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ABSTRACTS OF PRESENTATIONS AND PAPERS.

Section I: Biological Sciences Room 1196, University Center

Jenifer Turco and Thomas Toney, Presiding

1:00 TREE PREFERENCE BY BEAVERS IN NORTH GEORGIA, Emily Watry [*], Kristen Barnekov, Matt Jordan, Justin Walter and Mark Davis, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. We studied tree damage caused by beavers to determine whether beavers preferentially selected conifers or deciduous trees. Study plots (31 m by 18 m) were established in areas of beaver activity in two protected forests, Hurricane Creek and Smithgall Woods, in north Georgia. All conifers and deciduous trees with dbh [greater than or equal to] 12 cm were counted in each plot, then categorized as untouched, girdled, or felled by beavers. At Smithgall Woods, beavers damaged 100% of the conifers and only 8% of deciduous trees. At Hurricane Creek, beavers damaged 52% of the conifers and ignored deciduous trees completely. This preference for conifers was highly significant (chi square test of homogeneity) at both sites (Hurricane Creek: [[chi].sup.2] = 41.21, df = 2 P[less than or equal to] 0.001; Smithgall Woods: [[chi].sup.2] = 60. 69, df = 2, P[less than or equal to] 0.001). In general, beavers girdled conifers and felled deciduous trees. Because few softwood deciduous trees occur in north Georgia, beavers may prefer girdling conifers for a softer food alternative.

1:15 TERRITORIALITY PATTERNS OF BLUEGILLS (Lepomis macrochirus), Karen Branch [*] and Paul Bischoff, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. Bluegills (333) Lepomis macrochirus were seined from the same location in Georgia Southwestern pond. Fish were tagged, measured and released at a location 82.4 meters distant from the point of capture. At the point of capture, sixty-six seine hauls were made between May 17 and August 29, 1999. Four of the fish returned to the original capture site. The return rate of 1.2% is compared to similar studies and ecological hypotheses are discussed.

1:30 INFLUENCE OF pH ON SUNFISH DISTRIBUTIONS, William B. Tate [*] and Stephen P Vives, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Blackwater streams in the southeast U.S. are typified by low pH and the fish assemblages are often dominated by sunfish. Streams representing three river drainages within the coastal plain of Georgia were sampled in order to determine the distributions of sunfish in relation to pH. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was performed on species abundances for each site. The first DCA axis accounted for 27% of the variation between sites and described an environmental gradient of increasing pH. Occurrences of Enneacan thus obesus were more common at sites with low DCA scores (i.e. low pH) while Lepomis macrochirus, L. punctatus, L. auritus, and L. microlophus were associated with higher scores. No relationships were found for L. marginatus or L. gulosus. A laboratory experiment was performed in conjunction with the field study to determine preference for pH region by four species of sunfish. Fish were presented a choice between a high, low, and intermediate pH region within a behavioral arena. Results were congruent with the data obtained in the field portion of the study.

1:45 ARANEAE FROM SANDSTONE OUTCROPS INCLUDING NEW RANGE EXTENSION OF CANADIAN CRAB SPIDER PHILODROMUS PRAELUSTRIS, IN GEORGIA, USA. F Michael McAloon [*] and D. V. Hagan, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460, Michael L. Draney, Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, WI 54311 and John D. Spooner, Dept. of Biology and Geology, Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC 29801. Sandstone outcrops in south Georgia, much like island habitats, contain numerous species of arthropods not commonly found in neighboring ecosystems. Annual trapping at The Broxton Rocks Nature Preserve in Coffee Co., Georgia yielded 107 species of spiders to date, several of which are new state and habitat records. Trapping was conducted by using pitfall and malaise traps, Berlese funnels, and sweeping throughout 1998-99 winter season. The most notable species are Spermophora senoculata and Kukulcania sp., normally found in human dwellings and Philodromus praelustris, commonly found in deciduous tre e and shrub foliage in Canada and extending south into Virginia, USA, collected for the first time in this region.

2:00 PHENOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF ACHURUM CARINATUM FROM A GEORGIA SANDSTONE OUTCROP, Ruth S. Braddy [*], Daniel V. Hagan and John D. Spooner, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Achurum carinatum (Walker) is a slender, slant-faced grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with small, vestigial wings. It occurs throughout the 2,000 hectare Broxton Rocks Nature Preserve in Coffee County, Georgia. The site consists of late Pleistocene sandstone (Altamaha Grit) outcrops of various sizes and topographies within a pine and oak dominated forest, representing a unique habitat of the coastal plain of Georgia. These grasshoppers are collected via sweeping or hand capture mostly on or near Panicum grasses surrounded by wiregrass. When threatened, they rely on camouflage more than speed of escape. Color morphs range from entirely tan to various combinations of color including green and tan. The grasshoppers overwinter as late nymphs and mature in the spring. Newly hatched nymphs begin to appear early in July. Be havior, eating preferences, and molting patterns were observed in captured insects.

2:15 ARTHROPODS OF THE OKEFENOKE SWAMP, GA. Clinton C. Ready, Waycross College, Waycross, GA 31503. From June 1999 to November 1999, once per month, a survey of arthropods was conducted in the Okefenoke Wildlife Refuge, GA. The survey was performed each month at either the Suwanee Canal, Kingfisher Landing or Stephen Foster entrances. Specimens were either photographed or collected with a dip net or a sweep net. The most common organisms collected or photographed included Creeping Water Bugs (Hemiptera: Naucoridae), Water Striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae), Water Scorpions (Hemiptera: Nepidae), Crawling Water Beetles (Coleoptera: Haliplidae), Burrowing Water Beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae), Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae), Jumping Spiders (Aranae: Salticidae) and Long Jawed Spiders (Aranae: Tetragnathidae).

2:30 A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF MANDIBULAR BIOMECHANICS OF THE LARVA OF DYTISCUS CAROLINUS AUBE (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE), Kris M. Stowe [*], E.H. Barman and W.P. Wall, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Mandibles of Dytiscus larvae are modified for prey capture and extra-oral digestion. The left mandible articulates at an angle of 93[degrees] and the right at 101[degrees] relative to the ventral plane of the head. This configuration permits shearing, as well as puncturing, which may increase internal prey damage. Each mandible is opened and/or closed by the action of two muscles. The abductor has multiple origins on the posterior, ventral, and lateral areas of the head and an insertion on a lateral apodeme. This muscle is part of a class I lever system, providing the inforce for opening the mandible. The larger abductor is inserted on a medial apodeme with origins in or near the cervical region. Because this muscle acts in opposition to the abductor muscle, the abductor is part of a class III lever system when closing the mandible. This project was supported by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & S U. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 29.

3:00 NATURAL HISTORY OF AGABUS DISINTEGRATUS CROTCH (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE) IN CENTRAL GEORGIA WITH COMMENTS ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF ITS MATURE LARVA, Patti Wright [*], J.E. Mashke and E.H. Barman, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Agabus disintegratus, a common component of the state fauna, has a transcontinental distribution. Larvae and teneral adults were collected from a monoxeric habitat in February and March 1999. Larvae of Hydroporus signatus, H. rufilabris, A. stagninus, and A. punctatus were abundant and concurrent with those of A. disintegratus. The presence of mature larvae in February is indicative of oviposition in late January or early February. Adult diapause within pupal cells has been reported for west coast populations. Teneral adults collected in March indicate that this population has no equivalent quiescence period during late winter and early spring. Frontoclypeal lamellae are submarginal. Although reported previously, natatory sensilla were not present on legs o f these mature larvae. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & S U. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 28.

