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Section I: Biological Sciences

Room AB 109

Margaret Major, Presiding

12:00 HILLTOP PREFERENCE OF BOBWHITE QUAIL, Dale A. Zaborowski and Al Hanson, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144-5591. Pen-raised bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were marked and released in two fields of varying topography in southeastern Bartow County during January and February of 1995. The birds were placed in differing locations of each field and gun dogs were used to locate them the day after release. The quail showed a highly significant preference for the "military crest" or the upper one-third portion of a hill. A preference for the military crest would appear to maximize the ability to escape from a predator.

12:15 EFFECTS OF HERBIVORE DAMAGE ON GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION IN CAKILE EDENTULA, Karen R, Brown [*], Brent T. Ginn and Lissa M. Leege, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Cakile edentula (searocket; BRASSICACEAE) is a succulent, annual plant that inhabits marine and freshwater beaches. We hypothesized that the effects and pattern of herbivory would differ across the lifecycle in Cakile. In a greenhouse study, we examined the effects of herbivory on Cakile by removing 50 or 100% of the leaves once during four different life stages. Plants that lost [greater than on equal to]50% of leaves at flowering and 100% of leaves at fruiting produced less fruit than the undamaged control. To examine the pattern of herbivory in natural populations, plants on five of Georgia's barrier islands were surveyed for herbivore damage across the life cycle. Only 13% of all seedlings had herbivore damage, while 78% of larger juveniles and 60% of mature plants were damaged. Field results indicate that mature plants a re more frequently damaged while the greenhouse study suggests that damage on mature plants has the greatest impact on reproduction.

12:30 AMPICILLIN RESISTANCE IN FECAL COLIFORMS FROM CANOCHEE AND OCONEE RIVERS, Lee P. Owen [*] and Michael L. Gleason, Georgia College & State University, Milledeville, GA 31061. In the Spring and Fall of 2000 river water sampled from the Canoochee and Oconee Rivers were collected and counted by EPA methods for the presence of fecal coliforms and streptococcal bacteria. In the Canoochee survey eight sites were sampled from N32[degrees]22.43', W82[degrees]7.42' to N32[degrees]10.74, W81[degrees]49.66'. Fecal coliforms levels ranged from 140-540 coliforms/100 ml, while coliform/streptococcal ratios ranged from 3.4-10. Frequency of ampicillin resistance was determined by growth of mFC colonies after transfer to LB pltes [+ or -] 100 [alpha]/ml ampicillin. Resistant coliforms were further characterized by molecular methods.

12:45 PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF THE HYDRADEPHASAN (COLEOPTERA) FAUNA OF SAN SALVADORE ISLAND, BAHAMAS, Devon Brannen [*], E.H. Barman and M.D. DeVore, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The aquatic beetle fauna of the island was sampled from 6-12 July 2000, using triangular dip nets to survey temporary fresh-water habitats along roads and in sinkholes. Aquatic macrophytes in these habitats included species of Eleocharis, Eupatorium, Euphorbia, Paspalum, Phyla, and Dichroma. Additional Coleoptera were taken at lights. A total of 169 adult aquatic beetles were collected including 64 Hydradephaga. No hydradephagan larvae were collected, Taxa identified include Gyrinidae (Dineutus), Haliplidae (Haliplus), and Dytiscidae (Copelatus, Cybister, Hydaticus, Laccophilus, Megadytes, Pachydrus, and Thermonectus). Each of the genera was represented by one species with all but Hydaticus bimarginatus appearing to represent new records for the island. This project was supported in part by W ier Funds, the Office of Special Academic Projects and Programs, and a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & SU. Aquatic Coleopt. Lab. Contribution No. 33.

1:00 UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE EVALUATION IN GOPHER TORTOISES FROM MOODY AIR FORCE BASE, GEORGIA, J. Mitchell [Lockhart.sup.1], Gregory [Lee.sup.2], Preston [Barber.sup.1], Kristine [Taylor.sup.1] and Stephen W. [Mullis.sup.1], [Department.sup.1] of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698 and [Department.sup.2] of Air Force, Moody Air Force Base, Georgia. Upper Respiratory Tract Disease (URTD's), caused by Mycoplasma agassizii, is a significant threat to endangered populations of the Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in the southeastern United States. In order to better define the range of URTD's in gopher tortoise's in Georgia, we evaluated a population at Moody Air Force Base. Forty animals were captured directly or by use of bucket traps between July and September, 2000. Blood samples were collected via brachial venopuncture and sterile phosphate-buffered saline nasal lavages were performed on each animal. Aliquots of plasma samples and nasal lavages were sent to the Mycoplasma Research Lab, The University of Florida for evaluation. All plasma samples were negative for the presence of antibodies to M. agassizii. Results from culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis are pending. These results suggest that this population has not been exposed to M. agassizii.

1:15 THE EFFECTS OF HERBIVORY ON MECANICAL DEFENSE IN BLACKBERRIES, RUBUS ARGUTUS, Haley Caldwell [*], Lisa Bradford, Chandra Leigh, Jeremy Pirkle and Mark Davis, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. We assessed differences in prickle length and prickle density of Rubus argutus in grazed and ungrazed habitats. Twenty-five samples of blackberry shoots were taken from each of two sites, one grazed by cattle and one in a nearby ungrazed location. Each sample was a 5 cm shoot section, the base of which was but 10 cm from the terminal bud. We measured the length of the first three prickles and counted the total number of prickles in each 5 cm section. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of location (grazed/ungrazed) and position (1st, 2nd, 3rd prickle) on prickle length. Length was significantly greater in the grazed (mean = 4.7 mm) than in the ungrazed (mean = 3.04 mm) location ([f.sub.1,48] = 57.3, P[less than]0.0001) but prickle position had no significant effect. Prickle d ensity was not significantly affected by location (t 1.42, DF = 48, P = 0.161). Our results indicate that grazing may result in selection for increased prickle length but not higher prickle density.

1:30 A FLORISTIC STUDY OF GLADE SHOALS GRANITE OUTCROP AND ADJACENT HABITATS, HALL COUNTY, GEORGIA, Jodi R. Greenlee [*], Lyrad N. Smallwood and Michael Wayne Morris, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Floristic studies conducted at Glade Shoals granite outcrop and adjacent habitats in north Hall County, Georgia, primarily from March to October in 2000, resulted in the documentation of 421 species of vascular plants representing 277 genera in 99 families. These are members of the following groups of vascular plants: Pteridophytes, 15 species; Confiers, 5 species; Monocots, 106 species; and Dicots, 295 species. The largest families are as follows: Asteraceae, 57 species; Poaceae, 47 species; Cyperaceae, 25 species; Fabaceae, 22 species; and Rosaceae, 16 species. Plant communities present at the study site are the following: the granite outcrop proper, including Virginia pine scrub "islands" and exposed depression pits, uplant oak-hickory-pine forest, upland mesophytic forest, and bo ggy woods, including creekside seepage habitats. A total of 188 species collected are new county records. Rare plants present include Carex debilis, Hexastylis shuttleworthii, Rubus hispidus, and Spiranthes ovalis. Forty-nine species documented are not native to the area.

