ARCHIVAL RECORDS AND MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS IN SELECTED POLYTECHNIC LIBRARIES IN NORTH-CENTRAL, NIGERIA.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records and manuscripts or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of individual, institutions, organization's life time and are kept to show the function of that person, institution or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records and manuscripts that have been naturally and necessarily generated as a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative or social activities.
Archives can serve as a tool for performance assessment both by individuals, organization or government agencies. "Information is the currency of democracy and for individual members of the community to be able to evaluate the success or otherwise of government programs, to be able to assert their rights, to debate the issues of the day, citizens must have access to information created and distributed by institution. Archive is a necessary requirement for the continued survival and transformation of the institution and Nigeria in particular and the world in general. As such, the availability of proper description or organization and use of archival records will no doubt influence the effective roles of archival records in terms of social transformation, and this also remained an important aspect of consideration and exploration in archival administration.
Mbagwa, Njoku, Solomon and Okoroafor (2012) observed that it is quite unfortunate that despite the numerous educational, historical and traditional significance of archives, not much is known about it in Nigeria especially as a branch of information management, hence the need for the research interest in the establishment and uses of archive as a branch of information management in Nigerian Polytechnic libraries. Akotia (2003) stressed the need for African Country, restructuring of the records management systems of government is crucial for improving the efficiency of development, management, intervisions, historians, geologists, lawyers, demographers, film makers and others conduct research at archives.
Aliyu (2007) observed that records continued to accumulate at a greatly accelerating rate during the worldwar II. The need to keep the accumulation from becoming unmanageable resulted in the establishment of records administered programs on records disposition in the Federal government. The desire to keep and use records of knowledge and information for reference and permanent preservation can be linked to the earliest time of human history. History has shown how people of the ancient era kept records of their thoughts and experiences on items at their disposal. Clay-tablets, papyrus, cuneiform, palm-trees, bark of trees, animal skins, stones, etc, for example, were used for some purposes and historical documentation. With the development of paper and other non-textual documentary forms such as films, photographs, still and motion pictures, videotapes and related machine readable forms, archival records then continue to appear on special physical characteristics.
Many studies have pointed to the important roles of archival records in societal transformation. Cunningham and Philips (2005) further submitted that, archives have an important role in ensuring national and cultural memory, scholarly research are ensuring an enshrined democracy entitlements of the governed. The quest for democratic principles in Nigeria can be enhanced via effective accessibility and use of archival records. Institution archive will serve as a means of empowering both staff and students against potential maladministration, corruption and autocracy which characterized contemporary democracy of Nigerian society. The archival records can provide all staff and consultants with a kind of check and balance mechanism against a tyrannical administration.
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study were to:
1. know if the libraries have separate archival unit in these polytechnics
2. survey the kinds of archival records and manuscripts in the polytechnics libraries in the North-central, Nigeria, in order to determine the categories of archival records being created/acquired and made available for use;
3. examine the basis for the establishment of archival records and manuscripts within the polytechnic libraries;
4. identify the challenges faced in the establishment of archival records and manuscripts centre.
This study set out to provide answers to the following research questions:
1. Do the libraries have separate archival unit in these polytechnics
2. What are the kinds of archival records and manuscripts in the polytechnics libraries in the North-central, Nigeria, in order to determine the categories of archival records being created/acquired and made available for use;
3. What are the basis for the establishment of archival records and manuscripts within the polytechnic libraries?
4. What are the challenges faced in the establishment of archival records and manuscripts centre?
5. Proffer solution(s) to the challenges identified
Review of Related Literatures
Mbagwu, Njoku, Solomon and Okoroafor (2012) in their work opined that archival development date back with the introduction of writing, which permitted the building up to systematically organized and bureaucratically administered societies. The history can be traced to ancient time going to the 4th BC and the oldest archives found therefore were the clay tables of Ugarit. Raji (1993) said that she is convinced as an Arabic paleographer archivist that any history of archival development, which does not touch the development of Muslim archives is incomplete. The development of making and preservation of records in Nigeria, where the oldest available written sources of our history are by Muslims in the Arabic character and languages.
