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A world map on an oval projection attributed to Franciscus Monachus 1526.

INTRODUCTION

Not a lot is known about cartographer Franciscus Monachus. He was born in Mechelen (Malines), Belgium about 1490 and died there in 1565. He was an ordained monk and an astrologer in the Court of Margaret of Austria (1480-1530) who was Regent of the Netherlands from 1507 to 1530. He is known to have made a terrestrial globe around 1526. (1) Robert Karrow, Curator of Special Collections and Maps at the Newbury Library, said "The facts appear to be that a man named 'Franciscus Monachus' (Francis Monk) became a monk of the Franciscan order. His family name may have been de Munnink or Munnicks, the Flemish Smunck, or perhaps the French equivalent, Le Moyne.... He was born late in the fifteenth century, perhaps about 1490 in Mechelen (Malines) and attended the University of Louvain." (2)

He is thought to have influenced the work of both Gerard Mercator and Oronce Fine. Mercator's biographer, Andrew Taylor, said "Monachus's map inspired Mercator in his youth." (3) In an outline of Mercator's life, Dr. A.S. Osley said "Between 1532 and 1534, Mercator used to go off by himself to Antwerp, and perhaps Mechlin (sic), where he was in correspondence with the Minor Friars, one of whom, Franciscus Monachus, was a noted geographer ..." (4) In relation to Fine's double heart shaped world map of 1531, Karrow said "The very prominent southern continent with its caption, 'The Southern Land, recently discovered but not yet explored', apparently derives from the globe of Franciscus Monachus." (5) There was also mention made of Franciscus in the first edition of Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, printed in 1570, which lists cartographical works consulted including "Franciscus Monachi Mechliniensis, Regiones Septentrionales; Antuerpiae, apud Sylvestrum a Parisiis." (6)

Franciscus is best known for a letter he wrote to his patron, Jean de Carondelet, (7) the Archbishop of Palermo, and an adviser to Margaret of Austria, ca.1527. The letter, effectively a treatise on geography, was published as a booklet in Antwerp under the title of De Orbis Situ ac description ... (8) The treatise contains a map of the world in two spheres, each measuring 65 mm x 65 mm, which were engraved on separate wood blocks. (9) The double hemisphere world map is small and a rough woodcut, accordingly it lacks detail. Nevertheless it is regarded as important. Cartobibliographer Rodney Shirley said "Together with Schoner's globes of 1515 and 1520, this is one of the first renderings of the Terra Australis on a printed map; it is also one of the earliest maps to recognise the rounding of the tip of South America by Magellan." (10) Historian Henry Harrisse said "small and incomplete as that map is, it presents considerable interest as being the earliest one now existing, where North America south of the parallel of Newfoundland, is represented as a mere prolongation of Asia ... It is also the first map which we possess where the north-east coast, according to true geographical conceptions exhibits an unbroken coast line from Labrador to Florida." (11)

According to cartographic historian Peter van der Krogt, De Orbis Situ was influenced by the works of Johann Schoner and Petrus Apianus, although Franciscus "seems to have been a scholar who thought for himself and critically studied the contributions of such diverse figures as Ptolemy, Marcus Beneventanus, Marco Polo, Jean de Mandeville, Odoric of Pordenone and Maximilianus Transsylvanus." He added that Franciscus "introduced two important changes to the images of the world. First of all he considered Asia and America to be one continent connected by a broad stretch of land ... (and) he was probably the first to designate a large southern continent." (12)

Franciscus Monachus' letter to Jean de Carondelet was accompanied by a globe. Harrisse said "In the letter of thanks addressed by Jean de Carondelet, Archbishop of Palermo to friar Franciscus, who had dedicated to him the treatise De Orbis Situ, we notice the following sentence 'Orbis globum, in quo terrae ac maria luculenter depicta sunt, una cum epistola accepimus'--A globe of the world, in which the lands and the seas are elegantly depicted, together with epistle, I accept." (13) Harrisse goes on to say "This we understand to refer to a globe different and more important than the small woodcuts of a sphere inserted in the first two editions of the treatise." (14) The globe, sometimes referred to as the Carondelet globe, has not survived, but the rough woodcut world map in two hemispheres gives us some insight as to its contents.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2a OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2b OMITTED]

