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AMF inoculation reduced arsenic toxicity and increased growth, nutrient uptake and chlorophyll content of tomato grown in arsenic amended soil.

Introduction

Tomato (Lycopersicon esuclentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae is commonly used as a popular vegetable in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, about 19417 acres of land was under tomato cultivation and total production was about 136935 metric tons [5]. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi are vital components of nearly all terrestrial ecosystems, forming mutually beneficial (mutualistic) symbiosis with the roots of around 80% of vascular plants and often increasing phosphate (P) uptake and growth. Since the association is mutualistic, both organisms benefit from the association.

The positive role of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in P uptake and plant growth response under P-deficient conditions has been well established for many agricultural systems [21]. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas are also important for N uptake to stimulate the growth and nutrition of plants and are of great ecological importance with regards to N-nutrition of plant, especially non-fining species [4]. Arbuscular mycorrhizae increase plant productivity by increasing the rate of photosynthesis [16] and providing protection against toxic metals [6].

As a chemical analogue of phosphate, As competes with P in the soil [9]. On the other hand, phosphate may also have a direct effect on As speciation in soil and may enhance As phytoavailability [20,23]. Some studies have shown that higher plants that have adapted to As-polluted soils are generally associated with mycorrhizal fungi [18,26,2712]. Recently it has been demonstrated that mycorrhizas and phosphate fertilizers can protect plants grown in As-contaminated soils. The mechanisms proposed include the tolerance of higher plants to arsenate through down regulated arsenate/ phosphate transporters in the epidermis and root hairs [19,12], to reduce the uptake of As, and up regulated low affinity of phosphate transporters located in the membrane fraction of mycorrhizal roots [13], to take up more P for better growth. Certain Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) fungi have been shown to provide host plants with some tolerance of toxic conditions; including high metal concentrations [7,8]. The objectives of the present study were to assess the influence of AMF and it's interaction with arsenic on different physical and chemical growth parameters of tomato plants.

Materials and methods

Treatments

There are seven treatments in this study namely; [T.sub.1]= Untreated control, [T.sub.2]= 10 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.3]= 10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.4] = 100 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.5] = 100 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.6] = 500 ppm arsenic solution and [T.sub.7] = 500 ppm arsenic solution+ mycorrhiza.

Mycorrhizal assessment and preparation of inocula

Root samples of different plants species growing under the natural condition were collected for the observation of occurance of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AMF) association with the root systems following Koske and Gemma [15] with some modifications [22]. The root pieces were boiled in 2.5 % KOH solution for 30 minutes at 90[degrees]C temperatures. The root segments were then washed in water and acidified with 1% HCl solution for 24 hours. Heavily pigmented roots were bleached by 10% [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] for 20 to 60 minutes. The segments were boiled for 30 minutes in 0.05% aniline blue at a temperature of 90[degrees]C. Subsequently the roots were destined at room temperature in acidic glycerol. Leucas aspara plant roots showed the highest percentage of infection of mycorrhiza and it was collected along with the rhizosphere soil for subsequent inoculation.

Preparation of arsenic solution

For preparation of 1000 ppm 1 L arsenic solution at first 4gm Sodium hydroxide was diluted with 100 ml distilled water. Then 1.32 g arsenic powder was diluted with sodium hydroxide. 10% Hcl was added to acidity the suspension. Finally the volume of the content was made up to 1000 ml with adding distilled water.

Poly bag preparation, seed sowing and mycorrhizae inoculation

The polythene bags of 12"x10" size filling with 2 kg soil were used. Soil was prepared for the experiment containing 10% sand and 90% soil and was sterilized by formaldehyde (0.05%). At first 2/3 rd portion of the poly bags were filled with soil. Then a layer of both inoculum i.e. root inoculum 25 g and soil inoculum 100 g, were placed in each bag. For each treatment 5 for inoculated and 5 for noninoculated bags were prepared. Both 25 g roots and 100 g soil (rhizosphere) without inoculum were used in non-inoculated bags to maintain the same nutrient status between the inoculated and non-inoculated bags. The inoculum layer of each bag was covered with a thin soil layer of 2 cm below the surface in which seeds were sown. 20 seeds/ bag were sown.

Recording data

Data on seedling emergence was recorded at 7, 10 and 15 DAS. After 15 days, 5 seedlings in each bag were retained and other seedlings were removed. The seedlings of 30, 45 and 60 days old were harvested. In this case one seedling from inoculated and one seedling from non-inoculated bags were harvested randomly at each data recording period. The roots were washed with tap water to remove the adhering soil. Shoots and roots were separated with the help of sharp scissors and were preserved after necessary processing for determining shoot mass and root mass. Shoots and roots were dried in an oven for 72 hours at 70[degrees]C until the samples gave constant weight. Data on shoot fresh and dry weight (g) (30

DAS, 45 DAS, 60 DAS), root fresh and dry weight (g) (30 DAS, 45 DAS, 60 DAS), shoot and root length (cm) (30 DAS, 45 DAS, 60 DAS) were recorded.

Nutrient analysis of plant sample

Plant (shoot) samples were dried in oven at 70[degrees]C for 72 hours, ground and 0.5g of powdered sample was taken into a dry clean 100 ml Kjeldahl flask, 10 ml of di-acid mixture (HN[O.sub.3], HCl[O.sub.4] in the ratio of 2:1) was added and kept for few minutes. The flask was heated at a temperature rising slowly to 200[degrees]C. Heating was instantly stopped as soon as the dense white fumes of HCl[O.sub.4] occurred and after cooling, 6ml of 6N HCl were added. The content of the flask was boiled until they became clear and colorless. This digest was used for determining P, K and S. Phosphorus and Sulphur were determined with the help of a spectrophotometer, potassium was determined with the help of flame photometer and nitrogen was determined with the help of Microkjeldahl method.

Arsenic analysis of plant sample

Arsenic translocation in the shoot was detected and quantified in the laboratory of Pharmacology Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS; PG-990, PG Instruments Ltd. UK). Arsenic was detected by forming As[H.sub.3] at below pH 1.0 after the reaction of As with a solution of potassium borohydride (KB[H.sub.4]=53.94, BDH Chemicals Ltd., Poole England, UK.), sodium hydroxide (NaOH, M=40,000 g/mol, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) and 10% HCl. In this test, standard was maintained as [As.sup.V] ranging from 0 to 12.5 [micro]g/L. Reading was taken with the help of a computer connected to the HG-AAS by using manufacturer supplied 'AAwin software' (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer PC-Software). The reading of the tested sample was displayed on the computer monitor in a pre-customized Microsoft excel sheet provided by the AAWin software as numerical number with giving a peak of As concentration on the respective part of the software displayed sheet on the computer monitor. Readings of As concentrations of the samples were taken in ppb.

Chlorophyll extraction of plant sample

Chlorophyll was detected in the plant physiology Lab, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur with the help of Spectrophotometer. 1 g fresh plant samples (leaves) were cut into small pieces and inserted into test tubes. Then 100 ml (80%) acetone was added in air tight condition to avoid losses. The test tubes were kept for 24-48 hrs in normal temperature. Data was recorded by Spectrophotometer.

Total chlorophyll = Absorbance (chlorophyll a + chlorophyll b) x Correction Factor

In this experiment all data were analyzed in the computer using MSTAT package Program and mean difference was measured by DMRT.

Results

Arsenic solution reduced seedling emergence of tomato at 10 and 15 DAS in all the concentration tested (Table 1). The highest seedling emergence was recorded under the treatment [T.sub.3] (100 ppm As+ mycorrhiza) in compare to control. But the seedling emergence is increased when mycorrhiza was inoculated in the arsenic amended

The shoot height and root length varied significantly with different treatments (Table 2). The highest shoot height was recorded in [T.sub.3] treatment Mycorrhizal treatment [T.sub.3] (10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza) gave the highest result of root length (20.27cm and 21.37cm at 45DAS and 60DAS respectively) and the lowest root length of tomato was recorded in case of treatment [T.sub.6] (500 ppm arsenic solution) and those were 4.12cm and 4.47cm at 45DAS and 60DAS respectively. In all the three recorded periods it was observed that the shoot height and root length of tomato decreased with the increase of arsenic concentration.

The influence of AMF inoculation on fresh weight of shoot and fresh weight of root of tomato at different growth periods in arsenic amended soil is presented in Table 3. The highest fresh weight of shoot of tomato was recorded in treatment [T.sub.3] followed by treatment [T.sub.2], [T.sub.5] and the lowest fresh weight of shoot of tomato was recorded in treatment [T.sub.7] at 30 DAS. Similar results were also obtained at 45 DAS and 60 DAS. On the other hand, treatment [T.sub.3] (10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza ) gave the highest results in case of fresh weight of root (5.77g, 6.33g and 7.87g at 30 DAS, 45 DAS and 60 DAS respectively) which is significantly better in comparison to other treatments. Incase of treatment [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.4] it was clearly showed that with the increase of arsenic concentration the fresh weight of shoot and fresh weight of root of tomato decreased. Incase of only arsenic treatment [T.sub.2] (10 ppm arsenic solution) the fresh weight of shoot of tomato at 60DAS was 18.20g but it increased to 22.82 g when mycorrhizae were inoculated with 10 ppm arsenic solution. Moreover, the fresh weight of root of tomato at 60DAS was 6.13g but it increased up to 7.87 g when inoculated with mycorrhizae.

The variation of dry weight of shoot of tomato was recorded due to the effect of mycorrhiza inoculation against arsenic solution (Table 4). Result revealed that treatment [T.sub.3] (10 PPM arsenic solution + mycorrhiza) gave the highest 3.05g, 3.27g and 3.91g shoot dry weight at 30 DAS, 45 DAS and 60 DAS respectively and the same treatment [T.sub.3] also gave the highest dry weight of root of tomato and those were 0.62g 0.91g 2.40g at 30 DAS, 45 DAS and 60 DAS respectively. Treatment [T.sub.1] (Control) showed the second highest data in this parameter. The dry weight of shoot and the dry weight of root of tomato decreased when the rate of arsenic concentration increased.

The inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in response to nutrient uptake (N, P, K and S), arsenic uptake and chlorophyll content by tomato shoots at 60 DAS is represented in Table 5. It is revealed from the study that mycorrhizal fungi have a positive role in response to nutrient uptake and mycorrhizal fungi inoculated treatments significantly enhanced nutrient uptake by tomato shoot in comparison to other treatment. The highest nutrient uptake was recorded in case of treatment [T.sub.3] (10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza) and those were 2.60 % total N, 0.62 % P, 2.68 % K and 0.58 % S and the lowest result was found in case of treatment [T.sub.6] (500 ppm arsenic solution) and those were 1.43 % total N, 0.23 % P, 0.97 % K and 0.21 % S.

Lower amount of arsenic was quantified in AMF inoculated plants than non-inoculated ones. The amount of arsenic increased with the increase rate of arsenic concentrations applied but in all the cases with the inoculation of AMF arsenic absorption was decreased. The lowest amount of arsenic was found in treatment [T.sub.3] (10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza) and that was 40.50 ppm on the other hand the highest amount was found in treatment [T.sub.6] (500 ppm arsenic solution) and that was 435.5 ppm. Between the treatment [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3], the amount of arsenic was higher in treatment [T.sub.2] (77.67 ppm) but inoculation of AMF significantly decreased As to 40.50 ppm.

The lower amount of chlorophyll was measured in shoots of treatment [T.sub.7] (500 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza) and that was 0.1033 ppm on the other hand the highest amount was found in treatment [T.sub.3] (10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza) and that was 0.2673 ppm. Among the treatment [T.sub.2], [T.sub.4] and [T.sub.6], the amount of chlorophyll was higher in treatment [T.sub.2] and that was 0.1850 ppm and lower in treatment [T.sub.6].

Discussion

Arsenic solution reduced seedling emergence of tomato in all the concentration tested. But the seedling emergence is increased when mycorrhiza was inoculated in the arsenic amended soil. Akhter [2] reported that AMF inoculation significantly increased seedling emergence of wheat, spinach and red amaranth grown in arsenic contaminated soil. The findings of the present study are also supported by Saha [24].

Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced shoot height and root length in comparison to noninoculated control. This was probably due to uptake of more nutrients, which increased vegetative growth. Present findings are in agreement with Matsubara et al. [17]. They reported that VAM inoculation (Glomus etunicatum or Glomus intraradices) increased seedling growth of several vegetable crop species namely spinach, water spinach, indian spinach, white gourd and cucumber. Shoot height and root length of tomato was decreased with the increase of arsenic concentrations. Ultra et al. [30] reported the AM inoculation as well as P application reduced As toxicity symptoms in the +AM-P treatment. They also reported that Plant growth was highest in the +AM + P treatment. The findings of Xia et al., [31] is similar with the findings of present study. They conducted an experiment under glasshouse condition in an As-contaminated soil and they reported arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) increased both root length markedly under the zero-P treatments. Ahmed et al. [3] reported that plant height, plant biomass and shoot and root P concentration increased significantly due to mycorrhizal infection and the parameters decreased significantly with increasing As concentration.

As treatment reduced fresh and dry weight of shoot and root of tomato. The results indicated a positive effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on fresh and dry weight of shoot and root when soil amended with different concentrations of arsenic solution. Tarafdar and Parveen,[29] reported that shoot biomass was significantly improved in mycorrhiza inoculated plants. The results of the present study corroborates with the findings of Carling and Brown, 1980 who reported that root colonization by most of the Glomus isolates significantly increased plant shoot dry weight in low fertility soil. Fresh weights of root and shoot increased when the plants were inoculated with AMF [17]. Root and shoot dry weights were higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants is reported by Giri et al., 2005. The findings of the present study is in accordance with the findings of Xia et al. [31] who reported that both of dry weight and root biomass of maize plants increased markedly when inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) under glasshouse condition in an arsenic amended soil. The present findings are also in accordance with the findings of Ahmed et al., [3], where they reported that plant height, leaf/ pod number, plant biomass, root length and mycorrhizal infection decreased significantly with increasing As concentration. Agely et al. [1] found that the AM fungi not only tolerate As amendment, but their presence increased dry mass at the highest As application rate.

Mycorrhiza inoculated treatments significantly enhanced nutrient (N, P, K and S) uptake by crops shoots in comparison to other treatments. Results of this experiment showed that with the increase of arsenic concentration the percentage of nutrient uptake decreased. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus had their most significant effect on P uptake. Dong et al. [10] investigated the influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions and they reported that mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. Khan et al. [14] identified that nitrogen fixation as well as N and P contents in groundnut increased only by dual inoculation with AM fungi and Bradyrhizobium. Nutrient uptake was enhanced significantly in soybean shoot by inoculation of AM fungi. Sasai [25] reported that the VAM fungi promote phosphorus uptake in low phosphate soil during the early stages of plant growth. Shnyreva and Kulaev [28] found the positive effect of VAM mycorrhization on maize plant nutrition by Glomus spp. where phosphorus content in the VA-mycorrhizal root tissues was increased by 35 % for the species G. mosseae and by 98 % for G. fasciculatum. AMF inoculation increased chlorophyll content of leaf. This is probably due to the more p translocation by the shoot from root.

Conclusion

Mycorrhizal inoculation may contribute to minimize As intake through consumption of tomato grown in arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

Acknowledgment

We thank two anonymous reviewers for kind reviewing and editing the manuscript. This research work was financially supported by USDA to M. A. U. Mridha.

References

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(1) F.E. Elahi, (2) F.M. Aminuzzaman, (3) M.A.U. Mridha, (4) B. Begum and (5) A.K.M.Y. Harun

(1) Plant Pathology Division, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Jamalpur, Bangladesh

(2) Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh

(3) Department of Botany, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

(4) Planning and Evaluation Wing, Khamarbari, DAE, Dhaka

(5) Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author

F.E. Elahi, F.M. Aminuzzaman, M.A.U. Mridha, B. Begum and A.K.M.Y. Harun; AMF Inoculation Reduced Arsenic Toxicity and Increased Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Chlorophyll Content of Tomato Grown in Arsenic Amended Soil: Adv. Environ. Biol., C(): CC-CC, 2010
Table 1: Influence of AMF inoculation on seedling emergence of tomato
at different growth periods in soil amended with different
concentrations of arsenic solution

Treatments    Seedling emergence

              7 DAS      10DAS       15 DAS

[T.sub.1]     13.4 ab    13.40 ab    14.4 a
[T.sub.2]     14.4 a     14.20 a     15.0 a
[T.sub.3]     14.6 a     14.78 ab    17.0 a
[T.sub.4]     9.40 ab    8.60 b      14.8 a
[T.sub.5]     13.2 ab    13.29 ab    15.0 a
[T.sub.6]     7.2 c      13.37 ab    12.6 a
[T.sub.7]     8.6 bc     9.80 ab     12.4 a
LSD           5.01       6.56        NS
CV (%)        8.44       9.60        5.18

DAS= Days after sowing

[T.sub.1] = Control, [T.sub.2] =10 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.3] =
10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.4] = 100 ppm arsenic
solution, [T.sub.5] = 100 ppm arsenic solution+ mycorrhiza, [T.sub.6]
= 500 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.7] = 500 ppm arsenic solution+
mycorrhiza

Table 2: Influence of AMF inoculation on shoot height and root length
of tomato at different growth periods in soil amended with different
concentrations of arsenic solution

Treatments    Shoot height

              30 DAS      45DAS       60DAS

[T.sub.1]     17.43 a     18.30 ab    19.07 ab
[T.sub.2]     17.83 a     16.97 ab    18.27 ab
[T.sub.3]     18.30 a     18.67 a     19.77 a
[T.sub.4]     17.17 a     17.60 ab    18.73 ab
[T.sub.5]     16.63 a     16.97 ab    18.13 ab
[T.sub.6]     15.33 a     16.27 b     17.87 b
[T.sub.7]     17.10 a     17.27 ab    18.13 ab
LSD           NS          2.067       1.605
CV (%)        9.41        6.66        4.86

Treatments    Root length

              30 DAS      45 DAS      60 DAS

[T.sub.1]     5.90 a      5.63 a      5.83 a
[T.sub.2]     4.74 a      5.20 a      6.13 ab
[T.sub.3]     5.77 a      6.63 a      7.86 a
[T.sub.4]     4.96 a      5.10 a      5.99 ab
[T.sub.5]     4.00 a      5.90 a      6.64 ab
[T.sub.6]     4.13 a      4.12 a      4.47 b
[T.sub.7]     4.22 a      4.44 a      4.50 b
LSD           NS          NS          82.28
CV (%)        5.39        4.83        6.25

DAS= Days after sowing

[T.sub.1] = Control, [T.sub.2] = 10 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.3] =
10 ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.4] = 100 ppm arsenic
solution, [T.sub.5] =100 ppm arsenic solution+ mycorrhiza, [T.sub.6]
=500 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.7] =500 ppm arsenic solution+
mycorrhiza

Table 3: Influence of AMF inoculation on fresh weight of shoot and
fresh weight of root of tomato at different growth periods in soil
amended with different concentrations of arsenic solution

Treatments    Fresh weight of shoot (g)

              30 DAS      45DAS       60DAS

[T.sub.1]     12.69 c     14.75 bc    16.79 b
[T.sub.2]     16.27 b     17.19 b     18.20 b
[T.sub.3]     19.50 a     20.66 a     22.82 a
[T.sub.4]     10.30 d     11.46 d     12.07 c
[T.sub.5]     14.20 bc    17.09 b     18.16 b
[T.sub.6]     13.67 c     16.60 b     17.02 b
[T.sub.7]     12.76 c     13.53 cd    17.58 b
LSD           1.605       2.602       3.476
CV (%)        6.35        9.20        9.23

Treatments    Fresh weight of root (g)

              30 DAS      45 DAS      60 DAS

[T.sub.1]     5.19 a      5.63 a      5.83 ab
[T.sub.2]     4.74 a      5.20 a      6.13 ab
[T.sub.3]     5.77 a      6.63 a      7.87 a
[T.sub.4]     4.96 a      5.10 a      5.99 ab
[T.sub.5]     4.00 a      5.90 a      6.64 ab
[T.sub.6]     4.13 a      4.12 a      4.87 ab
[T.sub.7]     4.22 a      4.44 a      4.50 ab
LSD           NS          NS          2.23
CV (%)        5.39        4.13        6.25

DAS= Days after sowing

[T.sub.1] = Control, [T.sub.2] =10 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.3]=10
ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.4] = 100 ppm arsenic
solution, [T.sub.5] =100 ppm arsenic solution+ mycorrhiza, [T.sub.6]
=500 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.7] =500 ppm arsenic solution+
mycorrhiza

Table 4: Influence of AMF inoculation on dry weight of shoot and root
of tomato at different growth periods in soil amended with different
concentrations of arsenic solution

Treatments    Dry weight of shoot (g)

              30 DAS     45 DAS     60 DAS

[T.sub.1]     2.17 b     2.30 b     2.51 bc
[T.sub.2]     2.30 b     2.79 ab    3.71 a
[T.sub.3]     3.05 a     3.27 a     3.91 a
[T.sub.4]     1.70 c     1.57 c     1.89 c
[T.sub.5]     1.86 c     2.26 b     3.16 b
[T.sub.6]     2.32 b     2.31 b     2.22 c
[T.sub.7]     1.66 c     1.66 c     2.06 c
LSD           0.297      0.611      0.702
CV (%)        5.50       6.90       7.77

Treatments    Dry weight of root (g)

              30 DAS     45 DAS     60 DAS

[T.sub.1]     0.56 a     0.69 ab    1.16 bc
[T.sub.2]     0.53 a     0.78 ab    1.61 b
[T.sub.3]     0.62 a     0.91 a     2.40 a
[T.sub.4]     0.62 a     0.76 ab    0.98 c
[T.sub.5]     0.45 a     0.69 ab    0.91 c
[T.sub.6]     0.34 a     0.47 ab    0.74 c
[T.sub.7]     0.34 a     0.36 b     0.69 c
LSD           NS         0.467      0.58
CV (%)        5.67                  5.55

DAS= Days after sowing

[T.sub.1] = Control, [T.sub.2] =10 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.3]=10
ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.4] = 100 ppm arsenic
solution, [T.sub.5] =100 ppm arsenic solution+ mycorrhiza, [T.sub.6]
=500 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.7] =500 ppm arsenic solution+
mycorrhiza

Table 5: Influence of AMF inoculation on nutrient uptake, arsenic
uptake and chlorophyll content at harvest of tomato at different
growth periods in soil amended with different concentrations of
arsenic solution

Treatments    Nutrient uptake

              Total N %    P %         K %        S %

T1            1.70         0.44 abc    2.39 a     0.55 a
T2            1.66         0.50 ab     1.15 bc    0.32 ab
T3            2.60         0.62 a      2.68 a     0.58 a
T4            2.43         0.52 ab     1.70 b     0.55 a
T5            1.79         0.27 bc     1.15 bc    0.35 ab
T6            1.43         0.23 c      0.97 c     0.21 b
T7            1.51         0.39 abc    1.34 bc    0.33 ab
LSD           NS           0. 238      0.656      0.251
CV (%)        1.80         2.62        8.21       4.56

Treatments                   Chlorophyll
              Arsenic (As)   content
              (ppm)          (mg/g)

T1            150.5 c        0.163 bc
T2            77.67 c        0.185 b
T3            40.50 c        0.267 a
T4            314.4 b        0.176 b
T5            442.3 a        0.203 b
T6            435.5 a        0.117 cd
T7            334.0 b        0.103 d
LSD           7.81           0.0562
CV (%)        150.5          9.56

DAS= Days after sowing

[T.sub.1] = Control, [T.sub.2] =10 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.3]=10
ppm arsenic solution + mycorrhiza, [T.sub.4] = 100 ppm arsenic
solution, [T.sub.5] =100 ppm arsenic solution+ mycorrhiza, [T.sub.6]
=500 ppm arsenic solution, [T.sub.7] =500 ppm arsenic solution+
mycorrhiza
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Elahi, F.E.; Aminuzzaman, F.M.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Begum, B.; Harun, A.K.M.Y.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:May 1, 2010
Words:5411
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