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ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS: CASE OF UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB.

Byline: LABIBA SHEIKH

Abstract. The current research was conducted to identify the important antecedents and major consequences of organizational commitment and to explain their relationship with the commitment level of the teachers (lecturers and assistant professors) of the Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences of the University of the Punjab (PU). This research was a case study in which teachers of the Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences of the University of the Punjab (PU) were taken as the subject of the case analysis. The case was built by gathering information from teachers by using qualitative research tools. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews of the teachers were conducted. Several important findings emerged from the study. First was that the determinants of organizational commitment were quite varied in their nature.

Commitment to organization was influenced by a number of personal factors (age, length of service, gender, marital status) and job related factors (role stress, nature of social interaction, extent of participation in decision making and quality of work experiences). It also became evident that developing commitment among faculty members had significant consequences for educational institutions. This study showed that highly committed faculty members were keen to stay with their current organization and perform at higher levels than their uncommitted colleagues. It was also observed that highly committed faculty members showed lower absenteeism rates. In addition to this, highly committed teachers were more enthusiastic and were more inclined to perform organizational citizenship behaviors.

Keywords: Organizational commitment, Role stress, Focus group discussions, Absenteeism, Organizational citizenship behaviors

I. INTRODUCTION

Organizational commitment can be regarded as an inner steadying or willing force that directs an individual actions towards the goals of the organization (Bentein et al., 2005; Meyer and Herscovitch, 2001). Organizational commitment has drawn the attention of organizational researchers due to various reasons.

Over the years, different researches have shown its relationship to employee behaviors, such as turnover, absenteeism and performance efficacy (Shagholi, Zabihi, Atefi and Moayedi, 2011; Marsh and Mannari, 1977; Steers 1977); personal characteristics of the employee, such as age, gender, need for achievement and job tenure (Angle andPerry, 1981; Hall and Schneider, 1972; Hrebiniak and Alutto, 1972; Steers, 1977), attitudinal, emotional and cognitive concepts such as job satisfaction and job involvement (Saxena and Saxena, 2015; Stevens, Beyer, and Trice, 1978; Hall and Schneider, 1972; Hrebiniak and Alutto, 1972; Porter, 1974); job characteristics including autonomy and responsibility (Sisodia and Das, 2013; Koch and Steers, 1978), job variety and task identity (Steers, 1977) and role conflict and role stress (Alipour and Kamaee, 2015;Morris and Koch, 1979).

The array of relationships emphasizes the need to have detailed understanding of this key construct as it can play a key role in the success or failure of the organization.

Higher education sector in Pakistan is undergoing frequent changes. A number of new public as well as private sector universities are appearing on the scene which is creating difficulties for the universities to retain their capable and talented teachers with them. Moreover, teachers who are committed to their own institutes are more likely not only to stay with the institution but are also expected to dedicate their energies towards the glory and success of their organization. Teachers also play a pivotal role in the learning process of students. The commitment of teacher towards his or her organization, therefore, becomes very important as it directly affects the students. This scenario calls for understanding the factors that can influence the commitment level of the employees and its possible consequences. This research is an effort to understand the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment of lecturers and assistant professors of University of the Punjab.

This study can be utilized by the management of PU and other public sector universities for designing the job and the working environment by taking into consideration the factors that can have effect on the organizational commitment level of the teachers.

Research Objectives

The major objectives of this research are:

* To assess the level of organizational commitment of lecturers and assistant professors of the Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences of the University of the Punjab.

* To explore the important determinants and major consequences of organizational commitment of lecturers and assistant professors of the Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences of the University of the Punjab and to explain their relationship to their commitment level.

Research Questions

Based on the above-mentioned research objectives, the study will try to find answers to the following research questions:

* How teachers understand and interpret their work experiences at University of the Punjab?

* What is their perception of organizational commitment?

* What level of commitment can be inferred from their work experiences?

* How does the organizational commitment of the teachers vary?

* What is the role of the personal factors in determining the level of teachers' commitment?

* To what extent job related factors influence teachers' commitment?

* What are the possible attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of teachers' commitment?