WORLD MAP ON AN OVAL PROJECTION

Former Keeper of the Map Department of the British Museum, R.H. Major, in his introduction to Early Voyages to Terra Australis, Now Called Australia refers to another work which he attributes to Franciscus--a map of the world on an oval projection dated 1526, a copy of which appears in the atlas which accompanies Joachim Lelewel's Geographie du Moyen Age. (15) Lelewel (1786-1861), a Polish historian and geographer, published his five volume history of cartography, plus atlas, between 1850 and 1857. (16) The redrawing is very small, 7 cm x 5 cm, and contains a relatively large number of names and notations. It is entitled: "FRANCISCUS monachus ordinis franciscanorum 1526" (17) Fortunately the State Library of NSW recently digitally enhanced the image along with six other maps appearing on the same page of the atlas which has greatly assisted analysis. (18) No original of a world map on an oval projection by Franciscus Monachus is known to exist.

Karrow makes mention of this map too, but he does not describe it as a work of Franciscus. Instead he calls it a "very small redrawing on an oval projection" of Franciscus Monachus' double hemisphere world map--the implication being it is a creation of Lelewel. (19) Karrow believes it is not a facsimile i.e. a copy of a Franciscus original, but a redrawing of the map in De Orbis Situ by Lelewel using a different projection.

Harrisse agrees that it is not a facsimile, but he does not think it is simply a reproduction of the double hemispheres map using a different projection. He contends it is a copy of the Carondelet globe with names added from De Orbis Situ. Harrisse said: "Lelewel in his artificial reproduction of this little globe, blending the two hemispheres in one, and making of the whole an elliptical mappamundi ... has added several names taken from the text of the treatise." (20)

Cartographer A.E. Nordenskiold in his Facsimile Atlas, first published in 1889, also makes mention of this map in Lelewel's atlas. (21) He assumed it was "a much reduced reproduction" of the map in De Orbis Situ, but he was unsure because he had not sighted an edition of the treatise containing the double hemispheres map. He said: "I have only had access to a later edition of this work (Antverpiae 1565) containing no maps." (22) He noted: "What Harrisse says regarding them hardly agrees with the map of Franciscus Monachus ordinis Franciscanorum, of 1526, of which a copy is given in Lelewel's Atlas, pl. XLVI." (23) By the time Periplus was published in 1897 Nordenskiold had changed tack saying: "Franciscus Monachus also seems to have published a map of the world on Bordone's projection. There is at all events such a map attributed to him in Lelewel's atlas pl. XLVI." (24)

So what exactly is this small map appearing as plate XLVI in Lelewel's atlas? Is it:

--a copy of a mappemonde by Franciscus Monachus, as contended by Major, or

--a redrawing by Lelewel of the double hemispheres map on an oval projection, as Karrow concluded, or

--a reproduction by Lelewel of the Carondelet globe with names added from the text, as propounded by Harrisse, or

--something else?

DESCRIPTION OF THE MAP

The most notable feature of the world map appearing in Lelewel's atlas attributed to Franciscus Monachus is its size--a mere 7 cm x 5 cm. In addition, for such a small map, there are a large number of names and notations. In the atlas it sits between two similar sized world maps also on oval projections. One is entitled "Benedetto Bordone 1521. Universale in suo isolario;" (25) the other "Sebastianus Munster ingelheimensis 1544." (26) These three maps share a page in the atlas with four other maps. (27)

On the map attributed to Franciscus in Lelewel's atlas, parallels and meridians are marked but there is no scale for either latitude or longitude. Europe and Africa appear in the west and the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean in the east. The central meridian divides the world along the same line as the separation between the two hemispheres in De Orbis Situ. The hemispheres are said to "show the world according to the respective domains of the kings of Portugal and Spain under the Treaty of Tordesillas." Although this is not the case, for present purposes the point is not of significance. (28) What is worthy of note is the dividing line for the double hemispheres and the central meridian for the map in Lelewel's atlas are the same.

