ADAPT: a new ADAA Allied Dental Adult Personnel training program: meeting the challenge of dental assisting education: linking education and the dental office workplace.
The Need for Change in Dental Education
During the past decade dental literature has stated that one of the most compelling challenges facing the profession of dentistry in the 21st century is developing alternative models of dental education. The American Dental Association (1991) recognized that educational models needed to include innovative allied dental education programs. In 1994, The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine urged dental leaders to cooperate and reform accreditation and licensing regulations and to support rather than obstruct the dental profession's evolution.
In order to provide quality patient dental care in the most economic, efficient, and effective manner, focus must be on an adequate supply of qualified personnel for the dental workforce. This means reviewing traditional, formalized dental education systems that have emerged and implementing alternative methods of education and effective accreditation reform and licensing revision.
While dentists continue to utilize on-the-job-trained dental assistants, educational methodologies can be implemented to standardize the training and allow these dental assistants to advance in their skills through existing academic programs while receiving higher education recognition.
Shortage of Qualified Dental Personnel
In addition to the barriers that have limited essential change and educational access, traditional educational programs have decreased, thereby reducing the number of potential employees and applicants being educated. These conditions have caused an increasing national shortage of entry-level dental assistants.
The lack of entry-level workers and access to education during this decade has further increased the estimates of the Bureau of Labor. However, change offers leaders an opportunity for reform and innovation (Dillon, 1992).
Developing a New Dental Assisting Training Model
Dental assisting is a profession that represents a workforce with a wide range of education and skills. And, as state regulations for dental auxiliary utilization continue to expand, so too does the need for training. It has been noted that education and training are key ingredients to effective human resource development. (Bates, 1994). Therefore, instruction, accreditation, and licensure regulations must work together to support alternative training methods.
Distance learning options can provide access to individuals who live in geographic areas that do not have dental assisting education programs. Self-directed learning can provide an opportunity for potential workers to enter educational dental assisting programs that provide a guided, standardized level of training and an opportunity to enter into higher education as they recognize their ability to advance. Predetermined levels of instruction and completion will provide students with an opportunity to enter training programs at various entry levels of skills and exit at designated completion points to practice.
Performance-based Instructional Design
Performance technology is a competency-based, instructional design. It has been distinguished from traditional education instruction design because of its emphasis on the evaluation of task performance or psychomotor skills. The educational-instruction design emphasizes the application of learning or knowledge, referred to as the cognitive domain, which is also essential to perform tasks. Educational institutions of higher learning have fundamentally been concerned with cognitive learning. Therefore, in many education institutions a performance technology design that focuses on skill levels and proficiency does not appear to fit.
Performance-based education is often perceived to have negative connotations. However, training in psychomotor skills or hands-on education is recognized by institutional accreditation. The ADA Commission on Dental Accreditation encourages cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains of learning. Both dental and allied dental personnel programs accredited by the Commission require performance-based, preclinical and clinical experience through externship or preceptorship associated with the program.
A Critical Events Training Model
A critical events model has been designed as a human resource development model for training programs (Nadler, 1994). It may appear to some educators that this model lacks an educational basis because it emphasizes training and refers to teaching and learning technical or psychomotor skills. However, as discussed previously, allied dental personnel and students must perform certain psychomotor tasks and skill. All three of the learning domains can be found in education but in different degrees.
The critical events model provides a basis for designing performance-based instruction that can meet the skills, knowledge, and attitude essential for training dental assistants.
PART II: NEW AMERICAN DENTAL ASSISTANTS ASSOCIATION DISTANT LEARNING SELF-STUDY--"ALLIED DENTAL ADULT PERSONNEL TRAINING" (ADAPT) PROGRAM
The Distant Learning Self-Study Model (ADAPT) is currently being implemented by the American Dental Assistants Association and will be described in this article. In developing this program, performance-based instructional design and the critical events model were utilized. Nadler's model offered a process from which to review the current needs of dental practice. The six elements essential in designing this model were:
1) defining the needs for dental practice personnel utilization
2) specifying job performance
3) identifying learner needs
4) determining objectives
5) developing curriculum and instructional strategies
6) evaluating each step of the instructional design
These elements were identified through literature research and dental practice regulation information, input from a focus group and dental study club, review of the accreditation guidelines for dental assisting programs by the ADA Council on Dental Education and certification requirements of the Dental Assisting National Board. Emphasis has been placed on evaluation and feedback.