Significance of the Study

The research will help in understanding the perceptions of teachers regarding the organizational commitment. The researcher will help in identifying gap between the ideal commitment as defined in literature and the real commitment. The research may help in filling this gap by identifying the reasons for the gap. Moreover, the use of qualitative research will provide a complete and detailed description of the concepts under study by taking a holistic approach. Qualitative data are gathered through direct meetings with respondents and take into account their views, experiences and emotions in the natural setting. As no effort is made to influence the situation under study, this research will help in understanding the organizational commitment from the point of view of the teachers.

On the applied side, by pinpointing factors that help to develop organizational commitment among university teachers, the study seeks to provide policy guidelines to the policy makers for attracting and retaining excellent faculty at their respective universities.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

The field of organizational commitment is characterized by an abundance of different theoretical frameworks and models that make it difficult to have one single definition of this concept (Meyer and Herscovitch, 2001). Many authors have defined organizational commitment. Newstrom (2007) gives it the name of employee loyalty. According to Schultz and Schultz (2002) organizational commitment is reflected in the employee's approval of organizational goals and value and his or her loyalty to the organization exhibited by his or her persistency to stay with the organization.

The construct most often studied has been attitudinal or affective commitment. It is defined as "... the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization. Conceptually, it can be characterized by at least three factors: a) a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals and values; b) a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and c) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization" (Mowday et al.,1982, p.27). Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian (1974) has been mostly utilized to measure this aspect of commitment. In other words, this is an attitude indicating employees' allegiance to their organization.

Another frequently used approach to organizational commitment is referred as behavioral (Salancik, 1977), calculative (Griffan and Bateman, 1986; Hrebiniak and Alutto, 1972) or continuance commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1984). Based on Becker (1960) side bet theory, Hrebiniak and Alutto (1972) defined it as "...a structural phenomenon which occurs as a result of individual-organizational transactions and alterations in side-bets or investments overtime" (p.556). This approach incorporates the costs associated with leaving an organization. This type of commitment has been mostly measured with the scale developed by Hrebiniak and Alluto, (1972). Another form of commitment is normative commitment in which the values of the organization and the employees are compatible and the employees feel obligated to stay with the organization. The employees exhibit committed behavior as "...they believe it is the right and moral thing to do" (Wiener, 1982, p.421).

Because of multidimensional nature of organizational commitment there has been greater support for the three-component model proposed by Meyer and Allen (1993) which incorporates all the three types of organizational commitment.

Over the years, research literature has focused on finding significant determinants of organizational commitment. This research has taken different directions. Some researchers have focused on personal factors including age, gender, education, marital status and need strengths as important predictors of organizational commitment (Hall, Schneider and Nygren, 1970; Koch and Steers, 1976; Steers, 1977; Lim, 2003; Lackritz, 2004; Salami, 2008). According to another group of researchers, role related factors such as work or role overload, role conflict, role stress and the number of social and work related roles are important in shaping employee commitment (Hrebiniak and Alutto, 1972; Stevens, Beyer and Trice, 1978; Bhagat and Chasie, 1981; Dey and Kumar, 2014).

Studies by Steers (1977), Stevens (1978) and Nazari and Emami (2012) stressed the significance of job characteristics such as autonomy, quality of social interaction, task identity and feedback in the determination of organizational commitment. According to Bhagat and Chasie (1981) factors like satisfaction with promotional opportunities and pay play a vital role in predicting organizational commitment. Williams and Hazer (1986) also established that satisfaction with work led to higher levels of organizational commitment (as cited in Lee and Jamil, 2003).

The existing literature thus provides clues as to the nature of determinants of organizational commitment. These can be placed in two broad categories: Personal factors including age, length of service, education, gender, marital status, needs strength and job-related factors which include role stress, satisfaction with the reward system, peers, participative decision-making, positive social interaction and work experiences.

Organizational commitment results in a variety of behavioral and attitudinal consequences (Shagholi, et al, 2011). It has been found to be positively related to higher motivation level and organizational citizenship behavior (Meyer and Allen, 1997; Mowday, 1999; LaMastro, 2000; Lim, 2010; Emami, et al 2012).). Highly committed employees show strong intention to stay with their organization. According to Liou (2008), organizational commitment improves the retention rates. Moreover, commitment is likely to be associated to lower absenteeism and turnover (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990). Highly committed employees are expected to be more regular and are more likely to work for the organizational goals (Steers, 1977; Tolentino, 2013). It also plays an important role in realizing human resources capabilities (Chang, 2006).