There is a strait in Central America severing North America from South America on both maps. Mountain ranges, rivers and lakes are also depicted. On the map in Lelewel's atlas there is a large southern continent with Magellan Strait shown and named "fretum magellanicum." The shape of the continent is similar to, but not the same as, the southern continent appearing on the two hemispheres map. There is a prominent peninsula west of Magellan Strait on the version in Lelewel's atlas, which does not appear on the map in De Orbis Situ. The peninsula is in a similar position to, but is a lot smaller than, the peninsula named Regio Patalis on Schoner's globe of 1533 (29) and Patalis Regio on the Paris Wooden Globe ca.1535. (30) The caption on the southern continent on the map in Lelewel's atlas reads "hec pars ore is nobis detecta existit nondum cognita" (this part of the world revealed to us to exist is yet unknown). On the double hemispheres the caption is "hec pars ore is nobis navigationibus detecta nondum existit" (this part of the world not yet revealed to exist by our voyages). Also written on the southern continent on the map in Lelewel's atlas is "1. L salso 2. Zuayton 3. Saba Symba jamnia." The numbers appear elsewhere on the map marking the positions of the geographical features named. They are: 1. Lake Chalco (referred to by Hernando Cortes in letters to Emperor Charles V); (31) 2. Zai-tun (a port in China mentioned by Marco Polo); (32) and 3. Zaba (a place name from Ptolemy), (33) Ziamba (Champa, also mentioned by Marco Polo), (34) and Jambi (another name from Marco Polo--a place in Central Sumatra). (35)

On the map in Lelewel's atlas there is a large protrusion on the west of the South American continent south of the Tropic of Capricorn, which does not appear on the double hemispheres map. On the latter there is a much smaller double humped shaped protrusion. The island of Madagascar on the Lelewel atlas map is positioned north of the Tropic of Capricorn. On the double hemispheres map the island is correctly placed primarily above the Tropic and partially below it.

The similarities between these maps far outweigh the difference giving the overall impression they are from the same source and/or are by the same author.

NAMES AND NOTATIONS

The names and notations on the map appearing in Lelewel's atlas are:
REGION        NAME/NOTATION COMMENT
Europe        EUROPA                  Europe.
              Wildlappia/laponia      Land of the wild lappes or
                                        Lapland in Northern
                                        Scandinavia.
              svedia                  Sweden.
              dania                   Denmark.
              russia                  Russia.

Africa/       Africa                  Africa.
Middle East
              barbaria                North Africa.

              egypt                   Egypt.

              habasci                 Habassia, ancient name for
                                        Ethiopia.

              abessia                 Abassia, ancient Christian
                                        kingdom in North Africa

              melinda                 Malindi, Kenya.

              nube                    Nubia, North Africa.

              bonespei                Cape of Good Hope.

              turci                   Turkey.

              arabia                  Arabia.

              persia                  Persia/Iran.

              hierosolyma             Hierusalem, Biblical Greek
                                        for Jerusalem.

Indian        moabar                  The Coromandel coast of India.
Ocean         seyla                   Ceylon/Sri Lanka.
              s.laurentius/           The island of Madagascar.
                mandagascar

Asia/North    ASIA                    Asia.
America       india                   India.
              tartaria                Tartary, the steppe region
                                        of Russia.
              mongolia                Mongolia.
              ganges                  River Ganges.
              tevic tebet             Tibet. The text of De Orbis
                                        Situ says "In former times,
                                        Tevis was known as
                                        Tebet or Cibet".
              India alta              Franciscus's sub-continent Alta
                                        India--his name for the
                                        Malaysian Peninsula.
              taprobana               Taprobana, historical name for
                                        Sumatra.
              samathra                Alternative name for Sumatra.
              java                    Java.
              porne                   Borneo.
              burney                  Alternative name for Borneo.
              gelolo                  The island of Halmahera or
                                        Gilolo.
              moluq                   The Moluccas islands, modern
                                        day Maluku Islands.
              tangut tamago           Part of China. The name tangut
                                        comes from Marco Polo (36).
                                        The text of De Orbis Situ says:
                                        "Thamacho formerly called
                                        Tangut."