1:45 SEROLOGY OF SPIROPLASMA FROM TABANIDAE: (DIPTERA) OF COSTA RICA, Kelsie E. Fitzgerald [*] and Frank E. French, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Tabanids, horse files and deer flies, are major sources of spiroplasmas. The spiroplasma bacteria were isolated and cultured from the gut and occasionally the hemolymph of host flies from the Costa Rican lowlands (below 100 meters elevation). Currently, 45 cultures exhibiting long growth forms have been isolated. Twelve cultures showed only minimal serological relationships with the 20 known antisera to tabanid associated Spiroplasma (five of which are from Costa Rica). The 12 unresolved cultures were presumed to represent one or more new species of Spiroplasma. Two of the unresolved cultures were triply cloned to produce antisera from rabbits for subsequent serological tests. The initial titer of antisera was 1:320. A series of booster shots are in progress. The two new antisera will be used for reciprocal serological tests, and for serological evaluation of the remaining ten unresolved isolates.

2:00 Break

2:15 FAMILIAL CALL RECOGNITION IN CROWS, Ramona Nichols [*] and R.C. Paul, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The distinctive "caw" call of the American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos, is only part of their extensive repertoire. Vocalizations recorded in the field in the Spring if 2000 from three local populations suggest that each group has a distinct shared repertoire. There were significant differences between all three families in total length of 4-element calls. Furthermore, the shared group repertoires of families whose territories are closer together contain more differences than those further apart. There were significant differences in frequency (at the point of maximum amplitude) of 4-element calls between the two closest groups, but no significant differences in frequency between the families further apart. Playback experiments suggest that these differences may be used for same group recognition. There were no flights towards speakers playing home group calls compared with 24 flights towa rd speakers with alien calls.

2:30 DIET OF BANDED SCULPIN FROM BARTOW COUNTY STREAMS, Calley J. Brewer [*] and William E. Ensign, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Biological monitoring using multimetric indices is a common method for assessing environmental degradation in aquatic systems. Metrics used in these indices characterize both structural and functional aspects of fish and invertebrate communities. Trophic metrics assume environmental degradation will alter food availability, thereby altering consumer community composition. To test this assumption, we assessed stomach contents of 45 banded culpin, Cottus carolinae, from 9 separate streams of varying water quality in Bartow County, Georgia. Immature aquatic invertebrates were the most common prey item, although fish, crustaceans and terrestrial organisms were also present. Trichopteran and dipteran larvae were the dominant aquatic invertebrates in all streams. Prey taxa richness was lower and the proportion of empty stomachs higher in degraded streams. Our results su pport the assumption that degradation of aquatic systems alters trophic relationships in stream systems.

2:45 PREY CAPTURE IN A MONTANE PURPLE PITCHER PLANT (SARRACENIA PURPUREA) POPULATION, Melissa Lewis [*], Mark Davis and Wayne Morris, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. We investigated prey capture in an established population of Sarracenia purpurea in a mountain bog near Suches, Union County, Georgia. Ninety-five pitchers (leaves) were tagged and their prey items removed at 3-4 d intervals from June 23 - September 30, 2000. Prey organisms were identified to order, and the collective biomass of each order was obtained after drying to constant mass at 50[degrees] C. Here we present data on prey diversity and biomass contribution of various taxa to total amount of prey captured. A comparison of our results with those published for northern populations of S. purpurea will be discussed.

3:00 A COMPARISON OF THE EFFICACY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND PLAIN SOAPS ON THE INHIBITION OF BACTERIAL GROWTH, John H. Smoyer, III [*] and Jimmy Wedincamp, Jr., East Georgia College, Swainsboro, Georgia 30401. There are many brands of antibacterial soaps on the market today. Consumers concerned with sanitation are purchasing the antibacterial brands at increasing rates. Our research will attempt to determine if antibacterial soaps are more effective than plain soaps at inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The paper test method will be used to test and compare the inhibitory properties of antibacterial and plain soaps on the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Antibacterial and plain soaps will be absorbed to paper discs and applied to cultures of bacteria. Inhibition of growth is determined by the appearance of clear zones of inhibition. We will compare the effectiveness of three major soap brands on their inhibition of bacterial growth.

3:15 NOTES ON THE ECTOPARASITES OF THE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN EMANUEL, JENKINS AND BURKE COUNTIES IN GEORGIA, Joseph N. Johnson [*] and Jimmy Wedincamp, Jr., East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401. A survey of the ectoparasites of the white-tailed deer will be conducted in the 2000-2001 hunting season in a three county region located in Southeast Georgia. Deer carcasses will be surveyed at local deer processing plants. The parasites will be removed by combing the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the deer for approximately 30 strokes with a standard flea comb and attached ticks will be removed with forceps. Ectoparasites will be placed into labeled vials containing 70% ethyl alcohol. Additionally, the interior surface of the ears will be swabbed using cotton swabs and placed into vials containing 70% ethyl alcohol for transport to the lab. Preliminary results from our study indicate a high percentage of deer harvest is infected with hippoboscids and to a lesser extent Ixodes scapularis .

3:30 SURVEY OF THE TERRESTRIAL IN A VERTEBRATE FAUNA FROM THE PLANT VOGTLE ELECTRICITY GENERATING SITE, Jody L. Underwood [*] and Jimmy Wedincamp, Jr., East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401. A survey of the terrestrial invertebrates will be conducted over a 2 year period at the Plant Vogtle Electric Generating Facility located approximately 14 miles from Waynesboro, GA in Burke County. The area under investigation covers approximately 3000 acres. Invertebrates will be sampled by standard collection methods including pit-fall traps, Berlese funnel extraction, Gressitt-Malaise flight traps, light traps, drag clothes, and aerial netting. All collections will be made in two 164 x 328 ft survey plots that represent a diversity of insect habitats. Samples will be collected once monthly over a two year period beginning in September 2000. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and incidence of terrestrial invertebrates at the plant site.

3:45 HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF LARVAL ANURANS AND THEIR PREDATORS ALONG AN ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENT, Rey A. Pellos [*], Clinton E. Miller and Michael K. Moore, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. For anurans with free-living aquatic larvae, the complex interactive effects between competition, predation, and the physicochemical parameters of the aquatic environment are the most important factors affecting the survival and fitness of individual larvae. We examined patterns of habitat use by anuran larvae via quadrat sampling in a southern Piedmont lake. Abiotic conditions ([O.sub.2], temperature, water depth), vegetation, predator type, and predator abundance all varied significantly across transects conducted perpendicular to the shoreline. Larvae of two species of anuran (Acris crepitans and Rana clamitans) showed significant aggregations of individuals and patterns ofhabitat partitioning along the gradient. In general, Acris larvae were limited to shallower, warmer habitats with lower oxyg en content and fewer predators. The results from this study support previous laboratory results showing distinct behavioral and physiological abilities of these species to cope with stressful environments.

4:00 DO POLLINATION SYNDROMES EXIST? A COMPARATIVE APPROACH, Dexter Sowell [*] and Lorne Wolfe, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. One of the assumptions in the scientific literature is that most pollination systems are highly specialized in the angiosperms. This assumption arises from the well-published fact that most pollinators are thought to choose a specific suite of floral characters when foraging for flowers (i.e. pollination syndromes). We tested the validity of pollination syndromes using a comparative approach with four species of Ipomoea (morning glories). Two of these have red and orange flowers (I. quamoclit and I. hederifolia and are expected to be "bird and butterfly" pollinated. The other two are blue and pink (I. hederacea and I. trichocarpa) and are expected to be "bee" pollinated. We recorded pollinator visitation sequences to the four morning glories in five populations over two years. The pollinator fauna included bumblebees, hummingbirds, and a variety of lepidopterans. These taxa varied in the level of flower choice specificity. These results suggest that pollination syndromes do exist; however, the fact that some pollinators act as generalists adds heterogeneity to the system.