Ebele (2009) posited that records and archives have been in existence since mankind acquired the ability to record information in writing. The earliest keeping of records and archives can be traced to the Ancient civilizations when records of birth, property, law, money tax and official and private transactions began to be kept to facilitate the conduct of government business, and for education, religion and family purposes. The medium on which this information was recorded differed from society to society as well as from age to age ranging from the clay tablets of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires of the third millennium to the wooden tablets that found their way into Greece, the papyrus scrolls of Egypt and the parchment and vellum of Medieval Europe.
The growth and development of records and archives has however not been uniform throughout the world. As with most other things some societies gained certain capabilities earlier than others. In respect to records and archives those societies that developed their organizational structures earlier often developed comparative recording infrastructures to document their activities. The capability to keep records and archives was thus attained first by those societies that learnt to write and record. While these societies did not develop in isolation as is evidenced by the record keeping practices in Roman Egypt, which had borrowed elements from the Roman and Asian Empires, nevertheless the nature of the records and archives ensured that to a large extent each society had its own record and archive keeping practices that were uniquely different from those of other societies.
This is not surprising for it is the essential and distinguishing nature of records and archives. Records and archives are the by-product of the activities of a particular entity. While their creation may be a deliberate and controlled activity, they are however not created for their own sake in the way that someone writes a book or a story. They are the residue of certain transactions whose nature can differ so widely from governing to conducting business, manufacturing products, selling goods and managing money, materials and people. In all these activities, records and archives are essential elements but not the primary reason for the undertaking of the activity. Since activities generate information, this information must be organized, managed and it is this that has resulted in the rise and establishment of the discipline of records management and archives administration (Buckrel, 2008).
Aliyu (1997) stated that an archive centre is one of the most essential facilities needed in institutions; hence the need for establishment of an archival centre is essential. The difficulty of tracing records were faced by most departments in an institution mostly the polytechnics. This was because the records were kept in several offices and by different functionaries in such a way that when a particular document is needed, it is difficult to find out where it could be traced but it was certain that such document existed sometime. She went further, to say that, to solve this problem; there is the need to set aside some contiguous buildings that are converted into complex for the purpose of establishment of archives. Documents should therefore have a home as human beings. Alegbeleye (1997) noted that the ability to collect, organize, preserve and make available, the records of the nation depends on the caliber and professional competence of the personnel who are to handle such records.
Archives appear to be one of the prominent exponents of archival principles and practice as different from library methodology. The basic difference in materials components and emphasized three criteria for their organization, which are: The action to which the records relate the organizational structure of the parent institution and the content of the materials. The application of principle of records management to archives was advocated. However, the study will investigate the organizational aspect discussed in the paper in the review above.
Buckrel (2008) while emphasizing the physical character of archives stressed their physical difference from book. He pointed out that while the job of an archivist and that of the librarian differ, there are important differences, most of which arise out of the differences in the character of the materials with which the two professionals are concerned. He was able to distinguish between the job of an archivist and a librarian. However, this is an aspect of the study.
Aliyu (2007) described archives as collections of documents or records which have been selected for permanent preservation because of their value as evidence or as a source for historical or other research. Records are created by the activities of organizations and people; they serve an active purpose while in current use and some of them are later selected and preserved as part of an archival collection.
Walch (2006) posited that archives in colleges, polytechnics, and other educational facilities are typically housed within a library, and duties may be carried out by an archivist. Academic archives exist to preserve institutional history and serve the academic community. An academic archive may contain materials such as the institution's administrative records, personal and professional papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, and items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies.