              turenti                 The island of Ternate.
              thedori                 The island of Tidore.

              mansi catan             The province of Manji in
                                        Southern China referred to by
                                        Marco Polo (37).

              magnus can              The Great Khan. Kublai-kaan
                                        from Marco Polo (38).

              Caraib(?)               This word appears above
                                        samathra and is difficult to
                                        read. If the word is Caraib
                                        it is misplaced on the map.
                                        The Caraibs are the people of
                                        the Caribbean.

              bergi                   Bargu or Bergia from Marco
                                        Polo, in Northern China (39).

              culuacoma               Calvacania (Mexico) discovered
                                        by Hernando Cortes.

              badan                   The island of Banda.

              mutil mare              Two islands mentioned by
                                        Magellan's chronicler,
                                        Antonio Pigafetta-Mutir and
                                        Mare, near the island of
                                        Tidore (40).

              MARE SUR SIN            Sinus Magnus--the Great Gulf
                                        from Ptolemy. On his 1523
                                        globe, Schoner stretched the
                                        India Superior peninsula
                                        (Indochina) to include Mexico
                                        and S. America, and enlarged
                                        the Sinus Magnus to become
                                        the Pacific Ocean, labelling
                                        the enlarged gulf SINUS
                                        MAGNUS EOV[um] MARE DE SUR
                                        (Eovum Mare was a Ptolemaic
                                        term meaning "the Eastern
                                        Sea") (41).

              messigo                 Mexico.

              Quinsay themistetam     The text of De Orbis Situ says:
              themisan                  "Its modern name is
                                        Themistetam, or Tenostica,
                                        formerly Quinsay, which
                                        Odoric calls Themisan."
                                        A city in Southern China,
                                        perhaps Hangzhou. Marco
                                        Polo's account refers to
                                        Hangzhou as Kinsay (elsewhere
                                        Quinsay). The Mexican city
                                        of Temistitan (Tenochtitlan)
                                        was thought by Franciscus
                                        to be Quinsay.

The numbers 1, 2 and 3 appear on the map, above the Equator and east
of the central meridian. A key is given on the Southern Continent.

Central &     america                 South America.
S. America    florida                 Florida.
              fretum magellanicum     Magellan Strait.

              baragua                 Veragua from Columbus's 4th
                                        voyage. Now Veraguas, Panama.

              urabe                   Gulf of Uraba.

              darien                  Gulf of Darien or Isthmus of
                                        Darien--modern day Panama.

              catigora                Catigara, the most easterly
                                        seaport of Ptolemy's known
                                        world.

              dabaiba                 Dabaiba River. Also the name of
                                        a god and a temple.

              parias                  Gulf of Paria in S. America
                                        opposite the island of
                                        Trinidad.

              fortunate               Canary Islands.

              ylandia                 Iceland.

              hispaniola              Hispaniola, an island
                                        discovered by Columbus in the
                                        Caribbean.

              sypangu                 Japan. Johannes Ruysch accepted
                                        that Cipango (or Sypangu) and
                                        Hispaniola were one and the
                                        same, as explained in the
                                        legend of his 1507 world map
                                         (42).

Southern      hec pars ore is nobis   This part of the world revealed
Continent     detecta existit           to us to exist yet unknown.
              nondum cognita
              1. L salso              Lake Chalco.