3:15 PALEOHERPETOFAUNA OF THE LATE HEMPHILLIAN (LATE MIOCENE) WHITE CONE LOCAL FAUNA OF NAVAJO COUNTY, ARIZONA, David L. Peck [*] and Dennis Parmley, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The White Cone local fauna (early late Hemphillian: late Miocene) of Navajo County, Arizona yielded a moderately diverse herpetofauna of at least six anurans, four lizards, and four snakes. Of these, two distinct species (Bufo pilocompactilis and Heterodon pilonasicus) are present and all the remaining taxa are extant. Among the extant taxa, Heterodon and Hyla do not occur in the White Cone area today. Herpetofaunal evidence suggests that the climate in Navajo County was less arid than it is today.

3:30 DEVELOPMENTAL VARIATION IN POST-CRANIAL OSSIFICATIONS IN THE SALAMANDER, AMBYSTOMA MACULATUM. Christopher Becker [*], Nimae N. Angwafo and Michael K. Moore, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Work in progress. We are currently examining the amount and nature of variation in skeletal development in Ambystoma maculatum. A growing number of studies have demonstrated intraspecific variation in the timing and relative sequence of appearance of skeletal elements during development. We are interested in both ontogenetic variation within this cohort (i.e., between individuals) and within individuals (e.g., by examining patterns of bilateral symmetry). To document development in Ambystoma, we are using a series of 269 larval and adult specimens that have been cleared and differentially stained for bone and cartilage. We have currently digitized the images of 50 of the larvae using an Olympus SZ6O series stereo microscope fitted with a Sony color video camera. In addition to descriptive da ta collected, we are analyzing measurement data using SigmaScan software to test for developmental stability in this species.

3:45 THE EFFECTS OF THE PHYTOHORMONE AESCISIC ACID (ABA) ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULLFROG, RANA CATESBEIANA, Jami M. Moore [*] and Michael K. Moore, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Current address School of Education, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Many phytohormones produced by green plants have been shown to affect the "fitness" of the herbivores who consume them. We examined the potential of the phytohormone abscisic acid to influence development in bullfrog larvae. Larvae were assigned to treatment groups that varied in the concentration of ABA present in the food source. Concentrations of ABA in food varied from 0 to 50,000 ng/g dry weight of food. Natural concentrations in larval foodstuffs (e.g., green algae) range from 50 to 500 ng/g. We compared the amount of food consumed, Gosner developmental stages, and changes in body mass between treatment groups. Larvae consumed more food when offered at near normal concentration levels. Assimilation e fficiencies and rates of development declined with increasing ABA concentration, while mortality rates were highest in the high concentration treatments.

4:00 EFFECTS OF LONG AND SHORT TERM OVARIECTOMIES ON UTERINE PROTEINS IN ADULT FEMALE RATS USING SDS-PAGE, Caroline Cofer [*], Deborah Myers and Thomas Toney, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Work in progress. Steroid hormones play a crucial role in the regulation of protein synthesis in a number of different tissues. Experiments have been designed in order to obtain evidence of a physiological role for ovarian estrogens in the regulation of protein synthesis in the uterus of female rats. Adult female rats were monitored by daily lavage and only rats exhibiting two or more consecutive 4-5 day estrous cycles were used. Rats were subsequently ovariectomized for either a short-term (7 days) or long-term (28 days). In addition, half the rats in each group received estrogen replacement while the others received corn oil

vehicle. After the appropriate time period, rats were killed and uteri were removed and frozen in buffer. SDS-PAGE is being performed on uterine homogenates to determin e the patterns of protein "bands" for each treatment. We anticipate that results will show differences in both the number of protein bands as well as differences in the intensity of those proteins common among all treatment.

4:15 EFFECTS OF BOMBESIN ON PROLACTIN SECRETIION IN ADULT FEMALE RATS, Deborah Myers [*], Caroline Cofer and Thomas Toney, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Work in progress. Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide which was first isolated from the skin of the European frog Bombina bombina. Subsequently, bombesin-like peptides were identified in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system of mammals. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of centrally administered bombesin on the concentrations of prolactin in the plasma of rats that were ovariectomized for either a short-term (7 days) or long-term (28 days) and did not receive estrogen replacement vs. short and long term castrates that did receive exogenous estradiol. Based on previous studies carried out in this lab using male rats, we anticipate seeing a decrease in plasma prolactin concentrations in all groups of rats following intracerebroventricular administration of bombesin, strengthening the hypothesis that bombesin has a general inhibitory effect on the secretion of prolactin regardless of the sex or gonadal status of the animal.

4:30 RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS STIMULATION OF LEUKOTRIENES AND CYTOKINES IN MONONUCLEAR CELLS, Godwin Ananaba [*], Samera Bowers, Kweli Powell, Eko Francis and Joseph Igietseme, Spelman College and Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30314. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Development of preventive or therapeutic approaches against RSV is of utmost priority, but this is limited by inadequate understanding of RSV pathobiology. In this study we evaluated the ability of RSV infected monocytic cells to produce cytokines and other mediators of inflammation such as leukotrienes (LT). The level and profiles of cytokines were determined by RT-PCR, and the induced LT were determined by competition radioimmunoassay. Leukotriene levels were enhanced more than 3-fold in RSV plus antibody treated cells, but IFN-[gamma] levels were enhanced by RSV infection. The results suggest that LT and cytokines can pla y a role in RSV induced inflammation. Moreover, the pattern of LT and cytokines induced by RSV exposure could determine the outcome of an infection, either establishment of immunity or development of disease. (Supported by the Spelman College MIE Program.)

Section II-A. Chemistry (Analytical, Inorganic, Chemical Education)

University Center 1995 David Jenkins, Presiding

1:15 MULTIANGLE LASER LIGHT SCATTERING TO DETERMINE THE SIZE AND MOLECULAR MASS OF HUMIC ACID, Tony Bennett and Thomas Manning, Valdosta State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Multiangle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS) is used to measure the size (rms radius) and molar mass of humic acid in the aqueous phase. Because MALLS gives absolute values of size and molecular mass of HA is in its naturally occurring state, no separation or calibration of the polyelectrolyte is needed. Using eighteen detectors, the diameter (435 nm +/-23 nm) and molecular mass (1.6 x [108.sup.8] g/mol) measured are the upper reported limits for this technique. Additional studies measure the effects that metal binding (the lanthanide's), ionic strength (using NaCl) and HA concentration have on the rms radius of the HA structure. Specifically, as the ion ([H.sup.+], [Na.sup.+], [Ln.sup.+3]) concentration increases the average size of the structure decreases indicating that hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole interactions play a significant role in the structure of the HA complex.

