Printer Friendly

ANNULOHYPOXYLON (HYPOXYLACEAE) SPECIES FROM ARGENTINA.

INTRODUCTION

Extensive data about the diversity of xylariaceous fungi in Argentina was generated during the last ten years. This is mainly due to the several mycological expeditions carried out in the subtropical montane forest of the Northwestern region (Hladki & Romero, 2010; Kuhnert et al., 2015, 2017; Medina et al., 2016; Sir et al., 2012a, b, c; 2013; 2015, 2016a, b; Sir & Hladki, 2014).

The recently proposed family Hypoxylaceae (Wendt et al., 2018) is represented by six genera in the country, namely Annulohypoxylon Y. M. Ju, J. D. Rogers & H. M. Hsieh, Daldinia Ces. & De Not., Entonaema Moller, Hypoxylon Bull., Phylacia Lev., and Pyrenopolyporus Lloyd (Hladki & Romero, 2009a, b; Ju & Rogers, 1996; Sir et al., 2015; Kuhnert et. al., 2017; Daranagamma et al., 2018; Wendt et al., 2018). Originally, Annulohypoxylon was included in sect. Annulata J. H. Miller of Hypoxylon (Ju and Rogers, 1996). This section grouped species with (a) carbonized stromata, (b) conical-papillate ostioles surrounded or not by a discoid area, (c) smooth ascospores usually with dehiscent perispore but with a thickening of 1/3 of the length of the ascospores and (d) nodulisporium-like anamorphs. Later, Hsieh et al. (2005) segregated the section Annulata as a new genus, based on a [beta]-tubulin and [alpha]-actin phylogenetic analysis. Over ten years later, Kuhnert et al. (2017) used a polyphasic approach to improve the resolution of infrageneric relationships. Their work clearly shows the presence of two distinct lineages within the genus in accordance with previous results by Hsieh et al. (2005). Wendt et al. (2018) provided an extensive multigene phylogeny of the Xylariaceae using the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (ITS), the large subunit of the ribosomal DNA (LSU), the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and beta-tubulin (TUB) as genetic markers. Their data resulted in the segregation of the genus Jackrogersella L. Wendt, Kuhnert & M. Stadler from Annulohypoxylon. The new genus includes species characterized by: 1) inconspicuous or reduced ostiolar discs and 2) azaphilones of the specific cohaerin type (including minutellins and multiformins) as stromatal pigments (chemotaxonomic markers). Therefore, the generic Annulohypoxylon concept is limited only to those species with conspicuous ostiolar discs and stromatal pigments with naphthol derivatives (binaphthalene-tetrol, truncatone A, daldinol A) or truncaquinones (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

According to this new concept, Annulohypoxylon currently comprises about 45 species and two varieties, most of them distributed in tropical and subtropical regions (Wendt et al., 2018). In South America, 19 species are recognized (Cruz & Cortez, 2016; Hladki & Romero, 2009a, b; Ju & Rogers, 1996; Fournier & Lechat, 2016; Kuhnert et al., 2017), from which only nine have been formerly cited for Argentina: A. bovei (Speg.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, A. leptascum (Speg.) Y. M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh; A. moriforme (Henn.) Y. M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh var. moriforme, A. moriforme var. macrosporum Hladki & A.I. Romero, A. nitens (Ces.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, A. subeffusum (Speg.) Hladki & A.I. Romero, A. stygium (Lev.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H. M. Hsieh., A. substygium (Y. M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh) Sir & Kuhnert and A. yungensis Sir, Kuhnert, Hladki & A.I. Romero (Hladki & Romero 2009a, b; Kuhnert et al., 2017; Daranagama et al., 2018).

This work deals with an update for the diversity of the genus Annulohypoxylon in Argentina, including two novelties for the Southern Cone. Based on specimens collected during the last six years in the subtropical montane forest ("Las Yungas") located in the northwest and from previous reports, eleven species are recognized for this country and summarized in a comparative table. We also provide a provisional key to the species, comments, photographs, and a distribution map of these species in South.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fresh materials were collected mainly during 2011-2017 in natural reserves of the montane forest of Northwestern Argentina: Baritu, Calilegua, Campo de los Alisos and El Rey national parks; El Nogalar de los Toldos national reserve, Acambuco provincial reserve, and Parque Sierra de San Javier. In addition, several specimens of BPI, LIL, LPS, MFLU, NY, P, and WSP herbaria were examined and compared (acronyms according to Thiers, 2017, http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp).

The materials were studied, isolated and cultured following the methods described by Ju & Rogers (1996) and Kuhnert et al. (2017). The KOH-extractable pigments were evaluated after 1 min of incubation and compared with the color chart of Rayner (1970).

The author names of the fungi and host species were taken from Index Fungorum (http://www.indexfungorum.org/) and Tropicos (http://www.tropicos.org/Home.aspx), respectively.

RESULTS

Taxonomy

New records of Annulohypoxylon for Argentina and the Southern Cone

Annulohypoxylon purpureonitens (Y.M. Ju & J.D. Rogers) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, Mycologia 97(4): 861. 2005. Type: Brazil, Serra Araca, 10/13-III-1984, corticated wood, G. J. Samuels 808 (holotype NY 01089574!; isotype WSP 69635!). Figs. 1 A-F, 6.