One of the problems that emerge from the literature is the lower weightage given to the individual's personal experience of being committed. Commitment therefore needs to be understood from the standpoint of the committed. Qualitative research can be very useful in this regard. This research looks for themes grounded in respondent's words as the process involves inquiry from inside. It enables in-depth description of the phenomena of interest, in the original language of the respondents. So a deep understanding of the commitment process can be obtained using qualitative techniques. Qualitative research has been used in the present study to interact with the teachers of the University of the Punjab and understand their commitment being derived through their work experiences.

III. METHODS

It is difficult to clearly cut the research process into separated phases in qualitative research. The qualitative research provides the required flexibility which is needed when the contact between the researcher and the subjects is close and intense. For studying the organizational commitment of the teachers, qualitative research proved very useful in studying in depth the process of commitment from the stand point of the teachers. It helped in highlighting the underlying factors leading to commitment of teachers to the University and bring forth some of the behavioral and attitudinal outcomes that are characterized by committed teachers. In this case study, teachers of the Punjab University were chosen as the subject of the case analysis. The case was built by gathering information from teachers by using different tools. In depth interviews and focus group discussions of the teachers were carried out.

In depth interviews were used as a follow up to the focus group discussions. In depth interviews bring forth more details from individual respondents while focus groups generate variety of responses in a shorter period of time (Hesse-Biber, 2006). I used focus groups as the primary research method and followed up interviews with some of the focus group respondents. This methodology helped me to get preliminary group data and then to get more data on specific components of the group narratives. This design facilitated the teachers to share their experiences in the group environment and then had time to discuss in detail their personal experiences, views and beliefs at individual level. The triangulation of data collection methods enhanced my understanding of the research topic.

Target Population

The target population consisted of the lecturers and assistant professors of the Faculty of Economics and Management of the University of the Punjab. This faculty consists of five departments including Department of Economics, Institute of Administrative Sciences, Institute of Business Administration, Institute of Business and Information Technology and Institute of Library Sciences. The total target population consisted of lecturers and assistant professors only. Total number of permanent lecturers and assistant professors in each department are provided in Table 1.

TABLE 1 List of Permanent Lecturers and Assistant Professors

Department/Institute###No. of Permanent

###Lecturers and Assistant

###Professors

Department of Economics###5

Institute of Administrative Sciences###11

Institute of Business Administration###11

Institute of Business and Information###09

Technology

Institute of Library Sciences###05

Total###41

Sampling

For sampling purposive or judgment convenience samples were utilized. The purposive sampling was based on the type of research questions as well as the resources accessible to me. This selection of teachers for focus groups and in depth interviews was based on their availability, awareness, information and readiness.

Unit of Analysis

This research was carried out partly at the individual level and partly at group level of analysis. The unit of analysis is teachers of the University of the Punjab.

Procedure

I conducted focus group discussions first which were followed by in-depth interviews with some of the members of focus groups. For focus group discussions, stratified homogeneous groups were selected from the population. Homogenous groups were chosen on the basis of the occupation of the members as all were teachers of the Punjab University. I conducted two focus group discussions each consisting of 8 members.

Members in both groups were teachers but they were stratified on the basis of their Cadre. One focus group was conducted with Lecturers and the other with the Assistant Professors. Beside this condition both group included male and female teachers with average age between 25 - 45 years. For these discussions, I performed the role of a moderator. I was helped by one of my colleagues who worked as a recorder. The discussion started with some leading questions and the group then interacted to produce in depth argument. Each FGD lasted for almost one hour.

I conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with my respondents. The duration of each interview was around 30 to 40 minutes. The respondents were given liberty to communicate their thoughts but simultaneously the conversation was kept within the general interview guide. A reciprocal relationship between the researcher and the respondents was maintained. I facilitated my respondents to express their feelings by developing rapport. I made my respondents feel comfortable by actively listening to them. I withheld my own opinions and allowed the respondents to speak freely about their experiences. Rapport was also built through the use of eye contact and nodding that helped in improving the efficiency of the interviews.

