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That is just the point, of life in general: that something is always coming up that we previously didn't know about. This is the meaning of all existence whatsoever! Existence is built upon the idea of the creative.


IN THE WELL-KNOWN TEXT published on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, "Funf Revolutionen seit 1950," the composer asserted: "Since the beginning of 1986 I have felt very much as I did in 1952 in the Studio for Musique Concrete of the ORTF in Paris, and from May 1953 in the Studio for Electronic Music of the WDR, Cologne: confronted by innumerable unifamiliar compositional situations in which one literally did not know where to make a start." [1]


And yet, his works--from the first opus, Chore fur Doris from 1950, to the gigantic music-theater project Licht (Light), consisting of seven full-length scenic works--irrefutably prove that over and over he was able to begin anew. If the sounding universe that Stockhausen has created in the course of the years is surveyed, considerable transformations may be catalogued:

* In 1952-53 he sought possibilities for integrating the totality of found or synthetically produced sounds and noises, and for uniting them in the concept of spatial composition: the electronic works Studien land II, Gesang der Junglinge, and Kontakte, as well as Gruppen for three orchestras and Carre for four orchestras and choirs abolish the rigid boundaries between "concrete music," "electronic (tape) music," and spatial composition, in order to bestow a spatial dimension upon multidimensionally eventful sound material.

* In the course of the sixties, Stockhausen's investigations of sound also extend over the field of "live" electronics: modulation, transformation, and spatial projection, either of orchestral sounds (in, amongst others, Mixtur Stop, Hymnen, and Sternklang), or of the sounds of individual instruments (in Prozession, Kurzwellen, Spiral, Pole, Expo, and Mantra), or of vocal sounds (in Mikrophonie II and Stimmung), lead to a considerable expansion of the fund of sounds descending from originally conventional acoustical sources.

* Much later, then--in the course of the seventies and eighties--work on the studio production for Sirius (for electronic sounds, trumpet, soprano, bass clarinet, and bass) and then Kathinkas Gesang (for flute and electronic sounds) lead to a highly refined inclusion of electronics in real-time processes (by means of the EMS-Synthi 100 synthesizer and the 4X computer).

* In the course of the last twenty years, in which the works from Licht have come into being, Stockhausen has invented new applications of the "modern orchestra," which are to be described all in all through the feature of an extremely flexible diversity of eventful "sound scenes." Directly connected and more distantly associated synthesizers, which permit the transformation of sounds in real time, are combined with conventional acoustical instruments, concrete or electronic sounds on tape, and all the latest methods of multichannel transmission. Stockhausen is nowadays without doubt the master of musically spatialized dynamics: put another way, of processual sound sculpture, constantly expanding in many directions.

Parallel to the expansion of the supply of sounds and noises, there is to be observed in Stockhausen's works over the course of the years a systematic renewal of thinking about style and form in music, about sense and meaning, about system and freedom. If the fifties are characterized by rigorous determinism (Kreuzspiel, Punkte, Kontra-Punkte, Klavierstiicke I-X), if the sixties and seventies produced the zenith of meditative and intuitive music (Stimmung, Aus den sieben Tagen, Fur kommende Zeiten), then the works of recent years strive for a synthesis of, on the one hand, an extremely clear architectonic formal conception and, on the other, a specifically sonic-gestural conception of movement, where one composes in accordance with musically "process-like," intuitive, and free forms of expression. Nevertheless, this explicit developmental logic which one recognizes upon listening to Stockhausen's work--from Kreuzspiel to Licht--is only theoretically right: then the contrary tendencies--stricter determinism an d more processual style or, put another way, constraint and freedom--are crucial throughout each and every one of Stockhausen's works.

In fact, the most distinctive change in the development of the composer (which even today is often the subject of intense controversies) appears to be the final open break with the positivistic objectivism (whether resting upon the sciences or only dressed up pseudoscientifically) of the structuralistic approaches of Webern's followers. It is Stockhausen's declared and forcefully sought-after goal to overcome, through an ingenious preplanned structuring of the parameters, the asemantic formalism which was paired with the omnipresent system of arithmetic serial construction. With this inclination, which is very attractive, though also quite uncomfortable for some people, Stockhausen set about restoring the relationship between music and the deepest levels of human nature so that we may again approach, via the aesthetic experience of listening, the laws and principles which matter to people.

It is a fact that the compositional projects of the avant-garde in the fifties, in which Stockhausen actively participated, proceeded from a mechanical, structural, and objective musical concept: the complex manipulation of series or total chance signified in reality the exclusion of the human element, whose place was taken by something like an almost religious enthusiasm for objective and positive truth: for all-embracing arithmetic operations in Webern's disciples, or for the accidental uproar of sound which, according to Cage's view, ought to "have its rights."

After a relatively brief period in which he included chance in some works where he developed the principles of "polyvalent form," [2] (Klavierstuck XI(1956), Zyklus for a percussionist (1959), and Refrain for three players (1959)), Stockhausen went on in the direction of intuitive and meditative music (Aus den sieben Tagen (1968) and Fur kommende Zeiten, for variable scorings (1968--70)), and then to works with a vastly calmer spiritual dimension, which for the postserial epoch of the postwar period were completely unimaginable (Trans for orchestra (1971), Am Himmel wandre ich for two voices (1972), Inori for one or two soloists and orchestra (1973--74/1977), Tierkreis for variable scoring (1975--81)). Since 1977, the year which marks the beginning of the composition of the heptalogy Licht (the seven days of the week, for solo singers and instrumentalists, dancers, choirs, orchestras, actors, electronic and concrete music), Stockhausen has pursued his idea of a spiritual-theatrical music: a diverse music com prehending many things--sounds, gestures, dances, texts, myths, and legends--which is to lead us back to the hidden sources of spiritual enlightenment (hence also the name, Licht).

The disdain for the internal subjective aspects of human life, as well as the spiritual side of human experience--a disdain carefully cultivated by the postwar aesthetes of objectivizing serialism and of musical technological research, but also was promoted in equal manner by movements such as environmental, installation, and process art (for and with the audience)--has in reality, however, led to an evident impoverishment of the aesthetic experience offered by new music, insofar as it mainly pursued research into sound. Stockhausen's Licht; on the other hand, invokes a genuine revolution--the sixth and perhaps most important one--from the inside out: anchored in his own experience, but also in myths and tales--products of the unconscious of all periods--the works of which Licht is constituted3 deal with themes having a dimension of psychological and spiritual depth, which remain valid for all humankind in any place whatever.


Nowadays, in the era of the "relaxed (or weak) thinking" [pensiero debole] of the post-moderns, [4] Stockhausen is without doubt the most important representative of strong thought in the succession of the greatest composers of the European tradition: Bach, Beethoven, Wagner. And, like his predecessors, Stoclthausen is an outstanding master of the artistic synthesis that always presents new convincing versions of works as a carefully thought-out network of relationships and as a coherent whole.

The words "successor" and "predecessor" are however in this case scarcely useful, since every genuine synthesis ignores purely historical succession and abolishes all linear causality. The words remain flat and dull, unambiguous and meagre, strongly associated with our linear tradition of reading or of interpretation. But there is of course to "train" of music history, although one readily speaks of its "locomotives," and Stockhausen is obviously one of them. [5] Nevertheless, he ought not be packed up in a "causal succession": neither in relation to his predecessors in the sense of strong thinking (Bach, Beethoven, Wagner) nor with reference to every other direct or indirect source of inspiration for his compositional work. "I am happy," says Stockhausen, "when I notice in other realms that spiritual affinities exist, and reveal in the world things which a number of minds perceive and develop in various ways. That is the most important thing in evolutionary history, to discover such parallelisms. The univer sal spirit manifests itself in a whole variety of ways." [6] The "spiritual affinity" which connects Bach, Beethoven, Wagner, . . . , Stock-hausen consists precisely in strong thought: in the extremely rare capability of synthesis--with quite diverse compositional means--of strong organization of materials on the basis of meticulously arranged principles, of strong presence of free imaginative powers in the framework of the underlying system, and the strong openness to spiritual contents, to religious values, which paves the way for a dialogical relationship with the listener.