Teleomorph. Stromata effused-pulvinate rarely glomerate; 10-25 mm long x 5.5-12 mm broad x 1-1.5 mm thick, with perithecial mounds 1/2 to 1/4 exposed; surface shiny black; red-brown to black granules immediately beneath surface, orange-brown granules detected by microscopic examination in water; KOH-extractable pigments Vinaceous Purple (101); the tissue below the perithecial layer inconspicuous, black. Perithecia spherical, 0.6-1 mm diam; ostioles conical papillate, encircled with a bovei-type disc 0.33-0.4 mm diam. Asci not observed. Ascospores brown, unicellular, ellipsoid-inequilateral, with broadly rounded ends, (7.1)7.9-9.0(9.6) x (3.3)3.5-4.2(4.4) [mu]m (N= 60, Me= 8.5 x 3.8 [mu]m); with straight germ slit spore-length on the convex side; perispore dehiscent in 10% KOH, smooth with a thickening on the convex side; epispore smooth. Anamorph on the natural substrate from isotype (WSP 69635): Conidiogenous structure on tomentose tissue Sepia (63). Conidiophores with nodulisporium-like branching pattern, erect, 150-400 [mu]m high, brown-reddish, roughened. Conidiogenous cells hyaline to pale brown, roughened, 13.3-20.6(27.1) x (1.9)2.2-3.3 [mu]m. Conidia hyaline, smooth to slightly roughened, ellipsoid, 3.5-4.7(5.6) x 2-2.7 [mu]m.

Culture. Not obtained.

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico (Ju & Rogers, 1996).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon purpureonitens was so far only known from northern Brazil and Mexico (Ju & Rogers, 1996). The presence of this taxon in the Southern Cone is evidenced by a unique collection from the north of Salta province. The species is very closely related to A. nitens but can be easily differentiated by its pigments (purple vs green) (Fig. 1A). The isotype (WSP) contained an anamorph attached to the stromata, which was not described in the original publication. Fournier & Lechat (2016) observed this structure, and presented a picture that showed the ramification with nodulisporium-like branching pattern. Here we provide, for the first time, a full description and illustration of this anamorph (Fig. 1E, F).

Kuhnert et al. (2017) reported binaphthalene-tetrol (BNT) as sole chemotaxonomic marker detectable for this species.

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Salta. Dpto. Santa Victoria, Parque Nacional Baritu, 28-XII-2011, Sir & Hladki 154 (LIL).

Annulohypoxylon purpureopigmentum Jad. Pereira, J.D. Rogers & J.L. Bezerra, Mycologia 102(1): 250. 2010. Type: Brazil, Bahia, Una, Una Ecopark, 15[degrees] 10' 02"W 39[degrees] 03' 16"S, 44 m, on indeterminated branch of dicotyledonous tree, 17-IV-2008, Jad. Pereira s.n. (holotype WSP 71615!). Figs. 1G-M, 2, 6.

Teleomorph. Stromata glomerate with few perithecia or effused-pulvinate; 2-23 mm long x 3-10 mm broad x 1-1.5 mm thick, coalescent, with inconspicuous perithecial mounds up to 1/2 exposed; surface Umber (9), becoming Sepia (63) to blackish when old, pruinose; orange brown granules immediately beneath surface, red-brown granules detected by microscopic examination in water; KOH-extractable pigments Vinaceous Purple (101); the tissue below the perithecial layer inconspicuous, 0.4-0.7 mm thick, black. Perithecia spherical to subspherical, sometimes compressed, 0.45-0.5 mm high x 0.34-0.5 mm diam.; ostioles conical papillate, encircled with a truncatum-type disc 0.17-0.25 mm diam. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, 99-106.5 [mu]m total length, spore-bearing part 43-52 x 3.9-5.5 [mu]m, stipe 29-60 [mu]m long; with amyloid, discoid apical apparatus, 0.5-0.7 x 1.2-1.4 [mu]m. Paraphyses filiform 2-3 [mu]m, wide at the base, tapering above asci. Ascospores brown, unicellular, ellipsoid-inequilateral, with broadly rounded ends, (6.3)6.6-7.8(8) x (2.8)3.1-3.5(3.7) [mu]m (N= 40; Me=7.1x 3.3 [mu]m); with straight germ slit spore-length on the convex side; perispore dehiscent in 10% KOH, smooth with a thickening on the convex side; epispore smooth. Anamorph on the natural substrate: Conidiogenous structure on young stromata or around of mature stromata on tomentose tissue, Umber (9). Conidiophores with virgariella-like (Fig. 2B) to nodulisporium-like (Fig. 2C) branching patterns, erect, 150-400 [mu]m high, brown-reddish, roughened. Conidiogenous cells hyaline to pale brown, roughened, 13.3-20.6(27.1) x (1.9)2.2-3.3 [mu]m. Conidia hyaline, smooth to slightly roughened, ellipsoid, 3.5-4.7(5.6) x 2-2.7 [mu]m.

Culture. Colonies on OA covering a 90 mm Petri dish in 4 weeks, at first whitish, becoming Greyish Sepia (105) with reddish tones, velvety to felty, zonate, with entire margin, Brick (59); reverse Brown Vinaceous (84). Conidiogenous structures developing on white to Salmon (41) areas; with virgariella-like (Fig. 2H) to nodulisporium-like (Fig. 2I-J) branching patterns, up to 400 [mu]m high, hyaline, smooth to roughened. Conidiogenous cells 10.8-20.2 x 2-3.3 [mu]m, hyaline, smooth to roughened. Conidia hyaline, smooth, ellipsoid. 3.4-4.9 x 1.7-2.5 [mu]m.

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, French Guiana and Martinique (Pereira et al., 2010; Fournier & Lechat, 2016).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon purpureopigmentum is a species with doubtful affinities to the genus (Kuhnert et al., 2017; Wendt et al., 2018). It has been recorded from tropical regions of South America and the Caribbean. Pereira et al. (2010) erected this species based on a collection from Bahia, Brazil. Fournier & Lechat (2016) and Fournier et al. (2016) cited it for French Guiana, Guadalupe Island, and Martinique Island. The Argentinean material is the first recorded from a southernmost tropical region of the South America, indicating the species may have a widespread distribution in the Neotropics.