IV. DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis involves summarizing the data collected and presenting the results in an effective way. In qualitative research we also want to find the overall picture but use different methods to do it. I transcribed the interviews and the focus group discussions. I wrote down important ideas in the form of memos and sought to put together similar ideas. I started labeling or coding every item of information so that I could distinguish differences and similarities between all the different items. With the help of the codes, I developed my interpretations of the data collected. The data was then analyzed to understand the level of organizational commitment of the teachers and identification of its antecedents and the consequences.

The codes along with the excerpts from the transcriptions used to develop these codes are given in Table 2.

TABLE 2 Coding of the Data

Domains of###Major Code###Minor Code###Excerpts from the

Inquiry###Transcriptions

Level of###Affective###Emotional###'Like apart of family at my

Organizational###Commitment###Attachment###workplace'; 'emotionally

Commitment of###attached to it'; 'don't want to

teachers of the###discuss negatives of the

University of the###University'; 'feel honored to

Punjab###be associated with University';

###'it's a great place to work';

###'like a second home to me';

###'care about the fate of the

###University'

###Job###'I will do anything to make the

###Involvement###University achieve higher

###standards of excellence';

###'concerned about raising the

###standard of teaching to

###improve the image of the

###University'; 'look forward

###coming to University

###everyday'.

###Identification###'great deal of personal

###meaning for me'; 'I like myself

###I like the University';

###'University is imparting

###education to masses which is

###very good'; 'consider myself a

###productive part of the society

###as I am in a position to

###influence....... my students'; 'I

###am here because I want to do

###something for the students'.

###Continuance###Cost of###'I enjoy a lot of freedom in my

###Commitment###Leaving###job that is not there in other

###jobs'; 'people really respect

###and honor you'; 'there are

###certain old age benefits,

###medical allowances and other

###fringe benefits which you

###simply cannot ignore'.

###Job Security###'Job security is very important

###these days when the market is

###becoming competitive;' 'You

###simply cannot be kicked out';

###'University offers a life time

###employment'.

###Normative###Moral###'The University has really

###Commitment###Obligation###given me so much......respect,

###money, security. Generally, I

###feel I should stay with the

###University

###Sense of duty###'I am part of many committees

###simply because I want to do

###something for my department';

###'I am always willing to take up

###any assignment in addition to

###my teaching'.

Antecedents of###Personal###Age###'Age reduces mobility';

Organizational###factors###'makes other organizations less

Commitment of###attractive'; 'in old age, it is

teachers in###difficult to move into a new

University of the###job and get adjusted to a new

Punjab.###environment'.

###Length of###'I have given so many years of

###service###my life to this University.

###Eventually I shall be getting

###something in the form of old

###age benefits'; 'time spent itself

###has become an asset'.

###Gender###'Female teachers are not

###concerned about the

###opportunity Cost'. 'Care more

###about the job environment'. 'I

###am not the main bread winner

###for my family so I do not make

###fuss on monitory issues'; 'I

###have to support my family.

###Sometimes it becomes

###difficult'.

###Marital Status###'Married female teachers are

###able to manage their

###professional life and family

###life easily because of

###flexibility of work hours'; 'It's

###not easy to be a mother, a wife

###and a working woman at the

###sometime'.

###Intention to###'When I am doing research

###seek advanced###work I feel myself in thick

###Education###water'; 'It really hurts me

###when I see that the academia is

###not provided the proper

###guidance in research; 'research

###will enhance not only my skills

###but also improve the image of

###the University'.

###Needs strength###'I am more interested in rising

###(need for###to a higher level of intellect';

###recognition and###'recognition and respect in the

###need for###society that makes the job

###personal###worth sticking to'.

###growth)

###Job related###Role stress###'I have to balance my married

###factors###and work life'; 'it is difficult to

###move into new job when you

###already have so many things to

###take care off'; 'You don't keep

###killing yourself'; 'There is

###flexibility of effort';

###'University does not create

###pressure on the teachers while

###managing their life at work and

###life at home'; 'Enough

###information and

###resources.....provided for

###performing these tasks';

###'sometimes comes under stress

###when not clear what is actually

###expected from me'; 'The

###flexibility of hours helps me

###organizing activities without

###great tension'.