1:30 GAUSSIAN VS. NONPARAMETRIC ALGORITHMS FOR CALCULATING PEAK AREA, Radha Narayanan and Ron Williams, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Two approaches for determining the peak area were investigated: Gaussian and Nonparametric. The traditional Gaussian algorithm relies on the generation of parameters such as the mean and standard deviation while the Nonparametric algorithm relies on ranking of the data. Duplicate solutions of successively lower concentrations of Rhodamine were prepared and the fluorescence spectra were collected from 350-750 nm. The areas of peaks obtained from a fluorimeter were calculated using both algorithms with a window width of 5. Also, the number of false positives in the background noise (350-450 nm) were determined using both algorithms. The Nonparametric method consistently yielded a larger area for each of the peaks than the Gaussian method. In addition, it was found to be less likely to mistake the background noise as being part of the peak or signal. Var ying the window width from 5 to 6, 7, and 8 did not produce a difference in the results for both algorithms. The Nonparametric method was still found to be a consistently better method than the Gaussian method.

1:45 SURFACE AREA DISTRIBUTIONS OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED BULLOCH COUNTY SOILS, Christopher Foster Jeanette K. Rice and J. David Jenkins, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8064, Statesboro, GA 30460-8064. Bulloch County, a primarily agricultural region, places large quantities of pesticides onto various crops annually. There is concern about the extent of pesticide that is retained in the soil, as well as the amount that migrates through the soil structure, thus potentially entering water supplies. In order to better understand these phenomena, one must elucidate the tendency of the pesticides to adsorb to the individual soil particles. This requires a complete understanding of the nature of the soil structure. However, no systematic studies on the physical structure of Bulloch County soils have been undertaken. To better understand the soil/analyte interactions, we have sampled soils and fractionated them by size. Analysis of the specific surface area of each size fraction provides a physical portrait of the soil that will be the basis for future studies on retention of pesticide molecules by different soil types. In turn, this will lead to a better understanding of pesticide migration and prediction of their ultimate fate in the environment.

2:00 A STUDY OF SELECTED PESTICIDES USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETER, Richard Hart, Charlie Taylor and Huggins Z. Msimanga, Kennesaw State University, 1000 Chastain Road, Department of Chemistry, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to study selected pesticides in water. The study attempted to establish the conditions suitable for separating the pesticides, to characterize the pesticides by their mass spectra, to determine the lowest detectable concentrations, and to find the percent recoveries of the pesticides in spiked water samples. Stock solutions of atrazine, simazine, pendimethalin, and imazaquin were prepared, each about 400 ng/micro L in toluene. Different mixtures were made from the stock solutions to investigate the above objectives. For percent recoveries, several one-liter volumes of water were spiked with known volumes of the stock solutions. Solid phase extraction disks were used to recover the analytes. Atrazine and simazine were not completely separated. Imazaquin gave two peaks with identical mass spectra. For limits of detection, mixtures with less than 32 ng/ 2 micro L injection did not show a detectable response. Only atrazine and pendimethalin were used to study percent recoveries.

2:15 SOLUTION SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL(I), METAL(II), AND METAL(III) COMPLEXES OF A PERIPHERALLY NEGATIVELY CHARGED PORPHYRIN TETRAKIS (2,6-DIFLUORO-3-SULFONATOPHENYL)-PORPHYRIN, Adegboye O. Adeyemo, Albert N. Thompson, Jr., Leon Dyers, Jr. and Jeffrey James, Savannah State University, College of Sciences and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Savannah, GA 31404. Metal complexes of the porphyrin were prepared by the addition of excess metal acetate or chloride salts to the water solution of the free base porphyrin followed by rigorous shaking of the reaction mixture. The ultraviolet visible spectra of these solutions taken afterward indicate definite spectral change which is indicative of complex formation. This paper presents the ultraviolet visible spectra of metal(I), metal(II), and metal(III) complexes of a new water-soluble porphyrin, tetrakis(2,6-difluoro-3-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin.

2:30 A NOVEL RUTHENIUM(II/III) REDOX SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR STUDYING PROTON COUPLED ELECTRON TRANSFER, Tim Ayers, Brandt Godwin, David Hathcock, Spencer Slattery and Nicole Coylor, State University of West Georgia, Department of Chemistry, Carrollton, GA 30118. A ruthenium system was designed to investigate the affect that two equivalent proton F(Facidic hydrogen) ligand sites would have on the metal localized (II/III) redox process. The redox process was studied under protic and aprotic solvent conditions in which three species (0, 1, and 2 acidic hydrogens) were expected to be observed; however, only the fully deprotonated (0 protons) and the fully protonated (2 protons) species were detected under both solvent conditions. This correlates with unusual mechanistic behavior and a possible two-proton/one-electron redox process.

2:45 INVESTIGATION OF IRON(II) AND COBALT(II) SYSTEMS THAT UNDERGO A SPIN TRANSITION AND AN ELECTRON TRANSFER, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO THE TRANSFER OF PROTONS, Brandt Godwin, Nicole Caylor, Spencer Slattery and Timothy Ayers, University of West Georgia, Dept. of Chemistry, Carrollton, GA 30118. A novel tridentating ligand was designed for studying proton transfer processes that induce a change in spin state and are coupled to electron transfer. The ligand was synthesized by derivatizing 2,2'-bipyridine at the 6-position with a benzimidazole followed by coordination onto Co(II) and Fe(II). Cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the Fe(III/II) and Co(III/II) couple as a function of pH. The change in redox potential per pH-unit was measured at 109 mV/pH-unit for the Co(III/II), and 103 mV/pH-unit for the Fe(III/II) couple. This indicates a two proton, one electron redox for both systems. In addition, spin state studies were carried out using standard NMR methodology where the Co(II) complex was observed to undergo a spin transition transfer upon deprotonation while Fe(II) exhibits no change.

3:00 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLYBDENUM COMPLEXES WITH TRISIMIDAZOLYL-PHOSPHINE LIGANDS, Kathryn Roberts and Will E. Lynch, Department of Chemistry, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Modeling studies of a class of oxomolybdenum metalloproteins is reported. The complexes Mo(T1R4MIP)[(CO).sub.3] (where T1R4MIP = tris(1-R-4-methyl-imidazolyl)phosphine; R = methyl and ethyl) have been synthesized by the reaction of Mo[(CO).sub.6] and the ligands. These complexes are formed in 1: stoichiometry and the infrared spectra of this type complex shows strong absorbances of the coordinated CO at 1890 and 1740 [cm.sup.-1]. Also, in the UV-Vis spectra, metal/ligand charge transfer processes are observed at approximately 390 nm indicating strong metal - pi overlap. In the presence of molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide, these complexes oxidize to form complexes of the type Mo(T1R4MIP)[(O).sub.3]. The complexes exhibit strong metal-oxo stretches at 850 [cm.sup.-1] characteristic of oxo-moly bdenum complexes.

3:15 A SIMPLE DEMONSTRATION OF A NONEQUILIBRIUM ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS: OSCILLATIONS IN THE CUPRIC CHLORIDE DEPOSITION ON ALUMINUM, J. Michael McCutcheon and C.L. Cobb, Augusta State University, 2500 Walton Way, Augusta, GA 30904-2200. A simple demonstration of nonequilibrium electrochemistry is presented. It has been found that submillimolar amounts of copper in a concentrated nitric acid solution undergo periodic deposition on aluminum rod. When two aluminum rods are placed into a solution of cupric chloride a film of reduced copper forms on the surface of the rods. When the temperature of the solution reaches approximately 340 K, the copper strips off the rods and the potential between the rods begins to oscillate with 0.2-volt excursions and a regular frequency. A model for the mechanism for this reaction is presented. The model demonstrates how the rates for adsorption, desorption, diffusion into the oxide, and dissolution of the oxide could be coupled to result in an oscillating surface coverage of co pper, which would result in a changing potential between the aluminum rods. This demonstration can be used as a starting point for discussing nonequilibrium processes or oscillating reaction kinetics.

