A survey of the marine bivalves and gastropods of Shelly Beach, Port Macquarie, on the north coast of New South Wales, Australia.
Australia has a rich marine mollusc fauna of global significance (Ponder et al. 2002). The tropical and sub-tropical coastal waters of northern Australia have high species diversity and form part of the extensive Indo-West Pacific bioregion, stretching from the east coast of Africa to Hawaii, while the temperate coastal waters of southern Australia support an ancient Palaeo-Austral fauna with fewer species but high levels of endemism (Ponder and Wells 1998; Ponder et al. 2002; Wilson 2010). Transitional or overlap zones of warm temperate waters along the east and west coasts of Australia contain a mix of southern and northern elements as well as some local endemics (Ponder and Wells 1998; Ponder et al. 2002; Reid and Williams 2004; Beechey 2012). The New South Wales (NSW) north coast lies in the heart of the eastern overlap zone (Ponder et al. 2002; Wilson 2010; Beechey 2012) and is an interesting area for the study of marine molluscs. The results of a field study of the marine bivalves and gastropods of a single site on the NSW north coast is presented here as an example of the region's marine mollusc fauna and to help promote a wider appreciation of this fauna's diversity and significance.
Study Area and Methods
Shelly Beach (31[degrees]27'S, 152[degrees]56'E) (Fig. 1) is located at Port Macquarie in Biripi Aboriginal Country, 310 km north-east of Sydney on the lower north coast of NSW, Australia. It is situated in the northern part of the Manning Shelf marine and coastal bioregion, which extends from Stockton (north of the Hunter River) to north of Nambucca Heads, and the northern part of the Central Eastern marine and coastal province, which extends from Lake Illawarra near Wollongong to Coffs Harbour (Commonwealth of Australia 2006). The beach is about 1200 m long and includes areas of sandy beach, cobble/boulder beach and intertidal rock platform with an underlying geology of serpentinite, basalt and dolerite (Och et al. 2007). A near-shore rocky reef is located towards the southern end of the beach. Shelly Beach is within the Port Macquarie urban area but the land immediately adjacent to the beach supports littoral rainforest, part of which is protected within Sea Acres Nature Reserve.
Observations on the marine bivalves and gastropods at Shelly Beach were made during diurnal site visits on 10 occasions between December 2009 and February 2015, predominantly during the austral summer months but also including visits in autumn, winter and spring (Appendix 1). Field survey methods comprised visual examination of accumulated deposits of shell material (molluscan death assemblages) (Fig. 2), beachcombing for fresh shells along the strandline, searches of intertidal habitats for live animals during low tide and investigation of shallow sub-tidal areas by snorkelling. No sorting of shell grit under magnification was done to identify micro-molluscs, so that the field survey covered only species of about 5 mm or larger. Shelled species were identified by reference to Dakin and Bennett (1987), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994), Jansen (2000), Grove (2011), Beechey (2012), Beechey (Australian Museum, Sydney) (pers. comm.) and communication with other experts (see acknowledgements). Sea slug specimens were photographed in situ and were identified by Rudman (Australian Museum) (pers. comm.). Reference was also made to the Australian Museum collection database (data supply April 2014) and to data from a 2008 survey by Smith (2009) for records of additional species from the Shelly Beach study area.
The broad habitat preference and distribution in Australia of each species were determined by reference to Lamprell and Whitehead (1992), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994), Brodie et al. (1997), Lamprell and Healey (1998), Malaquias and Reid (2008), Grove (2011), Beechey (2012) and the Atlas of Living Australia (2014). Four habitat categories were used: soft substrates (sand or mud), rocky substrates, pelagic, and other (e.g. attached to other fauna). Categories used for distribution in Australia were northern (tropical/subtropical), southern (temperate), eastern overlap zone or cosmopolitan. The relative abundance of species detected during the field survey was also recorded. Categories used were abundant (recorded in large numbers on most visits), common (regularly recorded in small to moderate numbers), uncommon (irregularly recorded in small numbers) or rare (three or fewer specimens recorded over duration of survey).