Formula composition, which Stockhausen develops in Licht, [7] is actually the highest synthesis of these three basic aspects of his strong thinking. This thoroughly thought-out form-building strategy is best suited to the necessity of strong thought, "striving for a homogeneously coherent composition": [8] "I find that one comes deeper and goes deeper, if one unfolds everything from a single nucleus, thematically and structurally," Stockhausen believes. "This sets a higher standard for mastery than always lowering one's sights, writing individual works, pieces [Stiicke], which one tracks with regard to their character in an opus-list, instead of striving for a homogeneously coherent composition....At bottom, incomplete work [das Stukwerk] really belongs to a pre-artistic world." [9] And the compositional process for Licht begins with the global vision of the work, i.e., with the form-scheme (Example 1). However, in contrast to the classical and romantic tradition, the scheme is valid only for the work of its creator.

First I composed the form-scheme of the entire week, as well as the three melodies from which everything is to originate.

Now I must make flesh for this skeleton, give life to the whole with individual scenes. [10]

In the continual pursuit of a more intelligible density and uniform coherence, Stockhausen employs in Licht a seven-membered (each member corresponds to one day of the week), three-layered (the three layers correspond to the three spirits, Eve, Michael, and Lucifer) formula, which he calls a multiple formula. "In Licht things are such that the formulas fuse into one homogeneous formula, the multiple formula, or superformula: the Michael formula and Eve formula and Lucifer formula are combined into one. The three are verticalized and always present in this combination." [11] "What interests me is the entire structure, the spiritual structure and hierarchy of the universe, in which every individual person is a spiritual being and only temporarily a corporeal being, a 'person,' a timeless individuality, an eternal spirit." [12]


The formula is a thought-out concentrate, a multilayered and multivalent nucleus, that includes many things: melody notes, echoes, preechoes, scales, semi-noises, colored silences, improvisations upon a previously occurring melodic segment, and so on. The superformula for Licht has much more content than the formulas of Mantra, Sirius, or Inori. The richness and concentration of this formula allows unlimited possibilities for unfolding, which always preserves the coherence-creating relationship to the formula. "So I could compose with this formula my life long," Stockhausen maintains, "by regarding individual elements, pieces, sections, moments, or scenes as dialects, and formulating them in a style of their own; thus coloring this abstract formula-image and making each one into a local music." [13] Formula composition depends on the crucial insight which defines the work as a coherent, homogeneous whole. Namely that "what is crucial and universal, like this superformula (in Licht), is valid throughout the universe. When you hear it, you don't immediately recognize that it can sometimes (as in Michaels Reise) sound New-Yorkish, and then Japanese or Balinese or Indian." [14] The universal applicability of the superformula creates coherence and homogeneity, but on no account uniformity and monotony. It suggests various "dialects" or "styles," which are dependent only upon the free imaginative powers of the composer.


In comparison with the theme of classical tradition or with the "thematic thinking" in Schonberg's conception, the formula contains many more aspects of the larger form of the work: i.e., the entire process of the formal construction as a projection, unfolding, expansion, or transformation of the formula. Classical and romantic formal construction relies on functional thinking: i.e., upon a clear allocation of variously contrasting formal functions (introduction, exposition, development, recapitulation, coda, etc.), whose obligatory succession determines the linear teleology of the work. Serial thinking does not fundamentally alter this attitude, because the traditional formal principle frequently takes over (cf. Anton Webern, Symphony op. 21, Variations op. 27, etc.). However, it also sets up the omnipresent, contrastless and monotony-creating variation as a fundamental principle of the work in its totality (cf. Olivier Messiaen, "Mode de valeurs et d'intensites," Pierre Boulez, Structures).

In Stockhausen's music the very same principles of serial music are developed, but on the basis of a newly invigorated synthesis. In this way, his formula composition sought to preserve the form-creating power of contrast on the basis of a clearly concentrated cooperation of freedom (play of intuition) and restriction (completely fixed play). These antitheses are already present in the formula, in embryonic form. In such a manner the composer can achieve in one and the same work a synthesis of the aspects which "previously had to be divided between different works." [15] In fact, in works such as Kontra-Punkte, Gruppen, and Kontakte, the formal aspect stands to the fore. In Spiral, Pole, or Aus den sieben Tagen, on the contrary, the free, improvisatory, or intuitive aspect is predominant. But: "I am ever more interested," says Stockhausen, "to arrange everything for a given work in a homogeneous compositional conception." [16] And formula composition relies on a special dynamic conception of the formula as a source, as a provenance, as a controlling nucleus for innumerably unforeseeable unfoldings of musical ideas. In place of the traditional teleological development or unfolding of the theme, the dynamic explosion of the formula enters into all dimensions and directions of the musical statement. And although formula composition evidently represents a new kind of musical strong thinking, it really corresponds to an open, uncontrollable formula-nuclear-explosion of musical thinking, which theoretically enables a totally open multitude of musical galaxies. The absolutely necessary prerequisite is, of course, the extraordinary, astounding, perhaps even eerie force of the imagination, exactly like Stockhausen's.

The formula must of course be easy to remember and sing, [17] so that it can be recognized when heard--consciously or unconsciously--in its projections, expansions, and compressions as a coherence-creating power. The formula is therefore not an obstinate thematic substance which the various successive form-creating functions will subjugate but rather a "'matrix,' from which life develops." [18] It is a concentrate of musical ideas whose explosion, projection, or expansion in all directions does not determine a traditionally teleological, linear, unidirectional formal conception, but rather a conception of musical structure which is multidimensional, spatial-dynamic, and highly charged with energy, and of form as a "network of lateral connections." [19]


The omnipresence of the formula attests to a clear necessity of comprehending the work--strongly, "classically"--as well-thought-out architecture in time. "I know that a temple in all its dimensions reflects the profound secret of a harmony that is mathematically sound, and that good music is the same," Stockhausen believes. [20] "I have never left the construction of shape and large-scale form undetermined. Even in the freest of text-pieces you still see formal divisions and objectives." [21] The urge toward architectonic balance in the work is always associated in Stockhausen's formula composition with a pronounced openness of the system. Put another way: although the formula and the overall schema are arranged in advance, Licht has no unified tale or teleological message whatsoever (as is the case even in Wagner's music dramas), no purposeful succession of events, no dramatic developmental curves with carefully planned climaxes which describe a coherent overall arch: In Licht "there is no tale, not a singl e sequence of events," [22] but rather "many events" [23] and every scene, like every day of the week, can be performed on its own. Formula explosion is closely associated with the abolition of the goal-directed narrative strategy of the opera. This allows it "to mediate between dramatic developmental form and lyrical moment form." [24] Structural formation in Licht definitively renounces the linear succession of formal functions in the morphology of the narrative or of the opera libretto, [25] as also in the classical-romantic symphonic tradition. [26] "I do not wish to present a story as an experiential curve with musical climaxes at places where they occur in a tale, but rather several processes always occur simultaneously on the basis of the superformula and its significance for scenic events. Therefore I can let a multilayered presentation of entirely different successions of events take place. I do not feel myself bound to the presentation of a developmental curve, which comes from a dramatic tale." [27 ] In Licht therefore there are no formal functions subjugated to the teleology of narratives, i.e., also "no conclusion, that might be foreseen." The three protagonists, Michael, Eve, and Lucifer who, existing as "spiritual beings," are "present as operative forces. I can intuitively compose in innumerable scenes the encounters, disputes, and unions between these beings, and all this completely openly. Absolutely nothing is fixed!" [28] The abolition of linear, functional formal thinking with its obligatory succession of structuring functions is produced from the dynamics of the formula explosion: The "matrix" is "a formula, from which life develops. Every single musical figure behaves like a living thing in a larger organism." [29] The definitions of the formula and of composition are based upon an decidedly organic conception: "A formula is a body with a particular number of elements; they are pitches, their durations with tempi for submembers and members (like the members of a body)." [30] And "a compositi on is an ensemble of smaller organisms which together produce a larger organism containing the playing together and in alternation among the smaller organisms. . . . The principle is not invented by us, but rather it lies hidden in ourselves, in the body, in our thought, as in all living beings." [31] The open vitality of the formula is necessarily transferred into the open vitality of the form--the architectonics of the work.