Maher (1992) noted that access to the collections in these archives is usually by prior appointment only; some have posted hours for making inquiries. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, school, and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general public. Many academic archives work closely with alumni relations, departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school. Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions usually require an undergraduate diploma, but typically archivists hold graduate degrees in history or library science (preferably certified by the American Library Association). Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions.
Daya (1999) opined that the place of deposit of the archival documents was in the most remote part of the archival building, completely isolated from the areas of work and from any possible source of contamination or corruption, and the documents entering this restricted zone would live forever in their own time of creation, in their own context, as stable and immutable entities, untouchable by political or social events, interests, trends, or influences. Just like the Eastern archival basements of four millennia ago, accessible only from a hole in the ceiling, and the Westem stacks of our times, carefully segregated from any space open to the public, the inner place, where the deeds were kept, by its physical inaccessibility, transformed them in the most authoritative and powerful testimony of actions.
Daramola (2005) writes that records are classified as reference records: policy records which must be possessed by a school which contain government policies, decisions of governing council, and procedures on funding and moral codes; Administrative Records: Include records of great visits, events, annual enrolment of students and records of personnel that have served and still serving in an organization; academic records: Include records of curriculum issues, facilities and equipment for teaching and learning guidelines for the introduction of new academic programmes and students' academic records. Others include Official Correspondence and Financial Management Records.
However, Olaitan (1995) is of the view that Polytechnic records are classified into phases: Primary-records kept in the office of the Vice-Chancellor, Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Dean, Directors/Controller of different programmes, Librarian, Registrar and the Bursar; Secondary includes those in the academic and administrative department office; and Tertiary phase involves those of supervisors and other officers.
Popoola and Oluwole (2007) posits that Nigerian polytechnic administrators are often concerned about the alarming rate of misplacement or loss of vital records and the slow speed at which needed records are retrieved from their storage. Accurate retrieval and timely availability for use of the required information would reduce common problems of management in institutions, such as: difficulties in finding information needed to take decisions or respond to inquiry. delays in payment of staff emoluments and fringe benefits accumulation of administrative matters which ought to have been discharged, but now causing discontent among staff, students and parents, improperly registered students in school registers and records, inaccurate demographic figures resulting in either lack of places/spaces for students or wastage of spaces/places available and inability to forward students' reports/records or release results on schedule (Nwankwo, 2012).
Unfortunately, there are no separate archival units in polytechnic libraries in Nigeria, although archival records exist in these libraries. The Nigerian polytechnic libraries must perform archival functions as archives and libraries share some common characteristics. Archival records of various forms are scattered in different parts of the various units of many polytechnic. But if these materials are brought together to form part of the library services, their use will be enhanced.
It is on this note that this research work examined the archival records and manuscripts collections in selected polytechnic libraries in the North-central, Nigeria.
The historical development of archives and records management practices has however, faced numerous challenges that we can analyze in two distinct phases that include the colonial era and the post-colonial era. Some of the challenges as identified by Mnjama (2010) include:
* Inadequate Skills and High Staff Turn-over
* Inadequate Funding
* The Problematic Nature of Format
* Absence of an Archival Law
* Lack of understanding and Appreciation
The study is a social survey method and documentary research of records and manuscripts in selected polytechnics in the North-central, Nigeria. The study involved a survey and examination of the existing archival records and manuscripts in selected polytechnic libraries (Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Kogi State, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Benue State Polytechnic, Benue State, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Plateau State Polytechnic, Plateau state and Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari, FCT).
The population of the study is polytechnic libraries in Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Kogi State, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Benue State Polytechnic, Benue State, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Plateau State Polytechnic, Plateau state and Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari, FCT
Five polytechnic libraries from North central, Nigeria were sampled for the study using convenient sampling method. These were Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Kogi State, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Benue State Polytechnic, Benue State and Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. The choice of sample was based on the recommendation by Borg and Gall (1979) who stated that a minimum of 20% of the population can be used as sample size. In this study, five (5) polytechnics out of the 7 is 71.4% and this percentage is well above the minimum percentage of Borg and Gall. This 71.4% percentage is considered good representation for generalization to uncovered states of Plateau and FCT.