              2. Zuayton              Zai-tun, a port in China
                                        mentioned by Marco Polo.

              3. Saba Symba jamnia    Zaba, from Ptolemy which he
                                        placed on the Malay Peninsula
                                        (43). Ziamba from Marco
                                        Polo--Champa (44). Jambi, also
                                        from Marco Polo in Central
                                        Sumatra (45).


The caption "hec pars ore is nobis detecta existit nondum cognita" appearing on the southern continent on the map attributed to Franciscus in Lelewel's atlas does not appear in either the text of De Orbis Situ or on the double hemispheres map. On the latter the caption reads "hec pars ore navigationibus nondum is nobis detecta existit"" Both captions have the same spelling error--ore for world instead of orb or orbis. The other names and notations on the Lelewel atlas map can be found in the text of De Orbis Situ, and/or on the double hemispheres map, with two exceptions; and there are some spelling differences. The exceptions are Java and Darien. Java appears on the map in Lelewel's atlas in its normal Latin form--Iaua. Neither Java nor Iaua are mentioned in the text. Darien, in Central America, is named on the map in Lelewel's atlas but not in the text. Dacienses, which could be a misspelling of Darienses, is in the text.

Some examples of spelling differences are:

--The Chinese port of Zai-tun, mentioned by Marco Polo, appears on the map as Zuayton and in the text as Zoyton;

--The Gulf of Uraba, on the north coast of South America, appears as Urabe on the map in Lelewel's atlas and Urabenses in the text; and

--The name Mon Gallia is spread over both maps of the double hemispheres while Mongolia is the name used on the map in Lelewel's atlas.

It is clear that the map appearing in Lelewel's atlas attributed to Franciscus Monachus is not a redrawing of the of the double hemispheres map on an oval projection, as Karrow concluded. (46) There are differences in geography, names and notations. It could be a reproduction of the Carondelet globe as contended by Harrisse, (47) but it is doubtful whether all the names and notations on the map are from the text of the treatise, as he thought. One notation that definitely does not appear in the text is the caption on the southern continent. The map is unlikely to be a creation of Joachim Lelewel falsely attributed by him to Franciscus Monachus. It is more likely to be a reconstruction by Lelewel of a work by Franciscus Monachus.

JOACHIM LELEWEL

Joachim Lelewel (1786-1861) had a long standing and deeply serious interest in cartography and historical geography. He is considered to be one of the most influential Polish geographers of the nineteenth century. (48) He created more than 250 maps and had a large collection of other cartographers' maps and globes, which he donated to the University of Stefan Batory, now the University of Vilnius in Lithuania. (49) Unfortunately Vilnius and its institutions were victims of the Second World War and much of the collection is lost. (50) Lelewel's objective in Geographie du Moyen Age was not to produce an atlas containing copies of other people's maps, but to write a history of cartography. The role of the atlas accompanying the five volume history was to illustrate his ideas. He reconstructed maps to help with comparisons and explanations. Former Superintendent of the Map Room, British Museum, R.A. Skelton said Lelewel worked "with demonic energy and near fanaticism (and) provided his atlas with the most penetrating and complete accompanying text, to which the map reproductions are subsidiary." (51)

It is not clear why the map attributed to Franciscus Monachus is on an oval projection in the atlas. Most likely it is because Lelewel wanted to make it easier to compare it with the two other works appearing next to it--"Benedetto Bordone 1521. Universale in suo isolario" (52) and "Sebastianus Munster ingelheimensis 1544" (53)--both of which are also world maps on oval projections. The map attributed to Sebastian Munster is a reconstruction by Lelewel. The original is on an oval projection and has the Americas in the west and the Pacific Ocean in the east. Lelewel's version has the Americas in the east, with Africa and Europe in the west--the same positioning as the map attributed to Franciscus which appears above it. Bordone's original is also on an oval projection. Shirley and Harrisse give the date as 1528 not 1521. (54) The version in Lelewel's atlas is a reconstruction, containing many names and notations which do not appear on the original. In his reconstruction Lelewel has made a mistake, swapping the names of the winds, maestro and greco, at the top of the map. (55)