The Argentinean collection was found on dead branches of an undetermined Myrtaceae species, coexisting with an undescribed species of Annulohypoxylon (having green KOH-extractable pigments). The observed stromata, ascospores size, and extractable pigments are typical of the species. Fournier & Lechat (2016) determined a truncatum-type ostiolar disc for this taxon, contrary to what was interpreted by Pereira et al. (2010) (who characterized it as bovei-type ostiolar disc). This is in agreement with our observations for the holotype and the Argentinean material.

Kuhnert et al. (2017) reported this species contains an unknown stromatal main compound related to hinnulin A.

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Jujuy. Dpto. Ledesma, Parque Nacional Calilegua, near to El Alejo trail, on dead branch of "guayabil", 7-VI-2017, Sir & Hladki 1067 (LIL).

FRENCH GUIANA. Sinnamary, Paracou, CIRAD field station, Guyaflux plot, lowland rainforest, dead corticated branch, 24-VI-2012, J. Fournier, GYJF 12178 (LIP).

Species formerly cited for Argentina

Annulohypoxylon bovei (Speg.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, Mycologia 97(4): 857. 2005. Type: Argentina, Tierra del Fuego, Isla de los Estados, on Fagus sp. 1882, Spegazzini s.n. (holotype LPS 1707!). Figs. 3A-D, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Ju & Rogers (1996: 207, as Hypoxylon bovei).

Distribution. Argentina, Australia, Chile, Indonesia, and New Zealand (Ju & Rogers, 1996).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon bovei is probably host-specific for Nothofagus Blume (Ju & Rogers, 1996). Its stromata are always pulvinate with only a few perithecia (Fig. 3A) and ostiolar discs with bovei-type dehiscence (Fig. 3B, C). The ascospores are ellipsoid-inequilateral with a central and short germ slit on the convex side (Fig. 3D).

The young stromata release Vinaceous Purple (101) pigments in contact with 10% KOH, but in mature stromata they are Fawn (87) or lacking. Kuhnert et al. (2017) reported the presence of daldinone A as chemotaxonomic marker for this species.

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Tierra del Fuego, 1985, M. M Schiavone s/n (LIL). CHILE. Punta Arenas. Patagonia, 27-XI-1995, Dusen P. 2938, as H. bovei (BPI 588062); ibid, 16-XII-1895, as H. bovei (BPI 587541).

INDONESIA. Java. Auth. Spec. Lev., ex Herb. Paris, corticated wood, as H. annulatum (BPI 738474).

NEW ZEALAND. Granville Forest, Totara Flat, Buller District, 22-V-1983, Rossman Amy, Samuels G., Matsushima T., as H. bovei, (BPI 1105424).

Annulohypoxylon leptascum (Speg.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, Mycologia 97(4): 859. 2005. Type: Brazil, Sao Paulo, Apiahy, on bark, 1888, Puiggari 2769 (holotype LPS1951!). Figs. 3E-G, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Ju & Rogers (1996: 213, as Hypoxylon leptascum).

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Thailand, USA, and Venezuela (Ju & Rogers, 1996).

Observations. This species was reported for first time in Argentina by Daranagama et al. (2018). It can be easily distinguished from other species occurring in Argentina by its fusoid ascospores (Fig. 3G). The shape of ascospores resembles that of other Annulohypoxylon species, such as A. macrosporum (Y.M. Ju & J.D. Rogers) Sir & Kuhnert; A. thailandicum Daranag. & K.D. Hyde, and A. urceolatum (Rehm) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh (Ju & Rogers, 1996; Liu et al., 2015). Its smaller ascospores are useful to distinguish it from A. macrosporum (18-20.7 x 4.2-5.7 [mu]m vs 10-16.8 x 3.5-5.2 [mu]m). Moreover, A. thailandicum has smaller ostiolar discs (1-2 mm vs 0.28-0.35 mm), whereas A. urceolatun has pigments of different color (purple vs green). Annulohypoxylon leptascum is also characterized by containing truncatones A & C and BNT as chemotaxonomic markers (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Salta. Dpto. Anta, Parque Nacional El Rey, 14-V-2012, Sir & Hladki 186 (LIL). Tucuman. Dpto. Yerba, Parque Sierra de San Javier, El Balcon, 24-V-199, Hladki 2506 (LIL); ibid, Horco Molle, Cuesta vieja trail, 27-XI-2017, Sir & Hladki 1095 (LIL).

THAILAND. Chiang Rai. Mea Fah Luang district, 16-VIII-2013, EK 13008 (MFLU 13-0350); ibid, 12-VIII-2014, EK (MFLU).

USA. Florida. Miami, 07-II-1922, Shear C. L., as H. truncatum (BPI 593697).

Annulohypoxylon moriforme (Henn.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh var. moriforme, Mycologia 97(4): 859 (2005). Type: SAMOA. Upolu, corticated wood, Reinecke s.n. (lectotype PAD! designated by Ju & Rogers, Mycol. Mem. 20: 215. 1996). Figs. 3H-K, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Ju & Rogers (1996: 215-216, as Hypoxylon moriforme).

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guiana, Mexico, New Zealand, Samoa, Singapur, Taiwan, Trinidad, USA, and Vietnam (Ju & Rogers, 1996; Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon moriforme var. moriforme is distinguished by having glomerate or hemispherical stromata, ellipsoid-inequilateral ascospores (6-9 x 2.5-4 [mu]m) and green extractable pigments (Fig. 3H). Occasionally, the stromata are effused-applanate (Fig. 3I); this tendency was observed when the species grows on wood, while the stromata are glomerate to effused-pulvinate on bark.