As a further development of serial thinking, formula composition produces in Stockhausen's work particular shapes, which are continually being transformed. Since 1977 the Licht superformula has lead to shapes that "were completely unforseeable at first. I move about in many directions away from these intervals and figures and make completely different ones." [32] The movement "in many directions" is one of the most important features of composition for Stockhausen. The concepts of stretching, compressing, passage through zero, [33] echo, colored silence, explosion, projection, free passages as inserts, genetic principles of formal construction, processes toward shape-clarity or shape-disintegration, speed of spatial change, intuitive invention and construction of form, Fibonacci progressions and constructions according to the Golden Mean, and so on, are always associated with a dynamic view of form as a multidirectional movement in space.

For Stockhausen, musical form is literally a formal process, a form-movement: on the stage, in the hall, and outside the auditorium. One thinks of "Michael's Journey Round the Earth" from Thursday "Lucifer's Dance" from Saturday, "Pied Piper" and "Abduction" from Monday "Children's War" and "Choir Spiral" from Friday, "Invasion" from Tuesday, the Helicopter String Quartet from Wednesday, and of course the "Invisible Choirs" from Thursday, "Octophony" from Tuesday, and the "Electronic Music with Sound Scenes" from Friday. With all the means--of the scenic action in the play, of the multilayered spatialization, of the direct movement in space, of active stereophony, of the newest technology, and so forth--Stockhausen is always trying to add in more movement--i.e., more process-like-ness, more life--into his music. The temporal nature of music even enables composing what is process-like in the most diverse ways. For Stockhausen it is unquestionably about a controlled dynamic explosion with all means and in all directions in space, about a dynamic spatialization of scenic music. It is surely not accidental that the modern representation of the spatial and the visual in contemporary art comes ever closer to music. "The whole idea that form is always frozen and the work of art merely a single, frozen Gestalt," Stockhausen believes, "is just a special, deterministic concept. The application of relativity to all spheres has made us aware of the fluidity of time: of the fact that time does not exist as an abstraction...but that time is instead only manifested in things which are constantly changing." [34] And strong formal thinking for Stockhausen produces not only a subtle analysis of movement, but also, and implicitly, its vivid, audible synthesis. In his formula compositions the wholeness of the work is neither given nor assumed: wholeness is openness, and this requires it constantly to change and let something new appear: i.e., to endure. For Stockhausen, however, enduring is no longer associated with the teleology o f a one-dimensional language but, implicitly, with spatial explosion in all directions. The delicious vitality of spatial experience, which Stockhausen's music offers, relies on the dynamics of two opposed motions in his strong thinlting: the centrifugal motion of explosion in all directions of the formula, and the centripetal motion of homogeneity-creating integration of the alien. This constant motion is always subjugated to an organic, lively, and enlivening conception of the work: "Wherever anything lives, there is, open somewhere, a register in which time is being inscribed," writes Bergson. [35] "It is important," Stockhausen believes, "that one draws into music everything that is acoustically perceptible in the world--and conversely, that music is able, by means of acoustical events in this world, to develop and improve and enrich itself." [36] If the lively is a whole, then this whole is implicitly open to the world. The lively musical forms for Stockhausen are lively precisely because they maintain " a balance between the will to form and the will to adventure," [37] because they are always in a position to unfold the essential thing in completely different registers and to integrate the sudden whim, the unexpected impulse, the disruptive element, or the extramusical event into the homogeneous whole. [38]


The renunciation of conventional, linear teleology means the abolition of any goal-directed narrativity and, consequently, renunciation of the ordinarily univalent--headed clearly in one direction--language. "Our entire traditional concept of 'language' must be revised," Stockhausen maintains. [39] In fact, "the dialog of trumpet and contrabass, or of trumpet and basset-horn in 'Michael's Journey' [from Thursday] gives much more precise and pertinent information concerning the exchanged psychological perceptions and expressions of the soloists, than any of these complex linguistic contents into the words of constricted national languages." [40] And, for Stockhausen, the text has almost nothing to do with the tradition of the opera libretto. It tells no story and arises in the moment of composing in close relationship with formula composition as a multidimensional explosion of the formula and with the effect of the "spirits"-- Michael, Eve, and Lucifer--because the "role" is conceived as an "emanation." [41] N either "prima le parole, poi la musica," nor "Die Dichtung gehorsame Tochter der Musik." [42] Stockhausen annuls priorities in the name of his "scenic music," which requires all means in order to be music theater. His texts are simply a basic element of "scenic music": i.e., the music of texts, word-symbols, and glossolalias is just one of the components of a complex aesthetic universe of interconnected semiotic systems. In "Invasion," from Dienstag aus Licht, one hears wordplay on the names of Michael and Lucifer ("Mikaluz," "Kaluzelmifer") which communicates the confusion of war. In the concluding chorus, "Jenseits," in Dienstag, the composer invented an incomprehensible language as a great spiral of vowels and consonants. Glossolalias are very frequently employed in Donnerstag, Samstag, Montag, Dienstag, and so on. It is perfectly clear that under these conditions the music cannot be simply "language." [43] Incidentally, Stockhausen believes that, "in a more highly developed world, we would only sing and n ot reduce what we have to say to words (which really is very primitive)." [44] "Language is terribly primitive, but it can be transcended." [45] An open dynamic subjected to formula composition renounces verbal language (and the elements derived from it) in its essential features: in the linearity and the teleology of the message, in order to preserve only the force of some kernels of meaning, [46] or to impart the atmosphere of fairy tales, [47] or of a hymn of praise. [48] Under these conditions the function of the (nonverbal, unspoken) music is no longer relegated to a lower class as a duplication or amplification of the linguistic meaning, as in the conventional morphology of narrative statement. In place of the linear, goal-directed succession of functions which are established by unambiguous signification and narrative, here there appears the explosion in all directions of meaning-creating word-sound material. And this dynamic view of music necessarily requires the liberation of restricting language.


The function of words in Stockhausen's work is comparable to that of the formula: Powerfully charged with meaning, the word operates in an open range of interpretation and comprehension--limited by the reading proficiency of the listener. Thus Montag, the first day of the week in Stock-hausen's opera cycle, is the day of the moon: Moon-Day, Monday, Lundi, Lunedi, and also the day of Eve: "Day of the woman, of the mother, a festival of rebirth, of a modern Christmas." [49]

As I was working on a certain portion of the large process for "In Hoffnung" from Montag aus Licht, and needed a text, I referred back to sources which had been given to me, or sent to me-seemingly by chance-by interested people, as for example a book about Inanna, or a book about proto-Germanic mythology. I really love to choose names that stand in connection with Eve, and are brought into association with water.