4:15 ECOLOGICAL GENETICS OF LIFE HISTORY VARIATION IN AN INVASIVE PLANT ACROSS ITS GEOGRAPHIC RANGE, Thomas D. Parrish [*] and Lame Wolfe, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458. Biological invasions pose a serious threat to ecological diversity. It is not known why some species are able to become established and result in being a nuisance. The success of invaders in new habits can be attributed to ecological and genetic factors. Natural selection and genetic drift could be possible explanations for the success of invaders in introduced habitats. I used Silene alba (Caryophyllaceae) to compare life history traits between native and introduced populations. Silene alba originated in Europe and spread westward with agriculture. Seeds were collected from 22 populations in the Middle East, Europe, and North America, and plants were grown in the greenhouse. The following traits were measured: time to germination, basal rosette area, number of leaves, leaf size, days to flowering, flower size of 1st and 3rd flower, number of flowers, and number of seeds/fruit. Preliminary analysis indicate significant variation among populations.

4:30 THE DISTRIBUTION OF WOLBACHIA WITHIN AMBLYOMMA AMERICANUM IN COASTAL GEORGIA, AND THE TEMPORAL INFECTION RATE OF ONE LOCATION, Chris Gorham [*], Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Wolbacia is an intracellular endosymbiont found within many arthropods and nematodes. This paper reports upon the distribution of Wolbachia within the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. This is the first report of Wolbachia within this species of tick. Ticks from the coastal region of Georgia including some barrier islands were collected and screened individually for infection with Wolbachia. The distribution of infection is examined throughout the region. Infection rate within these ticks is not pervasive, and actually shows a decline in the one location sampled at two different times. These findings support previous studies that claim a minimal infection level for Wolbachia to maintain itself within an arthropod population

Section II: Chemistry

Room AB 101

Thomas Manning, Presiding

2:00 SYNTHESIS AND SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY OF NOVEL DIPEPTIDE SUBSTRATES FOR DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE, Mia Turner [*] and Steven W. Weiner, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419-1997. Dipeptidylpeptidase I (DPPI) is a cysteine protease that catalyzes the cleavage of a dipeptide fragment from the N-terminus of many protein substrates. DPPI effectively hydrolyzes a variety of dipeptidyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (dipeptidyl-AMO) substrates to yield a dipeptide and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Previously, Ala-Phe-AMC and Ala-Gln-AMC were determined to be the best substrate for DPPI. We have synthesized several analogs of these two substrates where the Ala residue is replaced with 1aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid and 1-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid in the Ala-Phe-AMC series. Ala-Gln-AMC analogs synthesized substituted Ala with Leu and Phe residues. These novel dipeptide-AMC compounds are assayed for DPPI activity by measuring the increase in fluorescence with tim e as 7-amino-4methylcoumarin is hydrolyzed from the dipeptidyl substrate, and their kinetic constants will be compared to the best known optimal substrates. The specificity of the active site can be inferred by comparing the kcat/Km values of all the dipeptide-AMC substrates tested.

2:15 A STUDY OF CONCRETE THINKERS VS. FORMAL THINKERS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY CLASSES AS IDENTIFIED BY THE GROUP ASSESSMENT OF LOGICAL THINKING (GALT) TEST, Patricia S. [Russel.sup.1] [*] and Lucille B. [Garmon.sup.2], [Gordon.sup.1] College, Barnesville, GA 30204 and [State.sup.2] University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The relationship between students' general chemistry grades and their scores on the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test was studied. Students were also individually interviewed to uncover additional factors that could affect chemistry grades. The sample size was small, and data did not show a direct correlation between GALT scores and chemistry grades. However, when study habits were factored in along with GALT scores, a relationship with chemistry grades was found. This study was used in the development of a more comprehensive study by the same student researcher, currently being conducted at Gordon College.

2:30 MILLER-UREY REVISITED: WHEN LIGHTNING STRIKES THE EARTH, William Paneral [*], Len Atwater, Anna McRae, Derek Lovingood, Brent Leslie, Rob Stapleton, Mike Anderson and Thomas Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In 1953, Miller and Urey published the results of an experiment that showed amino acids could be produced by passing an electrical discharge through an ammonia, methane and water atmosphere. These conditions were correlated with the evolution of life on earth. Since that time there have been countless experiments run that varied the chemical and electrical conditions in the gas phase. In our work, we arc out discharge to a liquid and solid and show that simple molecules can be arranged into a wide range of polymers, including amino acids and polyamino acids. This replicates lightning striking the earth's surface over three billion years ago.

2:45 ELECTROCHEMICAL REMOVAL OF RUST ([Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]) FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACTS, B. Texas [*], G. Stroebel and C.P.H. Murphy, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904. We have shown that an effective method for the removal of rust from iron is reverse electrolysis, which is simple, inexpensive, and nondestructive. This method was applied to archaeological artifacts that were excavated at various sites on the Augusta State University campus during the past 2 years. These artifacts were found buried in sandy subsoil, and many date back to the turn of the century. Application of this method to the artifacts loosened the rust in a manner that preserved the base metal and many detailed features of the original object. An electrochemical cell was constructed using a battery charger as a power supply. Applying a current of 2 - 6 amperes at 6 volts reduced the ferric oxide (red rust) to ferrous oxide (gray rust) at exposed surfaces. The distance between the electrodes, the size of the electrodes, and the concentration of the electrolyte determines the current. We suggest that a major reason for the ease of removal of the rust is due to the change in volume of the oxide as [Fe.sup.3+] is reduced to [Fe.sup.2+]. Safety precautions, and advantages and disadvantages of various electrolytes will be discussed.

3:00 Break

3:15 SYNTHESIS, PURIFICATION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF AN EIGHT AMINO ACID PEPTIDE CHAIN, Natasha Bailey [*] and Patricia Bishop, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8064.A short peptide was designed to fold into a specific secondary structure. It was synthesized, purified and then its secondary structure will be investigated to determine whether it folds as predicted.

3:30 EXTRACTION OF THE QUININE DERIVATIVE CINCHONIDINE, Derek Lovingood [*] and Thomas Manning, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Quinine was originally isolated over 400 years ago from the bark of a tree found in the Andes Mountains (South America). Neither quinine nor its derivative cinchonidine, have been found in North America. This talk will outline the first report of cinchonidine in North America and correlate its source with folklore. Specifically, during the Civil War, soldiers that contracted malaria and could not obtain quinine boiled the bark of dogwood trees and drank the extract. MALDI-MS is used to identify the molecule.

3:45 MICROCANTILEVER-BASED SENSING OF SURFACE-CONFINED HOST-GUEST INTERACTIONS, Mark A. [Poggi.sup.1] [*], Peter T. [Lillehei.sup.1], Lawrence A. [Bottomley.sup.1] and Anthony [Adenya.sup.2], [School.sup.1] of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 and [Department.sup.2] of Chemistry, Florida A&M University. Microcantilevers bend and/or shift in resonance frequency in response to changes in temperature, stress, magnetic field strength, or mass. We are exploiting the high sensitivity afforded by these sensors to investigate host-guest interactions between alpha-cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Monolayers of PEG are self-assembled into the gold surface of a conventional gold-coated silicon or silicon nitride cantilever. Upon exposure to solution containing alpha-cyclodextrin, the cantilever bends and shifts in resonance frequency in proportion to concentration and time of exposure. Threading of cyclodextrin onto the polymer results in dramatic changes in the rigidity of the polymer and viscous damping of the cantilever. We conclude that cantilever deflection results from changes in surface stress induced by PEG-cyclodextrin host-guest interactions rather than changes in mass of the thin-layer adsorbed to the gold surface.