Results and Discussion
A total of 101 species (21 bivalves and 80 gastropods) was recorded over the duration of the field study (Table 1). Nine species were recorded as abundant, 28 as common, 31 as uncommon and 33 as rare. Abundant species included Donax deltoides, Cellana tramoserica, Turbo undulatus, Austrocochlea porcata, Bankivia fasciata and Nerita atrementosa. An additional 41 species from Shelly Beach were identified from secondary sources. The final total of 142 species (Table 1) comprised 34 bivalves (24 families) and 108 gastropods (51 families). The most speciose families were the Cypraeidae (seven species), Ranellidae (seven), Muricidae (seven) and Trochidae (six). Thirty-four species from the present field survey (seven bivalves and 27 gastropods) were additional to the list of species previously known from Shelly Beach (Smith 2009; Australian Museum data).
The present field study did not include micro-molluscs, with the smallest shells identified being Cantharidella picturata (5-7 mm), Nodilittorina unifasciata (6 mm) and Bullina lineata (7.5 mm). The survey by Smith (2009) also documented only species 5 mm or greater in size. Sampling and sorting of shell grit under magnification would be expected to identify a range of micro-mollusc species of less than 5 mm size at Shelly Beach. Marine micro-molluscan fauna known from within 20 km of Shelly Beach include members of the Anabathridae, Anatomidae, Pyramidellidae, Rissoidae and Skeneidae (Australian Museum data).
Information on broad distribution and habitats of the Shelly Beach fauna identified in this study is included in Table 1 and summarised in Fig. 3. Southern (temperate) species dominated the bivalve species diversity, with a mix of sandy and rocky habitat species including Anadara trapezia, Donax deltoides and Bassinia pachyphylla (sandy) and Barbatia pistachia, Trichomya hirsutus and Anomia trigonopsis (rocky). The gastropod species diversity was also dominated by southern species, of which most were rocky shore species including Cellana tramoserica, Turbo undulatus, Austrocochlea porcata and Bembicium nanum. Northern (sub-tropical) fauna comprised about 20% of total recorded species diversity at Shelly Beach and included Scaeochlamys livida, Vepricardium multispinosum, the seven cowries, Natica gualtieriana, Cronia aurantiaca and Hydatina physis.
Over half (57%) of the species recorded at Shelly Beach are Australian endemics. Most of these are temperate species from southern Australia and include Trichomya hirsutus, Glycymeris grayana, Codakia rugifera, Haliotis rubra, Turbo torquatus, Austrolittorina unifasciata and Chicoreus denudatus. Some of these temperate endemic species form part of the ancient Palaeo-Austral fauna. Williams et al. (2003), for example, suggested that Austrolittorina species may have been present on the shores of Gondwana since the Cretaceous. Another suite of species is endemic or largely restricted to the eastern Australian overlap zone. This group makes up about 12% of the recorded Shelly Beach fauna and includes Turbo militaris, Nodilittorina pyramidalis, Tylospira scutulata, Opalia ballinensis, Mitra cookii and Rostanga arbutus.
Several species recorded in this study represent extensions of known range. The record of Austrocochlea concamerata (Fig. 4) is a 150 km northerly extension from the previous limit at Port Stephens (Beechey 2012) and the record of Nassarius gaudiosus (Fig. 4) is a 150 km southerly range extension from the previous limit at Woolgoolga north of Coffs Harbour (Beechey 2012). Both species were rarely recorded at Shelly Beach, with only two A. concamerata and one N. gaudiosus shells found over the duration of the study.