I have in this way discovered all kinds of connections between cultural areas from the past, as well as inventing some that didn't already exist.

I then feel quite free to color with special words, in order to supplement the meaning which exists abstractiy in the music. I don't want to rule out the possibility of feedbacks occurring there if, for reasons of text composition, trains of thought occur to me which I then rhythmicize in the music and supplement with melodic notes. Thank God that the system is so open, that so much always remains possible. [50]

It seems clear that the word, the name ("Monday," "Light," "Michael," "Lucifer," and so on.), but also the situation ("Drachenkampf"--Dragon Fight--from Donnerstag) or the reference to familiar fairy tales ("Der Kinderfanger" (The Pied Piper) from Montag) [51] offers an open latitude for interpretations. It's up to the reader-listener to feel either at ease or uncomfortable (if one has lost every vestige of his childlike soul) in this open space. Stockhausen's scenic works always try to show: "The more aspects there are, the more valid is the music. The crucial thing is the artistic quality and the purity of the relationship." [52]

Polyvalence and openness of the statement without historical necessity and goal-directed development recalls the texts of antiquity--such as the Purana, for example--where one can experience a beguiling confusion of cosmogonic stories and adventures of Vishnu, Shiva, or the goddess Sita, but also an expanse of cosmologies, rites, social or religious laws, calendars, or stories of old customs. One thinks also of ritual musical theater in the Japanese (Noh theater) or Indian (Kathakali) traditions. The myths are actually "built like the old cathedrals we admire: they were built through hundreds of years. Many generations worked on them and left their signs in their architecture." [53] In myths, as well as in the unconscious or in dreams, "all civilizations live impossibly together. No investment is given up." As in the ancient religion of Egypt, according to Sigmund Freud, "It seemed so incomprehensible, because they preserved side by side the various evolutionary phases and their final products, ... since the y so to speak unfolded it on the surface, which other developmental types would have only kept deeply hidden." [54] Similarly, Stockhausen's scenic music is created on the basis of timeless associations--as in mythology, in dreams, or in the unconscious--in the free ramblings of intensely creative fantasy. Always faithful to the intense compositional-technical strategy of strong thinking, Stockhausen first composes the musical course, "planned in its time phases and time durations," and then the action. To this belongs which words are to be sung. "There are higher

themes, which I have posed to myself similar to the way in which old folktales or Noh dramas make allusion to universal subjects (to legends, which one can sum up very concisely in a few lines)." [55] The renunciation of prose theater and of the Western tradition of opera closely bound up with it means renunciation of the unlimited reason of linguistic communication and openness of the musical-dramatic work in contrast to the plurality of all semiot ic systems which are not directed exclusively at the intellect, but rather at the totality of human perceptual capacities. A necessary component part of the compositional process, the free play of Stockhausen's compositional imagination opens up unlimited (but always centered on the three main spirits, Eve, Michael, Lucifer) ranges for the listener's reasoning and interpretation. And the more complex the possibilities of this artistic world are, and the less fixed the receptiveness for it is, the more interpretational possibilities are enabled, and the richer the aesthetic experience can become. One follows the reasoning of Nietzsche that the world has "become 'infinite' for us, inasmuch as we cannot reject the possibility that it may include infinite interpretations." [56]


And so, Montag aus Licht, for example. It is a known fact: the symbol that down through the ages has stood as a symbol of Woman is the moon; and this not with respect to what she has in common with Man--homo sapiens--but rather with regard to the things that differentiate Woman from Man: the feminine element in contrast to the masculine (element) is symbolized by the moon. The moon, both in modern and in classical poetry, and ever since human thought, has represented the divinity of Woman in myths and legends, the womanly principle, in exactly the same way as the sun and the heroes assigned to it embody the masculine principle. Poets and dreamers of today, just like the earliest men, regard the sun and masculine and the moon as feminine. [57] The institution of patriarchal forms of dominion coincided with the introduction of a cult of the sun, celebrated by a masculine priesthood, which meant a victory over the much earlier cult of the moon. Religiosity and spirituality, which had their sign in the symbol of the moon, were therefore transferred to the sun and brought under masculine control. Nevertheless, a cult of the moon was maintained--as the domain of women--for the earlier spiritual deities. And so the veneration of the moon--with an affinity for the darkness of Eros, for the wildness of the instincts--is also a cult of the creative and productive power of nature, of instinctive wisdom and subjugation to the laws of nature.

On the other hand, "the worship of the sun is the worship of that which overcomes nature, which orders her chaotic fullness and harnesses her powers to the fulfilling of man's ends. The masculine principle, or Logos, thus came to be revered in the person of the Sun God, and the godlike qualities inherent in man, his capacity to achieve and to order, to formulate, discriminate, and generalize, were venerated in a sun hero, who undertook his twelve labors and slew the dragons of ignorance and sloth, thus acquiring consciousness, a spiritual value of a different order." [58] Similar characteristics are to be observed in Michael. [59]

Monday: Eve's day, the day of the moon: lunae dies. Throughout history there has been the opinion that a special, often sinister, strangely worrying bond exists between the moon (which earlier was an influence on fertility, then later on was granted divinity) and women. It is the moon that allowed them to bear children, it is the moon that watched over them during all misfortunes and difficulties of life. This belief, which rose from the depths of the unconscious in symbolic form and spread everywhere, goes back to the "ancient differentiation of male and female," a differentiation that "is still exemplified to us in our everyday experience of the Great Light which rules the day of reason and intellect, and the Lesser Light," which is much weaker and "rules the night of instinct and the shadowy perceptions of the inner, intuitive world." [60]

An extraordinarily large number of moon-myths confirm the image of the moon as a bringer of fertility, in connection with which the redeeming presence of moonlight is not just beneficial, but utterly indispensable for everything that grows. [61] It allows seeds to sprout and plants to grow, but its power is even greater, for without it neither animals nor people can reproduce. It is the rays of the moon that impregnate women: the Great Moon Mother, who sits above in the sky, sends the Moon Bird to earth to bring babies to the women who want them. [62] It is the moon-- "a protecting star," "the Lord of the Women" [63]--who, as the "permanent husband of all women ... not only causes the pregnancy but also watches over the birth of the child." [64]

For primitive peoples the waxing moon is the origin of everything that evolves and multiplies, it is practically the power that allows growth. The "by darkness entwined" moon, on the other hand--as personified, for example, in the Greek goddess Hecate--becomes the force of eclipse, of destruction, and of death; the queen of black magic. In nature the feminine principle or the feminine deity appears also as a blind force, healing and cruel alike, creative as well as destructive, merciless in her love and in her hate. This is the demonic form of the feminine principle, which represents the dark powers of woman, that the Greeks associated with the concept of Eros. "According to the ancient belief, the moon is the gathering place of departed souls, a guardian of the seed, and hence a source of life with a feminine significance." [65] According to this second, dark image of woman, the symbols of the moon--or of the mother, of the feminine principle--are also charged with hate, with primal fear, with deep anxiety: the black moon, the terrifying and dismembering mother, the humiliating and cruelly persecuting mother (Hera, Hecate, Persephone, Rhea) occupies perhaps just as important a place in the psychological world of people as the idealized image of the good mother and the feminine principle as a giver of life.