Section II-B. Chemistry (Organic, Biochemistry, Physical)

3:00 EFFECT OF SAUNITY ON THE EXPRESSION OF NHE-LIKE PROTEINS IN THE GILLS OF A EURYHALINE FISH DURING ACIDOSIS, Brian Wall, Alison Morison-Shetlar and J.B. Claiborne, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8042, Statesboro, GA 30460. Current models of branchial acid excretion include an electrogenic proton pump in freshwater fishes, while marine species are postulated to use an electroneutral sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE). Our current investigations involve: 1) the detection of NHE-like isoforms and 2) whether expression of NHE-like proteins are modified during acidosis in fresh and seawater-adapted fish. Gill membrane proteins were immunoblotted with antibodies made against mammalian NHE-1 (aa 574-818) or NHE-3 (aa 528-648). Preliminary results indicate the presence of NHE-like proteins in the mum-michog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and that there is an upregulation of NHE-1-like proteins under acidotic conditions in the gills of seawater adapted mummichogs, while no differences in expression could be quantifi ed in freshwater adapted fish. Funded by N.S.F. Grand IBN-9808141 to J.B.C. and A.I.M.S.

University Center 1193 Steve Weiner, Presiding

3:15 THE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL SUBSTRATES FOR DIPEPTIDYLPEPTIDASE I, Mary Thornton and Steven Weiner, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Armstrong Atlantic State University, 11935 Abercorn Ext., Savannah, GA 31419-1997. Dipeptidylpeptidase I (Cathepsin C, DPPI) is a cysteine protease that cleaves dipeptide fragments from the amino terminus of a wide variety of proteins. DPPI catalyzes the hydrolysis of dipeptidyl-AMC (AMC = 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) derivatives yielding the dipeptide and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. While preliminary studies have shown that DPPI efficiently cleaves substrates with Phe at P1 and amino acids with short alkyl side chains at P2. The synthesis of dipeptidyl-AMC derivatives with some unnatural amino acids at P2 is underway. The N-BOC-amino acid (P1) is coupled to 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin in the presence of isobuytl chloroformate and N-methylmorpholine to yield an N-BOC-aminoacyl-AMC derivative. The BOC group is removed with trifluoroacetic acid. The resulting aminoacyl-AMC is then coupled to the second N-BOC-amino acid (P2) and the BOC group is removed to yield the trifluoroacetate salt of the dipeptidyl-AMC derivative. These novel dipeptidyl-AMC derivatives will be assayed for DPPI activity and their specificity constants will be evaluated compared to those of known substrates.

3:30 PREDICTING CARCINOGENECITY OF PETROCHEMICAL REFINERY EMISSIONS, Brian Shipano, Bart Johnson, Allison Buchanan and Sharmistha Basu-Dutt, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Emissions from petrochemical refineries include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) some of which are carcinogenic because of their shape and electronic properties. The PAHs with a flat hydrophobic shape are difficult to excrete and undergo enzymatic conversion to form soluble diol-epoxides. The parent hydrocarbon or the metabolites tend to covalently interact with the DNA to cause cancer. Semi-empirical AM1 molecular orbital analysis within PC Spartan Pro (Wavefunction Inc.) was used to investigate the carcinogenic properties of the PAHs emitted from petroleum refineries. Analysis of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the DNA bases showed that guanine was the most likely to interact with the PAHs. Analysis of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the PAHs showed that the compounds wit h low values (less than -1.00) had carcinogenic potential. These results are in agreement with published toxicological data.

3:45 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A FLAVIN-BASED, HETEROBIFUNCTIONAL CROSS-UNKING REAGENT, Melinda Asbury and Jeffrey Hugdahl, Mercer University, 1400 Coleman Ave., Macon, GA 31207. Cross-linking reagents are useful chemical tools for probing macromolecular interactions. Heterobifunctional cross-linkers possess two different reactive groups that can allow for sequential conjugations with specific groups, such as the amines and sulfhydryl groups of proteins. The synthesis and characterization of a flavin-based cross-linking reagent bearing an amine reactive site and a sulfhydryl reactive site will be presented. The cross-linking reaction with amines and sulfhydryl groups proceeds at near neutral pH, conditions suitable for cross-reacting with proteins.

4:00 REGIOSELECTIVE REDUCTION OF A BENZYLIDENE ACETAL ON A DERIVATIZED GLUCOSE, Brian Stansfield and S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University, P0. Box 8044, Statesboro, GA 30460. As a part of a larger synthetic scheme, we required a glucose derivative that has a differentially protected hydroxyls at C-2 and C-4. We protected the free hydroxyls of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-alpha-D-glucoPyranoside as benzoate esters according to literature procedures. We then investigated several procedures to open the benzylidene acetal and leave the hydroxyl at C-4 protected simultaneously. We will report the results of our studies using two reducing agents, ploy(methylhydrosiloxane) and sodium borohydride/hydrogen chloride.

4:15 SINGLE TRANSDUCER DETERMINATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE PHASE BOUNDARIES, Jordan Haney and Kenneth McGill, Georgia College & State University, 314 Doles Blvd., Milledgeville, GA 31061. Traditional acoustic techniques employ two transducers. One transducer creates a sound wave and the other detects the sound wave after it has propagated through the apparatus. In the case of acoustic resonators the acoustic signature is acquired on one transducer and the sound is introduced on another. This experiment employs a single transducer. A function generator sends the excitation frequencies into the resonators and the acoustic signature is acquired by measuring the reactive capacitance of the transducer. As the excitation frequency sweeps through the resonate frequency the reactive capacitance will change causing a change in the current applied to the transducer. This change in current, measured with respect to time, produces a time domain signal that is transformed into the frequency domain via a Fast Fourier Transfor m (FFT). As a first test of this technique the critical pressure and density were measured for [CO.sub.2].

4:30 SPACIAL WAVES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CUPRIC CHLORIDE CATALYZED ALUMINUM-DISSOLUTION OSCILLATING REACTION, Nikuj Sethi and C.L. Cobb, Augusta State University, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta, GA 30904-2200. As has been previously reported (GAS 1997, GAS 1998) various reducible metal ions in nitric or oxalic acid solutions have been found to cause oscillations in the potential of 99% pure aluminum rod, measured with respect to a platinum-wire reference. Recently spacial waves on the cut surface of the aluminum rod have been observed to be associated with the potential oscillations. In this work, the spacial wave observed in the cupric chloride catalyzed reaction is shown and a mechanism for this wave is proposed. Studies on the uniformity of composition of the aluminum rod will also be presented. The surface layers were stripped from the metal with strong caustic and the resulting solution was analyzed for impurity metals, such as copper and tin, with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The alumi num rod is found to be uniform within the detection limits of the UV-Vis instrumentation used to measure the composition of the dissolved aluminum.