The main instrument was the questionnaire to be sent to the polytechnic libraries in North-central, Nigeria. The questionnaire was restricted to Heads of departments in the libraries under study in order to give the researcher the opportunity to gather more information. Observations on the records and manuscripts were noted on acquiring more data for the study.
Findings of the Study
The data collected showed in the Table 1 revealed that 2(50%) out of the four polytechnic libraries covered in this study has a section within the documents unit designated as "archives" while 2(50%) libraries do not have separate archival unit within their systems. The findings further revealed that most of the records considered to be archival records are found scattered in the various units of the libraries covered by this study, which include, William Adedoyin library, Federal Polytechnic Offa; Kogi State Polytechnic Library, Itaikpe Campus, Kogi; Federal Polytechnic Bida Central Library, Niger State; and Federal Polytechnic, Idah Central Library, Kogi State, respectively.
The researcher however observed that the polytechnic libraries have neglected the idea of establishing a separate archive where records of enduring value could be stored. A question was asked on whether or not the archives is headed by a professional archivist, the result showed that, the 4(100%) of the libraries covered by this study signified negatively.
Reasons given by the four libraries pointed out that, there is no separate polytechnic library archive and most of the records considered to be archival are found in the various units of the library which are headed by the various unit heads. The researcher noted that archival records are not considered very important in the polytechnic libraries and therefore, no efforts were made to identify records usefulness for reference, historical and research purposes.
Table 2.1 refers to the minutes of meetings held by the polytechnics covered by this study, the data analysis showed that 4(100%) polytechnic libraries, 3(75%) libraries have minutes for meeting of polytechnic committees in their collections while polytechnic advisory clubs have 2(50%). Findings revealed that all 4(100%) libraries have minutes of meetings of academic boards within their collections. On the availability of minutes of meetings of polytechnics association 3(75%) are available. On the availability of regulatory board [National Board for Technical Education (NBTE)], 4(100%) records were available.
The data collected revealed that minutes of polytechnic council, committee, clubs, academic board and regulatory board are not acquired by all libraries studied thereby neglecting valuable records for administrative, reference, historical and legal purpose.
On whether the libraries have photographs of polytechnic activities (matriculation, convocations, etc), the data revealed that all the four libraries covered by the study have photographs of convocation ceremonies, matriculation ceremonies, end of the year cocktail parties, valedictory, exhibitions and launchings.
Table 2.2 revealed that all the 4(100%) libraries have audio tapes within their collections while 2(50%) of the libraries have video cassettes within their collections. Subject covered by video, audio cassettes and disc e.g. audio cassettes on the deterioration of archival records and essential factors to be considered in establishing archives are found in one of the libraries under study.
On the availability of manuscripts on individuals, the findings further revealed that Federal Polytechnic, Offa has collections on stakeholders in Offa, collections of governing councils chairmen including all the activities of their tenure in office. Data collected revealed that these manuscripts were acquired through donations by the creators to the polytechnic and later they were taken to library where researchers can make use of them. While Kogi state Polytechnic, Lokoja, has manuscripts of the Obas, Emirs, Nupe, Igala and other renowned writers from different parts of Northern Nigerian figures. The manuscripts available in the library were preserved in the document in a closed access collections.
The findings also revealed that these manuscripts are on closed access and are not placed on the shelves, rather they are kept with the head of the division and only on request, users got access to them. As regards the processing of such records, it was revealed that no processing is done as of now because they are very few in number to warrant processing; hence, the library's catalogue does not carry information about them.