Now, Stockhausen, who includes a multitude of symbolic representations of the feminine principle (Eve, Moon-mother), carefully avoids any aspects of the moon which are associated with conceptions of terror, of destruction, devastation, and tearing to pieces. Stockhausen's character--intended as a distillation of mythical figures, as an "emanation" of the feminine principle--his Eve, behaves according to the idyllic narrative strategy of fairy tales and not according to the myths whose unique characters are rather more unsettling in their--tragic--diversity. [66] Similarly to his treatment of the Hebrew texts in Donnerstag, Stockhausen uses only the positive, creative, and invigorating representations for his Eve: In the Unsichtbare Chore from Donnerstag, one hears nothing but "positive" fragments from the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Testament of Levi, the Ascension of Moses, and so on, "not the gruesome [fragments] that describe drastic things, that speak of blood and destruction." [67] For Eve in Licht Stockh ausen shows the feminine principle in its full splendor of noble fertility and of enchanting, seductive beauties and endowments gratifying to behold: an infinitely idealized image of the mother-goddess, which is not realistic but heavenly, and to which alone the marvellous hymn from the second act of Montag ("Madchenprozession") can be directed (Example 2): A procession of girls with bodies in the form of flowers, angelic voices, a shining candle in each hand, comes slowly from the back of the hail to the stage and glorifies Eve:

EVA Mutter,

wir deine Kinder jubeln:

Montag EVA-tag.


Dankesfeier fur Gott,

Der Erfinder der Frau

Feier der Bewunderung der Frau,

ein Musikfest fur EVA,

die in unserem Universum fur unsere Erde

die liebevolle Helferin

fur die Nachgeburt der Menschheit ist.


Wir singen Dir EVA zum Dank

fur die Verbesserung des menschlichen Korpers

vom Tier bis zum heutigen Menschen

in den Paradiesen der Veredlung.

Komm, komm nieder, EVA,

grunde ein neues Paradies der Kinder. [68]

EVE Mother,

we your children jubilate: Monday EVE-day.


Ceremony for thanksgiving to God,

the inventor of woman,

ceremony of admiration for woman,

a musical celebration for EVE,

who, in our universe, for our Earth,

is the loving helper

for the rebirth of mankind.


We sing to you EVE in gratitude

for the improvement of the human body

from animal to today's human being

in the paradises of refinement.

Deliver, give birth, EVE,

found a new paradise of children.

It is well known that the ancients revered and celebrated the light of the moon, in that they kindled lights upon the earth: torches, candles, and fires burned for the worship of the moon, the point of which was fertility magic. They were borne round the sown fields, in order to get the grain to germinate, just as in ancient Greece the torches of Hecate were carded around the fields after sowing, in order to insure their fertility. It should be remembered in this connection that the Latin word for torch or candle is vesta, and that the goddess Diana was also known by the name Vesta. In her temple there burned an eternal flame, and the most important of her ceremonies was called the "Festival of Torches" or of "Lamps." It was celebrated on the 13th of August, and the groves shone with the sparkling of many lamps. Even today, on the 15th of August there is a festival of torches, which is no longer celebrated, as it was in ancient Rome, in honor of Diana, but rather in honor of the Virgin Mary, to the celebrati on of her Ascension. In Egypt the Feast of Lamps was directly connected to the rebirth of Osiris: "Lamps were carried in procession around the coffin of Osiris, for it was by the power of light, symbolizing the life-giving power of the moon, that Isis could rekindle life in the dead Osiris." [69] Over the centuries and throughout various traditions the consecrated fire is considered to be the divine spark of the power of creativity. The performance of the ceremony of lights was--and remains evident in Stockhausen's Montag--a fertility rite that appeals to creativity. "In many places a perpetual sacred fire was kept burning in the temple of the moon goddess, guarded and tended by a group of priestesses dedicated to its service. They were usually called Vestal Priestesses after the Vestal Virgins who tended the perpetual fire in the temple of the goddess Vesta in Rome." [70] Consecrated courtesans, who were always regarded as virgins, could not marry because their feminine nature was reserved for a much more im portant destiny; that of bringing the fertile power of the goddess into actual contact with the lives of human beings. Faithful to this tradition of moon symbolism, yet still within reach of the myth of the (re)birth of heroes, Stockhausen conceives his girl-lily-candle ceremony, in order to bring forth the deep meaning of the fertility rite in an especially poetic manner, in the course of which the masculine principle--fire, torch, light--unites with the feminine forces. "In the Geburstsfest I see a procession of girls in the night: I remember how, in a valley near Kyoto, girls with little lamps marched through the night to a temple. It was fantastically beautiful. I would like to portray this." [71] Eve's new parturition can only take place as the consequence of this fertility rite: the magical ceremony of the torch procession allows Eve to enter into a "sacred marriage" which is blessed by the power of the moon goddess.

Obviously, one can carry on indefinitely the interpretations of Montag's scenic music, as well as that of every other piece from Licht--"Drachenkampf" from Donnerstag, "Pieta" from Dienstag, "Der Kinderfanger" from Montag, "Welt-Parlament" from Mittwoch, and so on. [72] Stockhausen defines: "Scenic music is music that so clearly evokes actions in space and time of the internal conception, that each staged representation is recognized as a subjective version of a stage director, and is perceived as a more or less interesting comparison with the observer's own conception." [73] The renunciation of teleological narrative and the polyvalence of the statement enable free play of interpretations. "The musicodramatic work is what is new, the meaning is not new," says Stockhausen, the meaning "which I rediscover by means of an absorption in the tradition of this planet and which I make into the subject of a musical work by means of intuitive submersion into the meaning of each day of the week." [74] In this new musi cal-dramatic work music ascends to the stage. In conventional European music theater, on the contrary, "one hears the music less and less. It is stuck ever deeper in the orchestra pit." [75] In Licht the instrumentalists are on the stage, they are actors and dancers alike, and every scenic action is closely bound to the play. Thus, in Luzifers Tanz from Samstag, the orchestra appears as a gigantic human face: the parts of the face are constructed from the performing instrumental groups. In "Evas Spiegel" from Montag, the vocal parts of the men's choir "mirror" the enchanting monologue of Coeur de Basset-Eve--like a reflection of Coeur in the water (Example 3). The dancer-pairs in Freitag function as a visual orchestra and the choreographer acts "like a conductor," who "is occupied with the shaping of the sound." [76] Stockhausen abolishes the distance and the limits between the stage and the orchestra pit, between stage and auditorium, between instrumentalist and singer, between singer and dancer, between ins trumentalist and dancer. And obviously on this account "the opera specialists of today," says Stockhausen, "have seen nothing at all about where I want to go: namely, that nothing which is not musically necessary should occur; and also that nothing which does not lead to a theatrical action should happen in the music.... I desire purely ritual music theater, scenic music for the musical mise en scene," [77]


The homogeneous and polyvalent forms of Licht's scenic music is reminiscent of the structure of crystals. Stockhausen's compositional methods evoke the process of crystallization: the crystal does not simply embed internal or external reflections, but rather comes into being as a result of the position of a seed in relation to its surroundings.