4:45 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF ALPHA-NAPHTOXY ACETIC ACID, Minerva A. Huges and Allison J. Dobson, Department of Chemistry, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Differing only in the position of the acetic group from the synthetic plant hormone, beta-naphtoxy acetic acid, alpha-naphtoxy acetic acid may also exhibit auxin activity than can enhance fruit development. Knowing the crystal structure of the acids may help to determine why they are auxin active. By dissolving the compound in various ethanol/water solutions, we were able to crystallize the alpha-acid by slow evaporation. A complete x-ray diffraction data set is being collected and full information about the crystal structure will be presented.

Section III. Earth & Atmospheric Sciences

University Center 1171 Susan M. Walcott, Presiding

2:45 ESTIMATION OF ONE HUNDRED YEAR FLOODPLAN DELINEATIONS USING A THREE PARAMETER ESTIMATING EQUATION, STAGE HEIGHT/VOLUME RATIO AND DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS, Nick B. Harvey [*], Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. One hundred year flood plain delineations derived from an experimental model are compared with existing delineations of the Pate's Creek watershed (Henry County). Three parameters are used to estimate water volume at selected points in the watershed. These are (1) the total amount of impervious surface, (2) the watershed area, and (3) the average channel slope of the watershed or selected portion of the watershed. Water volume is transformed to water surface elevation using continuous stage height/volume data collected by USGS. A series of three-dimensional planes are created, with vertex elevations that are determined by the amount of water volume calculated for each corresponding coordinate in the watershed. Areas found to be lower in elevation than each three-dimensional plane are cons idered to be inundated by water. This model may provide a greatly needed alternative to the present method of floodplain delineation.

3:00 REGRESSION MODELS FOR PREDICTING SEASONAL RAINFALL OVER NORTHERN NIGERIA AND COMPARISON OF THESE MODELS WITH HISTORIC DISTRIBUTION FOR SUPERIORITY, Austine O. Nnaji, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The Least Absolute Deviation (LAD) multiple regression model was used to examine the predictability of rainfall in Northern Nigeria. Inputs included time-series of 7 ocean-atmospheric variable with 35 years of data. Nineteen synoptic stations in the study area were grouped into 3 sub-regions by cluster-analysis. The identified climate-controlling factors were then analyzed for association with rainfall in each sub-region using Pearson's product moment correlation. The correlation coefficients at different rainfall lags were tested for significance. Results indicate that different combinations of climatic factors force rainfall in each sub-region, with some factors common to all sub-regions. In particular, the research identified the South Atlantic sea surface temperature domains common to all su b-regions for the period 1961-1990 as 21s/15w, 21s/1w, and 21s/3w. Four models employing the predictor variables were then developed and rated by their ability to predict historic rainfall distributions.

3:15 ALTERATION OF ACID SOILS BY THE APPLICATION OF HYDROXYAPATITE AND ZEOUTE AMENDMENTS, Gian S. Ghuman, Kenneth S. Sajwan and Kailash Chandra, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Acid soils release elevated concentrations of Fe, Al, sulfate and other contaminants such as Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb into the groundwater. In view of this, present study was conducted to determine the effects of hydroxyapatite and two zeolites on acid soils collected from Coastal Georgia. Effingham loamy sand (pH5.5) and Chatham loam (pH 6.0) soils were air-dried, sieved and packed into PVC columns using four treatments: control and 2.5% each of hydroxyapatite, clinoptilolite and phillipsite. Packed soil columns were maintained at field capacity using deionized water. Each column was leached with 100 mL deionized water at intervals of two and four weeks. Leachates were analyzed for pH, phosphorus and metallic elements. Amendments increased the pH of leachates relative to control. Calcium and Mg increased in the hydroxyapatite treatment, but Al and Fe were decreased. Both zeolites increased the leached Na, but other elements were variably affected. Study funded by a Department of Energy Grant.

3:30 A CLIMATOLOGY OF HEATWAVES FOR THE CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES, 1950-1995, Jong-Nam Choi and Vernon Meentemeyer, Climatology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. In this study we develop a basic climatology of positive persistent temperature anomalies (PPTA or "heatwaves") for the contiguous United States. We present the normal spatial patterns for the frequency, duration, intensity and area of impact of PPTAs using a new index of PPTA. This index is based on the statistical deviation of daily minimum temperatures from its true mean for over 200 stations for each calendar date. By this method, PPTAs can be mapped and compared across seasons and space. A significant difference in "heatwaves" involves the season of occurrence. Across the U.S., the longest and most intense heatwaves occur in the summer (May [sim] September) in central-eastern portions of the US centered on Arkansas. In the winter (November [sim] March), the most extreme heatwaves occur in the s outhwestern states centered on northwestern Arizona and portions of California. The most extreme heatwaves for the period of record occurred in the summer seasons of 1952-1955 and in 1980. This new index in particularly useful in the search for rare and extreme cases of PPTA.

3:45 DHAKA: RAPID URBANIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND A POLICY TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE CITY, Selima Sultana [*] and Sharmind Neelormi [*], Department of Geography, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2502. Dhaka is the most densely populated and rapidly growing city in the Third world. The quantitative and qualitative inadequacies of existing urban structure and the inefficient urban and environment management systems that exist in Dhaka are leading to severe environmental problems and a degradation of standard of living, health and well being. Structural inadequacy is so severe that transportation congestion has reached the point where it is now the primary source of urban air pollution. It is found that the current urban structure is highly centralized with a majority of jobs located in the central city, whereas the population has decentralized over time. Public transport has decreased and private car use has increased. This has created a need for a significant transformation of the city's str ucture from monocentric to polycentric.

4:00 EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION ON TEMPERATURE MICRO CLIMATES IN NORTH GEORGIA 1991-1998, Stevan Bullard [*], Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Impact of deforestation on local temperature was studied for eight weather stations in North Georgia for the years 1991 and 1998. Deforestation was assessed by classifying Landsat TM images from Oct 1998 and Sept. 1991 and comparing the images in a GIS. Temperature change was determined by comparing the daily high temperatures for the two years at each location. Preliminary results show that temperatures are unchanged for the months of tree dormancy at all locations but show a measurable rise in the months of active tree growth for areas that have experienced significant deforestation.

4:15 ACCELERATED GLACIER WASTAGE DUE TO LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY TEMPERATURE MAXIMA: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE BEARTOOTH PLATEAU OF MONTANA, Edward E. Chatelain, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Small cirque glaciers of the Northern Rocky Mountains have undergone a steady decline in size throughout the twentieth century due to overall climatic change. Summer temperature and winter snowfall records for Cooke City (1967-1999), Mystic Lake (1948-1999), and Red Lodge, Montana (1894-1999) help to explain the USGS aerial photos and the author's ground photos (1953-1999) documenting wastage from the dust-bowl days of the 1930's, and from the temperature maxima from 1986-1998. These episodes were separated by a longer interval of equilibrium to slight advance between 1950 and 1980. The late twentieth century temperature maxima caused dramatic ice-mass loss in larger glaciers of the Beartooth Plateau. Successive aerial photos of the Castle Rock Glacier in 19853, and 1981 display a slow decline when compared to the dramatic wastage indicated on photos between 1989 and 1998. Although summer temperatures were extreme, and winter snowfalls were deficient through this period, accelerated wastage of the Castle Rock Glacier was aggravated by ash cover from the Yellowstone Fire of 1988.