4:00 USE OF MALDI-MS TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL PRECURSOR OF BRYTOSTATIN FROM THE GOLF OF MEXICO, Tice Umberger [*] and Thomas Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Byrostatin III (884 amu's) is listed by the National Cancer Institute as a natural product with strong anti-cancer properties. It is extract from animal bryozoa, which are found in the Gulf of Mexico. In this work we use MALDI-MS to identify several potential precursors (877, 882 amu's) that are extracted from humic substances at the mouth of the Suwanee River on the Gulf of Mexico.

4:15 UV RADIATION EFFECTS ON THE CONFIGURATION OF [alpha]-CRYSTALLIN, Kisha Young [*] and Lisa Hibbard, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30134. [alpha]-Crystallin is shown to have chaperone properties that allow it to prevent structural lens protein from precipitating out of solution and forming cataracts. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of near ultraviolet radiation on its configuration in buffered solutions with or without the presence of ionic salts. The microenvironment of the tryptophan residues in the crystalline sample was probed using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. [alpha]-Crystallin samples were exposed to 295-nm radiation for 2 hours with fluorescence being monitored at specific time intervals. After irradiation was completed ANS-binding studies were performed. Upon exposure to 295-nm radiation, the fluorescence of the [alpha]-crystallin sample containing no NaCl decreased by 36% after 2 hours. However, the sample containing 100 mM NaCl showed no fluorescence decrease after 2 hours of irradiation indicating that the salt altered the crystalline configuration so that the tryptophan residues did not undergo photolysis. The ANS-binding study indicated that the crystalline exposed less of its hydrophobic region in the presence of salt.

4:30 THERMODYNAMICS AND SYNTHESIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES: AN EXPLORATORY LAB IN PHYSICAL MATERIAL CHEMISTRY, Amy Feldman, Leri Atwater [*], Anna McRae [*], Derek Lovingood, Brent Leslie, Rob Stapleton, Mike Anderson and Thomas Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Past undergraduate research in this lab has centered on the use of Graphite Intercalated Compounds (GIC's) in the production of nanostructures. We designed a series of exploratory labs for physical chemistry using samples containing pure graphite, fluorinated graphite, naphthalene, and lanthanum to study the formation of nanotubes and nanospheres. The blend of nanotechnology and material science is often beyond the scope of most undergraduate labs. Using a bomb calorimeter, high temperature oven and Infrared Spectrometer, we forwarded some samples to a Research I university lab for additional analysis by Raman, SEM and TEM. This exploding area of science and technology can be introduced at an experimental level .

4:45 LABVIEW FOR INSTRUMENT CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION IN AN UNDERGRADUATE LASER LABORATORY, John Giddens [*] and M. Elizabeth Derrick, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, 31698. LabVIEW software has been used to interface equipment in a physics-chemistry undergraduate laser laboratory at VSU. Our experience using this graphical programming approach will be presented.

Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Room SB 261

Eddie B. Robertson, Presiding

3:00 GEOCHEMISTRY OF BUCK CREEK WATERSHED IN MARION, SCHLEY AND MACON COUNTIES, GEORGIA, Dale Godfrey and Carina O'Bara [*], Department of Geology & Physics, Georgia South western State University, Americus, GA 30917. The headwaters of Buck Creek and its tributaries originate in agricultural lands in Marion County before they flow through municipal areas in the Tazwell, Ideal, and Oglethorpe area. Monthly monitoring of water temperature, pH, conductivity, total suspended solid, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and phosphate, as well as nitrate and phosphate in soils was carried out at five locations in Buck Creek watershed for a period of several months during the Summer and Fall of 2000. Nitrate and Phosphate were measured in the laboratory using a digital Spectrophotometer Other parameters were measured in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of various land-use practices, urban facilities, and seasonal variations on water quality parameters. The results show an in crease in the amount of phosphate at the locations downstream of the City of Oglethorpe. It is apparent that the prolonged drought that existed during the Summer-Fall of 2000 had an adverse impact on the amount of dissolved oxygen and pH.

3:15 GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE UPPER MUCKALEE CREEK IN AND AROUND THE CITY OF AMERICUS, GEORGIA, Dale Godfrey and Carina O'Bara [*] Department of Geology & Physics, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 30917. The upper Muckalee Creek and its tributaries originate in agricultural lands before they flow through the City of Americus. Monthly monitoring of water temperature, pH, conductivity, total suspended solid, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and phosphate, as well as nitrate and phosphate in soils was carried out at seven locations in the upper Muckalee Creek watershed for a period of several months during the Summer and Fall of 2000. Nitrate and Phosphate were measured in the laboratory using a digital Spectrophotometer. Other parameters were measured in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of various land-use practices, urban facilities, and seasonal variations on water quality parameters. The results show an increase in the amount of nitrate and phosphat e at the locations downstream of the City of Americus. It is apparent that the prolonged drought that existed during the Summer-Fall of 2000 had an adverse impact on the amount of dissolved, oxygen, pH, turbidity, and other parameters.

3:30 MONITORING OF A DIFFUSE-FLOW KARST SPRING IN NORTHWEST GEORGIA, Terrence Garner [*] and James Mayer State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Cave Spring, a diffuse-flow karst spring located in the Valley-and-Ridge physiographic province of northwest Georgia, was monitored approximately monthly for discharge and water chemistry over a 1-year period. Spring pH, major-ion chemistry, and discharge remained almost constant during the monitoring period. Dominant ions are [Ca.sup.++] [Mg.sup.++] and [[HCO.sup.-].sub.3]; spring water is slightly undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, and approximately saturated with respect to quartz. Ca/Mg ratios suggest dissolution of calcite and dolomite; silica is probably derived from dissolution of chert and siliceous microfossils. The only clear long-term trends are gradual increases in [Na.sup.+] and [K.sup.+] concentrations, possibly due to increasing evapotranspiration during recharge. The spring is a valuable economic and cultural resource for the city of Cave Spring and is in near-pristine condition. The present monitoring program will establish baseline spring chemistry before the spring is affected by creeping suburbanization and associated land-use changes.

3:45 PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE BUFFALO CREEK WATERSHED, CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA, Scott Hill [*] and Julie K. Barkley, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Buffalo Creek watershed located in Carroll County, Georgia consists of a small stream and its associated wetlands. Previous analyses of sediments show high concentrations of heavy metals in the watershed. Downstream areas of the watershed have higher levels of metal contamination than upstream regions. This pattern is consistent with point source contamination from a metal processing plant in the upper portion of the watershed. Metal content is especially high in areas of fine-grained sediment deposition. The purpose of this study is to determine whether plants can extract metals from the sediment efficiently enough to be considered as a method of contaminant removal. Plants will be grown in both contaminated and uncontaminated sediment of the Buffalo Creek watershed. Sediment and plant samples will be tested before and after a six to eight week period in which the plants will live in these sediment samples. Samples will be prepared by acid digestion and analyzed using ICP-AES to determine their metal content.

4:00 ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GEORGIA'S STREAM HEALTH AND INTEGRITY, Ronald Bjorkland [*], University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Issues of water quality and quantity are ubiquitous and have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of our lives, including health, economic, cultural, security and environmental. Increasing demands of water resources promise to exacerbate the tension between need and resource base. The transboundary nature of surface water and casual factors of environmental degradation of water are major challenges to management options. The recent period of below normal precipitation further reinforces the need to protect this resource. Despite efforts to improve water quality in the state, the majority of Georgia's streams and rivers fail to meet health and safety standards. Inadequate monitoring systems and enforcement policies, continued economic expansion and land use change, and lack of public awareness/concern are responsible for the poor environmental state of the rivers and str eams. Prescription change includes: improved monitoring, implementation of measures to safeguard stream health and integrity, stream restoration, and public education.