Indeed, Varese compared the formation of his compositions with that of a crystal, and spoke of "spatial projection" of the sounding material. [78] To the question "How exactly do you compose?" Varese answered, "By crystallization. [79]

The kinetic conception of musical material in Stockhausen's scenic music is even more bound up with "crystalline" process-like spatialization. In the "crystal" form one truly sees the perpetual foundation of time, or the "gushing of time as dividing in two, as splitting." [80] Time splits into "two dissymetrical jets, one of which is makes all the present pass on, while the other preserves all the past." [81] One recognizes without difficulty one of the fundamental ideas of Stockhausen's momentform. Moreover, there appears emphatically in his formula composition the dynamic expansion of movement in space: The formula--the seed of crystallization--leads to the heptalogy of the days of the week, where the memories, the fairy tales, the dreams arise always in relation to the formula. Basically, there is never a finished crystal form: every crystal form is legitimate, open, and infinite: in the process of its development, in the process where the seed assimilates its surroundings and compels it to crystallize. T he totality of crystalline form in formula composition is actually the organized entirety of the nuclei and their open expansion in space. Form is a crystal in constant development, in constant expansion: It "makes everything it touches crystallize, and to which its seeds give a capacity for indefinite growth. It is life as spectacle, and yet in its spontaneity." [82]


To the question of how the heptalogy of Licht ought to be understood, one can only reply with the answer of Hans-Georg Gadamer with reference to philosophical hermeneutics: one must be drawn into the thing that it is about, instead of examining it from outside as an object. Because the human being--therefore also the listener--"is something that wants to understand and that must understand." [83]

Stockhausen's Licht may be described as a kind of musical hermeneutics, i.e., as an "interpreting" (Auslegung) of Dasein--according to Heidegger's conception--which allows its "becoming and being for itself in the manner of an understanding of itself." [84] Of necessity, Stockhausen's days of the week contain much that is autobiographical--attention might be drawn to Kindheit or Examen from Donnerstag, to Kathinkas Gesang from Samstag, to Susani and Susani's Echo from Montag, Sukat from Dienstag, and so on. Stockhausen is always trying to step back from his own life, in order to understand it, to shape and interpret it. In the aesthetic experience, both the aspects of involvement and detachment, of distance and immediate presence, belong together in a meaning-creating space. The first names of the extraordinarily gifted women musicians are directly associated with the scenic action. Stockhausen removes the boundary between personal experience and work of art, inasmuch as the work of art is an essential--quit e evidently the most essential--component of his life: "Existence is built upon the idea of the creative," he says. [85] The composition of the scenic music of Licht is a specifically artistic experience of self-understanding, of an understanding of Dasein, which seeks a dialogical relationship with the audience. And "understanding of Dasein is a self-understanding Dasein--Dasein straight on." [86] Actually it has to do not simply with the individual life, but rather with an exploration of possibilities for life: i.e., it has much more to do with "sorgendes Erhellen" (caring illumination): [87] a concept from Heidegger signifying the identity of being and understanding. For that purpose comes the desire for dialogue, the openness with respect to the other, the grand necessity of offering him a new enriching experience: "A new thing must be created for a person, that lifts him up," Stockhausen believes. [88] With the production of each new work he places "the highest demands of human intelligence and the highe st demands of human sensitivity to vibrations." [89] And his scenic music contains the maximal polyvalence of expressive possibilities. "To really produce laughter, to evoke astonishment, to make the mouth stand open is terrific." [90] Audience involvement is obviously of particular importance for the composer.

Stockhausen's days of the week actually contain "what life gives us to understand," without wishing to convert it into definitive clarity and certainty. [91] Scenic music is thus conceived as movement, as life, as occurrences of the aforementioned illumination. On its own initiative, the scenic music of Licht reveals many possibilities of meaning, which are to be interpreted and interpretatively articulated: by performers as well as, in a different way of course, by audiences. From the notion therefore of "sorgendes Erhellen" comes not merely that of a soliloquy, an unbroken, subjugating monologue. What this is really all about, fundamentally, is the discussion of life and of understanding life.

It seems clear that what scenic music amounts to is not a mere fixing of intended meaning, but rather "a continually changing attempt [Versuch], or

better, a constantly repeating temptation [Versuchung], to become involved in something and to become involved with someone." [92] Every intelligent discussion subsists on an abundance, which does not come from itself, but rather from the illuminating inexhaustibility of the imaginative powers of the partner in the open field of interpreting and of understanding. "Understanding depends," Stockhausen believes, "on what I have within myself--and not just on what I experience from outside as being new.... The understanding of music also presupposes a mutual understanding between two partners about what they have now understood." [93]

Nowadays, in the age of the depleted devotions of a desolated avant-garde on the one hand, and, on the other, the multimedia, mediatized postmodernist presentations of pleasantness, Stockhausen remains, in his scenic music Licht, ever true to his strong thinking. And even though for him music is much more than a language, one thinks, in connection with his weekdays from Licht, of the beautiful, in reference to Gadamer's idea, originating from Paul Celan, of the "language crystal": the word is meant to describe what it is like "when the flow of words in poetry produces a valid shape.... Like the crystal, in its structure and in the strength of its construction, begins to emit its fire when light falls on it, so also is the linguistic achievement of poetry, that it approaches the hardness and the strength and the durability of the crystal and does not captivate by means of a pleasing form, but rather by the shining out of light." [94] One also thinks of Ernst Junger, who writes: "A transparent structure is one whose depths and surface alike are evident to our gaze. It is to be studied in the crystal, which one could describe as an essence that is capable of forming interior surfaces as well as of turning its depths outward." [95]

An image occurs to me still, perhaps the most beautiful and most important: After the last performance of Freitag aus Licht in Leipzig, after the marvelously performed Kinder-Orchester (children's orchestra), Kinder-Chor (children's choir), Kinder-Tutti (children's tutti), and Kinder-Krieg (children's war), Stockhausen celebrated with his guest stars a beautiful children's party. I can still hear the joyful cries of children's voices: "Stocki, Stocki, we have a present for you!" And I can still see Stockhausen in conversation with a couple of children on his knees--with beaming faces and much light in their eyes--going on telling them thrilling stories. The "Kinderfanger" Stockhausen bestowed upon each child the gift of music: pieces from Licht: the cassette recordings of the especially difficult passages, which all of the children had learned by heart and performed excellently on stage. And he celebrated after the performance, really happily, here and now, the shining forth of the "time crystal" of his work , the actual splitting of time, the "outward turning": he had succeeded in abducting the "artistic children" into the "clearing" [die Lichtung] of the creative. [96] Into the clearing which--as everybody knows--is a fragment of Dasein. Perhaps the most beautiful and most essential for life.

Translated from the German by Jerome Kohl

IVANKA STOIANOVA, born in Sliven (Bulgaria), studied violin and musicology at the Conservatories of Sofia and Moscow, and at the Conservatory and the University of Basel. She studied philosophy, aesthetics, musicology, and linguistics at the University of Paris VIII, and musicology and philosophy at the Technical University, Berlin. She received her doctorate in 1974 with a dissertation titled "Uber die Beziehungen zwischen Text und musikalischer Aussage: Mallarme und die zeitgenossische Musik," and habilitated in 1981 at the University of Paris VIII with a postdoctoral thesis titled "Narrativitat und kunstlerische

Aussage: Formprinzipien in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts." Her publications include Gesce--texce--musique (Paris, Union Generale D'editions, 1978); Luciono Berio: Chemins en inusique (Paris: Editions Richard-Masse, 1985), which won the Charles Cros Academy Prize for the best French music book of 1985; Musica e scienzo: II margine sottile (Rome: ISMEZ, 1991); and Manual d'analyse musicale: les formes classiques simples et complexes (Paris: Minerve, 1996). Since 1973 she has taught music at the University of Paris VIII and from 1975 to 1981 at IRCAM, and musicology from 1989 to I 99 I at the Sorbonne. She is currently Professor at the University of Paris VIII.


(1.) Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Funf Revolutionen seit 1950," in Stockhausen--60. Geburtstag (Kurten: Stockhausen-Verlag, 1988), 39. Reprinted in Stockhausen, Texte zur Musik 8 (Kurten: Stockhausen-Verlag, 1998), 379-83 (the citation is on 379). A different English translation of this passage, by Tim Nevill, may be found on p. 127 of Karlheinz Stockhausen, Towards a Cosmic Music (Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset: Element Books, 1989).