Table 2.3 revealed that all the four polytechnic libraries have all the polytechnic publications listed in the questionnaire. Further findings showed that libraries acquired more polytechnic publications than minutes of meetings of polytechnic committees. Data collected revealed how effective polytechnic libraries are acquiring polytechnic publications but unfortunately their administrative, reference historical, information and research values are not realized, hence there are treatment as library materials. On whether archival records are arranged as library materials, the responses revealed that all the 4(100%) libraries organized their archival records as library materials. The responses showed that libraries take different approaches in the organization of records although not in archival way.
Table 3 revealed that all the polytechnic libraries agreed that the establishment of archival records and manuscripts units within the library will enable them to serve reference purposes; research needs of the users and polytechnic community; guide in policy formulation, planning and implementation; handling of legal claims; verification of facts when the need arises; protection of national interest; documenting of departmental and polytechnic histories; administration; and project planning and evaluation.
Table 4 showed that the establishment of Archival records and manuscripts centre/unit in the libraries faced numerous challenges. All the polytechnic libraries (100%) agreed that some of the challenges hindering the establishment of the unit include: lack of designated/separate unit to serve as archival centre; lack of professional archivist to man the archival unit; lack of awareness on the part of the polytechnic community to deposit archival collections at the archival unit of the polytechnic libraries; and lack of support from polytechnic management to meet the needs to setting up separate the archival unit.
Summary of Findings
i. It was discovered that polytechnic libraries in North-central, Nigeria lack archival unit. The libraries acquired/generate various archival related materials which are scattered all over the units within the library but there is no designated unit tagged as "archival centre". It was noted that archival records are not considered very important in the polytechnic libraries and therefore, no efforts were made to identify their usefulness for reference, historical and research purposes.
ii. The findings also revealed that most of the materials acquired by the libraries, which are considered as archival records include minutes of meetings by polytechnic council, polytechnic committees, polytechnic advisory committee, polytechnic academic board, polytechnic associations, polytechnic regulations board (NBTE) etc. Also, the study further revealed that the libraries acquire non--print information sources such as photographs of polytechnic activities, audio tapes, video recordings, video cassette etc. The libraries equally housed archival records like annual reports, maps and charts, gazette, gazetteers, memorabilia, ceremonial speeches, staff publications, projects, SIWES reports, etc. All these records are kept for reference, administrative and future purposes.
iii. It was further revealed that the libraries noted the basis for the establishment of archival records and manuscripts units within the polytechnic libraries. Some of which include: reference purpose; research; policy formulation, planning and implementation; handling of legal claims; verification of facts; protection of national interest; documenting of departmental histories; administration; and project planning and evaluation.
iv. The study finally revealed some of the challenges faced in the establishment of archival records and manuscripts centre to include: lack of designated unit to serve as archival centre/unit; lack of professional archivist; lack of awareness on the part of the polytechnic community; and lack of support from the polytechnic management.
Based on the summary of the findings, it could be concluded that most of the polytechnic libraries do not have any unit segmented for archives. Archival materials are organized and arranged with other library collections within the library. Also, the library staff lack the knowledge and experience of an archivist who will be in best position to man the archive centre and thereby establishing basic rules that can help to improve the operation of the unit. Also, majority of the records housed in the 'archive' are minutes of meeting of polytechnic council, academic board, polytechnic committees, polytechnic clubs, Associations, Schools and other departmental publications such as bulletin, calendar, prospectus, manuals, announcements etc. whereas archival materials go beyond these. It can also be concluded that there is no rule guiding the use of the archival unit in the polytechnic libraries. The only means of entry the centre is by showing Identity card to access the records, thus, this idea does not guarantee the condition of the material on return.