###Satisfaction###'It's not a hard paced career';

###with the reward###'Sometimes it is frustrating.

###system###Even after my research degree,

###it will take a lot of time to

###move up the ladder';

###'compensation system a bit

###dissatisfying'; 'If teacher is

###less settled.... decreases self-

###esteem of the teachers';

###'Whether I am good or bad at

###teaching, it does not

###matter.....Sometimes

###demotivating'; 'The growth

###process is slow'; 'For senior

###teachers, linking research

###degree to advancement in

###career can be de-motivating'.

###Satisfaction###'feel very comfortable, secure

###with peers###and relaxed in the company of

###my colleagues'; 'help each

###other in professional even in

###personal matters'; 'no one tries

###to take credit for your work';

###'the colleagues are like a

###family'.

###Satisfaction###'gentle and polite person';

###with###'does not interfere in the way

###chairperson###we design and conduct our

###courses'; 'appreciates good

###work'; 'Formally he writes our

###ACR'; 'open and supportive'.

###Participation in###'only those suggestions are

###decision###accepted that are in line with

###making###the opinion of the

###chairpersons.' 'As for as

###course design is concerned I

###make decision on that;

###'important matters are

###discussed before actions are

###taken...he gets approved what

###he wants.'

###Satisfaction###'We generally get together for

###with social###a cup of tea every day'; the

###environment###working environment is

###friendly'; 'environment of

###synergy where team spirit and

###team effort produces extra

###ordinary results'.

###Satisfaction###'Seminars and workshops

###with work###negligible'; 'job becomes

###monotonous over years'. 'take

###the job as a challenge'. '

###research has become a

###monster'; 'dead -end job'.

Consequences of###Behavioral###Absenteeism###'Sometimes miss classes but

Organizational###not without a genuine reason';

Commitment of###'make-up for my missed

teachers in###classes' 'look forward coming

University of the###to the University'.

Punjab.

###Performance###'Prepare my lecture before

###going to class'; 'believe the

###quality of my teaching will

###improve if I keep abreast of the

###latest knowledge', 'try to use

###new methodologies in my

###teaching'; 'My analytical and

###communication skills have

###approved'.

###OCBs###'Willing to take up additional

###assignments other them

###teaching'; 'Concerned about

###personal grooming of the

###students'; 'help out the

###students whenever he or she

###comes to me'; 'help the

###students in their placement

###efforts'. 'get involved in

###improving self-confidence of

###the students'.

###Attitudinal###Intention to###'I don't feel switching to any

###stay###other organization'; I don't

###think I am married to my

###organization. But when I think,

###of advantages....I stop

###thinking about other options'.

###Motivation###'want to serve my alma mater';

###'I take every new class as a

###challenge and try to use new

###teaching methodologies';' I try

###to be responsive to my students

###need even if I am having a bad

###day'.

V. DATA INTERPRETATION

With the help of the codes developed, I interpreted the data.

Level of Organizational Commitment of Teachers in the University of the Punjab

This study supports the argument that organizational commitment is a multidimensional concept in line with the earlier studies (Nazari and Emami, 2012; Lee, 2003; Meyer and Allen, 1993). It appears that the teachers have a moderately high level of commitment to the University. They feel 'emotionally attached' to the University. Attitudinal or affective commitment seems to be high as most of the teachers have talked about the University in an emotional manner and they are sensitive to any negative remark against the University. They seem to have a strong sense of belonging to the University as many of them have mentioned that they feel part of the University. 'It's a great place to work' as mentioned be one lecturer. It seems that they identify themselves with the University as there appears to be a congruence of the goals of the teachers with that of the University and they seem willing to work for those objectives.

'I am here because I want to do something for my students', said one of the assistant professors. The University has a lot of 'personal meaning' for the teachers. They appear ready to contribute towards the grooming of their students professionally and academically. They seem to reflect job involvement through their willingness to work for improving image of the University and 'achievement of higher standard of excellence'. It seems that the teachers very much value the aspect of job security in the University which in turn reflects their continuance commitment to the University. They appear to cherish the freedom and flexibility in their jobs which they do not want to forego. They seem to consider costs of leaving the University. They seem to take count of old age benefits, medical facility and house requisition in their decision to stay with the University which again is an indicator of their continuance commitment to their organization.