(2.) Cf. Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Zyklus fur einen Schlagzeuger--Erlauterung der Partitur," an analysis of Zyklus, in Texte 2 (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1964), 74-200.

(3.) Donnerstag aus Licht was premiered on 15 March 1981 at La Scala in Milan, in the staging of Luca Ronconi; Samstag aus Licht on 25 May 1984 in the Palazzo dello Sport in Milan (stage direction: Luca Ronconi); Montag aus Licht on 7 May 1988 at La Scala in Milan (staging by Michael Bogdanov; scenic design: Chris Dyer); Dienstag aus Licht on 28 May 1993 at the Leipzig Opera with scenic realization by Uwe Wand, Henryk Tomaszewski, and Johannes Conen; Freitag aus Licht on 12 September 1996 at the Leipzig Opera with staging by Uwe Wand, Johannes Cohen, and Johannes Bonig; musical direction and sound direction for all these performances: Karlheinz Stockhausen.

(4.) Cf. Gianni Vattimo and Pier Aldo Rovatti (eds.), Il pensiero debole (Milan: Feltrinelli, 1983).

(5.) Stockhausen has derided the extreme causalists as follows: "Their theory: A nut produces a bird. Curious, isn't it?" See Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," Texte zur Musik 6 (Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag, 1989), 313.

(6.) Ibid., 313.

(7.) In Japan, during the composition of the work Jahreslauf (1977), a scene from Dienstag aus Licht for ballet, one actor, or only for orchestra, Stockhausen had the idea of developing the week from a single musical formula, which was to determine all musical properties. The first works which establish the fundamental principles of formula composition are: Mantra (1970) for two pianists, where a simple formula is used, Inori (1973-74/1977), adorations for one or two soloists and orchestra, where the series of the prayer gestures is also set out in thirteen steps, and Sirius (1975-77), electronic music with trumpet, soprano, bass clarinet, and bass, which was worked out with four formulas.

(8.) Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Die sieben Tage der Woche," conversation with Rudolf Werner, in Texte 6, 170.

(9.) Ibid., 170.

(10.) "Stockhausen--Sound International," interview with Jill Purse, in Texte 6, 357.

(11.) "Weder Anfang noch Ende," conversation with Robert HP Platz, in Texte 6, 175.

(12.) "Die sieben Tage der Woche," 169.

(13.) "Licht-Blicke," conversation with Michael Kurtz, in Texte 6, 197-98.

(14.) Ibid., 198.

(15.) "Wille zur Form und Wille zum Abenteuer," conversation with Rudolf Frisius, in Texte 6, 329, trans. Tim Nevill in Stockhausen, Towards a Cosmic Music, 73.

(16.) Ibid., 330.

(17.) "Stockhausen--Sound International," conversation with Jill Purce, Texte 6, 352.

(18.) Stockhausen, "Geistig--Geistliche Musik," interview with Rudolf Frisius (2 March 1990) in the program book for Dienstag aus Licht (Leipzig Opera, 1993). Reprinted in Texte zur Musik 9 (Kurten: Stockhausen-Verlag, 1998), 101-23.

(19.) Johannes Bonig, "Choreographie als visuelle Klangbildung," in the program book for Freitag aus Licht (Leipzig Opera, 1996), p. 51.

(20.) "Licht--Blicke," 192.

(21.) "Wille zur Form und Wille zum Abenteuer," 339, trans. Tim Nevill, in Stockhausen, Towards a Cosmic Music, 75.

(22.) Stockhausen, "Geistig--Geistliche Musik," 118.

(23.) "Stockhausen--Sound International," 356.

(24.) "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," conversation with Hermann Conen and Jochen Hennlich, in Texte 6, 252.

(25.) This may recall the theories of Vladimir Propp. Cf. Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale, 2d ed. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968), where he enumerates thirty-one functions in the morphology of Russian fairy tales.

(26.) The Soviet functional theory of classical-romantic musical form is founded on the familiar functions of introduction, exposition, transition, development, recapitulation, and conclusion. Cf. the works of Boris Assafiev, Igor Sposobin, Victor A. Zuckerman, Lev A. Mazel, Victor P. Bobrovsky, and Valentina Kholopova. Cf. Ivanka Stoianova, Manuel d'analyse musicale. Les Formes classiques simples et complexes I (Paris: Minerve, 1996).

(27.) "Geistig--Geistliche Musik," 118-19.

(28.) "Geistig--Geistliche Musik," 117.

(29.) "Geistig--Geistliche Musik," 112.

(30.) Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hermann Conen, "Fur die Zukunft von Licht, man kann nur beten," in the program book for Freitag aus Licht (Leipzig Opera, 1996), 55-71. Citation on p. 58.

(31.) "Geistig-Geistliche Musik," 112-13, 115.

(32.) "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 314-15.

(33.) E.g., melody compression down to a stationary tone or rhythm compression down to periodicity.

(34.) "Wille zur Form und Wille zum Abenteuer," 340. Trans. Tim Nevill, in Stockhausen, Towards a Cosmic Music, 75.

(35.) Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution, authorized trans. by Arthur Mitchell (New York: H. Holt and Co., 1911), 20. The most important (and perhaps the only) similarity between Bergson and Heidegger consists precisely in that they base the specificity of time upon the conception of the open.

(36.) "Geistig--Geistliche Musik" 121.

(37.) "Wille zur Form und Wille zum Abenteuer," 345.

(38.) In the electronic Studie I, for example, there is suddenly heard "a horrific crash, and no one except me knows what it really means: that it is of course the thunderclap for the birth of my daughter Suja." "Wille zur Form und Wile zum Abenteuer," 325.

(39.) "Szenische Musik," Texte 6, 185.

(40.) Ibid., 185.

(41.) Ibid., 186.

(42.) These key formulations of Gluck and Mozart express the two contrary strategies, essential for the Western tradition, for setting a text to music. The two strategies, however, in principle cling in the same way to the priority of one of two sign-systems.

(43.) Cf. Hans Werner Henze, "Musica impura--Musik als Sprache," in Musik und Politik: Schriften und Gesprache 1955-1975 (Munich: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag, 1976), 187-88. Henze is defending the necessity that music becomes language. Cf. Ivanka Sroianova, "Music Becomes Language: Narrative Structures in El Cimarron by H.-W. Henze," in Musical Signification. Essays in the Semiotic Theory and Analysis of Music, ed. E. Tarasti (Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995), 511-34.

(44.) "Stockhausen--Sound International," 347.

(45.) Ibid., 348.

(46.) E.g., "Freitag / Venus-Licht / Versuchung / ... / tu hu hu / EVALUZIFER / Jodeln--Standfestigkeit / Orange...," from "Wochenkreis" (Montag).

(47.) "Ein Musikus, / ein wunderschoner, zarter, aufregender Musikus / ist angekommen. / Alle Welt sagt, / daB er Zauberwirkung hat," from "Nachricht" (Montag).

(48.) "Eva Mutter, / wir deine Kinder jubeln: Montag EVA-tag. / Wunderbar ist der Schopfer der Frau. / Wunderbar ist der Maler ihrer Farben ...," from "Madchenprozession" (Montag). Or: "O Konigin Weisheit, / der Herr bewahre dich mit deiner Schwester, / der reinen Einfalt ...," from "Luzifers Abschied" (Samstag), text: St. Francis of Assisi, trans. Stockhausen.

(49.) "Die sieben Tage der Woche," 169.