Based on the investigation made on the subject matter, the recommendations, if implemented will enhance the significance of valuable historical, administrative, reference, educative and research records hidden in the various units/sections of the libraries. The recommendations are:
i. Polytechnic libraries should endeavor to acquire vital records and manuscripts for research, administrative, reference and enduring value either through gifts, soliciting, purchase or exchange. The library can also acquire publications within its immediate environment and also solicit or even purchase manuscripts of important personalities.
ii. Polytechnic libraries should endeavor to establish separate archival units within their systems so that valuable historical, administrative, informative, research and reference records and manuscripts could be well organized, preserved and fully utilized. If established, scattered archival records would be brought into focus.
iii. Polytechnic library staff and outside users should not be allowed to have direct access into the archives because of mutilation of records or manuscript is not the handwork of students alone. The archives should be a close access collections.
iv. The polytechnic management through the professional archivist or librarian should emulate the proposal designed by the researcher for establishing a separate archives within libraries whenever the polytechnic management decided to establish an 'archive'.
Akotia, P. (2003). Public sector records system in Ghana: Some lessons in development management. African Journal of Library and Information Science, 20 (1), 110.
Alegbeleye, S. (1997). Emerging pattern in the exploitation of Methodist church records in Nigeria. Nigeria Library Information Science Review, 1, 163-172.
Aliyu, M.B. (1997). Comparative study of archival records management in Kaduna and Kwara State Local government Headquarters. Department of Library and Information Science, Unpublished MLS Thesis, A.B.U., Zaria.
Aliyu, M.B. (2007). Archival records maintenance, retention and disposal in Offa local government area, Offa. A paper presented at Maiden Annual National Conference of School of Business and Management Studies. Held between 24th April at Staff Club conference hall, Iree, Osun State.
Borg, W.R, & Gall, M.D. (1979). Scientific research theory. New York: Longman
Buckrel, C. (2008). Establishing a college archives: Possibilities and priorities. Colleges and Research Libraries, 28-34.
Cunningham, A., & Philips, M. (2005). Accountability and accessibility: Ensuring the evidence of e-governance in Australia. Aslib Proceedings, 57 (4).
Daramola, J.B. (2005). Conservation, preservation and management of public records, national workshop organized for directors, deputy and assistant director, by the presidency, department of establishment and management services. ASCON, Tapo Badagry, 7, 3-11.
Daya, A. (1999). Archival records and manuscripts collections in the university libraries (unpublished paper). Department of Library and Information Science. A.B.U, Zaria.
Ebele J.E. (2009). Record keeping in universities: Associated problems and management options in South-west Geo-Political zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Education Science, 1(2), 109-113.
Maher, W.J. (1992). The Management of College and Polytechnic archives. Metuchen, New Jersey: Society of American Archivists and The Scarecrow Press.
Mbagwu I.F., Njoku, J.A., Solomon, I.J. & Okoroafor, O.W. (2012). The development and uses of Archives as a branch of information management in Nigeria. The Social Sciences, 7 (5), 713-716.
Mnjama, N. (2010). Archives and records management in Kenya: Problems and prospects. Records Management Journal. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/09565698.html
Nwankwo, J.I. (2012). Fundamentals of management information systems. Ibadan: Spectrum Books, 1-39.
Olaitan, S.O. (1995). Records management in Nigerian universities. In: E.T. Ehiametalor (Ed.).
Data management of schools and other Issues. NERA Publishers Benin-City.
Popoola, S. O., & Oluwole, D. A. (2007). Career commitment among records management personnel in a state civil service in Nigeria. Records Management Journal 17(2).
Raji, H.M. (1993). The development of Muslim archives in West-Africa with particular reference to Nigeria. National Record, 3, 11.
Walch, V.I. (2006). Archival census and education needs survey in the United States. The American Archivist, 69 (2), 294-309.
