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ANGIOSPERMIC PLANT RESOURCES AND FOLK USES IN DISTRICT KARAK, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN.

Byline: N. Akhtar, A. Siddique and M. Anwar

ABSTRACT

Ethnobotanical survey of angiosperms was undertaken in district Karak KP, Pakistan during March, 2010 through April, 2011.The aims and objectives of the study were to document the indigenous knowledge of plants particularly medicinal, fuel, timber, vegetables, ornamentals and fruit plants. A total of 88 genera and 103 species belonging to 43 families were collected from district Karak, KP, Pakistan. Out of 103 plant species, 76 species (74%) were herbs, 15 species (14%) were trees and 12 species (12%) were shrubs. Among these 103 plants, 70 (67.9%) plants are used as a fodder for cattle, 52 (50.4%) medicinal, 38(36.8%) fuel, 8 (7.7%) timber, 8 (7.7%) vegetables, 7 (6.8%) ornamental and 4 (3.8%) as edible fruits. Out of these, 6 (5.8%) used as a hedge plants and 10 (9.7%) used for miscellaneous purposes.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Flora, Medicinal plants, Karak, Pakistan.

INTRODUCTION

District Karak lies between 33Adeg-6' to 33Adeg-7' North latitudes and 71Adeg-2' to 71Adeg-7' East longitudes. It is bounded on North by district Kohat and Hangu, on South by district Lakki Marwat and on South-East by district Mianwali and on the West by district Bannu and Waziristan agency. Karak was upgraded to district on 1st July 1982. Before the up-gradation, it was a sub-division of district Kohat. It is divided into three sub-divisions; Karak, Banda Daud Shah and Takht-e-Nasrati. District Karak consists of a series of small mountains ranges located from East to West. Other important hills are called "Range of Khattak tribe" initiates from the boundary of district with South Waziristan and goes on East-West side up to the River Indus. District has extreme of climate. June is the hottest month with mean minimum 27AdegC and maximum 40AdegC temperature.

The cold season is very extreme because of the wind comes from the west side called "Breeze of Hangu" and rarely blow down the valley of Mirazai. January is the coldest month with mean minimum 6AdegC and maximum 18AdegC temperature. Monsoon rainfall starts from May to September. The highest monsoon rainfall (110mm) occurs in month of August. From December to February winter rains occur. 'John Harshberg' for the first time in 1896 coined the term ethnobotany (Ahmad et al., 2006). In 20th century, ethnobotany emerged as a distinct academic field of natural science. Now the term "ethnobotany" has been expanded and considered to be one of the major discipline of economic Botany, which emphasizes on the economic utilization of plant resources for the welfare of humanity (Wickens, 2001). Ethnobotany is the study of a regional plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.

It is the scientific study of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people concerning plants and their medical, religious and other uses. Ethnobotany is the study of how the people of a particular culture and region makes the use of indigenous plants, while the ethnobotanist explores how the plant resources of the particular region are used for food, medicinal, timber, fuel, shelter and hunting purposes and in religious ceremonies. According to Balick (1996) ethnobotany deals with the relationship between plants and people of the particular area for their use as food, medicines, fuel, fodder, clothing, shelter and other house hold purposes. It is a plant science, which deals "the relationship between a given society and its environment and in particular the plant world". Allem (2000) and Khan et al. (2015) stated that ethnobotany is the study of biological, economic, and cultural inter-relationship between plants and the peoples of an area in which they lives.

Ethnobotany plays a vital role in understanding the relationships between biodiversity, social and cultural dynamics (Hussain et al., 2008; Mahmood et al., 2011). The area is gifted with xeric and unique flora. The people of the area are mostly poor, educated and depends upon indigenous plant resources for their primary health care and domestic needs.Therefore the aim of the present study was to explore the ethnobotanical wealth of district Karak and its documentation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plants collection, preservation and identification: Before the start of field work, research project was planned. Information regarding the study area and vegetation were collected. Several trips were made to different sites of the area during March, 2010 through April, 2011. Ethnobotanically important plant species were collected from different sites of the research area. These collected plant species were then placed in the newspapers for the removal of moisture. Then they were pressed in plant presser. The newspapers were changed after every 24 or 48 hours. To prevent fungal attack, naphthalene powder was sprinkled over each plant. The newspapers were changed repeatedly until the plants were completely dried. The dried plants were then mounted on standard herbarium sheets. Plants identification was carried out based on morphological characters of leaves, flowers and fruits by following flora of Pakistan (Ali and Qaiser, 1995; Ali and Nasir, 1989-1991; Nasir and Ali, 1972).