(50.) "Geistig--Geistliche Musik," 104-5.

(51.) Perhaps recalling the well-known tale of the Pied Piper of Hamlin, or the Flute-Player of Nuremberg.

(52.) "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 308.

(53.) Theodor Reik, Myth and Guilt: The Crime and Punishment of Mankind (New York: George Braziller, 1957), 256.

(54.) Jean-Francois Lyotard, Rudiments paiens (Paris: Union Generale d'Editions 10/18, 1977), 106.

(55.) "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 278.

(56.) Friedrich Nietzsche, aphorism no. 374 in The Gay Science, with a Prelude in Rhyme and an Appendix of Songs, trans. with a commentary by Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage Books, 1974), 336.

(57.) In German, the moon is masculine (der Mond). In Russian, Bulgarian, Italian, French, Spanish, ... it is feminine.

(58.) M. Esther Harding, Woman's Mysteries Ancient and Modern: A Psychological Interpretation of the Feminine Principle as Portrayed in Myth, Story, and Dreams, new and revised edition, with an introduction by C. G. Jung (New York: Pantheon Books, 1955), 31.

(59.) Cf., "Drachenkampf" from Donnerstag, for example.

(60.) Harding, Woman,s Mysteries, 20.

(61.) Cf. Robert Briffault, The Mothers, vol. 3 (London: G. Allen and Unwin; New York: Macmillan, 1927).

(62.) Harding, 22. This idea survives in our widely disseminated fable about the stork delivering children.

(63.) Harding, 24.

(64.) Harding, 23-24.

(65.) Cf. Carl G. Jung, "The Dual Mother," in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, ed. Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, and Gerhard Adler, Bollingen Series XX, vol. 5 ("Symbols of Transformation: An Analysis of the Prelude to a Case of Schizophrenia"), 2d ed., trans. R. F. C. Hall, 306-93 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956), citation on 317-18. The marks which are seen on the face of the moon and which are called--in Tibet, China, Ceylon, and Africa--"the Mark of the Hare" or "the Hare in the Moon" are just as widespread a belief as that of the "Man in the Moon." For primitive cultures, "the rabbit or hare represents the animal incarnation of the hero.... For instance, among the Iroquois, Great Hare is one form of Great Manitu, the Great Spirit, who is either himself the moon or his grandmother is the moon. This hare incarnation corresponds roughly to the Christian symbolism of Christ as Hero," which makes of Christ the "Agnus dei," the lamb which is sacrificed. The "Easter bunny" refers to the same sym bolism. "Easter ... was originally a moon festival that was connected with the resurrection of the moon-man or moon-hero, long before the dawn of Christianity." Cf. Harding, pp. 27-28. The episode with the hare killed by the hunter-father in the first act of Stockhausen's Thursday from Light doubtlessly refers to this very old symbolism of reincarnation, which has considerable significance in the imaginary universe of Licht.

(66.) Cf. Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (New York: Knopf, 1976).

(67.) Stockhausen, "Die sieben Tage der Woche," 162.

(68.) Stockhausen, Montag aus Licht, act 2, scene 1, "Madchenprozession."

(69.) Harding, 131.

(70.) Harding, 132.

(71.) Stockhausen, "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 279.

(72.) Ivanka Stoianova, "Der 'Coup de lune' von Stockhausen," in Musikkulturgeschichte: Festschrift fur Constantin Flores zum 60. Gehurtstag, ed. Peter Petersen (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Hartel, 1990). 185-212.

(73.) Stockhausen, "Szenische Musik," 186.

(74.) Stockhausen, "Weder Anfang noch Ende," 176.

(75.) Stockhausen, "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 276.

(76.) Johannes Bonig, "Choreographie als visuelle Klangbildung," in the program book for Freitag aus Licht (Leipzig: Oper Leipzig, 1996), 51.

(77.) Stockhausen, "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 276.

(78.) Edgard Varese, "The Liberation of Sound," edited and annotated by Chou Wen-chung, Perspectives of New Music 5, no. 1 (Fall-Winter 1966): 11-19; Ecrits (Paris: Christian Bourgois, 1983).

(79.) Edgard Varese, "Erinnerungen und Gedanken," Darmstadter Beitrage zur nenen Musik 3 (Mainz: B. Schott's Sohne, 1960), 70. And Varese cites the mineralogist Nathaniel Arbiter: "The crystal is characterized by both a definite external form and a definite internal structure. The internal structure is based on the unit of crystal which is the smallest grouping of the atoms that has the order and composition of the substance. The extension of the unit into space forms the whole crystal. But in spite of the relatively limited variety of internal structures, the external forms of crystals are limitless.... Crystal form is the consequence of the interaction of attractive and repulsive forces and the ordered packing of the atom" ("The Liberation of Sound," 16).

(80.) Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: The Time-Image, trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), 81.

(81.) Deleuze, 81. It is a fact that there is a child in everyone, and every child is at the same time a contemporary of the adolescent, of the old man, and of the boy. In our memories we remain contemporaries of the child that we once were, in exactly the same way that the faithful feel they are contemporaries of Christ. Cf. Deleuze, p. 92. Deleuze is analyzing Federico Fellini's conception of time.

(82.) Deleuze, 89 (emphasis added).

(83.) Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hermeneutik im Ruckblick, in Gesammelte Werke 10 (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1995), 366.

(84.) "[F]ur sich selbst verstehend zu werden und zu sein." Martin Heidegger, Ontologie (Hermeneutik der Faktizitat,), ed. Kate Brocker-Oltmans, in Gesamtausgabe 63 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1982), 15. English ed., Ontology (Hermeneutics of Facticity), tr. John van Buren (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999), 11.

(85.) Stockhausen, "Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 273.

(86.) Gunter Figal, Der Sinn des Verstehens (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1996), 34.

(87.) Heidegger, Phanomenologische Interpretationen zu Aristoteles: Einfuhrung in die phanomenologische Forschung, in Gesamtausgahe 61 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1985 [2. Aufl. 1994]), 185.

(88.) Stockhausen, "Ich halte dann den Finger vor die Lippen...," conversation with Michael Kurtz, in Texte 6, 368.

(89.) Stockhausen, "Wille zur Form und Wille zum Abenteuer," 346.

(90.) "Musik und Tod: Samstag aus Licht," conversation with Guido Canallz and Luigi Ferrari, in Texte 6, 245. "Humorlessness is not a sign of just the German tradition, but rather of 'serious music' in general." "I have never once laughed-heartily laughed-in the case of serious music" ("Vor und nach Samstag aus Licht," 287). "One day it will be recognized that Licht is a dance of humor" (ibid, 289).

(91.) Heidegger, Der Satz vorn Grund, ed. Petra Jaeger, in Gesamtausgabe 10 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1997), 64. [English ed., The Principle of Reason, trans. Reginald Lilly, Studies in Continental Thought (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), 43.

(92.) Gadamer, Hermeneutik: Wahrheit und Methode II, in Gesammelte Werke 2 (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1993), 335.

(93.) Stockhausen, "Wille zur Form und Wille zum Abenteuer," 342.

(94.) Gadamer, Asthetik und Poetik I: Kunst als Aussage, in Gesammelte Werke 8 (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1993), 371-72.

(95.) Ernst Junger, Das abenteuerliche Herz, second version, in Samtliche Werke 9 (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1979), 182.

(96.) The term Lichtung ("lighting," but in common parlance a "clearing," "glade") in late Heidegger is a metaphor for life experience, of life.
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Title Annotation:Karlheinz Stockhausen
Publication:Perspectives of New Music
Geographic Code:4EUGE
Date:Jan 1, 1999

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