ALIYU, MULIKAT BOLA
Department of Library and Information Science
Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State
YUSUF, TUNDE IDRIS
Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State
OWOLABI, RUKAYAT SHAYO
MULIRAT B. ALIYU
The Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, firstname.lastname@example.org
TUNDE I. YUSUF
The Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, email@example.com
RURAYAT S. OWOLABI
Caption: Fig. 1: Records Life Cycle
Caption: Availability of Archival Unit
Caption: Minutes of meetings deposited
Caption: Availability of non-print information resources
Caption: Kinds of archival records
Caption: Basis for the establishment of archival records and manuscript unit
Caption: Challenges faced in the establishment of Archival Records and Manuscript
Table 1 Availability of Archival Units in the Studied Polytechnic Libraries Polytechnic libraries under study No of libraries percentage have archival units Agree 2 50% Disagree 2 50% Total 4 100% Table 2: Kinds of Archival Records and Manuscripts created by the Polytechnic Libraries Table 2.1 Minutes of Meetings held by the Polytechnic Libraries Libraries Minutes Kwara Kogi Niger Polytechnic Council 1 1 1 Polytechnic Committees 1 1 1 Polytechnic Advisory Club 1 1 0 Polytechnic Academic Board 1 1 1 Polytechnic Associations 1 1 1 Polytechnic Regulations Board (NBTE) 1 1 1 Libraries Minutes Nassarawa % Polytechnic Council 1 100% Polytechnic Committees 0 75% Polytechnic Advisory Club 0 50% Polytechnic Academic Board 1 100% Polytechnic Associations 0 75% Polytechnic Regulations Board (NBTE) 1 100% Table 2.2 Availability of non-print information sources in library collection Availability of non-print information Libraries sources in libraries Kwara Kogi Niger Photographs of polytechnic activities 1 1 1 Audio tapes 1 1 1 Video recordings 1 1 1 Video cassette 1 1 0 Polytechnic associations 1 1 1 Polytechnic regulations board (NBTE) 1 1 1 Availability of non-print information Libraries sources in libraries Nassarawa % Photographs of polytechnic activities 1 100% Audio tapes 1 100% Video recordings 1 100% Video cassette 0 50% Polytechnic associations 0 75% Polytechnic regulations board (NBTE) 1 100% Table 2.3 Archival Records in the studied Polytechnics Archival Records Libraries Kwara Kogi Niger Annual reports 1 1 1 Maps and charts 1 1 1 Gazette 1 1 1 Gazetteers 1 1 1 Memorabilia 1 1 1 Ceremonial speeches 1 1 1 Staff publications 1 1 1 Departmental handbooks 1 1 1 Projects 1 1 1 SIWES reports 1 1 1 Archival Records Libraries Nassarawa % Annual reports 1 100% Maps and charts 1 100% Gazette 1 100% Gazetteers 1 100% Memorabilia 1 100% Ceremonial speeches 1 100% Staff publications 1 100% Departmental handbooks 1 100% Projects 1 100% SIWES reports 1 100% Table 3: The basis for the establishment of archival records and manuscripts units within the polytechnic libraries Libraries Options Offa Kogi Niger Reference purpose 1 1 1 Research 1 1 1 Policy formulation, planning and 1 1 1 implementation Handling of legal claims 1 1 1 Verification of facts 1 1 1 Protection of national interest 1 1 1 Documenting of departmental histories 1 1 1 Administration 1 1 1 Project planning and evaluation 1 1 1 Libraries Options Nassarawa % Reference purpose 1 100% Research 1 100% Policy formulation, planning and 1 100% implementation Handling of legal claims 1 100% Verification of facts 1 100% Protection of national interest 1 100% Documenting of departmental histories 1 100% Administration 1 100% Project planning and evaluation 1 100% Table 4: The challenges faced in the establishment of Archival Records and Manuscript Centre Libraries Options Offa Kogi Niger Lack of designated unit to serve as archival 1 1 1 centre/unit Lack of professional archivist 1 1 1 Lack of awareness on the part of the 1 1 1 polytechnic community Lack of support from the polytechnic 1 1 1 management Libraries Options Nassarawa % Lack of designated unit to serve as archival 1 100% centre/unit Lack of professional archivist 1 100% Lack of awareness on the part of the 1 100% polytechnic community Lack of support from the polytechnic 1 100% management
Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.