Kuhnert et al. (2017) included the specimens cited here in their polyphasic analyses, confirming the identity of this fungus. The Argentinean specimen was found to contain truncatone A & C and hypoxylonol C & F as stromatal constituents (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Salta. Dpto. Gral. Jose de San Martin, road to Reserva Provincial de Flora y Fauna Acambuco, 27-XI-2012, Sir & Hladki 322, 346 (LIL); ibid, 21-V-2015, Sir & Hladki 813 (LIL); ibid, 22-V-2015, Sir & Hladki 815, 823, 946 (LIL).

Annulohypoxylon moriforme var. macro-sporum Hladki & A.I. Romero, Darwiniana 47(2): 279. 2009. Type: Argentina, Misiones, P. N. Iguazu, Macuco trail, 28-X-2003, M. M. Schiavone s.n. (holotipo LIL 2922!). Figs. 3L, 6.

For teleomorph description, see Hladki & Romero (2009: 279).

Distribution. Argentina (Misiones).

Observations. This variety is only known from the holotype found in Misiones, Argentina. It can be separated from the type variety by its larger ascospores (9.4-10.9 x 4.5-5.4 [mu]m; Me= 10.2 x 4.9 [mu]m vs 7-10 x 3.3-4.6 [mu]m; Me= 8.3 x 3.8 [mu]m) (Table 1).

Annulohypoxylon nitens (Ces.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, Mycologia 97(4): 861. 2005. Type: Malasia: Borneo, Sarawak, corticated wood, O. Beccari 10 (holotype RO, no visto). Figs. 4A-C, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Ju & Rogers (1996: 220, as Hypoxylon nitens).

Distribution. Pantropical (Fournier et al., 2016).

Observations. This is the first report of A. nitens for northwestern Argentina. Previously, this species had been reported for the northeastern (Entre Rios province) and central (Buenos Aires province) regions of the country (Hladki & Romero 2009a).

The shiny black stromata, bovei-type ostiolar discs, and green pigments (Fig. 4A-C) with truncatone A & C, are diagnostic characters useful for the identification of this species (Ju & Rogers, 1996; Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Entre Rios, Parque Nacional Predelta, 32[degrees] 03'43" S 60[degrees] 38' 39" W, 11-XI-2005, A. B. Biasuso 2946, 2947 (LIL). Salta. Dpto. Gral. Jose de San Martin, road to Reserva Provincial de Flora y Fauna Acambuco, 23-IV-2014, Sir & Hladki 558 (LIL). Dpto. Santa Victoria, Reserva Nacional El Nogalar de los Toldos, 27-XII-2011, Sir & Hladki 098 (LIL).

CHINA. 18-III-1934, corticated wood, Teng, S.C. 1398, as H. bovei var. microspora (BPI 588067).

THE PHILIPPINES. 1920, wood, Reinking, O. 9596, as H. bovei var. microspora (BPI 588066).

Annulohypoxylon stygium (Lev.) Y.M. Ju, J.D. Rogers & H.M. Hsieh, Mycologia 97(4): 861. 2005. Type: Dominican Republic: St. Domingo, wood, Poiteau s.n. (holotype PC 723916!). Figs. 4D-H, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Ju & Rogers (1996: 225, as Hypoxylon stygium).

Distribution. Pantropical (Fournier & Lechat, 2016).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon stygium is cited for the first time for the north of Argentina; it was previously collected in Buenos Aires on Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. (Romero, 1998).

The species is characterized by having a vinaceous stromatal surface when young, becoming blackish at maturity. Its perithecial mounds are inconspicuous. In comparison with other Argentinean species, it has smaller ostiolar discs ([less than or equal to] 2 mm) and ascospores, these have a germ slit on the flattened side (Table 1, Fig. 4F).

The anamorph of A. stygium was observed on young stromata or surrounding the mature stromata with periconiella-like branching patterns (as defined by Ju & Rogers, 1996) (Fig. 4G, H). The species usually contains BNT, truncatone A & C and an unknown major compound in its stromata (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Jujuy. Dpto. Ledesma, Parque Nacional Calilegua, Guarani trail, 6-VI-2017, Sir & Hladki 1069 (LIL). Misiones. Dpto. Obera, Municipio Campo Ramon, "Centro de Investigaciones Antonia Ramos", 25-II-2015, Sir 968 (LIL). Salta. Dpto. Oran, road to "Isla de Canas", on dead trunk, 23-V-2015, Sir & Hladki 800 (LIL).

THAILAND. Chiang Rai. Mea Fah Luang district, 26-VIII-2013, E. Kuhnert 13020 (MFLU); ibid, Highway 1095 at 22 km market (Tapha Village) 12-VIII-2014, E. Kuhnert 14013 (MFLU).

Annulohypoxylon subeffusum (Speg.) Hladki & A.I. Romero, Mycologia 101(5): 739. 2009. Type: Paraguay, Santo Tomas, on Eugenia sp., 15-XII-1882, Balansa 3766, (holotype LPS 1939!). Figs. 4I-M, 6.