It is highly unlikely that a man of Lelewel's learning and stature would falsely attribute a work in his atlas. Most likely the map appearing in his atlas attributed to Franciscus Monachus is a copy of the lobe sent by Franciscus with De Orbis Situ to his patron, Jean de Carondelet, as Harrisse thought. (56) The geography of the small woodcut double hemispheres world map is very similar to the map in Lelewel's atlas. There are some differences but the affinity is strong. If the double hemispheres map is an abridged version of the globe, as Harrisse determined, (57) then it is reasonable to conclude that the map in Lelewel's atlas is another, perhaps more refined, copy. It is not known who provided the names and notations on the oval projection. In all likelihood some came from Franciscus and others were contributed by Lelewel. (58)

Whatever their source they have helped shed light on the geography, although they have not been able to clarify an assertion made by historian George Collingridge in his book Discovery of Australia (59) Collingridge said, when discussing the map in De Orbis Situ: "On this small and apparently insignificant mappamundi, New Guinea is represented in size equal to Sumatra, which in itself is approximately correct; but, and which is more important, its periplus is also depicted, showing that Torres' Strait was known before that navigator wended his way through its waters. Nevertheless, in this map the Australian continent is left out." (60) Sumatra is named Samathra Taprobana on the map in Lelewel's atlas but is not named on the double hemispheres map. There are several names of islands east of Java, on the map attributed to Franciscus in Lelewel's atlas. If New Guinea appears on this map it is not named. It is not possible to say with any degree of confidence that any of the islands represented on the double hemispheres map, and the map attributed to Franciscus in Lelewel's atlas, is New Guinea.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the map attributed to Franciscus Monachus in Lelewel's atlas is not a facsimile of a map made by Franciscus. It is most likely a copy made by Lelewel of the Carondelet globe. It is not known who contributed the names and notations, but it is likely some came from Franciscus and others were added by Lelewel. One can only guess as to why the caption on the southern continent differs from that on the double hemisphere world map. Whatever the explanation, the meaning is the same--the continent has not been entirely explored or made known.

REFERENCES

BROCK, P., STANLEY, J.D. & WROBEL, P., (eds.), (2006), Nation and History: Polish Historians from the Enlightenment to the Second World War, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

COLLINGRIDGE, G., (1895), The Discovery of Australia, Hayes Brothers, Sydney.

HARRISSE, H., (1892), The Discovery of North America; a Critical Documentary, and Historic Investigation, with an Essay on the Early Cartography of the New World, Including Descriptions of Two Hundred and Fifty Maps or Globes Existing or Lost, Constructed Before the Year 1536, Henry Stevens and Son, London.

HEWITT, J., (2010), "The Terrestrial Sphere of 'the Spheres' Tapestries", The Globe, 64:27-48.

KARROW, R., (1993), Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps, Speculum Orbis Press for the Newbury Library, Chicago.

KROGT, P. van der, (1993), "Early Globe Production in the Low Countries (ca.1526-1551)", in Globi Neerlandici: the Production of Globes in the Low Countries, HES Publishers, Utrecht.

LELEWEL, J., (1850-57), Geographie du Moyen Age, 5v. + atlas, Ve et J. Pilliet, Brussels.

MAJOR, R.H., (ed.), (1859), Early Voyages to Terra Australis Now Called Australia, Hakluyt Society, London.

MARSDEN, W., (ed.), (1818), The Travels of Marco Polo, London, re-ed. with an introduction by John Masefield, London, J.M. Dent, 1908 (re-issued 1967).

MIKOS, Michael J., (1984), "Joachim Lelewel: Polish Scholar and Map Collector", Map Collector, 26:20-24.

MONACHUS, F., (n.d.), De Orbis Situ ac Descriptione ..., Martin Lempereur, Antwerp. Reprint, (1565), unmodified text without map, Joannes Withagius, Antwerp.

NORDENSKIOLD, A.E., (1897), Periplus: an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions, Norstedt & Soner, Stockholm.