Basis for the New Allied Dental Adult Personnel Training Program
This comprehensive distant learning self-study program is based on my new 37-chapter textbook, Contemporary Dental Assisting. Many practicing dentists, dental faculty members, health care professionals, and allied dental personnel contributed their expertise. Each chapter represents a recognized course of study required in dental assisting education programs. The textbook and self-study program were coordinated and developed with accreditation standards for dental assisting programs by the ADA Council on Dental Education, Dental Assisting National Board certification requirements, and established dental assisting program curriculum.
Key points, chapter outlines, learning objectives, key terms, points for review, and self-study questions are an integral part of the textbook and have been reinforced in the self-study program. Step-by-step procedures are included in the textbook and reinforced with additional evaluations, check sheets, and modules in the self-study program. Materials needed to complete each procedure and self-evaluation are included. The textbook and the self-study materials have been developed for distant learning self-study with dental office affiliations required for clinical application. A focus committee will review and update instructional material and provide input into the continuing professional education development option of the program. Educational institutions, dental offices, professional organizations, and other affiliates (approved sponsors or program coordinators) are encouraged to cosponsor with the ADAA in providing this nontraditional and "teacher assisted" Allied Dental Adult Personnel Training program.
The textbook, Contemporary Dental Assisting, is required reading for the ADAPT self-study training program. Participants must complete reading assignments, take a final multiple choice test, complete clinical evaluations (when required), and fill out an assignment check sheet as part of the course requirements. The self-study material has been designed to emphasize both theory and skill. The program and the textbook were developed specifically to help the reader focus on and understand the key content and learning objectives for each area of study. The program provides guidance for the step-by-step procedures and reinforces the textbook's description of materials needed to complete each task, the steps essential to perform the task, and the criteria necessary to evaluate that procedure.
The Allied Dental Adult Personnel Training program has been designed to provide an educational opportunity for participants who may not be able to enter a traditional academic-based dental assisting program or for culturally diverse learners who desire a nontraditional program of study and skills essential for entering a potentially long-term career in dental assisting. This program can fill the needs of working adults who desire training for a new career and for employed on-the-job-trained dental assistants who want to gain knowledge, skills, and recognition through obtaining a certificate of completion of a dental assisting program. Many other options exist.
ADAPT Provides Opportunities:
* Opportunity to improve dental health care for more people
* Opportunity to provide access to the knowledge and skills essential for a career in dental assisting and career advancement for individuals who may not be able to enter a traditional academic-based dental assisting program
* Opportunity for these individuals to gain higher levels of education and professional development
* Opportunity for educational institutions to provide an integrated pathway to higher education for nontraditional students
* Opportunity for affiliated dental offices and approved sponsors to provide standardized dental assisting curriculum and training options
* Opportunity for international sponsors to implement this program to train dental assistants and teachers to be trainers, and
* Opportunity to save training and working time on the part of the dentist and staff.
The ADAPT program includes five areas of study or options that offer a certificate of completion:
1) Complete comprehensive Chairside Dental Assistant Program Option
2) The 37 Individual Course of Study Option (each course may also be completed for certification renewal and can be applied to the Chairside Dental Assistant Program)
3) Disciplinary Studios or Unit Course Options (credit can be applied to the Chairside Dental Assistant Program)
4) Specialty Course Options (credit can be applied to the Chairside Dental Assistant Program), and
5) Professional Course Development Option (credit can be applied to the Chairside Dental Assistant Program).
Each course manual will include reading instructions with objectives, textbook assignments, requirements, a final multiple-choice test, and assignment check sheet. If clinical procedures are to be completed the manual will include directions and clinical procedural evaluation sheets for each skill. Course credit will be given and an adequate amount of time will be assigned to each course to allow the participant to effectively and efficiently proceed and complete the designated program option.
When the self-study course is completed, the participant will send the assignment check sheet, final test sheet, and clinical evaluations with the dentist or approved sponsor's signature to the ADAA to record the results and issue the appropriate certificate if the participant has successfully completed the requirements as scheduled. If an affiliated school or approved sponsor is coordinating the ADAPT program, it will be responsible for securing this material and sending the results to ADAA.