4:30 ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF GYMAMOEBAE ALONG A SOIL TRANSECT IN AMERICUS, GEORGIA, Polly Bass [*] and Paul J. Bischoff, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. Gymnamoebae play a critical role in processing soil nutrients and maintaining flow within the terrestrial food web. The effect of variability in the physical characteristics of the soil on the abundance and diversity of Gymnamoebae populations has not been well documented in the Southern United States. Gymnamobae populations in areas where soil zones merge, i.e., in transition zones, were observed in this investigation. All previous studies have involved distinct soil types in relatively large areas. Three soil sub-types on a two-meter transect of the Orangeburg loamy sand were sampled and cultured for soil protozoa. The cultures were observed and enumerated following incubation. The transect contained a clayey soil, rich organic soil and sandy soil. Observed Gymnamoebae were classified into four broad morphotypic groups. Type 1 , with extended pseudopodia; Type 2, slow moving limax; Type 3, limax eruptive; and Type 4, fan shaped. Auxiliary data on the soil's pH, water content, organic content, mineral content and porosity were also determined.

4:45 OPTIMIZING THE DEVELOPMENT OF BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES IN GWINNETT COUNTY GEORGIA BY EVALUATING DEMOGRAPHIC AND LAND-USE PATTERNS, Keith W. McFadden, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. With increasing concerns about air-quality and traffic-congested highways, many communities are considering the development of alternative modes of transportation. These solutions often include promoting bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Gwinnett County Georgia, as part of a new Comprehensive Transportation Plan (CTP), is currently evaluating citizen interest in developing such facilities within the county. A possible method for optimizing the location and implementation of such facilities is to evaluate current demographic and transportation statistics on bicycle usage in other communit ies and apply those to the demographics and transportation patterns of the study area. This can be used to identify the most likely source and destination areas for bicycle travel and the connections or transportation corridors between these areas that could be improved for bicycle commuting.

Section IV. Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Engineering And Technology

University Center 1170 R. W. Schmude, Presiding

2:00 WHOLE-DISC WIDEBAND PHHOTOMETRY OF THE MOON, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. An SSP-3 solid-state photometer (0.002 meter aperture) along with a short focal length lens was used in measuring the brightness of the moon during different phases. The field of view of the photometer and lens was close to 45 arc-minutes. Filters that have been transformed to the Johnson B and V system were used in this study. The preliminary results are that the normalized magnitude of the Moon is found to be V(1,0) = 0.20[+ or -]0.07, the color index is found to be 0.82 + 0.0012[alpha] where [alpha] is the phase angle of the moon. The magnitude of the full moon was measured to be V = 012.92[+ or -]0.02 on November 23 and V = -12.85[+ or -]0.03 on December 23.

2:15 TEACHING COLLEGE ALGEBRA USING INTERACTIVE MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE, Andreas Lazari and Kathy Simons, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Academic Systems is a mediated learning interactive mathematical software. In this paper, we compare results from classes taught in a traditional way and classes taught in Academic Systems. A two population mean hypotheses testing was used to compare the departmental final exam means and a two population hypotheses testing was used to compare the retention rate. Statistically speaking, the results showed no significant difference in the final exam mean nor the retention rate.

2:30 TEACHING A COMPLETE INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS COURSE ON THE TI-83, Sudhir Goel and Andreas Lazari, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In this paper, we show how one can effectively use the TI-83 in teaching an Introductory Statistics course. A hand-out covering the following concepts will be given to each person in the talk: five number summary, box plots, constructing a frequency distribution using a histogram, symmetric and skewed distributions, weighted average, the empirical rule, Chebyshev's Theor., zscores, least squares line, combinations and permutations, finding mean and variance of a discrete random variable using lists, binomial probability distribution, normal probability distribution, student's t-probability distributions, confidence intervals for mean and proportion, hypothesis test for mean, confidence intervals and hypothesis test for difference of two means, hypothesis test for difference of two proportions, F-probability distributions, contingency tables and one-way analysis of variance for a completely randomized design.

2:45 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH AT SARA: THE FIRST FIVE YEARS, K.S. Rumstay, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Since the summer of 1995 the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), a consortium of six southeastern universities, has operated a summer Research Experience for Undergraduates program. Funded by the National Science Foundation, this program allows ten to twelve students each year to engage in research projects under the tutelage of SARA astronomy faculty. Since its inception SARA has become one of the largest astronomical REU sites in the country. To date forty-six students from twenty-two states have participated, investigating astronomical phenomena ranging from the Earth's magnetosphere to the most distant quasars. This program is unique in that it is a multi-site program; each SARA institution hosts two to four students. A group meeting at the start of the summer allows students to meet and to participate in workshops on observational techniques, data reduction, and scientific ethics. All students observe with the SARA 0.9-m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Participants present their research results at a final meeting near the end of the summer; the proceedings are published in the I.A.P.P.P Communications. Applicants need not major in astronomy, but a demonstrated interest is essential. Further information may be found at http: //astro.fit.edu/sara-reu/sara-reu.html.

3:00 WEB METERS FOR REALTIME ONLINE EXPERIMENTS, K.C. Chan, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. The Internet is not only a great tool for sharing and publishing scientific data, it is also a great tool for conducting experiments and collecting realtime data at remote locations. There are a number of techniques used to display realtime data on the Web. The most common way is to use digital display coupled with the "refresh" button available on most Web Browsers. To display data in analogy form such as a meter with a needle, a mercury column, or an xy-plot requires sophisticated software tools such as Java applet, active-X and/or other plug-ins. Out of the need to display some in-house developed Web based experiments, a Java applet was developed to display realtime data on the Web as digits, a meter with a needle, a mercury column, and/or xy-plot simultaneously or separately. Such a "Web meter eliminates the need to code a new display for each individual sensor employed by an experiment. Instead, throug h a list of parameters, the experimenter can decide whether to display the data s digital, analog, and/or plot. An example to display weather data (temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction) in realtime will be demonstrated.

3:15 ON LIGHT INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS, Leighton Arnold [*] and J.E. Hasbun, Department of Physics, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. In a simple experiment using a photometer, the distance from a light source (i.e. a light bulb) to the photometer eye is varied and the intensity values are recorded versus distance. The measurements indicate that the effects of background radiation must be taken into account. The measurements also indicate that the level of background radiation increases as the distance from the light source increases. In this talk, we present our measurements and discuss how taking the background radiation into account affects the expected inverse square law relationship between distance and intensity.

3:30 OZONE ADSORPTION IN EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE, Myra Sherrill [*], John Giddens [*], and Thomas J. Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta, GA 31698. Ozone ([O.sub.3]), a strong oxidizing agent, has many applications in the semiconductor, pulp and paper, health, food, chemical, water treatment, and wastewater treatment industries. Many of these applications do not require a steady stream of low concentration ozone that is supplied by a corona discharge but instead need a burst of high concentration, very pure ozone from a low capital cost system. In this work we produce a stable form of exfoliated graphite dust (10 um diameter) using a novel method that impulse heats a graphite intercalation compound from 25[degrees]C to 5000[degrees]C in 10 milliseconds. The material, which has a large surface area and is resistant to being oxidized by ozone, is tested for ozone adsorption. Specifically, we chemically adsorb ozone on the surface of the graphitic material over a range of temperatures (-50[degrees]C to 25[deg rees]C) and gas mixtures ([N.sub.2], [O.sub.2], Ar). The mass percent of ozone stored is determined gravimetrically and is compared to graphite dust (1-2 um diameter).