Teleomorph. Stromata effused, applanate to pulvinate; 0.7-80 mm long x 0.5-40 mm broad x 0.8-1 mm thick, with inconspicuous perithecial mounds up to 1/4 exposed; surface Umber (9) with grey tones when young, becoming black to blackish when old; brown to black granules immediately beneath surface, brown granules detected by microscopic examination in water; KOH-extractable pigments pale Olivaceous Grey (121); the tissue below the perithecial layer inconspicuous, black. Perithecia spherical 0.55-0.75 mm diam; ostioles conical papillate, encircled with a truncatum-type disc 0.3-0.35 mm diam. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, 109-169 [mu]m total length, spore-bearing part 42-57 x 4-7 [mu]m, stipe 59-120 [mu]m long; with amyloid, discoid apical apparatus, 0.65-0.95 x 1.2-1.7 [mu]m. Paraphyses filiform 2-3.7 [mu]m, wide at the base, tapering above asci. Ascospores brown, unicellular, ellipsoid-inequilateral, with broadly rounded ends, (7)8-9(9.8) x 3-3.8 [mu]m (N= 60; Me= 8.5x 3.4 [mu]m); with straight germ slit spore-length on the convex side; perispore dehiscent in 10% KOH, smooth with a thickening on the convex side; epispore smooth. Anamorph (from Sir & Hladki 805): Conidiogenous structure on tomentose tissue Sepia (63) color. Conidiophores with nodulisporium-like branching pattern, 120-400 um high, brown, roughened. Conidiogenous cell hyaline to pale brown, roughened, 11-20 x 2.5-3 [mu]m. Conidia hyaline to pale brown, smooth to slightly roughened, ellipsoid, 4.8-6 x 2.6-3.2 [mu]m.

Culture. Not obtained.

Distribution. Argentina and Paraguay (Hladki & Romero, 2009b; Aguero et al., 2010).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon subeffusum was erected by Spegazzini (1884) and is only known from the Southern Cone. It is characterized by effused, applanate to pulvinate blackish stromata with brown tones when young, inconspicuous up to 1/4 exposed perithecial mounds; ostiolar truncatum-type discs; amyloid apical rings and brown ellipsoid-inequilateral ascospores with straight germ slits spore-length and dehiscent perispore in KOH. The most useful character for delimiting this species is their diluted Olivaceous Grey (107) extractable pigments composed of BNT and truncatones A & C as chemotaxonomic markers (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Salta. Dpto. Gral. Jose de San Martin, road to Reserva Provincial de Flora y Fauna Acambuco, 21-V-2015, on dead trunk of Myrtaceae, Sir & Hladki 805, 810, 818 (LIL).

Annulohypoxylon substygium Sir & Kuhnert, Fungal Diversity 85: 20 (2017). Type: Georgia, Batum?, Cehis-Dzisi Caucasiae?, in horto Penkov?, corticated wood of Carpinus, 20-II-1912, G. Newodowski 77 (holotype S F10761!). Fig. 5A-G, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Kuhnert et al. (2017: 20-21).

Distribution. Argentina, Georgia, and Iran (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Observations. This species was erected by elevating the former variety A. stygium var. annulatum to species rank, based on morphological, molecular, and chemotaxonomic data (Kuhnert et al., 2017). Its ascospores are similar to A. stygium but can be easily differentiated by the size of the perithecia and ostiolar discs (Table 1). Typical stromatal metabolites are daldinone A and BNT (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

The species has a particular distribution and a variety of hosts. It was found on Carpinus L. in Georgia and on Acer L. in Iran; while the Argentinean materials were found on Junglans australis Griseb. ("nogal criollo"), on Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm. ("tala") and on remains of others unidentified native trees.

Specimen examined

ARGENTINA. Salta. Dpto. Santa Victoria, Reserva Nacional El Nogalar de los Toldos, on trunk of Junglans australis Griseb ("nogal criollo"), 27-XII-2011, Sir & Hladki 083, 093, 112 (LIL); ibid, 26-VI-2013, Sir & Hladki 468 (LIL, BAFC). Tucuman. Dpto. Chicligasta, road to Parque Nacional Campo de los Alisos, on dead branch of "tala", 18-V-2015, Sir & Hladki 799 (LIL); ibid, Parque Nacional Campo de los Alisos, on dead trunk of "nogal criollo", 15-V-2017, Sir & Hladki 1032 (LIL).

Annulohypoxylon yungensis Sir, Kuhnert, Hladki & A. I. Romero, Fungal Diversity 85: 13. 2017. Type: Argentina, Prov. Tucuman, Dpto. Yerba Buena, Parque Sierras de San Javier, La Cascada, 7-V-2013, Sir & Hladki 412 (holotype LIL!). Figs. 5H-L, 6.

For teleomorph and anamorph descriptions, see Kuhnert et al. (2017: 13).

Distribution. Argentina (Kuhnert et al., 2017).

Observations. Annulohypoxylon yungensis is very common in the northwest of Argentina but it was not found in the montane forest of Jujuy province. The diagnostic characters are exposed in table 1.

Specimens examined

ARGENTINA. Salta. Dpto. Anta, Parque Nacional El Rey, 29-IV-2014, Sir & Hladki 727, 728, 734 (LIL). Dpto. Santa Victoria, Reserva Nacional El Nogalar de los Toldos, 27-XII-2011, Sir & Hladki 291 (LIL, BAFC). Tucuman, Dpto. Yerba Buena, Parque Sierra de San Javier, La Cascada, 7-V-2013, Sir & Hladki 414 (LIL); ibid, Horco Molle, 21-V-2013, Sir & Hladki 448 (LIL, BAFC). Dpto. Chicligasta, Parque Provincial El Cochuna, La Virgen, 13-V-2013, Sir & Hladki 454, 455, 463 (LIL, BAFC).