4:15 A TAPHONOMIC AND DIAGENETIC REINTERPRETATION OF THE CATAHOULA FM., D. [Freile.sup.1] and M.L. [DeVore.sup.2], [Berry.sup.1] College, Rome, GA 30149 and [Georgia.sup.2] College & State University, Milledgeville, GA. Thin-sections of the Oligocene Catahoula Fm. of east Texas show well preserved plant fossils. The variable sample lithology indicate multiple provenances. Some quartz grains are clearly volcanic in origin, others are detrital, while others are clearly metamorphic. Lithologically the samples are 1- parallel laminated, very fine to fine grained, angular to subangular and moderately sorted or 2-wavy laminated, fine to medium grained subangular to subrounded and moderately to well sorted. Accessory minerals include feldspars, altered micas, and zeolites. Of particular interest are nascent stage glauconitic globules. The Catahoula Fm. has been described as a fluvial-lacustrine unit. However, the presence of glauconite is an indication of either shelf or shallow marine environments. This contradicts previous descri ptions suggesting that the fine laminations present, in some members, represent a terrestrial, oxbow lake- almost lacustrine fluvial environment. The Catahoula was most likely deposited in a tidal flat-paralic marginal marine environment.

Section IV: Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Technology

Room SB 274

A. Lazari, Presiding

2:30 A STUDY OF WATER PROPELLED ROCKET LAUNCHES USING VIDEOANALYSIS, Michael McCullough [*] and Chad L. Davies, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The launch of water propelled rockets at several different pressures was videotaped and analyzed using Videopoint software. Data gathering and analysis techniques will be discussed as well as results regarding the rocket velocity as a function of initial launch pressure. Additionally, the effects of exit nozzle shape will be investigated as well.

2:45 DISCRETE MODELS FOR PERIODIC DISEASES, Christina Hence [*] and Ronald E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. Many diseases occur in waves of infection, i.e., regular cycles of infections arise in a given population with an approximately constant period. Examples of such diseases include measles and whooping cough. A simple mathematical model for these diseases was constructed by Anderson and May [New Scientist, November 18 (1982), pps. 410-415. The logic of vaccination]. We have investigated a number of modifications to this model and calculated for each of the following properties: the fixed-point corresponding to the prevalence of the disease in the population, the behavior of the course of the disease for small perturbations about the fixed-point, and the effects of two different vaccination strategies. Our general conclusion is that with the proper vaccination strategy, a given periodic disease can be eradicated. The research reported here was supported in part by grants from DOE, N SF, and the MBRS-SCORE Program at CAU.

3:00 SURVEY AND SIMULATION ON POPULATION MODELS, Rachelle Norton [*], Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. This study reviews many known models of biological population dynamics including single species, predator/prey, and competing species models, and their biological assumptions; e.g., the continuous, deterministic models. Simulations utilizing MATLAB's Simulink allow rapid investigation and manipulation of mathematically complex models. These models are compared to existing experimental data.

3:15 ACID RAIN AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE RELEASE OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO THE ATMOSPHERE, Richard W Schmude, Jr. and Bradley Wilson [*], Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The build-up of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is becoming a major concern. One source of carbon dioxide is the decomposition of carbonate rock by acid rain. We have carried out experiments to measure the mass loss rate of pink limestone in solutions of nitric acid having different pH levels and temperatures. The limestone decomposes at an average rate (in kg/[m.sup.2]S) of: 3.19 x [10.sup.-5] (pH = 1), 2.567 x [10.sup.-6] (pH = 2), 4.39 x [10.sup.-7] (pH = 3), 8.3 x [10.sup.-8] (pH = 4), 1.2 x [10.sup.-7] (pH = 5) and 7.2 x [10.sup.-8] (distilled water) at a temperature of 288 K. The rate law was found to be k (kg/[m.sup.2]s) = 105 exp[-35.2 kJ [mol.sup.-1]/RT] where R is the gas constant 8.3145 J/K mol and T is the temperature in Kelvins. We estimate that if limestone with similar characteristics as the sample tested in the lab covers [10.sup.6] [km.sup.2] on the Earth then about 1.4 x [10.sup.11] kg of carbon dioxide is released every year due to acid rain (assuming a pH of 4.5).

3:30 WIDEBAND PHOTOELECTRIC MAGNITUDE MEASUREMENTS OF SATURN MADE IN 2000, Richard W. Schmude, Jr. and William Hallsworth, Jr. [*], Jr. [*], Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. An SSP-3 solid-state photometer along with a 0.090 meter Maksutov Telescope and filters that closely match the Johnson B, V, R, and I system were used in measuring the brightness and color of Saturn in late 2000. A total of 21 brightness measurements were made of that planet between Sep. 16, 2000 and Nov. 28, 2000. The selected normalized magnitudes of Saturn based on the 2000 data are: B(1,0) = 08.67, V(1,0) = -9.70, R(1,0) = 019.36 and 1(1,0) = -10.61 while the corresponding solar phase angle coefficients are selected as: [c.sub.B] = 0.050, [c.sub.V] = 0.036, [c.sub.R] = 0.035 and [c.sub.I] = 0.038. The estimated uncertainties in the normalized magnitudes and solar phase angle coefficients are: [+ or -] 0.03 and [+ or -] 10% respectively.

3:45 WIDEBAND PHOTOELECTRIC MAGNITUDE MEASUREMENTS OF JUPITER MADE IN 2000, Heidi Lesser [*] and Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. An SSP-3 solid-state photometer along with a 0.090 meter Maksutov Telescope and filters that closely match the Johnson B, V, R, and I system were used in measuring the brightness and color of Jupiter in late 2000. The selected normalized magnitudes of Jupiter based on the 2000 data are: B(1,0) = -8.51, V(1,0) = -9.38, R(1,0) = -9.86 and 1(1,0) = -9.77 while the corresponding solar phase angle coefficients are selected as: [c.sub.B] 0.0106 [c.sub.V] = 0.0048, [c.sub.R] = 0.0046 and [c.sub.I] = 0.0046. The estimated uncertainties in the normalized magnitudes and solar phase angle coefficients are: [+ or -] 0.03 and [+ or -] 15% respectively.

4:00 WEB-BASED REMOTE PHYSICS LABORATORY FOR DETERMINING THE TEMPERATURE-POSITION PROFILE OF A FLAME, John E. Ballard [*] and Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A web-based virtual instrument was designed and constructed using LabView, an advanced data acquisition and analysis system from National Instruments, Inc. The virtual instrument can position a thermocouple at user-defined locations in a flame and the voltage of the thermocouple can be read from a readout on the screen. Using this information, the client (a remotely located middle or high school student, for example) can determine the flame profile of the burner over the Web. The client can, through her or his own web-browser, operate the instrument, manipulate the position of the thermocouple in the flame, and record the data. A live video image is also presented on the client's screen. The advantages of the system include cost reductions and increased safety. LabView is capable of doing all of the steps automatical ly, including making a graph; however, this would be less valuable as a teaching instrument. Research supported by the College of Education, SUWG, and the Georgia Space Grant consortium-NASA.