So if commitment is considered as a matter of accrued investments, the teachers seem to be on a reasonably high level of commitment. The teachers seem to exhibit a sense of duty through their desire to be a part of assignments other than their teaching activities. They seem morally obligated to be a part of the University as it has given them 'respect, money and security'. This sense of duty and moral obligation is an indicator of their normative commitment to the University. Thus the three components of commitment are experienced by the teachers to varying degree. This provides support for the three component model proposed by Meyer and Allen (1993). So it can be inferred from the data that teachers of the University of the Punjab seem to have high level of affective, continuance and normative commitment. They wish to stay with the University because they want to (affective commitment).

They want to remain with the University as it has become their need (continuance commitment) and they feel obliged to stay because of normative commitment.

Antecedents of Organizational Commitment of Teachers in the University of the Punjab

The results of the study are in line with the previous researches which assert that there is a variety of antecedents of organizational commitment. These factors can be classified as personal factors and job-related factors.

Personal Factors

Personal factors such as age, gender, marital status need for achievement and job tenure (Emami et al, 2012; Bhagat and Chasie, 1981; Angle and Perry, 1981; Hall and Schneider, 1972) seem to play an important role in determining level of organizational commitment of the teachers of the University of the Punjab. Interviews and FGDs conducted with the lecturers and assistant professors reveal that age to some extent reduces mobility and old age benefits become more important as the age and length of service increases. In old age the other alternatives seem to become less attractive. Many senior teachers have mentioned the difficulty they feel in moving to a new job. The teachers seem to consider the benefits they will gain by sticking to the University indefinitely, 'the time spent itself becomes an asset'. So it can be said that age and length of service influence the commitment level of the teachers.

It appears that the female teachers are more attached to the University as it provides a caring, supportive and protective environment. As they are not the main bread winners for their families they are not much bothered by the monetary rewards. They appear to be committed to the organization not because of the compensation offered but due to the flexibility offered in their jobs. Marital status again seems more important in case of females who really value family friendly environment of the University. They seem to balance their personal and professional life more easily at the University. They seem to appreciate the flexi-hours provided by the University. As far as intention to seek advanced education is concerned most of the teachers seem to be interested in research but linking of research degree to career growth has somewhat de-motivating impact particularly in senior teachers.

The teachers seem to be committed to the University due to the opportunities for their intellectual growth. Their need for recognition appears to be satisfied as they get honor and respect from their students and the society. These results find support for previous studies (Emami et al, 2012; Salami, 2008) highlighting that personal factors do play an important role in determining the commitment level of the teachers.

Job-related Factors

It appears that the teachers go through minimum stress while performing their duties at the University. 'There is flexibility of effort' that makes the job less stressful. Teachers generally seem to be aware of what is expected of them. They are provided with the resources for performing their tasks smoothly like multi-media, internet and staff support. Due to flexibility of timings they seem to manage their life at work and family life conveniently. 'University does not create pressure' said by one of the teachers in performance of job-related activities. This lack of role stress seems to be significant predictor of organizational commitment of the teachers as concluded in earlier researches done by Alipour and Kamaee (2015) Morris and Koch (1979). As far as satisfaction of the teachers with the reward system is concerned a common perception is that the reward system is not based on performance.

They seem to consider the 'growth process slow' and 'the career is not hard paced'. They appear to be a bit dissatisfied with the compensation system which according to them does not take into account the good performance of the teachers. This thing seems to be demoralizing factor for the teachers which in turn may negatively influence their commitment to the University.

The teachers seem to consider the social environment as friendly and supportive. There is a general feeling that the colleagues are helpful and do not try to take credit for others work. As one lecturer said that 'it's an environment of synergy where team spirit and team effort produces extra ordinary results'. This positive social support seems to have a positive influence on the commitment level of the teachers. The leaders seem to have an open and supportive role which encourages teachers to perform better. The participation of teachers in decision making is generally limited and 'only those suggestions are incorporated that are in line with the chairperson's opinion'. However, they enjoy freedom in designing and execution of their courses. A common perception is that the University offers limited opportunities for training and development which makes teaching 'a dead-end job'.