Provisional key to Annulohypoxylon in Argentina

1. KOH-extractable pigments vinaceous to purple .... 2

1. KOH-extractable pigments otherwise.... 3

2(1). Mature stromata shiny black, ostiolar discs 0.33-0.4 mm diam....A. purpureonitens

2. Mature stromata umber, sepia to blackish; ostiolar discs 0.2-0.25 mm diam....A. purpureopigmentum

3(1). Ostiolar discs 0.1-0.2 mm diam....A. stygium

3. Ostiolar discs [greater than or equal to] 2 mm diam.... 4

4(3). Ascospores ellipsoid-fusoid slightly inequilateral with inconspicuous short germ slit in one end and indehiscent perispore .....A. leptascum

4. Ascospores not fusoid, ellispoid-inequilateral with germ slit spore-length or central short and dehiscent perispore.... 5

5(4). Stromata pulvinate always with few perithecia, usually without extractable pigments, ostiolar discs 5-7 mm diam. and ascospores with central and short germ slit....A. bovei

5. Stromata glomerate, effused-pulvinate, hemispherical, usually with many perithecia, always with extractable pigments, ostiolar discs [less than or equal to] 5 mm diam. and ascospores with spore-length germ slit .... 6

6(5). Ascospores with germ slit on the fattened side .... A. substygium

6. Ascospores with germ slit on the convex side .... 7

7(6). KOH-extractable pigments dilute olivaceous grey ....A. subeffusum

7. KOH-extractable pigments concentrate, usually green .... 8

8(7). Ostiolar discs up to 0.3 mm diam., extractable pigments olivaceous grey becoming dark brick....A. yungensis

8. Ostiolar discs up to 0.5 mm diam., extractable pigments green, dark green or olivaceous.... 9

9(9). Stromata effused-pulvinate, rarely glomerate to hemispherical, with reddish-brown tones, becoming shiny black at maturity .....A. nitens

9. Stromata glomerate, hemispherical, or rarely effused-applanate, surface with olivaceous tones, becoming dull blackish at maturity....10

10(9). Ascospores 7-10 x 3.3-4.6 [mu]m (Me= 8.3 x 3.8 [mu]m) ....A. moriforme var. moriforme

10. Ascospores 9.4-10.9 x 4.5-5.4 [mu]m (Me= 10.2 x 4.9 [mu]m) ....A. moriforme var. macrosporum

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The research of the diversity of xylariaceous fungi carried out in the last fifteen years in the northwest of Argentina can be considered as one of the most extensive and intensive made in the country. As a consequence, almost a hundred of xylariaceous species have been recorded, from which 52% belong to the Xylariaceae, 45% to the Hypoxylaceae, 2% to the Graphostromataceae and 1% to the Lopadostomataceae (Daranagama et al., 2018; Hladki & Romero, 2010; Kuhnert et al., 2015, 2017; Medina et al., 2016; Sir et al., 2012a, b, c; 2013; 2015, 2016a, b, 2017; Sir & Hladki, 2014). Additionally, we are aware of the existence of more than 130 species (unpublished data).

Previously, nine Annulohypoxylon species had been cited for Argentina. In the present work, we report eleven species, including two new records (A. stygium and A. nitens) for the Argentinean mycobiota. Particularly, we must highlight that prior to our surveys, only A. subeffusum was known for the northwest of Argentina (Aguero et al., 2010). Since then, we reported additional species for this region, i.e. A. moriforme var. moriforme, A. leptascum, A. substygium and A. yungensis (Kuhnert et al., 2017; Daranagama et al., 2018). Thus we recognize eight species of the genus for the northwest of Argentina, which is the highest percentage of species for the country. This figure is due to the greater sampling effort carried out in the subtropical montane forest of Argentina. We expect at least ten more species of Annulohypoxylon to be present in "Las Yungas" area reflecting the high diversity of the mycobiota of Argentina.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors express their appreciation to the authorities of Fundacion Miguel Lillo Tucuman, DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) and to the Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Productiva of Argentina, for financial support. We would also like to thank the Administracion de Parques Nacionales of Argentina, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente of Salta Province and Direccion Provincial de Biodiversidad of Jujuy Province for authorization of collection. We gratefully acknowledge support from the curators of various international herbaria, who provided important specimens for the present study.

We are thankful to Dr. Marc Stadler for revising the manuscript and EBS thanks Rodrigo Delgado and Jorge Salas from the FML for the support in the field trips.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aguero, A. N.; A. I. Hladki & M. M. Dios. 2010. La familia Xylariaceae (Xylariales) en la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina). Lilloa 47: 3-9.

Cruz, K. S. & V. G. Cortez. 2016. Annulohypoxylon (Xylariales) from western Parana, Brazil. Mycotaxon 131: 395-402.

Daranagama D. A.; K. D. Hyde; E. B. Sir; K. M. Thambugala, Q. Tian; M. C. Samarakoon; E. H. C. McKenzie; S. C. Jayasiri; S. Tibpromma; J. D. Bhat; X. Z. Liu & M. Stadler. 2018. Towards a natural classifcation and backbone tree for Graphostromataceae, Hypoxylaceae, Lopadostomataceae and Xylariaceae. Fungal Diversity 88: 1-165.

Fournier, J. & C. Lechat. 2016. Some Annulohypoxylon spp. (Xylariaceae) from French Guiana, including three new species. Ascomycete.org 8(1): 33-53.

Fournier, J.; C. Lechat & R. Courtecuisse. 2016. The genus Annulohypoxylon (Xylariaceae) in Guadeloupe and Martinique (French West Indies). Ascomycete.org 8(4): 127-156.

Hladki, A. I. & A. I. Romero. 2009a. Novedades para los generos Annulohypoxylon e Hypoxylon (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae) en la Republica Argentina. Darwiniana 47(2): 278-288.

Hladki, A. I. & A. I. Romero. 2009b. Taxonomic and nomenclatural aspects of Hypoxylon taxa from southern South America proposed by Spegazzini. Mycologia 101(5): 733-744.