4:15 INSTRUMENTED FIRE PIT FOR PREPARING CLAY SAMPLES FOR COMPARISON WITH ANCIENT POTTERY USING MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY, John Holland [*] and Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A fire pit was constructed and instrumented with thermocouple temperature sensors from Vernier Software, Inc. Raw clay from Lucille, Georgia, was used to make samples which were heated in a manner thought to be similar to that used by Native Americans. The time-temperature profile of each heat treatment was quantitatively measured and recorded by a computer using the Logger Pro software. Mossbauer spectra of the heat treated samples were compared with spectra of pottery samples from known locations and ages, such as pre-historic samples from the coastal region of Georgia, the Kolomoki Mound area of southeast Georgia (about 800 years old), pre-Columbian samples from Central America, and Biblical-era samples from the middle Eastern (up to 4000 years old). Research supported by the Student Research Assist ant Program and the Faculty Research Committee, SUNG, and the Georgia Space Grant Consortium-NASA.

4:30 ACTIVE RESPONSE WATER QUALITY TESTING SYSTEM, Rachel Fuller [*] and Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Measurements were made on treated wastewater and other samples of known Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Computer-based probes from Vernier Software, Inc. were used to measure the temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and the concentration of dissolved oxygen and 4 ion types: chloride, ammonium, nitrate, and calcium. While the temperature of the samples under test was cycled from 20 to 60 degrees C, the measurements were made simultaneously and automatically recorded over selectable periods of time up to 24 hours. The results of this "active response testing" along with the BOD measured by a local environmental testing company will be used as training data for an adaptable software program using artificial intelligence. It is hoped that the BOD can be predicted without waiting for the 5 days now needed to make a BOD determination. Research supported by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium-NASA.

4:45 TESTS OF NEW COMPUTER-BASED DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR RADIATION STUDIES, Amanda Newsome [*] and Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carroliton, GA 30118. A new, inexpensive computer-based radiation detector system has become available from Vernier Software, Inc. The detector is connected through a utility box to the computer's serial port and the Logger Pro software is used. The detector's sensitivity, efficiency and degree of drift were found to be excellent over long periods of time. Studies of radiation shielding, environmental monitoring, identifying radioactive minerals and other substances, and radiation background measurements were performed. The decay constant of Celsium-137 was measured to a 1% error. The new detector system appears to be a cost effective solution for a number of radiation measurement situations. Research supported by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium-NASA.

Section V: Biomedical Sciences

Room AB 107

Army Lester, III, Presiding

2:00 STATUS OF c-erbB-3 IN ORAL CANCER: AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY, Baldev Singh, Gretchen Caughman, Erin Ferris and Francis Chandler, Jr., Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 36912. The role of oncogenes in the development and progression of oral neoplasia has become increasingly clear over the years. Studies on the status of epidermal growth factor receptor (c-erbB-1) and cerbB-2 (HER-2) are available; however, data on c-erbB-3 (HER-3) are lacking and also controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the expression of c-erbB-2 compared to c-erbB-1 in the same lesions. For this purpose, 5 micron thick sections of formalin-fixed archival paraffin blocks were examined using monoclonal antibodies to c-erbB-3 and cerbB-1. c-erbB-3 immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm And plasma membrane of 15 (n=25) squamous cell carcinomas. However, c-erbB-1 was located primarily in the plasma membrane of 20 (n=25) carcinomas. Ten of the investigated tumors showed immunoreactivity for both oncoprot eins. These findings indicate a synergistic activity of these oncoproteins in tumor development, since homo- and heterodimerization of these receptors leads to cross-activation upon ligand binding.

2:30 ANALYSIS OF THE APOPTOTIC REPRESSOR PROTEIN ARC IN MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA, Deborah Lyn, Xiaowei Lui, Nichole A. Bennett, Shaojia Bao and Nerimiah L. Emmett, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. Apoptosis has been shown to play a role in the ventricular remodeling process after myocardial injury. ARC (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain) protein was recently documented to have a restricted expression in muscle cells, and inhibits apoptosis via selective interaction with caspases. An evaluation of the role that ARC plays within an in vitro model of ischemia remains unknown. Protein expression of ARC was examined in the left ventricle of a mouse model of ischemia. Short periods of ischemia (3 and 24-hr) were associated with a 50-70% reduction in ARC protein levels, while longer periods resulted in no significant changes on expression relative to controls. Since overexpression of ARC has previously been shown to inhibit apoptosis, ischemia may induce a loss of protective mechanisms over a 24-hr period.

3:00 CONSTRUCTION OF A RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT CHLAMYDIAL VACCINE CANDIDATE, Francis O. Eko and Joseph U. Igietseme, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. An efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine should elicit a genital mucosal Th1 response. Despite considerable efforts, the development of a reliable chlamydial vaccine using conventional strategies has proven to be elusive. Genetic inactivation of select bacteria to produce ghosts by the expression of cloned lysis gene E offers a promising new approach in non-living vaccine technology. These bacterial ghosts are attractive for use as non-living vaccines; they possess strong adjuvant properties and are excellent vehicles for delivery of foreign proteins to the primary antigen-presenting cells. To design a ghost-based chlamydial vaccine candidate, the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), ompl, of C. trachomatis was expressed in Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG). MOMP-specific monoclonal antibodies recognized the expressed rMOMP in immunoblots of denatured protein extracted from cell lysates and by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Immunization of naive mice with ghosts expressing rMOMP induced a strong Th1 response in genital mucosa. This rVCG system offers a novel strategy for designing recombinant multiple subunit vaccines.

3:30 EFFICACY OF MOMP-ISCOMS AS A SUBUNIT VACCINE AGAINST CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS, Joseph U. Igietseme and Andrew Murdin, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. An effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the widespread cases of genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and the complications. Current challenges include the selection of an immunogenic antigen and production an effective delivery agent with adjuvant activity. We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. trachomatis delivered with the lipophilic immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) as a vehicle with adjuvant properties, in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. Intramuscular immunization with MOMP-ISCOMS induced the required genital mucosal Th1 response, first detected within two weeks after exposure, and the response maintained at an elevated level beyond eight week of immunization. In addition, T cells from immunized mice were capable of t ransferring immunity to naive recipients following adoptively transfer and challenge infection. Results suggested that IM delivery of MOMP-ISCOMS may be a suitable vaccine regimen against C. trachomatis.

Section VII: Science Education

Room AB 105

Steven McCullagh, Presiding

3:00 THE EFFECT OF CONTENT COURSES TAKEN BY TEACHERS ON STUDENT LEARNING IN THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Lucille B. Garmon, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. In the summer of 1999 a special topics course in physical science was offered for middle grades teachers. The need for this course in physical science was justified because Georgia students taking the Science Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) performed significantly below the national average. Student learning has been linked to teacher qualifications. This research evaluated the effectiveness of the course offered and tested the proposition that a course to improve teacher qualifications should result in improved learning on the part of students. Classrooms of five middle-grades teachers who completed the course were visited and students given appropriate standardized tests. A control group of classes was selected from teachers who were in the target population for the course but who did not take it. Cl assrooms from five teachers in t he control group were also visited and comparable tests administered to their students. Results showed a clear increase in student knowledge for teachers taking the course as compared to those in the control group.