After the identification, the voucher specimens were submitted in the herbarium of Botany Department, Islamia College Peshawar for future references.

Data collection: Ethnobotanical information was collected through questionnaire. Structured and semi-structured questionnaire were prepared and distributed among the peoples in villages like Ahmad Abad, Banda Daud Shah, Chowkara, Haider khel, Lawaghar Cheni Khel, Narai Khra, Nari panos, Sabir Abad, Tatter khel, Warana and Zarkai of district Karak. From each village Hakims, educated and aged people and farmers were interviewed. During the trips personal observation were also made and recorded. The data collected through questionnaires and personal observations were thoroughly analyzed and documented.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The present work was carried out in district Karak in order to record the ethnobotanical information about the plant resources. The research area was visited during March, 2010 through April, 2011. During this survey, plant diversity was thoroughly studied and ethnobotanical information were collected. A total of 103 species belonging to 43 families were recorded from the study area. The dominant families were Fabaceae (11 spp.), Asteraceae and Poaceae with (10 spp.) each. They were followed by Amaranthaceae with (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae with (6 spp.), Boraginaceae with (5 spp.), Brassicaceae, Mimosaceae and Zygopyllaceae with (4 spp.) each, Solanaceae with (3 spp.). Apocyanaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Palmaceae and Rhamnaceae with (2 spp.) each. While the rest of families were reperesented by single species each. The aim of the present study was to assess and document the ethno-botanical knowledge of angiospermic plant resources including herbs, shrubs and trees of district Karak.

It was found that 103 different plant species were used for medicinal, fuel wood, timber, ornamental, fodder, vegetables and some other purposes. All plant species were arranged in Family alphabetical order mentioning their botanical name, local name, habit, habitats, part used and ethno-botanical uses (Table. 1). Out of 103 reported plants, herbs (76 spp., 74%), trees (15 spp., 14%) and shrubs were (12 spp., 12%) (Figure 1). These ethno-botanical important plants occur in variety of habitats. Among these 103 plants, 56 (54.8%) grow on bare soil, 22 (21.3%) in gram fields, 15 (14.5%) in wheat field, 5 (4.8%) in graveyards, 2 (1.9%) on dry area, 1 (0.9%) as parasitic, 1 (0.9%) in hilly area and 1(0.9%) in sandy soil (Figure 2).

Based on the information collected 70 (67.9%) plants are used as a fodder for cattle, 52 (50.4%) medicinal, 38(36.8%) fuel, 8 (7.7%) timber, 8 (7.7%) vegetables, 7 (6.8%) ornamental, 4 (3.8%) as edible fruits, 6 (5.8%) used as a hedge plants and 10 (9.7%) are used for miscellaneous purposes. (Figure 3). Similar ethnobotanical information was also collected by Barkatullah et al. (2011) while studying ethnobotany of Malakand Pass Hills, Pakistan, Ahmad et al. (2011) from Tehsil Kabal, district Swat, Sher et al. (2011) from Chagharzai Valley, district Buner, Pakistan, Shinwari et al. (2011) from Kohat pass Pakistan, Murad et al. (2012), from Hazar Nao forest, district Malakand, Pakistan, Badshah et al. (2012) from district Tank, Pakistan, and Khan and Musharaf (2014) from Sheikh Maltoon district Mardan, Pakistan. Among them, the local inhabitants used medicinal plants for the treatments of various diseases.

These were used to treat digestive disorders such as indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation, stomachache and ulcer and skeleto-muscular disorders like muscle-ache, backache and rheumatism. These findings are similar to an ethno-medicinal study conducted by Akhtar et al. (2013) in Swat, Pakistan. Some plants were used to cure pulmonary diseases such as bronchitis, cough and asthma. While other were used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, anti-hepatitis, tonic and expectorant. Few were used for the treatment of skin disorders, swelling, wound healings and curing of scorpion stings and snake bite. The local inhabitants of the area usually utilize every part of the plant. However, the use of a particular plant part depends on the user's needs and plant habits. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves 97 (94.1%), followed by stem 83 (80.5%), roots 40 (38.8%), seeds 10 (9.7%). Fruit 9 (8.7%), whole plant 8 (7.7%) and flower 3 (2.9%) (Figure 4).