--, (1973), Facsimile-Atlas to the Early History of Cartography with Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries, Dover Publications Reprint, New York.

OSLEY, A.S., (1969), Mercator: A monograph on the lettering of maps, etc. in the 16th century Netherlands, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York.

PELLIOT, P., (1959), Notes on Marco Polo, Paris.

PIGAFETTA, A. (1969), Magellan's Voyage: a narrative account of the first circumnavigation, R.A. Skelton (trans.), Dover Publications, New York.

SHIRLEY, R., (2001), The Mapping of the World--Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700, Early World Press, Riverside, Conn.

SKELTON, R.A., (1972), Maps: A Historical Survey of Their Study and Collecting, Uni. Chicago Press, Chicago.

TAYLOR, A., (2004), The World of Gerard Mercator the Man who Revolutionised Geography, Harper Collins, London.

WIEDER, F.C. (ed.) (1925), "The Globe of Johannes Schoner, 1523-1524", Monumenta Cartographica, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, v.1, pp.1-4 & pl.1-3.

WOODWARD, D. (ed.) (2007), The History of Cartography, v.3, pt.1, 'Cartography in the European Renaissance', University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

YULE, Sir H., (1921), The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Murray, London.

NOTES

(1) R. Karrow, Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and their Maps, Speculum Orbis Press for the Newbury Library, Chicago, 1993, p.407.

(2) Ibid, p.407.

(3) A. Taylor, The World of Gerard Mercator the Man who Revolutionised Geography, Harper Collins Publishers, London, 2004, p.194.

(4) A.S. Osley, Mercator: A monograph on the lettering of maps, etc in the 16th century Netherlands, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York, 1969, p.20.

(5) Karrow, op. cit., p.179.

(6) See the reference in A.E. Nordenskiold, Facsimile-Atlas to the Early History of Cartography with Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries, Dover Publications Reprint, New York, 1973, p.126b.

(7) Joannes Carondeletus in the text of De Orbis Situ....

(8) De Orbis Situ ac descriptione ad Reuerendiss D archiepiscopum Fanormitanum, Francisci, Monachi ordinis Franciscani, epistola sane qua luculenta. In qua Ptolemaei, caeterorumq(ue) superior geographorum hallucination refellitur, aliaq(ue) praeterea de recens inuentis terries, mari, insulis. De ditione Papae Ioannis. De situ Paradisi & dimensione miliarium adproportione graduum coeli, praeclara & memoratu digna recensentur. Original undated. Reprinted Joannes Withagius, Antwerp, 1565, unmodified, but without the map.

(9) See Karrow, op. cit., p.408.

(10) R. Shirley, The Mapping of the World-Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700, Early World Press, Riverside, Conn., 2001, p.61.

(11) H. Harrisse, The Discovery of North America; a Critical, Documentary, and Historic Investigation, with an Essay on the Early Cartography of the New World, Including Descriptions of Two Hundred and Fifty Maps or Globes Existing or Lost, Constructed Before the Year 1536, Henry Stevens and Son, London, 1892, p.549.

(12) P. van der Krogt, "Early Globe Production In The Low Countries (ca.1526-1551)", in Globi Neerlandici: the Production of Globes in the Low Countries, HES Publishers, Utrecht, 1993, at p.37.

(13) See Harrisse, op. cit., p.546.

(14) See Harrisse, op. cit., p.546.

(15) R.H. Major (ed.), Early Voyages to Terra Australis Now Called Australia, Hakluyt Society, London, 1859, p.lxiii.

(16) J. Lelewel, Geographie du Moyen Age, Ve et J. Pilliet, Brussels, 1850-1857.

(17) Ibid., plate XLVI.

(18) State Library of NSW, call number Q909.9A/23

(19) Karrow, op. cit., p.408.

(20) Harrisse, op. cit., p.549 (fn.526).

(21) Nordenskiold, op. cit., p.90b.

(22) Nordenskiold, op. cit., p.102b.