3:15 ASSESSING STUDENT ATTITUDES IN INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS, Chad L. Davies and Joe Mayo, Gordon College, Barnesville. GA 30204. During the 2000-2001 academic year the authors began an effort to assess student attitudes regarding the introductory physics sequence at both the trigonometry based and calculus based levels. The Maryland Physics Expectation Survey (MPEX) was given as well as a repertory grid based assessment before and after the course. Results from the surveys found that students entering the algebra-based introductory physics sequence taught at a two-year college had lower expectations regarding the course than their colleagues enrolled in the calculus-based sequence. However, with the use of engaged curricula, it was found that the students' attitudes did not deteriorate as has been found at other institutions. This was especially apparent regarding the students' attitudes towards the relevancy of the course and the appropriateness of the course's mathematical level.

3:30 ECOCUBE XI, Paul E. Greene, Science Department, Lithia Springs High School, Lithia Springs, GA 30122. The EcoCube is a 512 [ft.sup.3] plexiglass enclosure in which environmental research is conducted. In EcoCube XI a controlled experiment involving a common lawn fertilizer was conducted. The EcoCube XI was divided into two identical sides - A and B. The newly redesigned underground and overhead water system was used to study the effects of this commercial fertilizer on soil and water pH when applied to Side A. Initial and final measurements of soil and water pH were made and the data were analyzed. Data analysis indicated no significant change in soil pH due to the application of the fertilizer. However, an increase in pH was observed in the water sources. Further analysis of the water pH indicated an increase of 1.5 pH in the Side A reservoir and in the Side B reservoir an increase of 0.5 pH was found. Data suggested that an extended application of the commercial fertilizer would be accompanied by a pH increase that could be important to proper lawn maintenance. Results indicated the fertilizer manufacturer should adjust for the pH impact for the normally acidic soils of the Southeastern United States.

3:45 USING A SIMPLE 433 MHZ ROCKETSONDE AS A SCIENCE TEACHING TOOL, David J. Babulski, Sneliville, GA 30078. Measurement of the temperature gradient of the lower troposphere to 1000 meters from Whitesburg, Georgia on August 13, 2000, using a single channel 433 Mhz. Rocketsonde, showed a temperature decrease of 5.2 degrees F per 300 meters. This is consistent with the theoretical dry adiabatic lapse rate. This project was completed as a voluntary science enrichment activity with middle and high school students in Georgia. To date over 560 students have participated in the project at Sweetwater Middle School, Lawrenceville, Georgia and Winder/Barrow Middle School, Winder, Georgia.

4:00 BOYLE'S LAW: A LESSON IN EXPERIMENT DESIGN, Jesse G. Spencer, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In an attempt to verify Boyles' Law, students in general chemistry use commercial data acquisition hardware and software to record gas pressure and, after recording the volume, determine the pressure-volume product. The resulting product is not constant and when plotted versus pressure shows a linear decrease with increasing pressure. Careful observation of the experimental setup reveals an unrecorded volume within the apparatus. Students are encouraged to develop a method for treating the data to determine the unrecorded volume and to verify Boyles' Law. Data from a student determination are used to illustrate the technique.

Section IX: Genetics Society of Georgia

Special Symposium on Genetics

Room AB 103

Brian Schwartz, Presiding

2:30 TRANSCRIPTION-COUPLED REPAIR OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHTINDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN THE HALOPHILIC ARCHAEON HALOBACTERIUM SP. NRC-1, Amanda M. Conner [*] and David J. Crowley, Biology Department, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. The Archaea are widely studied because of their habitation of extreme environments and their classification as a distinct evolutionary domain. The halophilic archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 thrives in solar salt ponds where it is exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. This exposure leads to the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA, which arrest replication and transcription and are mutagenic. In both bacteria and eukaryotes, nucleotide excision repair (NER) recognizes these lesions and removes them from the genome. A subpathway of NER, transcription-coupled repair (TCR), couples arrested RNA polymerase complexes with NER proteins to rapidly repair DPDs in actively transcribed genes. TCR occurs in both bacterial and eukaryotic species, but has not been demonstrate d in the Archaea. Our experiments test whether Halobacterium sp. NRC1 is able to perform TCR. We measured rates of removal of CPDs from the individual strands of the rpoB"B'AC operon through quantified analysis of fluorescently labeled Southern blots. Demonstration of TCR would suggest a novel coupling between the eukaryotic-like RNA polymerase and the bacterial NER homologs present in this species. This work has implications on the mechanisms of TCR and on edifying the evolutionary relationships between the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.

2:45 MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF THE SODIUM HYDROGEN EXCHANGER IN ELASMOBRANCHS, Nichole L. Hair [*], Alison Morrison-Shetlar and J.B. Claiborne, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.*] exchanger (NHE) is a transport protein hypothesized to be involved in acid-base regulation across fish gill epithelia. Recent studies have shown the presence of NHE in the gill tissue of two marine teleosts, the long-horned sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus, and the mimmichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. Preliminary results suggest the presence a NHE mRNA in the gills of two elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea) and and the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). The initial fragment of gill NHE mRNA from little skate was 470 bp in length and found to have 85% homology (71% identify) at the amino acid level to the NHE2 human isoform with close identity to the dogfish shark. The aim of this study was to use rapid amplification of DNA ends (3'/5' RACE) to amplify the skate DNA sequence using an NHE specific primer, previously developed from the known elasmobranch sequence, and a universal primer. We hope to determine if the near identity of the partial fragment observed in the skate and the dogfish will be confirmed in the full length sequence. This research was funded by NSF IBM-9808141 to J.B.C. and A.M.S. and GSU Academic Excellence and Competitive Grant to N.L.H.

3:00 Break

3:15 EMPLOYING HSP7O FAMILY PROTEIN CHIMERAS TO INVESTIGATE SPECIFIC DOMAIN EFFECTS ON THE YEAST PRION (PSI), Kim Allen, Kristin B. Wittich [*] and Yury Chernoff, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332. Prions are alternative isoforms of cellular proteins that have acquired the ability to turn normal proteins into the prion form. The yeast non-Mendelian element [PSI] is a prion form of eukaryotic relesefactor 5up35 (eRF3). The presence of [PSI] imparts suppression of nonsense codons. We have previously described and antagonistic effects of molecular chaperone Hsp7O family proteins SSA1 and SSB1 on the propagation and maintenance of [PSI] (Chernoff et al., 1999). In this study, we employ a series of SSA1-SSB1 chimetic constructs to investigate the effects of three specific protein domains, 5' ATPase, peptide-binding, and 3' 10K variable domains, on [PSI]. For example, we found that overexpression of wildtype SSA1 increased induction of [PSI] by Sup35 and the efficiency of nonsense suppression. Whi le only the peptide-binding domain of SSA1 is needed to enhance suppression, only wildtype SSA1 can increase induction. Whereas the 3' variable domain of SSB1 had no antagonistic effect on nonsense suppression, it negatively influenced the spontaneous appearance of [PSI] in an ASSB strain.

3:30 TRANSCRIPTION OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN, Jennifer Roberts [*] and Ralph Rascati, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. This study was undertaken to determine the level of regulation of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and which of the three Pgp isoforms responded to drug treatment. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were first run on mouse and rat genomic DNA with [beta]-Globin and [beta]-Actin primers in order to determine the optimum PCR conditions. PCR reactions were run on rat genomic DNA with each of four sets of PGp primers to see what, if anything, the primers amplified. The consensus primers gave a 267bp product, and Pgp 1 primers gave a 397bp product, and the Pgp 2 primers gave a 503bp product. No product was seen with the Pgp 3 primers. The initial intent of the project was to then perform reverse transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on total RNA isolated from the PC-12 rat cell line to quantify the mRNA present before and after treatment with corticosteroids. Agarose gel electroph oresis would be used to quantify the mRNA. There was insufficient time left after resolving the problems with Taq beads to attempt the RT-PCR reaction, and the RNA extraction was not done due to trouble growing any cell line that was to be used as an RNA source.