Many of the species found at Shelly Beach were recorded only as dead shells, either as part of death assemblages or as fresh shells on the strandline. Examples include Bassina pachyphylla, Pyrazus ebineus, Tonna cerevisina, Janthina janthina, Opalia australis and Cymbiola magnifica. Molluscan death assemblages typically contain notably higher species richness than the local live community at a site, due to time-averaging of species richness (i.e. live species appearing and disappearing from the local community as environmental conditions vary over time but all persisting in the death assemblage) as well as post-mortem transport of shells from nearby different habitats by waves and currents (Kidwell 2002; Warwick and Light 2002; Smith 2008). Sampling of death assemblages can therefore provide a more complete species inventory than one-off live-sampling and can be an efficient tool for assessing regional species diversity for near-shore habitats (Warwick and Light 2002; Smith 2008). Conversely, identification of non-shelled molluscs such as nudibranchs necessarily relies on live survey.
A statewide assessment of marine intertidal molluscan death assemblages by Smith (2009) found the Port Macquarie area to have a relatively low species diversity of near-coastal marine molluscs compared to neighboring areas to both the north and south, and he conjectured that this might be related to a low amount of near-shore reef habitat resulting in absence or scarcity of some rocky habitat species in local death assemblages. Observations at Shelly Beach over an extended period and including live surveys added substantially to the list of 88 species compiled by Smith (2009) in a single two hour search, with many of these being rocky habitat species. Nevertheless, Smith's (2009) assessment of Shelly Beach as relatively depauperate remains broadly valid. The 142 species for Shelly Beach documented in this study can be compared, for example, to over 330 species at Mulloway Headland near Coffs Harbour (based on 40 surveys over a six year period) (Smith 2009).
Species were added over the duration of the present field survey, including two species found only in February 2015, and it is likely that further survey effort at Shelly Beach would identify additional species. The Australian Museum has records of approximately 290 marine bivalve and gastropod species found within 20 km of Shelly Beach (between about Point Plomer to the north and Laurieton to the south) (Australian Museum data), of which 215 are additional to the present study. Some of these are micro-molluscs not covered in the present study while others are pelagic, deepsea or estuarine species not likely to be often found at Shelly Beach. It is also noteworthy that 51 species (14 bivalves and 37 gastropods) recorded in the field survey component of the present study were not known from Australian Museum records to occur within 20 km of Shelly Beach, including several large and relatively common species such as Mactra contraria, Donax deltoides, Scutus antipodes, Turbo torquatus and Astralium tentoriiformis. These two points demonstrate the significant reference value of public museum collections, amassed over a period of greater than a century, and the need for ongoing work to maintain and continue building these collections.
Some of the interesting marine molluscs found at Shelly Beach are illustrated. Information on general biology is from Lamprell and Whitehead (1992), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994), Brodie et al. (1997), Lamprell and Healey (1998), Rudman (1999), Rudman (2002), Rudman (2003), Grove (2011) and Beechey (2012). Bassina pachyphylla and Glycymeris grayana (Fig. 5) are both endemic, living in littoral sands in south-eastern Australia. They each have distinctively patterned shells, the former rusty-brown in colour with paler radiating bands and the latter with reddish-brown zig-zag lines on a pale background. Vepricardium multispinosum (Fig. 6) is found in sandy beaches and sub-tidal areas in the Indo-West Pacific. It is uncommon in NSW, occurring south to about Sydney, and in the Shelly Beach survey was represented by a single worn shell. Scutus antipodes (Fig. 7) is a striking-looking animal with a large jet-black body and a rectangular white shell partly hidden under mantle folds. It is common on rocky shores of southern Australia and New Zealand, hiding under rocks by day and emerging at night to feed on algae. Turbo torquatus (Fig. 8) is one of the largest gastropods occurring at Shelly Beach, with a shell size of up to 110 mm. It is an Australian endemic with two disjunct