If a course has a clinical requirement (CR) or specialty requirement (SR), participants must be affiliated with a dental office, school, or approved sponsor for hands-on support during the clinical requirement phase of the course. The dentist or approved program coordinator will be required to monitor the participant and complete the clinical evaluations. This self-study course material can be utilized in a dental assisting program for academic or continuing education training, distant learning self-study, or to provide a tutorial program for students.
Description of Dental Assistant Course Options
1) Individual Course Option:
The first self-study option is the Individual Course Option. There are 37 dental assisting courses in which participants can enroll. This option provides an opportunity to complete a single dental assisting home-study course. All of the self-study materials can be used in affiliation with an educational institution, dental office, or other approved sponsor. Participants can register and complete one or more individual courses of instruction and receive an ADAA "Individual Course Certificate" for successful completion of the course requirements. Eight courses have clinical requirements that require affiliation with a dental office or approved sponsor.
Participants are encouraged to complete any of the 37 courses and apply the course credit toward the "Chairside Dental Assistant Program Certificate." When taking the individual courses, if a goal is to complete the Comprehensive Chairside Dental Assistant Program, it is recommended that the participant follow the course sequence of the Chairside Dental Assistant Program. This will allow the learner to make more effective use of study time and completion time. The individual courses provided by the ADAA can be taken for DANB certification renewal.
2) Comprehensive Chairside Dental Assistant Program Option:
The comprehensive 37 Chairside Dental Assistant Program Option can be completed in less than one year of self-study. The program is self-directed and designed so that participants can move through the courses at their own speed. The total program can be completed in fewer than six months but must be completed within two years in order for credit to be given. Participants who complete the 37 courses successfully within a two-year time limit will receive the ADAA Chairside Dental Assistant Program Certificate of Completion.
The program has been designed so that existing dental assisting programs can cosponsor with ADAA this distant learning self-study program and provide a dental assisting diploma. This distant learning program can provide education for participants who cannot enter into a traditional dental assisting academic course but receive course credit for successful completion of the self-study courses as part of that cosponsored program. These participants may be included as part of the number of academic full-time equivalency students (FTE).
3) Unit Course Option:
The Unit Course Option provides participants with an opportunity to register for a home-study or on-campus unit of courses. There are six blocks or units of course materials that follow the Chairside Dental Assistant Course Option. Because the Chairside Dental Assistant Program is a comprehensive self-study option, the unit course option provides an opportunity for participants to reduce the number of courses taken at any one time or to study a specific area of interest. Participants can complete one or more unit course options and receive an ADAA Unit Course Certificate for successful completion of each unit course requirement.
Participants may enroll in one or more unit options at a time. Each course has a time requirement, which must be completed on schedule to receive the unit certificate of completion. If the goal is to earn the Chairside Dental Assistant Program Certificate through the Unit Course Option, the participant must complete all six options within the two-year time requirement.
UNIT COURSE OPTIONS--For course titles see box on page 33 listing Individual Dental Assisting Courses
UNIT I Professional Dental Assisting Yesterday and Today Courses 1, 2, 3
UNIT II Practice Management Principles and Techniques Courses 4, 5, 6, 7
UNIT III Dental Sciences, Principles and Techniques Courses 8 through 14
UNIT IV Clinical Principles and Techniques Courses 15 through 22
UNIT V Specialty Principles and Techniques Courses 23 through 32
UNIT VI Advanced Operative Principles and Techniques Courses 33 through 37
4) Specialty Course Option:
The Specialty Course Options self-study path provides participants with an opportunity to register for a specialty course. There are eight Specialty Course Options. These options provide specialized and advanced function dental assistant self-study training. Participants can register and complete one or more options and receive an ADAA Specialty Program Certificate. Each Specialty Option includes courses related specifically to that specialty area.
Sixteen courses have specialty clinical requirements that require affiliation with a dental office or approved sponsor. The dentist or approved sponsor should be identified as soon as possible if there is a specialty clinical requirement in order to complete hands-on clinical skills in a timely manner.
Participants should enroll in only one Specialty Course Option at a time as each specialty course has completion time requirements for the specialty certificate of completion. After successful completion of any of the eight options, participants may apply the credit for successful completion of the courses toward the ADAA Chairside Dental Assistant Program Certificate.
SPECIALTY COURSE OPTIONS
The courses required for each Specialty Option are presented in the At-A-Glance Grid, pages 36-37.