The present findings of the frequent use of leaves are similar to the findings of Murad et al. (2013), Akhtar et al. (2013), Hassan et al. (2015), Khan et al. (2015) and Sohel et al. (2016).

Table 1. Total reported Ethnobotanical plants from district Karak, KP, Pakistan with chorological characteristics.

S. No###Families###Plant Name###Local Name###Habit###Habitats###Part###Ethnobotanical Uses

###Used

1.###Acanthaceae###Justacia adhatoda L.###Boza###Shrub###BS###S,L###Asthma, bronchitis, cough, rheumatism, dysentery and fuel.

2.###Aizoaceae###Trianthema portulacastrum###Lamay###Herb###BS###R,L,S###Analgesic, asthma, anemia, purgative, stomachache, piles, inflammation,

###L###bronchitis and fodder.

3.###Amaranthaceae###Achyranthes bidentata###Wormanday###Herb###BS###R,S###Fodder and fuel.

###Blume Bijd.

4.###Amaranthaceae###A. aspera L.###Harsoba###Herb###GF###WP###Fodder

5.###Amaranthaceae###Amaranthes graecizans L.###Ksohwar###Herb###BS###R,L###Fodder and fuel.

6.###Amaranthaceae###A. viridis L.###Ranzoka###Herb###GF###R,L,S###Vegetables, Emollient, pain killer, snake bite and scorpion sting.

7.###Amaranthaceae###Bassia eriophora Schard.###Lewansoba###Herb###BS###L,S###Vegetables and Fodder.

8.###Amaranthaceae###Chenopodium album L.###Spinsoba###Herb###GF###R,L,SD###Urinary diseases and rheumatism, vegetable and fodder.

9.###Amaranthaceae###C. murale L.###Torsoba###Herb###GF###L###Antispasmodic, Asthma, stimulant, vegetable and fodder.

10.###Apiaceae###Foeniculum vulgare Miller.###Kagao###Herb###BS###L,F###Carminative, stimulant and fodder.

11.###Apocyanaceae###Nerium oleander L.###Gandergul###Shrub###BS###R,L,S###Ornamental, snake bite and scorpion sting , swelling andskin diseases

12.###Apocyanaceae###Rhazya stricta Decen.###Ranzay###Shrub###BS###R,L,S###Blood purification, skin diseases and fuel.

13.###Asclepiadaceae###Calotropis procera Acit.###Spalmaka###Shrub###BS###R,L,S###Anthelmintic, skin diseases, ear pain, and snake bite.

14.###Asteraceae###Calendula arvensis L.###Zyarguley###Herb###GF###L,FL###Toothache, ornamental and fodder.

15.###Asteraceae###Centaurea benedicta L.###Marghatol###Herb###WF###R,L,S###Fodder.

16.###Asteraceae###Carthamus oxycantha M.B.###Ghazanka###Herb###WF###S,FL###Antipyretic, hair tonic, measles, laxative,and fever.

17.###Asteraceae###Cirsium arvense L.###Traper###Herb###BS###R,L,S###Tonic, diaphoretic, emetic and fodder.

18.###Asteraceae###Conyza aegyptiaca L.###Lalahozakh###Herb###WF###L,S###Stimulant, dysentery, diarrhea, fodder and fuel.

19.###Asteraceae###Parthenium hyterophorus L.###Lewanebhang###Herb###WF###L,S###Fodder and fuel.

20.###Asteraceae###Silybum marianum Gaerth.###Shodakai###Herb###WF###L,S,SD###Aperients, diaphoretic, demulcent, and fodder.

21.###Asteraceae###Sonchus asper L.###Toriza###Herb###GF###R,S,L###Asthma, inflammation, itching, heart problems, constipation, and fuel.

22.###Asteraceae###Taraxicum officinale###Zyer Gul###Herb###WF###R,S,L###Fodder.

###Webber.

23.###Asteraceae###Xanthium strumarium L.###Kata sora###Herb###GY###R,S,L###Urinary troubles and fuel.

24.###Boraginaceae###Buglossoides arvense L.###Lenai###Herb###BS###WP###Fodder and fuel.