3:45 STORM IN THE SKIES: LEONID METEORS, 1999, Martha A. Leake, Cecilia Barnbaum, Jason K. Gaines and Jason K. Looper, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. A team of observers from Valdosta State University was given a unique opportunity to participate in a worldwide effort to record and analyze the flux of meteors during the Leonid Meteor Storm of Nov. 17, 1999. The effort was led by Dr. Peter Brown, U. Western Ontario, and meteor specialists and colleagues from Canada, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force, and coordinated by Dr.s Bill Cooke and Rob Suggs of Marshall Space Flight Center. Seven teams of observers were deployed over the glove to provide 22 hours daily coverage of the event from Nov. 15 to 19, 1999. Each team including the VSU team at Long Key, FL was provided with special video cameras focused on two locations in the sky. The video input was analyzed by Dr. Peter Gural's Meteor Scan@ program; then collated and analyzed by MSFC Leonid Environment Operations Center, and sent to clients with satellites affected by the meteor storm. Visual observers helped gauge the completeness of the video survey. The Negev groups reported seeing the predicted storm (over 1500 Zenith Hourly Rate), but the FL group saw far lower numbers. Our observing equipment, set up, experiences and other results will be discussed.

4:00 NUCLEAR FUSION IN A INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA: THE FARNSWORTH MODEL, John Beatty [*] and Thomas J. Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta, GA 31698. The Farnsworth Fusor (U.S. Patent 3,386,883) uses deuterium-deuterium reaction to trigger a series of nuclear reactions:

[[D.sup.2].sub.1] + [[D.sup.2].sub.1] [Rightarrow] [[He.sup.3].sub.2] (.82 MeV) + [[n.sup.1].sub.0] (2.45 MeV)

[[D.sup.2].sub.1] + [[D.sup.2].sub.1] [Rightarrow] [[T.sup.3].sub.1] (1.01 MeV) + [[p.sup.1].sub.1] (3.02 MeV)

[[D.sup.2].sub.1] + [[T.sup.3].sub.1] [Rightarrow] [[He.sup.4].sub.2] (3.5 MeV) + [[n.sup.1].sub.0] (14.1 MeV)

[[D.sup.2].sub.1] + [[He.sup.3].sub.2] [Rightarrow] [[He.sup.4].sub.2] (3.6 MeV) + [[p.sup.1].sub.1] (14.7 MeV)

The Farnsworth Fusor, which is based on a low pressure, high voltage direct current plasma apparatus, is currently used as a low-flux neutron source. In this paper we present a model that outlines the potential of using a 27.12 MHz (RF) Inductively coupled plasma as the apparatus to generate a low a neutron flux. A Maxwellian distribution is used to estimate the fraction of deuterium atoms that have the correct energy for fusion to occur as a function of temperature and pressure.

4:15 VIBRATING STRING COUPLED WITH A SIMPLE PENDULUM, Ryan Schwartz [*] and J.E. Hasbun, Department of Physics, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. When a string is subjected to a harmonic force at one end while fixed at the other, as well as being subjected to a force, standing waves in the string obey the well known condition f = (n/2L)[square root](F/[micro]), where f is the frequency, n is the number of loops, L is the string's length, F is the applied force, and [micro] is the string's linear density. In this work we investigate the possibility of setting the hanging mass in oscillation in such a way that its frequency can be affected by a resonance condition with the aforementioned vibrating string. Here we present the preliminary results that were obtained by varying the string's vibrating frequency for a given hanging mass.

Section VI. Philosophy & History of Science

University Center 1162 Tom McMullen, Presiding

2:30 RAITI: THE MATERIAL CULTURE OF MISKITO CEMETERIES IN EASTERN HONDURAS, Benjamin F. Tillman, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. The material culture of Miskito cemeteries in Eastern Honduras was documented through field observations made in thirty sites during May 1996, and from January through April 1998. Data collected in these locations yielded a list of material culture traits that were common to Miskito cemeteries. By labeling these traits as either "traditional" or "non-traditional," it was possible to make generalizations about the overall character of each cemetery. This information was then used to classify cemeteries as "more traditional" or "less traditional." "Less traditional" cemeteries were located in villages that were important focuses of Moravian missionary activity and in larger villages that served as economic centers which maintained interaction with the Honduran interior.

3:00 A CRITIQUE OF LILLIAN ROSANOFF LIEBER'S "THE EDUCATION OF T.C. MITS," Steve Whittle, Augusta, State University, Augusta, Georgia 30910. During the period from 1931 - 1972, Lillian Rosanoff Lieber published several books that may be classified as works on mathematics for the general reader. One in particular, "The Education of T.C. MITS," deserves special attention due to the author's unique content and writing style. In this work, Lieber explains mathematical thinking and its value to the common man in the street (T.C. MITS). Lieber offers such an explanation using a conversational style augmented with mathematical sketches by her artist-husband, Hugh Gray Lieber. From this review, a number of conclusions can be drawn: (1) the author fulfilled her stated objective; (2) personal and historical factors influenced the writing of this book; and (3) Lieber's book is rare among popular works because it emphasizes connections between mathematics and the humanities, as opposed to practical application.

3:30 THE TYRANNY OF EXPERTS: CAUTIONARY TALES ABOUT SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION, Emerson Thomas McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8054. Many times throughout the history of science, "expert" opinion has stifled innovative ideas. Four example are: (1) Aristotelian views on comets (up to the seventeenth century), (2) the idea that meteorites were caused by lightning (most of the eighteenth century), (3) uniformitarian geology and interpreting the Channeled Scablands, (early twentieth century) and (4) paleontologists and others arguing against the idea that extinctions could be caused by extraterrestrial impacts (late twentieth century). In the above cases, the "experts" were wrong, but still mounted energetic opposition and used their prestige to fight the new area. At present, cosmologists are vigorously opposing the reporting of observations that indicate the accepted interpretation of "redshifts" of starlight is wrong. This may turn out to be yet another example of the tyranny of the expe rts.

Section IX. Genetics Society of Georgia

SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM ON GENETICS

University Center 1164

Kathleen Ann Fleiszar, Presiding

2:30 PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF INSECT cDNA CLONES ENCODING ENZYMES ASSOCIATED WITH CUTICLE FORMATION, GLYCOLYSIS, AND PURINE BIOSYNTHESIS, Eric McCoy, Amy Prewett, Terry Arrington and Alan Smith, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. The phenomenon that proteins required for major cellular functions are well conserved among all eukaryotes, from yeasts to animal cells has served us well. A prophenoloxidase antibody probe exhibits cross-reactivity to other highly conserved proteins, permitting our isolation and purification of three cDNA clones that encode enzymes of fundamental importance in insect biochemistry. BLAST analyses of an 800bp sequence from Acheta domesticus have identified a 200-amino acid open-reading frame with a 70% identity to SAICAR synthetase, an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of purines. Analyses of a 750-bp sequence from Schistocerca americana have identified a 230-amino acid open-reading frame of a putative 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2, 6-bisphosph atase, a multisubunit enzyme of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis biochemical pathway. Finally, although inconclusive without m ore reliable sequence information from a third A. domesticus clone, a deduced 38-amino acid segment shows homology to a family of tyrosinases, of which phenoloxidase is a member. This work was funded by Research and Development Grants awarded by the Dean's Office of the College of Liberal Arts.