Hladki, A. I. & A. I. Romero. 2010. A preliminary account of Xylaria in the Tucuman Province, Argentina, with a key to the known species from the Northern Provinces. Fungal Diversity 42: 79-96.

Hsieh, H. M.; Y. M. Ju & J. D. Rogers. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Hypoxylon and closely related genera. Mycologia 97: 844-865.

Index Fungorum-Authors of Fungal Names, 2017. Index Fungorum-Authors of Fungal Names. [consultated 10 October 2017]. http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/names.asp

Ju, Y. M. & J. D. Rogers. 1996. A revision of the genus Hypoxylon. Mycologia memoir N[degrees] 20. APS Press, St. Paul, MN 365.

Kuhnert, E.; E. B. Sir, C. Lambert, K. D. Hyde, A. I. Hladki, A. I. Romero, M. Rohde & M. Stadler. 2017. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic resolution of the genus Annulohypoxylon (Xylariaceae) including four new species. Fungal Diversity 85:1-43.

Kuhnert, E.; F. Surup, E. B. Sir, C. Lambert, K. D. Hyde, A. I. Hladki, A. I. Romero & M. Stadler. 2015. Lenormandins A-G, new azaphilones from Hypoxylon lenormandii and Hypoxylon jaklitschii sp. nov., recognised by chemotaxonomic data. Fungal Diversity 71: 165-184.

Liu, J. K.; K. D. Hyde, E. B. G. Jones, H. A. Ariyawansa, J. D. Bhat, S. Boonmee, S. S. N. Maharachchikumbura, E. H. C. Mckenzie, R. Phookamsak, C. Phukhamsakda, B. D. Shenoy, M. A. Abdel-Wahab, B. Buyck, J. Chen, K. W. T. Chethana, C. Singtripop, D. Q. Dai, D. Y. C. Ai, D. A. Daranagama, A. J. Dissanayake, M. Doilom, M. J. D'souza, X. L. Fan, I. D. Goonasekara, K. Hirayama, S. Hongsanan, S. C. Jayasiri, R. S. Jayawardena, S. C. Karunarathana, W. J. Li, A. Mapook, C. Norphanphoun, K. L. Pang, R. H. Perera, D. Persoh, U. Pinruan, I. C. Senanayake, S. Somrithipol, S. Suetrong, K. Tanaka, K. M. Thambugala, Q. Tian, S. Tibpromma, D. Udayanga, N. N. Wuayawardene, D. Wanasinghe, K. Wisitrassameewong, X. Y. Zeng, F. A. Abdel-Aziz, S. Adamcik, A. H. Bahkali, N. Boonyuen, T. Bulgakov, P. Callac, P. Chomnunti, K. Greiner, A. Hashimoto, V. Hofstetter, J. C. Kang, D. Lewis, X. L. Li, X. X. Liu, Z. Y. Liu, M. Matsumura, P. E. Mortimer, G. Rambold, E. Randrianjohany, G. Sato, V. Sriindrasutdhi, C. M. Tian, A. Verbeken, W. Vo n brackel, Y. Wang, T. C. Wen, J. C. Xu, J. Y. Yan, R. L. Zhao & E. Camporesi. 2015. Fungal Diversity Notes 1-110: Taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal species. Fungal Diversity 72: 1-197.

Medina, P. M.; E. B. Sir, E. M. Grassi & A. I. Hladki. 2016. Nuevas citas del genero Poronia (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) para el Norte de Argentina. Lilloa 53: 133-138.

Pereira, J.; J. D. Rogers & J. L. Bezerra. 2010. New Annulohypoxylon species from Brazil. Mycologia 102: 248-252.

Rayner, R. W. 1970. A mycological colour chart. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew and British Mycological Society.

Romero, A. I. 1998. Clave de las especies de Micromicetes xiloflos, registrados sobre Eucalyptus viminalis Labill en el NE de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Boletin de la Sociedad Micologica de Madrid 23: 47-89.

Sir, E. B. & A. I. Hladki. 2014. Nuevos reportes del genero Rosellinia (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) en los sectores norte y centro de Las Yungas de la Argentina. Lilloa 51: 97-107.

Sir, E. B.; A. I. Hladki, M. F. Parrado & A. I. Romero. 2012a. Biodiversity of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) and their hosts in protected areas from Tucuman (Argentina). Kurtziana 37: 35-48.

Sir, E. B.; E. Kuhnert, C. Lambert, A. I. Hladki, A. I. Romero & M. Stadler. 2016a. New species and reports of Hypoxylon from Argentina recognized by a polyphasic approach. Mycological Progress 15: 1-42.

Sir, E. B.; C. Lambert, L. Wendt, A. I. Hladki, A. I. Romero & M. Stadler. 2016b. A new species of Daldinia (Xylariaceae) from the Argentine subtropical montane forest. Mycosphere 7: 1378-1388.

Sir, E. B.; T. C. Perera, A. I. Romero & A. I. Hladki. 2012b. Provisional dichotomic keys for the genera and species of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) from Tucuman, Argentina. Lilloa 49: 126-134.

Sir, E. B.; T. C. Perera, A. I. Romero & A. I. Hladki. 2012c. Novedades para el genero Rosellinia (Ascomycota-Xylariaceae) en el Noroeste de la Republica Argentina. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica. 47: 311-321.

Sir, E. B.; T. C. Perera, A. I. Romero & A. I. Hladki. 2013. Stilbohypoxylon quisquiliarum (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae), nueva cita para la Argentina. Darwiniana, nueva serie 1: 289-294.