3:45 ROLE OF THE RAD51/RECA HOMOLOG RADA IN UV-INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN THE EXTREMELY HALOPHILIC ARCHAEON, HALOFERAX VOLCANII, Lucy E. Davis [*], Christopher Campbell and David J. Crowley, Biology Department, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Exposure of cells to ultraviolet light (UV) results in DNA damage, induction of mutations, and cell death. While extensive research on DNA repair and mutagenesis has been conducted with species ranging from bacteria to humans, little is known about these processes in the evolutionary distinct domain of prokaryotes called the Archaea. We are studying Haloferax volcan ii, an extremely halophilic archaeon, known to possess the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage. We use wildtype strain WFD 11 and its derivative, DS52, which lacks the radA gene, a member of the RAD51/recA family of recombinases. By exposing these two strains to UV, survival rates were established, with DS52 proving more sensitive. UV-induced mutation rates were also studied using the antibiotic novobioci n. The frequency with which mutations to novobiocin resistance arise are, in part, a measure of a cell's repair efficiency. By studying survival and mutation rates in H. volcanii, we hope to further elucidate the role of the radA gene in promoting cell survival and UV mutagenesis.

4:00 HEDGEHOG AND BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN SIGNALING IN HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITORS, Kristina Detmer and Anna N. Walker Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA 31207. To explore the possibility that members of the hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) families are co-regulators of hematopoietic development, we examined the effects of recombinant BMPs and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) on hematopoietic development in vitro. Shh and BMPs act synergistically with granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to stimulate proliferation, More G/M colonies formed in the presence of BMPs, GM-CSF, and erythropoietin (Epo) than with GM-CSF and Epo alone. More G/M colonies formed in cultures containing Shh, GM-CSF and Epo than in cultures containing GM-CSF and Epo, and this effect was abolished by the hedgehog-signaling inhibitor cyclopamine. BMP-4 in conjunction with GM-CSF and Epo stimulated the proliferation of erythroid progenitors. Cyclopamine inhibited the formation of erythroid colonies and delay ed the maturation of erythroblasts in erythroid colonies that did form. These results suggest a hedgehog/BMP axis may regulate hematopoietic development.


B2 SINE CONTAINING SEQUENCE WAS TRANSFERRED FROM MOUSE TO THE HUMAN GENOME, Vladimir I. [Mayorov.sup.1], Igor B. [Rogozin.sup.1], Eugene A. [Elisaphenko.sup.1] and Linda R. [Atkison.sup.2], [Mercer.sup.2] University, Mason, GA, NIH, Bethesda, MD, and [Institute.sup.1] of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia. Computational analysis of a human sequence flanking a B2 element (Z96647) revealed unusually high homology to the mouse sequence X75040. This sequence represents a 470 bp 3' untranslated region immediately after the last coding region in the mouse 3'-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase gene. Amplification, cloning and sequencing of this sequence, called MHHT1, in primate and rodent DNAs were performed. Analysis of cloned sequences experimentally confirmed high similarity of MHHT1 in mouse and human. The presence of almost identical DNA fragments in mouse and human cannot exclude the hypothesis that this region is extremely conserved and possesses an important function. However, MHHT1 is not present in rat, vole and apes, and thus v ertical transmission of this sequence is rejected. Divergence between human and mouse MHHT1s ([less than] 3%) indicate that this B2 element containing MHHT1 sequence could have been horizontally transferred less than 10 Myr ago. Here, we present an analysis of MHHT1 sequences from human, and three mouse species of the Genus Mus, suggesting that MHHT1 represents recent DNA horizontal transmission between mouse and human genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of nonrodent B2 elements also suggests horizontal transfer is a major source of these elements.

GENETIC MAPPING OF THE NEW OSMOTIC-SENSITIVE MUTANTS os-9 (allele SS-788 and allele SS-462) and SS-18, Wayne A. Krissinger and Sara Neville Bennett, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The osmotic-sensitive (os) mutants fail to grow on medium containing elevated concentrations of NaCl. The first of these mutants were mapped to Linkage Group (LG) I and LG IV and could also be scored on the basis of their non-wild type morphology. In our laboratory, three osmotic-sensitive mutants, alleles SS-788, SS-462, and SS-18 were isolated following UV irradiation. All of these mutants have morphology grossly like that of wild type. SS-0788 has been designated os-9 and was mapped to LG VI between ad-1 and trp-2. Additional crosses placed os-9 distal to del. SS-462 is an allele of os-9 as shown by the failure to recover wild type recombinants from a cross between the two mutant strains. It is suggested that SS-18 be designated os-11. SS-18 is in LG III linked by 36% recombination to vel and by 19% recombinat ion to os-8 which was also isolated in our laboratory and is located between ad-1 and trp-1. In contrast to the osmotic-sensitive mutant, os-1 which failed to grow on any of the three tested osmotica, SS-788, SS-462, and SS-18, all grew as wild type 74 on media containing elevated KCl or glucose and failed to grow only on medium containing elevated NaCl. These mutants may be useful in studies of transport of ions.

INSERTING HIV RT INTO pET28 FOR IMPROVED PURIFICATION AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY, Arcenia [Oliver.sup.1] and Cory [MoMany.sup.2], [Fort.sup.1] Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA 31030 and [Pharmaceutical.sup.2] and Biological Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605. Reverse Transcriptase (RT) plays a significant role in the HIV life cycle, therefore, drug research projects have aimed their studies at the HIV RT to understand how it interacts with other drugs. In a previous study, crystals of the native HIV RT, and RT/Oligo complexes were designed, but their sizes were not adequate to determine the crystal structure of the RT/Oligo complexes by crystallography. The pET 28 vector, with a poly histidine tag (histag) was then selected to receive the native RT. In the present study, by cloning RT we are attempting to optimize procedures to develop a simpler process of RT purification and to produce larger crystals. A procedure was designed using restriction enzymes such as Nco I, Sal I, Xba I, and Xho I to cut the RT and pET 28 vector, and to ligate them together. Several procedures were run to see if the insert (RT) was present in the vector (pET 28). After the sequencing of the RT gene, primers were prepared to amplify the RT gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Alteration of HIV RT was obtained by the addition of a histag to the "C" termina.

GENERATION OF CASE STUDIES FOR THE TEACHING OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Regina C. Martin [*] and Kathleen A. Fleiszar Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. From 1983 until 1993 over 500 genetic consultations were completed and recorded by one of us (KAF). These consultations provide an excellent source of case studies that can be used in the teaching of medical genetics. With support from KSU's SALT (Student Assistants in Learning and Teaching) program, a student (RM) was hired to transfer this information into a database using the software program Progeny 2000. Data for the years 1985 and 1986 is currently being converted into family history / pedigree format. During the process, issues of confidentiality had to be addressed. This poster presentation summarizes how cases were reviewed, chosen and placed into the database. Once cases were entered into the program, "blank" pedigrees were generated. Thirty of these cases are being used this spring semester in the teaching of Medical Genetics (Biology 3327). T he student must obtain information concerning the "blank" pedigree from the instructor. Use of these case studies will be assessed as a means of teaching about heritable and non-heritable birth defects, difficulties in interpreting family information and problems encountered in relaying information to families about risks and recommendations. Some of the cases being recorded will also be appropriate for use in other courses including General Genetics and Biology of Cancer.

(*.) (Denotes Student Presentation)
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Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 2001

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