2:45 ANALYSIS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA LEVELS IN TRANSGENIC AND MUTANT PROLIFEROUS LINES, John Chipley, Natalie Moss and Linda Hensel, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. We are in the process of analyzing cytokinin levels in both mutagenized and transgenic lines that have inflorescence meristems that cease to undergo wild-type arrest resulting in a two-fold increase in fruit production. The transgenic lines carry the isopentyl transferase (IPT) gene under the control of a senescence-associated gene promoter, [P.sub.SAG12]. The IPT gene codes for an enzyme that governs the rate-limiting step in cytokinin production. It is believed that the senescence-associated promoter results in the expression of the chimeric gene and the production of cytokinin late in senescence. We developed a bio-assay using cucumber cotyledon degreening to analyze cytokinin levels. By comparing the cytokinin levels found in the mutagenized and transgenic lines, we may or may not see a correlation with increased cytokinin levels and obs erved increase in growth and fruit production. A correlation in the mutagenized lines would indicate that cytokinin in some way governs meristem proliferation.

3:15 MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF A [Na.sup.*]/[H.sup.+] EXCHANGER IN THE GILLS OF THE LONG-HORNED SCULPIN, Danielle L. Gunning [*], James B. Claiborne and Alison I. Morrison-Shetlar, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE) are transport proteins thought to be involved in ion regulation and acid excretion in most marine fishes. Seven isoforms have been identified in various organisms. At least one of the NHE isoforms is hypothesized to regulate acid-base and ion balance across the gill epithelia. In the present study, mRNA was isolated from total RNA taken from the gill tissue of the long-horned sculpin, reverse transcribed, and cDNA encoding a partial NHE2 product was amplified by PCR. 3'/5' RACE reactions, using sculpin specific NHE2 primers, were performed in an effort to obtain the full-length message of one or more NHE isoforms being expressed in the gill tissue. Positive bands were ligated into a vector and transcribed into bacteria. Blue/white screening was used to isolate positive colonies. Pasmid DNA was isolated by alkaline lysis and sequenced at the Medical College of Georgia. Identification of the 3' end of the NHE sequence will allow a more specific determin ation of the NHE isoform being expressed in the sculpin gill tissue. This research is funded by NSF IBM 9808141 to J.B.C. and A.I.M.S.

3:30 IDENTIFICATION AND SEQUENCE OF THE SODIUM/HYDROGEN ANTIPORTER IN THE GILL OF THE LITTLE SKATE, RAJA ERINACEA, Nichole L. Hair [*], Alison Morrison-Shetlar and J.B. Claiborne, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] exchanger (NHE) is a transport protein hypothesized to be involved in acid-base regulation across fish gill epithelia. Recent studies have shown the presence of NHE in the gill tissue of two marine teleosts, the long-horned sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus, and the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. The objective of this study was to determine if NHEs are present in the gill tissue of the elasmobranch, Raja erinacea. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR), using skate RNA samples, transcribed mRNA to cDNA. PCR was performed using previously developed NHE primers to amplify the specific sequence. The sequence products were 470 nucleotides in length and found to have 85% amino acid homology and 71% identity to the NHE2 human isoform. This research suggests that the NHE transport protein may be present within the gills of the little skate, Raja erinacea. Current research includes cloning and sequencing the entire skate cDNA sequence for this isoform. This research was funded by the NSF grant IBM-9808141 to J.B.C. and A.I.M.S.

3:45 CLONING OF THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MUTATION DELOREAN, A PUTATIVE HOMOLOGUE OF A VERTEBRATE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, Bruce D. Ostrow and Kamela Mom in, Oxford College of Emory University, Oxford, GA 30054. We are interested in the genetic control of morphogenesis. We have isolated a Drosophila mutation names delorian. Delorean flies have wings that stand up from the thorax and curve down, much like the open doors of a Delorean car. The mutation also affects mechanosensory bristles of the anterior wing margins and delorean males are sterile. Delorean is caused by a P-element transposon insertion in region 45C of the 2nd chromosome. We cloned 7kb of genomic DNA flanking the P-element insertion. DNA sequencing revealed identity to two overlapping Drosophila expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and homology to Mus musculus HCNGP, a putative transcriptional regulator of [beta]-2-microglobulin. We conclude that disruption of the delorean transcriptional unit causes mutations in wing morphology and male fertility, pe rhaps by interfering with regulation of cell surface molecules.

PLENARY SESSION

4:00 ECOLOGICAL GENETICS OF CLONAL FISHES OF THE GYNOGENETIC CYPRINID MINNOWS OF THE PHOXINUS EOS-NEOGAEUS SPECIES COMPLEX IN VOYAGEURS' NATIONAL PARK, MINNESOTA, John F Elder, [Jr..sup.1] and Isaac J. [Schlosser.sup.2], Department of Biology, Valdosta State [University.sup.1], Valdosta, GA 31698 and Department of Biology, University of North Dakota [2], Grand Forks, ND 58202. Previous genetic surveys of clonal fish have revealed a high degree of clonal variation and the coexistence of numerous clonal lineages within relatively restricted geographic areas. In striking contrast, our recent survey of clonal variation in the P. eos-neogaeus gynogenetic complex across portions of three drainages on the Kabetogama Peninsula of Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota revealed no clonal variation. Simple sequence multilocus DNA fingerprinting of [greater than]400 clonal gynogens from three different habitats and four different environments associated with beaver pond succession in a single drainage detected one, and on]y one, clonal lineage. DNA fingerprints generated sequentially using three oligonucleotide probes, [(CAC).sub.5], [(GACA).sub.4], and the Jeffreys' 33.15 probe all revealed the same unprecedented lack of clonal variation, indicating the failure to detect clonal variation was not probe dependent. A less intensive fingerprint survey of clonal gynogens from two adjacent drainages matched the fingerprints from the initial drainage, indicating the distribution of the single clonal lineage extended across at least 15 km and three drainages. In addition to the extreme clonal uniformity observed in the P. eos-neogaeus complex, strong spatial variation occurred in clone abundance along the peninsula. Intensive fish sampling across successional sites and oxygen concentration gradients indicated P. eos abundance and relative frequency decreased, while clonal gynogen frequency increased in collapsed ponds, streams and in poorly oxygenated locations. Fish transplant experiment indicated clonal gynogens survived longer unde r severe oxygen stress than either sexual progenitor. Spatial proximity of successional sites influenced clone frequency in adjacent active beaver ponds. The single hybrid clonal lineage also filled the morphological space between the sexual progenitors and induced shifts in the trophic mor morphology of P. eos but not P. neogaeus.

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Date:Mar 22, 2000
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