25.###Boraginaceae###Gastrocotyle hispida Forssk.###Rarr###Herb###GF###R,S,L###Fodder and fuel.

26.###Boraginaceae###Heliotropium biannulatum###Wangai###Herb###GF###L###Fodder.

###Bung.

27.###Boraginaceae###Myosotis alpestris F.###Soba###Herb###BS###L,SD###Fodder and fuel.

28.###Boraginaceae###Nonnea edgeworthii DC.###Spinguley###Herb###WF###L,SD###Hair tonic, vegetable and fodder.

29.###Brassicaceae###Chorispora tenella Pall.###Soor Gul###Herb###WF###L,S,FL###Fodder and ornamental.

30.###Brassicaceae###Coronopus didymus L.###Kakorai###Herb###WF###WP###Fodder.

31.###Brassicaceae###Farsetia hamiltonii Royle.###Melangai###Herb###BS###R,S,L###Fodder and fuel.

32.###Brassicaceae###Sisymbrium irrio L.###Badalbhang###Herb###GF###L,SD###Antipyretic, stimulant diaphoretic and expectorant.

33.###Cactaceae###Opuntia monocantha Haw.###Ghzanka###Shrub###BS###L,S###Hedge plant.

34.###Capparidaceae###Capparis aphylla Roth###Kerra or tup###Tree###SS###R,S,L###Hedge plant, furniture purposes and fuel.

35.###Convolvulaceae###Convolvulus arvensis L.###Prewaty###Herb###GF###WP###Anti-dandruff, laxative, Anthelmintic and fodder.

36.###Cucurbitaceae###Citrullus colocynthis L.###Tarha Mara###Herb###BS###L,S###Fodder

37.###Cuscutaceae###Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.###Chambaal###Herb###PP###R,S,L###Diuretic , purgative, anthelmintic and carminative

38.###Cyperaceae###Cyperus rotundus L.###Dhela###Herb###GF###L,S###Back-ache, weakness, removing swellings and as fodder.

39.###Euphorbiaceae###Chrozophora tinctoria L###Skha botay###Herb###BS###R,S,L###Fodder and fuel.

40.###Euphorbiaceae###Euphorbia helioscopia L.###Sahaboty###Herb###BS###L###Anti-hepatitis, constipation purgative, and fodder.

41.###Euphorbiaceae###E. inderiensis Less.###Bota###Herb###GF###L,S###Fodder.

42.###Euphorbiaceae###E. indica Lam.###Pestai###Herb###BS###L,S###Fodder.

43.###Euphorbiaceae###E. prostrata Ait.###Prot-Peshtara Herb###GF###L,S###Fodder.

44.###Euphorbiaceae###Ricinus communis L.###Arund###Shrub###BS###L,S,SD###Antipyretic, anti-hepatitis, anti-diabetic, antiperiodic, vermifuge, and

###fodder.

45.###Fabaceae###Astragalus grahamianus###Ghzanka###Herb###BS###L,S###Hedge plant and Fodder.

###Royle.

46.###Fabaceae###A. psilocentros Fisch.###Papar###Herb###BS###R,S,L###Fodder and fuel.

47.###Fabaceae###A. tribuloides Del.###Kso Speshtara Herb###GF###L,S###Fodder.

48.###Fabaceae###Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.###Shawa###Tree###BS###L,S###Fodder, timber, ornamental and fuel.

49.###Fabaceae###Indigofera linifolia L.###Shanzakai###Herb###BS###L,S###Fodder.

50.###Fabaceae###Medicago denticulata Willd.###Speshtarey###Herb###GF###L###Carminative, vegetables and fodder.

51.###Fabaceae###Melilotus indica L.###Uzmai###Herb###WF###WP###Fodder

52.###Fabaceae###Rhyncosia minima L.###Tora###Herb###GF###L,S###Fodder

###prewatye

53.###Fabaceae###Taverniera cuneifolia Roth.###Kattey###Herb###BS###L,S###Making roofs and fodder.

54.###Fabaceae###Trifolium alexendrianum L.###Shotalla###Herb###WF###L,S###Fodder

55.###Fabaceae###T. resupinatum L.###Zierawona###Herb###BS###L,S###Fodder

56.###Fumariaceae###Fumaria indica Hausskn.###Lewanay###Herb###GF###R,S,L###Antipyretic, anti-hepatitis, anti-diabetic, antiperiodic, vermifuge and

###Gajara###fodder.