Sir, E. B.; A. I. Romero & A. I. Hladki. 2015. A new species and a new record of Anthostomella (Xylariaceae-Ascomycota) on leaf-litter of Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae) from Argentina. Mycotaxon 130: 721-729.

Spegazzini, C. L. 1884. Fungi Guaranitici. Pugillus I. Annales de la Sociedad Cientifca Argentina 18: 263-286.

Thiers, B. [permanently updated, consulted 2017] Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium, http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih

Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 2017, http://www.tropicos.org

Wendt, L.; E. B. Sir, E. Kuhnert, S. Heitkamper, C. Lambert, A. I. Hladki, A. I. Romero, J. J. Luangsa-Ard, P. Srikitikulchai, D. Persoh & M. Stadler. 2018. Resurrection and emendation of the Hypoxylaceae, recognised from a multigene phylogeny of the Xylariales. Mycological Progress: 17: 115-154.

Esteban B. Sir (1), Eric Kuhnert (2), Adriana I. Hladki (3) & Andrea I. Romero (4,5)

(1) Fundacion Miguel Lillo, CONICET, Laboratorio Criptogamico, Miguel Lillo 251, 4000 San Miguel de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina; sirestebanbenjamin@gmail.com (author for correspondence).

(2) Institute for Organic Chemistry, BMWZ, Leibniz Universitat Hannover, Schneiderberg 38, 30167 Hannover, Germany.

(3) Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Laboratorio Criptogamico, Tucuman, Argentina.

(4) Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II Piso 4, 1428 Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

(5) Instituto de Micologia y Botanica (INMIBO), CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Original recibido el 3 de noviembre de 2017, aceptado el 21 de mayo de 2018

DOI: 10.14522/darwiniana.2018.61.777
Table 1. Characteristics of Annulohypoxylon species known from
Argentina. (Abbreviations. a: effused-applanate, ep: effused-pulvinate,
g: glomerate; h: hemispherical, p: pulvinate, r: rosellinoid, in:
inconspicuous, c: on convex side, f: on fattened side, l: spore-length,
s: short, n: nodulisporium-like branching pattern, p: periconiella-like
branching pattern, v: virgariella-like branching pattern, d: unknown).

                      Stroma    Perithecial  Pigments
                      shape     mounds       mature
                                exposition   stroma

A. bovei              p         in. to 1/3   s/p (a)
A. leptascum          ep        in.          green (90, 70, 21)
A. moriforme var.     g, h, a,  in. to       green
moriforme             ep        1/3          (90, 70)
A. moriforme var.     g, h      in. to       green
macrosporum                     1/3          (90, 70)
A. nitens             ep, g     1/4 to       green
                                1/2          (90)
A. purpureonitens     ep        1/4 to       Vinaceous
                                1/2          Purple
                                             (101)
A. purpureopigmentum  ep, g     1/4 to       Vinaceous
                                1/2          Purple
                                             (101)
A. stygium            a, ep     in.          green
                                             (90, 70)
A. subeffusum         a, ep     in.          dilute Olivaceous
                                             grey (a)
                                             (121)
A. substygium         a, ep     in.          Fuscous Black
                                             (70), Fawn (87) or
                                             green (60)
A. yungensis          g, ep, r  in. to       Olivaceous Grey
                                2/3          (121) to Dark
                                             Brick (60)

                      Ostiolar               Ascospores
                      discs                  ([mu]m)
                      (type and
                      diam.)

A. bovei              bovei, 5-7 mm          10.5-14 x 5-6.5
A. leptascum          truncatum, 0.2-0.3 mm   7.5-13 x 3-4
A. moriforme var.     truncatum,              6-9 x 2.5-4
moriforme             0.2-0.45 mm
A. moriforme var.     truncatum,              9-10.5 x 4-5.5
macrosporum           0.3-0.5 mm
A. nitens             bovei,                  6.5-11 x 3-4.5
                      0.2-0.5 mm
A. purpureonitens     bovei,                  7.1-9.6 x 3.3-4.2
                      0.33-0.4 mm

A. purpureopigmentum  truncatum,              6.3-8 x 2.9-3.7
                      0.2-0.25 mm

A. stygium            bovei,                  5-7 x 2-3
                      0.1-0.2 mm
A. subeffusum         truncatum,              7-9.8 x 3-33.8
                      0.3-0.35 mm

A. substygium         bovei,                  6.5-8.5 x 2.8-3.5
                      0.5-0.35 mm

A. yungensis          truncatum,              7.6-9.9 x 3.2-4.5
                      0.2-0.3 mm

                      Germ slit  Anamorph

A. bovei               s, c        d
A. leptascum           s, f        p
A. moriforme var.      l, c        n
moriforme
A. moriforme var.      l, c        d
macrosporum
A. nitens              l, c        n

A. purpureonitens      l, c        n


A. purpureopigmentum   l, c       vn


A. stygium             l, f        p

A. subeffusum          l, c        n


A. substygium          l, f        p


A. yungensis           l, c        p

(a) See observations in each species comments.
COPYRIGHT 2018 Instituto de Botanica Darwinion
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Esteban, B.; Kuhnert, Eric; Hladki, Adriana I.; Romero, Andrea I.
Publication:Darwiniana
Date:Jul 1, 2018
Words:6181
Previous Article:NEW SPECIES, NEW COMBINATION, AND NOTES ON CLITOCELLA AND RHODOCYBE (ENTOLOMATACEAE) FROM PARANA STATE, BRAZIL.
Next Article:VACHELLIA Y PARASENEGALIA (LEGUMINOSAE, MIMOSOIDEAE) DE LOS VALLES CALCHAQUIES DE SALTA, ARGENTINA.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |