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AMEDD dateline.

AMEDD Dateline

Wayne R. Austerman, PhD ([dagger])

1 Jan    Peter Hawkins of Richmond, VA, was the first documented black
         dentist practicing in what is now the United States. Catering
         to the colony's black population, Hawkins was renowned for his
         strength, and was often known to extract a tooth without even
         dismounting from his horse, for "his strength of wrist was
         such, that he would almost infallibly extract , or break a
         tooth, whether the right one or wrong one." (1765)

         The U.S. entered the last year of peace before involvement in
         World War II. At this time, fully 70 million Americans, 60% of
         the population, subsisted on an income of less than $2000 a
         year. (1941)

11 Jan   Snowbound at a winter camp on Palo Duro Creek, OK, Surgeon
         Louis S. Tesson reported that an epidemic of scurvy had
         erupted among a 500-man detachment of the 5th U.S. Cavalry.

16 Jan   Peter Francisco died at age 71. Standing just under 7 ft tall,
         Francisco served in the 10th Virginia Regiment during the War
         for Independence. Armed with a broadsword whose blade spanned
         5 feet, Francisco fought in the American defeat at Camden, SC,
         cutting down 11 British Soldiers in quick succession from
         horseback. When a twelfth redcoat pinned Francisco's leg to
         his saddle with a bayonet thrust, the Virginian reached down,
         wrenched the blade from the wound, and then split his
         attacker's skull with a sword stroke. Francisco survived six
         wounds and outlived two wives before dying of appendicitis.

         Private Rooney, 1st U.S. Dragoons, underwent emergency field
         expedient medical treatment for an arrow wound to the skull
         suffered in a skirmish with Apaches near Galisteo, NM. Only
         1/8 inch of the 21/2 inch-long arrowhead protruded above the
         wound. "One of the Mexicans got hold of it with his teeth,"
         related a comrade, "and could not move it . . . Then one of
         the citizens . . . tried it with his Bowie knife, but could
         not succeed . . . one of our men . . . had a pair of pliers
         . . . which just answered the purpose." Rooney died of his
         wound in a hospital 13 days later. (1855)

17 Jan   Gertrude Janeway died in Emerson, NJ, at the age of 93. She
         was the last surviving widow of a Union Civil War veteran,
         John Janeway, of the 14th Illinois Cavalry. Gertrude married
         Janeway in 1927, when she was 18 and he was 81. Still living
         is 95-year old Confederate widow Alberta Martin of Elba, AL.

20 Jan   The Sullivan Ordinance made it illegal for women to smoke
         cigarettes in any public place in New York City. (1908)

         In the closing episode of the Battle of New Orleans, Dr Robert
         Morrell, a U.S. Navy surgeon, led a force of 53 volunteers
         crewing six small boats to capture a barge full of retreating
         British troops on Lake Borgne. Doctor
         Morrell had earlier been held prisoner by the British in
         violation of a flag of truce. He had fed his captors false
         information, telling them that New Orleans was held by 20,000
         American troops instead of the 4,000 actually in position
         there. (1815)

21 Jan   Doctor Guillotine proposed his new device as a humane means of
         capital punishment. (1790)

25 Jan   Grand Rapids, MI, was the site of the first public drinking
         water fluoridation program. (1945)

26 Jan   The electric dental drill was patented on this date by Joseph
         Green of Kalamazoo, MI. (1875)

31 Jan   The first clinic devoted to the treatment of venereal diseases
         opened at the London Dock Hospital. (1747)

         Surgeon William H. Forwood of Fort Larned, KS, kept a buffalo
         and a wolf as pets. The post commander ordered him to get rid
         of the buffalo, terming it a "public nuisance." On this date,
         the post adjutant informed the surgeon that "complaints have
         also been made of the howling of the wolf at night. It is
         therefore directed that you have the animal removed to
         someplace where it will not be an annoyance to the garrison."

1 Feb    Two American military surgeons died in the destruction of the
         Space Shuttle COLUMBIA as it returned from an orbital mission.
         U.S. Navy flight surgeons Laurel Clark and David Brown
         perished with five fellow astronauts as the spacecraft broke
         up at 200,000 ft over Texas. (2003)

2 Feb    Medic Al Ultman of the 11th Airborne Division made the
         following entry in his diary for this day as his unit battled
         the Japanese to liberate Manila, capital of the Philippines:
         "At noon it happened . . . artillery opened up, everyone dived
         for ditches, but some were not so lucky. At least 10
         killed . . . Assisted major in performing an amputation in a
         ditch with a trench knife, artillery landing around us. A
         miserable day." (1945)

6 Feb    Army Medical Department Soldier, SGT Michael C. Barry of the
         205th Area Support Medical Battalion, died in a traffic
         accident near Camp Arifjan in central Kuwait. Four other
         Soldiers were injured in the accident. (2003)

10 Feb   Mongol invaders destroyed Baghdad. (1258)

11 Feb   Sixteen-year old Sacajawea, a Shoshone Indian girl, delivered
         a baby boy with the aid of Captain Meriwether Lewis of the
         Lewis and Clark Expedition. Her delivery was supposedly aided
         by the administration of a powder made of ground-up
         rattlesnake rattles dissolved in water. (1805)

13 Feb   Forensic anthropologists reported that analysis of the bones
         of a Bronze Age man found buried near England's Stonehenge
         monoliths revealed that chemical components of his tooth
         enamel established that he grew up in what is now Switzerland.
         The discovery prompted speculation about the extent of trade
         and travel between England and Europe at the time. (2003)

         An unknown number of wounded Confederate Soldiers were burned
         alive in their beds when Union General Williams T. Sherman's
         troops set fire to a field hospital housed in South Carolina
         College at Columbia, SC. (1865)

19 Feb   The National Academy of Engineering awarded the $500,000 Russ
         Prize in Biomedical Engineering to Willem Kolff, inventor of
         the artificial kidney machine, a device which has saved the
         lives of approximately 1.2 million people. (2003)

20 Feb   Wire service reports revealed that the U.S. Navy conducted a
         psychiatric survey of personnel who volunteered for tours of
         duty in the Antarctic. The survey determined that their rate
         of psychiatric disorders was 7 times greater than the norm
         among all other Navy personnel. Many cited their reasons for
         volunteering as a desire to get away from a mother, wife, or
         girlfriend. (2003)

22 Feb   A mixed detachment from Company E, 1st Cavalry, and Company B,
         32d Infantry, was ambushed by Apaches in Meadow Valley, AZ.
         Surgeon Charles Smart established a dressing station in the
         cover of some boulders and began treating casualties as the
         fighting raged around him. When Corporal Duncan sustained a
         bullet wound to the leg, Dr Smart immediately extracted the
         projectile, which proved to have been molded from pure silver.
         This was the first time in history that a physician had
         performed a surgical procedure and collected a fee at the same
         time. (1867)

25 Feb   Doctor Reed Bontecou was thrown from his horse, suffering a
         "hernia at the umbilicus," when his mount stumbled over the
         partially buried carcass of a dead mule on the beach at
         Fortress Monroe, VA. Doctor Bontecou recovered to pioneer the
         use of documentary photography in the study of wounds. His
         photographs were included in the official surgical history of
         the AMEDD in the Civil War. (1862)

         Colonel John Holcomb, of the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical
         Research, announced the onset of "a revolution in hemorrhage
         control on the battlefield" as the AMEDD prepared to provide
         medics with new fibrin bandages, which contained a rapid-
         acting blood clotting agent capable of halting the bleeding
         in severe wounds which would otherwise not be controllable.

1 Mar    Rebecca Lee became the first black woman to receive an
         American medical degree, from New England Female Medical
         College in Boston, MA. (1864)

         Lieutenant Samuel Harris, of the 5th Michigan Cavalry, used up
         a lifetime's supply of good luck in one instant during a
         skirmish at Green's Farm, VA. Caught in a volley fired by a
         Confederate infantry unit at point-blank range, Harris
         suffered one minor wound to the neck while two bullets ripped
         through his hat and another 13 holed his overcoat without
         touching him. (1864)

5 Mar    Dictator Joseph Stalin died of a supposed brain hemorrhage.
         Held responsible for the deaths of as many as 25 million
         Russians, the paranoid Stalin was reportedly preparing to
         launch World War III at the time of his death.
         Attending doctors were puzzled when the leeches applied to his
         head, in an effort to reduce the pressure on his brain due to
         the hemorrhage, kept dropping off dead, leading to suspicions
         that Stalin had actually been poisoned in a covert coup staged
         by Secret Police head Lavrenti Beria. (1953)

6 Mar    The Alamo fell to assaulting Mexican troops in San Antonio,
         TX. Commander William B. Travis had recorded being intimate
         with over 58 different women in his personal journal, and had
         contracted a case of gonorrhea as a result of his amorous
         activities. He was taking mercury-based medication for the
         disease well prior to his assumption of command at the Alamo,
         leading some scholars to speculate on the possible adverse
         impact the poisonous chemical had upon his judgment and mental
         faculties at the time of the battle. (1836)

10 Mar   Advancing Confederate forces captured a concealed Union
         ordnance and quartermaster depot at the remote village of
         Cubero, NM, with the aid of Dr Finis E. Kavanaugh, a former
         AMEDD contract surgeon posted at Fort Fauntleroy, NM.
         Confederate sympathizer Kavanaugh made possible the continuing
         Confederate offensive drive northward to seize Santa Fe with
         this piece of espionage. The Southern forces advancing
         northward from El Paso, TX, were led by Brigadier General
         Henry H. Sibley, the son of an AMEDD surgeon. (1862)

16 Mar   Doctor John M. Smith, Jr died at the age of 88 in San Antonio,
         TX. A graduate of Tulane University School of Medicine, Dr
         Smith was an AMEDD surgeon during World War II, serving in
         Normandy and the Ardennes Campaign with a field hospital.
         In 1959, his efforts led the state legislature to charter what
         is now the University of Texas Health Science Center. (2003)

17 Mar   An Iraqi Mirage F-1 fighter fired two Exocet air-to-surface
         missiles into the destroyer USS STARK, killing 37 American
         seamen in an overt act of war. (1987)

18 Mar   Czar Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible") died at the age of 54, the
         most feared ruler of Russia until the time of Joseph Stalin,
         350 years later. Known for his cruelty and paranoia, Ivan
         killed hundreds of thousands of his subjects during his bloody
         reign, including his own eldest son and several of his
         estimated eight to 10 wives. In the late 1990s, a team of
         Russian forensic pathologists excavated and examined his
         skeleton. They determined that he had suffered from
         excruciatingly painful arthritic ailments, which had been
         treated with the mercury-based medications of the day in such
         prolonged and heavy dosages that he had undoubtedly suffered
         brain damage from mercury poisoning, thus accounting for his
         increasingly bizarre and violent behavior. (1584)

         The Continental Congress stipulated that each American Soldier
         should receive a ration of one pint of beer per day. (1775)

20 Mar   Major Mark D. Taylor, 41, was killed by rocket fire near
         Fallujah, Iran. Major Taylor was part of a Forward Surgical
         Team deployed in support of the 82d Airborne Division. (2004)

23 Mar   Iraqi troops fired on "U.S. military vehicles clearly marked
         by Red Cross symbols," according to troops of the 3d
         battalion, 69th Armor Battalion, 3d Infantry Division. (2003)

         An HH-60G PAVE HAWK helicopter of the U.S. Air Force 41st
         Rescue Squadron crashed in southeastern Afghanistan, killing
         all aboard, while conducting an aeromedical evacuation of two
         injured Afghan children. (2003)

24 Mar   The first casualties evacuated from in-theater were airlifted
         from Iraq to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in the Federal
         Republic of Germany. Eight Marines and two U.S. Army Soldiers
         arrived at Ramstein Air Force Base en route to the AMEDD
         facility commanded by COL David Rubenstein. (2003)

         In a historic "first," U.S. Marine Corporal Josh Menard lay on
         a stretcher somewhere in Iraq awaiting treatment for a bullet
         wound to his hand and spoke directly to his parents at home in
         Houston, TX, via a live network satellite link on a global
         telecast and then via cell phone. For the first time in the
         history of warfare, a casualty experienced direct
         communication with his family in CONUS while in the hands of
         his unit's medics at the first echelon of care. (2003)

         OPERATION VARSITY, the Allied airborne assault across the
         Rhine River, commenced with Medic Wallace E. Thompson, 17th
         Airborne Division, sitting behind the wheel of a jeep loaded
         with medical supplies. The vehicle was strapped in the belly
         of a cargo glider as it dared German antiaircraft fire to
         deliver its payload to the drop zone. As the glider swept in
         for a landing at an altitude of 10 to 15 feet, an 88 mm shell
         detonated in its rear cargo bay, and the blast hurled Thompson
         and his jeep forward through the nose of the aircraft. The
         jeep soared through the final few feet to the ground and then
         impacted with the dazed medic still sitting behind the wheel.
         As Thompson sought to recover from the shock of his
         precipitate landing, a sniper fired at him. The bullet hit his
         helmet, but was deflected. Joined by the glider's bruised and
         bleeding crewmen, Thompson drove the jeep to the nearest aid
         station and delivered his cargo safely. (1945)

25 Mar   Hospital Corpsman 3/c Michael Vann Johnson was caring for
         wounded Marines when grenade fragments inflicted a lethal head
         wound on the 25-year-old native of Little Rock, AR, in Iraqi
         fighting. (2003)

26 Mar   Major Todd Albright, battalion surgeon for the 3d Squadron,
         7th Armored Cavalry, 3d Infantry Division, treated a 4-year-
         old boy, a pregnant woman, and two other Iraqi civilians for
         shrapnel wounds as his unit weathered enemy ambushes on its
         approach to the Euphrates River. (2003)

         Bolivian doctors and nurses mobbed the U.S. embassy in La Paz
         in response to rumors that American citizenship would be
         granted to all medical professionals volunteering for service
         in Iraq with the AMEDD.  (2003)

([dagger]) Doctor  Austerman is the Historian, U.S. Army Medical
Department Center and School, Fort Sam Houston, TX.
COPYRIGHT 2005 U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Author:Austerman, Wayne R.
Publication:U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Date:Jan 1, 2005
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