57.###Geraniaceae###Erodium malacoides L.###Piazai###Herb###BS###L,S###Fodder

58.###Lamiaceae###Ocimum bacillicum L.###Bobray###Shrub###BS###WP###Anthelmintic, carminative, anti-dysentery and diarrhea, ornamental and

###perfume.

59.###Lamiaceae###Salvia moorcroftiana Wall.###Droshal###Herb###BS###L###Anodyne, swelling, constipation and fodder.

60.###Liliaceae###Aloe vera Auct.###Zargeya###Herb###BS###L,S###Anti-hepatitis, wound healing and detergent.

61.###Liliaceae###Asphodelus tenuifolius###Pyazaky###Herb###GF###L,S,SD###Anti-inflammatory and fodder.

###Cavan.

62.###Malvaceae###Malva neglecta Waller.###Torapeshtara###Herb###GF###R.L###Anthelmintic, anti-dysentery, vegetable and fodder.

63.###Meliaceae###Melia azedarach L.###Bakyanara###Tree###BS###R,S,L###Anthelmintic, Emetic, Vermifuge, fodder, fuel, ornamental and timber.

64.###Mimosaceae###Acacia arabica Lam.###Kikar###Tree###BS###R,S,L###Anti-dysentery, fodder, fuel, ornamental and timber.

65.###Mimosaceae###A. modesta Wall.###Palosa###Tree###BS###L###Animal carminative, fuel and timber.

66.###Mimosaceae###Albizzia lebbek L.###Sreikh###Tree###BS###L,S###Fodder, fuel, ornamental and timber.

67.###Mimosaceae###Prosopis juliflora Swartz.###Angrezi Kikar Tree###BS###S###Rheumatism, fuel and timber.

68.###Myrtaceae###Eucalyptis camaldulensis###Loachi###Tree###BS###R,S,L###Antiperiodic, expectorant, antiseptic, carminative, fuel, ornamental and

###Schlect###timber.

69.###Nyctaginaceae###Boerhavia procum.bens###Pendrawosh###Herb###WF###R,S,L###Anti-hepatitis, purgative and diuretic, scorpion bite and fodder.

###Banks.

70.###Oleaceae###Olea ferruginea Royle.###Zaitoon###Tree###BS###L,S###Antiseptic, diuretic, tonic, rheumatism and fuel.

71.###Orobanchaceae###Orobanche stocksii Bioss.###Koricharg###Herb###GF###L,S###Fodder.

72.###Palmaceae###Nannorrhops ritchieana###Maizara###Shrub###BS###L###Making caps, ropes, cupboards, Hand fans, Baskets and fuel.

###H.Wendl.

73.###Palmaceae###Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.###Kajoora###Tree###BS###L,F###Making ropes, Baskets, Hand fans and source of food.

74.###Plantaginaceae###Plantago indica Sibth.###Aspaghol###Herb###BS###SD###Anti-dysentery, Anti-diarrhea and Constipation.

75.###Poaceae###Avena fatua L.###Jomdar###Herb###WF###L,SD###Anti-dysentery and fodder.

76.###Poaceae###Cenchrus ciliaris L.###Mumloha###Herb###BS###R,S,L###Making ropes, fodder and fuel.

77.###Poaceae###C. biflorus HK.###Krushkey###Herb###BS###L,S###Hedge plant and fuel.

78.###Poaceae###C. pennisetiformis Hochst.###Shamloha###Herb###BS###L,S###Making ropes, fodder and fuel.

79.###Poaceae###Cymbopogon jawarancusa###Sargarra###Herb###BS###WP###Making ropes, fodder and fuel.

###Jones.

80.###Poaceae###Cynodon dactylon L.###kabal###Herb###BS###R,S,L###Anti-dysentery, blood purifier, and diuretic, ornamental, fodder and fuel.

81.###Poaceae###Enneapogon schimperianus###Shamoha###Herb###BS###R,S,L###Making ropes, huts and fodder.

###Hochst.

82.###Poaceae###Eragrostis cilianensis All.###Mumloha###Herb###GY###S###Making ropes, huts and fodder.

