. The group on Knitted Paint Applicator Fabrics, E. Lowder, Chair, reviewed draft #8 of the "Proposed Practice for Physical Characterization of Sliver Knitted Paint Applicator Fabrics." This revision added a method for determining fabric tensile strength. Preliminary data from a round robin test in progress was reviewed. Once all cooperators submit results, a Precision and Bias statement will be developed.
The Definitions group, J. Feathers, acting Chair, reviewed the list of 22 terms proposed for subcommittee balloting. Editorial changes were suggested to align with current publication practice. This list will be grouped into a few smaller lists and registered as Work Items before balloting. The Fracture Resistance group, J. Feathers, Chair, reviewed draft #14 of Work Item 6755, "Proposed Standard Test Method for Testing Fracture of Level Paintbrush Filaments." This draft included changes to the Precision and Bias statement and pictures in response to persuasive comments received on the subcommittee ballot. This Work Item will be submitted for Main Committee balloting with these changes. The group on Brush Stiffness, M. Lambertson, Chair, reviewed draft #6 of the "Proposed Methods for Evaluating Brush Stiffness." Editorial changes were suggested. A statement will be included in the Precision and Bias to alert that brush fill material can change stiffness due to environmental conditioning. Round robin testing will be done among three cooperators using three brush styles with known differences in stiffness. A Work Item will also be created for this method.
G03.02, Natural Environmental Testing
J. Robbins III, Chair
This subcommittee has four active standards: atmospheric and accelerated outdoor weathering, exposure to daylight filtered through glass, and specifications for temperature devices for natural weathering tests. The Black Panels group led by J. Martin, Chair, has completed work on a new document entitled, "Specification for Manufacturing and Use of Black and White Panel Temperature Devices for Natural Weathering Tests." Additional work is continuing concerning the coating for the white panel specified in this standard. The group on Accelerated Outdoor Weathering heard from J. Robbins, Chair, that G90, "Standard Practice for Performing Accelerated Outdoor Weathering of Nonmetallic Materials Using Concentrated Natural Sunlight" (WK1282), had passed G-3 ballot and has been published. The Time of Wetness group discussed determining time of wetness using available temperature and humidity data. Additional discussion will occur at the next meeting.
G03.04, Biological Deterioration
J. LaZonby, Chair
This subcommittee has three active methods on resistance to fungi, algal resistance, and microbial susceptibility. The only item currently under consideration is biodeterioration method WK4201, "Mold Growth on Building Products in an Environmental Chamber," that will work off of the D01.28.05 method, which must be completed first. To expedite that process G03.04 deferred its time back to D01.28.05 so discussion of the new chamber method could be completed.
Dates and Locations of Future D01 Meetings
January 21-24, 2007 -- Ft. Lauderdale, FL (Embassy Suites Hotel)
June 17-20, 2007 -- Cleveland, OH (Hyatt Regency at the Arcade)
January 20-23, 2008 -- Ft. Lauderdale, FL (Embassy Suites Hotel)
June 15-18, 2008 -- Vancouver, B.C. (Hyatt Regency) with D02
ASTM D Year Title D1476 2002 STM -- Heptane Miscibility D2804 2002 STM -- GC Purity of MEK D2917 2002 Specs -- MIAK D0329 2002 Specs -- Acetone D1364 2002 STM -- Water in Volatile Solvents D1836 2002 Specs -- Commercial Hexanes D3735 2002 VM & P Naphthas D4367 2002 STM -- Benzene in Hydrocarbon by GC D2194 2002 STM -- Concentration of Formaldehyde D2378 2002 Specs -- 50% and 35% Grade Formaldehyde D4709 2002 Specs -- Methyl Acrylate D4710 2002 Specs -- Acetaldehyde D2193 2001 STM -- Hydroquinone in Vinyl Acetate D3125 2001 STM Monomethyl Ether of Hydroquinone D2627 2002 Specs -- Diacetone Alcohol D2693 2002 Specs -- Ethylene Glycol D3128 2002 Specs -- 2-Methoxy Ethanol D4837 2002 Specs -- Propylene Glycol Monomoethyl Ether D0268 2001 Guide -- Sampling Volatile Solvents D2634 2002 Specs -- Methyl Amyl Acetate 95% D3131 2002 Specs -- Isopropyl Acetate 99% D4773 2002 STM -- Purity of Propylene Glycol Monoether D5137 2001 Specs -- Hexyl Acetate
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Business & Industry|
|Comment:||ASTM Committee D01 reports on June 2006 subcommittee activities.(Business & Industry)|
|Article Type:||Company overview|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2006|
|Previous Article:||International Specialty Products, Inc. (ISP), Wayne, NJ, has named Darrell Christopher key account manager for the Midwest region.|
|Next Article:||The true age of painting.|