(23) Nordenskiold, op. cit., p.102b.

(24) A.E. Nordenskiold, Periplus: an essay on the early history of charts and sailing-directions, Norstedt & Soner, Stockholm, 1897, p.153.

(25) A copy of Benedetto Bordone's world map appears in R. Shirley, op. cit., plate 55. Shirley gives the date as 1528. Harrisse, op. cit., p.559, also gives the date as 1528.

(26) Ibid., plate 67.

(27) The other maps are: "COSMOGRAPHORUM MEDIIAEVI1370-1470 insularu Britannicarum typus"; "TABULA CONTIENTALIS topographiam hispaniarum exhibens per Cosmographos medii aevi ante 1470 elaborata"; "HEMISPHAERIUM GLOBI a SCHONER karlostadio, Bambergae 1520fabricati"; and "P. APIANUS R. GEMMA FRESIUS leisnicensis 1540"

(28) See article by J. Hewitt, "The Terrestrial Sphere of 'the Spheres' Tapestries", The Globe, 64(2010):27 at 33.

(29) See Harrisse, op. cit., plate XVII.

(30) See Harrisse, op. cit., plate XXII.

(31) H. Cortes, Five Letters 1519-1526, Routledge Curzon, Oxford, 2005, p.154.

(32) William Marsden (ed.), The Travels of Marco Polo, London, 1818; re-ed. with an introduction by John Masefield, J.M. Dent, London, 1908 (re-issued 1967), p.318.

(33) A copy of the map, Ptolemaeus Romae 1490, showing the island of Zaba, appears in A.E. Nordenskiold, Facsimile Atlas, op. cit, plate 1.

(34) P. Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo, Paris, 1959, v.1, p.225.

(35) Ibid., p.225.

(36) Sir Henry Yule (ed.), The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Murray, London, 1921, v.2, p.43.

(37) See Pelliot, op. cit., p.178.

(38) See Marsden (ed.), op. cit., p.13.

(39) For these names see Pelliot, op. cit., p.19.

(40) A. Pigafetta, Magellan's Voyage, Dover Publications, New York, 1969, p.121.

(41) F.C. Wieder (ed.), Monumenta Cartographica, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1925, v.1, pp.1-4, "The Globe of Johannes Schoner, 1523-1524", and plates 1-3.

(42) See Shirley, op. cit., plate 29.

(43) See note 31.

(44) See Pelliot, op. cit., p.83.

(45) See note 33.

(46) See note 19.

(47) See note 20.

(48) P. Brock, J.D. Stanley & P. Wrobel (eds.), Nation And History: Polish Historians from the Enlightenment to the Second World War, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2006, p.52.

(49) M.J. Mikos, "Joachim Lelewel: Polish Scholar and Map Collector", Map Collector, 26(1984):23.

(50) Ibid., p.24

(51) R.A. Skelton, Maps: A Historical Survey of Their Study and Collecting, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1972, p.53.

(52) See note 25.

(53) See note 26.

(54) See note 25.

(55) See note 25.

(56) See note 20.

(57) See note 20.

(58) Franciscus Monachus' double hemisphere world map, ca.1527, contains eighteen place names and a caption on the southern continent. If this map is an abridged version of the Carondelet globe, it follows that the globe most likely also contained names and notations. Lelewel added names and notations to other maps in his atlas e.g. "HEMISPHAERIUM GLOBI a JOHANNE SCHONER karlostadio, Bambergae 1520fabricati" and "P. APIANUSR. GEMMA FRESIUS leisnicensis 1540". See note 27.

(59) G. Collingridge, Discovery of Australia, Hayes Brothers, Sydney, 1895.

(60) Ibid., p.162.

John Hewitt [1]

[1] John Hewitt is a retired corporate lawyer living in Sydney. He was educated at St. Patrick's College and Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. He is an independent researcher and a member of the Australian and New Zealand Map Society. Contact johnhewitt48@optusnet.com. au.
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