83.###Poaceae###E. tenella L.###Sargarra###Herb###GY###R,S,L###Mat in mosques, cleaning purposes, fodder and fuel.

84.###Poaceae###Saccharum ravennae L.###Kana###Shrub###BS###L,S###Hedge plant, making ropes, cupboards, trays, Baskets and fuel.

85.###Polygonaceae###Calligonum polygonoides L.###Balanza###Shrub###GY###R,S,L###Making snuff and fodder.

86.###Polygonaceae###Rumex dentatus L.###Mezyle###Herb###BS###L,S###Vegetable and fodder.

87.###Portulacaceae###Portulaca oleraceae L.###Warhora###Herb###GF###L,S###Vegetable (saag) and fodder.

88.###Primulaceae###Anagallus arvensis L.###Sheen starga###Herb###WF###L,S###Fodder

89.###Rhamnaceae###Ziziphus jujuba Lam.###Beira###Tree###DA###L,S,F###Anti-diabetics, constipation, edible fruit, hedge plant, fodder and fuel.

90.###Rhamnaceae###Ziziphus nummularia Burm.###Karkanra###Tree###DA###L,S,F###Hedge plant, constipation, edible fruit, fodder and fuel.

91.###Rubiaceae###Galium aparine L.###Babur###Herb###WF###R,S,L###Anti-diabetics, healing wound, Diuretic and fodder.

92.###Salvadoraceae###Salvadora oleoides Dene.###Plein###Shrub###BS###L,S###Anti-diuretic and making tooth brush locally "Miswak."

93.###Sapindaceae###Dodonaea viscosa L.###Sanateboty###Shrub###HA###R,S,L###Astringent, rheumatism, stimulant, healing wound and fuel.

94.###Sapotaceae###Monotheca buxifolia Falc.###Gorgora###Tree###BS###L,S,F###Fruit edible, fodder and fuel.

95.###Solanaceae###Datura alba Nees.###Batoora###Herb###BS###L,F###Antipyretic,, anti-dandruff, antiperiodic, antispasmodic, hair tonic and

###fodder.

96.###Solanaceae###Solanum surratense Burm.###Speenazghay###Herb###BS###WP###Purgative, carminative and constipation, rheumatism, hedge plant and

###fuel.

97.###Solanaceae###Withania somnifera L.###Shapyanga###Tree###BS###L,S,F###Animals in gas troubles and fodder.

98.###Tamaricaceae###Tamarix aphylla L.###Ghaz###Tree###BS###L,S###Anti-inflammatory, toothache, curing of burn spots, timber and fuel.

99.###Violaceae###Viola stocksii Boiss.###Makarbotey###Herb###BS###L,S###Antipiles and gas troubles.

100.###Zygophyllaceae###Fagonia arabica L.###Sperlazghzai###Herb###GF###L,S###Blood purification and skin diseases.

101.###Zygophyllaceae###Peganum harmala L.###speelanae###Herb###GY###T,S,F###Burnt for evils expulsion, gas troubles and fodder.

102.###Zygophyllaceae###Tribulus terrestris L.###Markundai###Herb###BS###S,F###Diuretic, tonic and fuel.

103.###Zygophyllaceae###Zygophyllum eurypterum###Zumai###Herb###BS###L###For cleaning clothes and fodder.

###Boiss.

Conclusions: Karak is a semi-arid area of KP province in Pakistan with hot climate. Uses of ethno-medicinal plants are an old tradition in the study area. The aim of the present study was to document the indigenous knowledge of plants that can be helpful for further pharmacological investigation. Out of 103 species majority of the plant species are found on bare soil. Based on ethno-botanical usage 67.9 % of the collected plants are used as fodder, 50.4 % as medicinal and 36.8% as fuel, further habitat preferences of the species were recorded. With the development of allopathic drugs, like in other parts of the country plants folk use is on decline in the area. One of the major reasons is lack of knowledge especially among the Youngers. This study will help in preserving knowledge of the traditional folk use of plants. For this purpose we have included local names of the plants so that most of the people can benefit from the findings including wide botanical readership.

Acknowledgements: The authors are extremely thankful to all the informants and local inhabitants (hakims, aged peoples and farmers) for sharing their oral traditional knowledge on local plants during the fieldwork survey.

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Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Oct 31, 2018
Words:4343
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