SPECIALTY OPTION 1
DENTAL OFFICE ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 2
ORAL SURGERY ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 3
ENDODONTIC SPECIALTY ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 4
PEDIATRIC SPECIALTY ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 5
ORTHODONTIC SPECIALTY ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 6
PROSTHETIC SPECIALTY ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 7
RESTORATIVE SPECIALTY ASSISTANT
SPECIALTY OPTION 8
5) Professional Development Course Option:
The Professional Development Course Option represents change in the delegation of advanced functions to dental assistants and therefore ADAA will continue program development as these changes occur. These courses will provide participants with an opportunity to register for self-study education. Participants completing this option will receive the ADAA Professional Development Certificate for successful completion of that course option requirement. At this rime there are three Advanced Oral Health Procedure Options. They are based on the participants educational and training need and are identified below.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE OPTIONS
ADVANCED ORAL HEALTH PROCEDURE I
Coronal Polishing Technique Module
ADVANCED ORAL HEALTH PROCEDURE II
Preventive Dentistry and Advanced Oral Health Procedures
Supragingival Calculus Removal
Topical Fluoride Application
ADVANCED ORAL HEALTH PROCEDURES III
Comprehensive Program in Advanced Oral Health Education
Oral Anatomy and Tooth Morphology
Microbiology for the Dental Assistant
Preventive Dentistry and Advanced Oral Health Procedures
Barriers to Disease Transmission
Current Concepts of Dental Chairside Assisting
Oral Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Management of Dental Office Emergencies
Each program consists of one or more units of study requiring completion of the following requirements:
* Reading the course instructions, assignments, and textbook chapter/s.
* Recording the final test question answers on the enclosed answer sheet.
* Completeing clinical evaluations if required.
* Securing dentist or sponsor's signature on Evaluation Sheets if required.
* Filling out Assignment Check Sheet.
* Mailing the above-required material within the rime requirement. (Grade is pass/fail.)
Participant will receive a certificate of completion for successful completion of each course or program.
Special Features of the ADAA ADAPT Program
This program has been specially designed for the nontraditional student who desires to become a dental assistant and wants to be an integral part of the dental profession. The ADAA Allied Dental Adult Personnel Training program is dedicated to nationally recognized standards of dental assisting education. All materials are easy to follow with everything needed for training and learning provided. This new performance-based instructional design provides nontraditional, self-study training opportunities for adults through distant learning methods. In reality we are reaching out to adults who may not have an opportunity for traditional education, thereby increasing standardized training opportunities, increasing the number of qualified allied dental personnel in the dental practice, increasing the potential for career advancement and personal growth for those who may not have other choices, and increasing the number of qualified dental personnel who can improve barriers to disease transmission, and provide patient comfort, safety, and overall patient care.
This program can provide career exploration with a standardized curriculum for on-the-job training and basic work-entry skills through advanced skill options. Participants will have an opportunity for dental office affiliation or academic classroom and clinic support, this will provide program coordination and teacher assistance in designated geographical areas.
International Training Options
The new ADAA ADAPT program is available for international dental assisting training and can provide the basis for training teachers. This distant learning model is a complete training program ready for implementation. Consultants, program coordinators, and trainers are available upon request.
Information to Register
For individual course descriptions and further registration information e-mail email@example.com. Dentists and allied dental personnel who wish to become affiliated with this program are invited to e-mail. An updated resume will be required.
INDIVIDUAL DENTAL ASSISTING COURSES
01. History of Dentistry and the Role of Dental Assisting
02. Career Planning and Interview Techniques for the Professional Dental Assistant
03. Dental Ethics and Jurisprudence
04. Managing Communications in the Dental Practice
05. Managing Dental Office Information
06. Managing Dental Financial Records
07. Dental Inventory Control
08. Anatomy and Physiology
09. Oral Anatomy and Tooth Morphology
11. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Oral Disease
12. Radiology and Radiation Safety
13. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiography (Clinical Requirement)
14. General Pharmacology and Pain Control
15. Dental Materials and Clinical Application (Clinical Requirement)
16. Nutrition and Dietary Counseling
17. Preventive Dentistry and Advanced Oral Health Procedures
18. Barriers to Disease Transmission (Clinical Requirement)
19. Dental Instruments and Equipment (Clinical Requirement)
20. Current Concepts of Dental Chairside Assisting (Clinical Requirement)
21. Oral Diagnosis and Treatment Planning (Clinical Requirement)
22. Management of Dental Office Emergencies
24. Pediatric Dentistry
26. Professional Orthodontics and Assisting
27. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Introduction to Hospital Dentistry
28. Fixed Prosthetics and Temporary Crown and Bridge
29. Removable Prosthetics (Clinical Requirement)
30. Complete Denture Prosthetics (Clinical Requirement)
31. Dental Implantology
32. Dental Oncology and Maxillofacial Prosthetic Treatment
33. Clinical Operative Procedures and Rubber Dam Isolation
34. Matrix Banal and Retainer Assembly and Wedge Placement
35. Finishing and Polishing Dental Restorations
36. Clinical Application of Dental Amalgam Restorations
37. Direct and Indirect Composite Acrylic Resin Restorative Techniques
DENTAL ASSISTANT SELF-STUDY PROGRAMS AT-A-GLANCE Individual Chairside Dental Oral Courses Dental Office Surgery Assistant Assistant Assistant ADAA-IC-01 01 01 -- History of Dentistry ADAA-IC-02 02 02 -- Careers ADAA-IC-03 03 03 -- Ethics/Jurisprudence ADAA-IC-04 04 04 -- Communications ADAA-IC-05 05 05 -- Manage Information ADAA-IC-06 06 06 -- Financial Records ADAA-IC-07 07 07 -- Inventory Control ADAA-IC-08 08 -- 08 Anatomy/Physiology ADAA-IC-09 09 09 09 Oral Anatomy ADAA-IC-10 10 -- 10 Microbiology ADAA-IC-11 11 -- 11 Pathology/Disease ADAA-IC-12 12 -- 12 Radiation Safety ADAA-IC-13 13 CR -- 13 CR Radiography ADAA-IC-14 14 -- 14 SR Pharmacology ADAA-IC-15 15 CR -- 15 CR Dental Materials ADAA-IC-16 16 -- -- Nutrition ADAA-IC-17 17 -- -- Preventive Dentistry ADAA-IC-18 18 CR 18 CR 18 CR Disease Transmission ADAA-IC-19 19 CR -- 19 CR Instruments ADAA-IC-20 20 CR -- 20 CR Chairside Assisting ADAA-IC-21 21 CR -- 21 CR Oral Diagnosis ADAA-IC-22 22 22 22 SR Medical Emergencies ADAA-IC-23 23 -- -- Endodontics ADAA-IC-24 24 -- -- Pediatric Dentistry ADAA-IC-25 25 -- 25 SR Periodontics ADAA--IC-26 26 -- -- Orthodontics ADAA-IC-27 27 -- 27 SR Oral Surgery ADAA-IC-28 28 -- -- Fixed Prosthetics ADAA-IC-29 29 CR -- -- Removable Prosthetics ADAA-IC-30 30 CR -- -- Denture Prosthetics ADAA-IC-31 31 -- 31 Implants ADAA-IC-32 32 -- 32 Oncology ADAA-IC-33 33 -- -- Rubber Dam ADAA-IC-34 34 -- -- Matrix Band ADAA-IC-35 35 -- -- Finish/Polish ADAA-IC-36 36 -- -- Amalgam Restorations ADAA-IC-37 37 -- -- Composites Individual Endodontic Pediatric Orthodontic Courses Specialty Specialty Specialty Assistant Assistant Assistant ADAA-IC-01 -- -- -- History of Dentistry ADAA-IC-02 -- -- -- Careers ADAA-IC-03 -- -- -- Ethics/Jurisprudence ADAA-IC-04 -- -- -- Communications ADAA-IC-05 -- -- -- Manage Information ADAA-IC-06 -- -- -- Financial Records ADAA-IC-07 -- -- -- Inventory Control ADAA-IC-08 -- -- 08 Anatomy/Physiology ADAA-IC-09 09 09 09 Oral Anatomy ADAA-IC-10 -- -- -- Microbiology ADAA-IC-11 -- -- -- Pathology/Disease ADAA-IC-12 12 12 12 Radiation Safety ADAA-IC-13 13 CR 13 CR 13 CR Radiography ADAA-IC-14 -- -- -- Pharmacology ADAA-IC-15 -- 15 CR 15 CR Dental Materials ADAA-IC-16 -- 16 -- Nutrition ADAA-IC-17 -- 17 SR -- Preventive Dentistry ADAA-IC-18 18 CR 18 CR 18 CR Disease Transmission ADAA-IC-19 19 CR 19 CR 19 CR Instruments ADAA-IC-20 20 CR 20 CR 20 CR Chairside Assisting ADAA-IC-21 21 CR 21 CR 21 CR Oral Diagnosis ADAA-IC-22 22 22 22 Medical Emergencies ADAA-IC-23 23 SR -- -- Endodontics ADAA-IC-24 -- 24 SR -- Pediatric Dentistry ADAA-IC-25 -- -- -- Periodontics ADAA-IC-26 -- -- 26 SR Orthodontics ADAA-IC-27 -- -- -- Oral Surgery ADAA-IC-28 -- -- -- Fixed Prosthetics ADAA-IC-29 -- -- -- Removable Prosthetics ADAA-IC-30 -- -- -- Denture Prosthetics ADAA-IC-31 -- -- -- Implants ADAA-IC-32 -- -- -- Oncology ADAA-IC-33 33 -- -- Rubber Dam ADAA-IC-34 -- -- -- Matrix Band ADAA-IC-35 -- -- -- Finish/Polish ADAA-IC-36 -- -- -- Amalgam Restorations ADAA-IC-37 -- -- -- Composites Individual Prosthetic Restorative Dental Courses Specialty Specialty Radiology/ Assistant Assistant Radiography ADAA-IC-01 -- -- -- History of Dentistry ADAA-IC-02 -- -- -- Careers ADAA-IC-03 -- -- -- Ethics/Jurisprudence ADAA-IC-04 -- -- -- Communications ADAA-IC-05 -- -- -- Manage Information ADAA-IC-06 -- -- -- Financial Records ADAA-IC-07 -- -- -- Inventory Control ADAA-IC-08 -- -- -- Anatomy/Physiology ADAA-IC-09 09 09 09 Oral Anatomy ADAA-IC-10 -- -- -- Microbiology ADAA-IC-11 -- -- -- Pathology/Disease ADAA-IC-12 -- 12 12 Radiation Safety ADAA-IC-13 -- 13 CR 13 CR Radiography ADAA-IC-14 -- -- -- Pharmacology ADAA-IC-15 15 CR -- -- Dental Materials ADAA-IC-16 -- -- -- Nutrition ADAA-IC-17 -- -- -- Preventive Dentistry ADAA-IC-18 18 CR 18 CR 18 CR Disease Transmission ADAA-IC-19 19 CR 19 CR -- Instruments ADAA-IC-20 20 CR 20 CR 20 CR Chairside Assisting ADAA-IC-21 21 CR 21 CR -- Oral Diagnosis ADAA-IC-22 22 22 22 Medical Emergencies ADAA-IC-23 -- -- -- Endodontics ADAA-IC-24 -- -- -- Pediatric Dentistry ADAA-IC-25 25 -- -- Periodontics ADAA-IC-26 -- -- -- Orthodontics ADAA-IC-27 27 -- -- Oral Surgery ADAA-IC-28 28 SR -- -- Fixed Prosthetics ADAA-IC-29 29 CR -- -- Removable Prosthetics ADAA-IC-30 30 CR -- -- Denture Prosthetics ADAA-IC-31 31 SR -- -- Implants ADAA-IC-32 32 SR -- -- Oncology ADAA-IC-33 -- 33 SR -- Rubber Dam ADAA-IC-34 -- 34 SR -- Matrix Band ADAA-IC-35 -- 35 SR -- Finish/Polish ADAA-IC-36 -- 36 SR -- Amalgam Restorations ADAA-IC-37 -- 37 SR -- Composites CR = Clinical Requirement SR = Specialty Requirement
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Darlene Eaton Novak, EdD, is a Certified Dental Assistant, Kentucky Advanced Function DA and Michigan RDA. She is Executive Director of Career Development Systems, LLC and bas taught at Delta University, Ferris State University School of Allied Health and School of Education, and University of Louisville School of Dentistry in Kentucky She has served the ADAA as president of both the Michigan and Kentucky State DA Associations and as ADAA's national president. She has received honors from the University of Louisville, the City of Louisville and the American Dental Association. Dr. Novak is the author of Contemporary Dental Assisting, published by Mosby, Inc. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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|Title Annotation:||American Dental Assistants Association; Allied Dental Adult Personnel Training program|
|Author:||Novak, Darlene Eaton|
|Publication:||The Dental Assistant|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2004|
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