The senior teachers consider their job more or less monotonous whereas young lectures take up teaching as a challenge and incorporate new teaching methodologies and latest knowledge. This gives the feeling that the job itself does not offer challenge. It is the teachers who make it so.

The positive relationship between job satisfaction derived from satisfaction with the reward system, the chairperson, peers, supportive work environment and organizational commitment is consistent with the findings of previous studies which suggest that job satisfaction makes the employees more committed (Lim, 2010; Bhagat and Chasie, 1981; Koch and Steers, 1978; Lawler and Hall, 1970). The positive relationship found in this study among reduced role stress, satisfaction with the reward system, peers and boss, participation in decision making and work experiences and the commitment level of teachers in the University of the Punjab is also empirically supported by earlier studies (Alipour and Kamaee, 2015; Nazari and Emami, 2012; LaMastro, 2000).

Consequences of Organizational Commitment of Teachers in the University of the Punjab

This study finds support for the previous studies asserting that organizational commitment influences the level of absenteeism, turnover and performance (Saxena and Saxena, 2015; Dey et al 2014; Emami et al, 2012; Mowday et al, 1982; Marsh and Manari, 1977). One of the important consequences of commitment of teachers to the University seems to be their regularity in taking classes. There is a feeling that the teachers do not miss their classes. Instead 'they look forward coming to the University'. They seem to be concerned about course coverage and take make-up classes for their missed lectures. They generally prepare their lectures and are interested in clarification of theoretical as well as practical aspects of their subject. They seem to be concerned about 'improving the self-confidence and communication skills of their students'. In other words, they seem to reflect OCBs. Also it appears that the teachers have little intention to switch to other organizations.

They appear to be motivated to perform their duties. They seem to continue contributing to the University despite problems.

VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The findings of the study are in line with the findings from the review of literature. Various conclusions can be driven from the findings of the study. First, it can be concluded that there is a variety of determinants of organizational commitment. In this study, commitment was influenced by a number of factors like age, length of service, gender, marital status, role stress, nature of social interaction, extent of participation in decision making and quality of work experiences. However common underlying aspect in all these determinants is the idea of exchange. Individuals enter the organizations with certain wants, interests, skills and so forth, and want to utilize their skills and satisfy their needs in a supportive environment. When the organization delivers such an environment, the possibility of raising commitment seems to be improved.

The study has shown that the organizations need to ensure that in addition to competitive compensation practices they should have rewards such as coworker support, job variety and equitable promotional opportunities for engaging the loyalty of the employees.

It also became evident that developing commitment among faculty members had significant consequences for educational institutes. This study showed that highly committed teachers were keen to stay with their current organization, and were likely to exert greater effort in the best interests of their respective institute and thus do better as compared to their uncommitted colleagues. It was also observed that highly committed faculty members aspired strongly to come to work and positively contribute to their respective institutes-that is, they had lower absenteeism rates. In addition to this, highly committed teachers were more enthusiastic and keen to go beyond their official job requirements and were more inclined to perform organizational citizenship behaviors. It can therefore be concluded that institutions that hold their faculty members by developing strong organizational commitment are likely to gain the benefits of a more devoted, motivated, and responsible teaching.

It is identified in the study that the teachers consider their job a dead-end job due to minimum training opportunities. By providing opportunities for training and development, two goals can be achieved by the university management. First, the teachers value the training activities carried out by the universities, which consequently enhances their commitment to the institute. Second, by initiating faculty development programs, universities can uplift the overall standard of education through improved knowledge and skills of the teachers. The faculty development programs can include sending faculty members for higher studies abroad, providing them opportunities to attend courses, seminars, conferences, and workshops. The research activity should be simplified so that more people get into the research.

Moreover, by linking rewards to the performance of the teachers the University management can send the message that good performance is appreciated. This could instill greater commitment among the faculty members.

The findings of this research are based on the subjective views of some teachers of the University selected through convenience sampling.

The generalizability of the results is limited. These can be confirmed by using other quantitative research techniques. Also similar research should be done in the private sector universities. This may help in drawing comparison of the organizational commitment of the teachers across the two sectors.

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