populations, one in NSW south to Green Cape and one from eastern South Australia to Western Australia. Quaternary fossils from Victoria indicate that it had a continuous range around southern Australia in the recent geological past. Bankivia fasciata (Fig. 9), another Australian endemic, lives in subtidal sands on ocean beaches from south-east Queensland to Tasmania and South Australia and has a wide variation in shell colour and pattern. Nerita atrementosa (Fig. 10) (found in Australia, New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands) and Bembicium nanum (Fig. 11) (endemic) are part of a suite of algal-grazing gastropod species common in the intertidal zone of rocky shores in south-eastern Australia. Cypraea erosa (Fig. 12) is a widespread IndoWest Pacific cowrie found from east Africa to Hawaii and it is the most southerly occurring of the tropical cowries in eastern Australia, occurring as far south as Eden. It has a distinctive thickened rim marked with vertical streaks. Cymatium parthenopeum (Fig. 13) is widely distributed in subtropical and warm temperate seas of both hemispheres and in Australia is found in temperate waters from the NSW north coast to south-west Western Australia. Live animals have a hairy periostracum and prey on bivalves including oysters. Opalia australis (Fig. 14), another endemic, lives amongst anemones in the intertidal and shallow subtidal areas of rocky shores of southern Australia, from the NSW north coast to south-west Western Australia. The carnivorous volutes Amoria undulata and Amoria zebra (Fig. 15) (both endemic) live in intertidal and sub-tidal sandy habitats. Amoria undulata is a temperate southern species, with a discontinuous distribution from southern Queensland to Western Australia while A. zebra is an eastern overlap zone species, found from north Queensland south to about Sydney. Amoria zebra shells were commonly found in death assemblages at Shelly Beach while A. undulata was scarce. Hydatina physis (front cover) is found throughout the tropics including northern Australia. Live specimens were most commonly seen sub-tidally at Shelly Beach. The thin fragile shell is too small to contain the fleshy body. Umbraculum umbraculum (Fig. 16) is an unusual-looking animal with a body covered in large pustules and topped by a saucer-shaped shell. It is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific region, extending into southern Australian waters. Dolabrifera brazieri (Fig. 17) is another unusual-looking animal, covered in large soft tubercles. It is a species of sea hare found in south-eastern Australia and New Zealand and grazes on algal films on rocks. Dendrodoris nigra (Fig. 18) is usually black or dark grey in colour and is widespread in the IndoWest Pacific, extending south to about Sydney on the Australian east coast. It can be common in the intertidal zone where it feeds on sponges. Rostanga arbutus (Fig. 19), an eastern overlap zone endemic, is another sponge-feeding nudibranch. It favours red and orange sponges and appears to retain the sponge colour pigments in its skin, providing the animal with cryptic colouration while it feeds.
Marine bivalves and gastropods are an important part of near-coastal marine ecosystems and can be a useful indicator for total macro-invertebrate species diversity on rocky intertidal shores (Smith 2005). This study provides an example illustrating the significant diversity and biogeographical interest of the near-coastal marine bivalve and gastropod fauna of the NSW north coast.
Michael J Murphy
'Blackbird Grange' 2 Rundle Street Coonabarabran NSW 2357
Jess, Sue, Nicola, Sam, Philby, Callum, Briannon and Erin Murphy helped with field work at Shelly Beach. Steve Dean, Winston Ponder, Simon Grove and particularly Des Beechey and Bill Rudman provided assistance with species identifications. Steve Smith provided a species list for Shelly Beach from his 2008 survey (Smith 2009) and Mandy Reid and Janet Waterhouse provided information on specimens from the Australian Museum malacology collection database. An anonymous reviewer provided constructive comments which improved the final paper. All photographs are by the author and show specimens from Shelly Beach.
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Received 31 July 2014; accepted 16 April 2015
Appendix 1. Shelly Beach field survey dates. Sprmg Summer Autumn Winter 4, 5 Sep 2010 20 Dec 2009 19 May 2011 6, 7 Jul 2010 29 Jan-2 Feb 2011 30 Jun-1 Jul 2012 30 Jan-4 Feb 2013 21 Jul 2014 18 Feb 2014 5, 8 Feb 2015 Table 1. Marine bivalve and gastropod species recorded at Shelly Beach, Port Macquarie. Taxonomy follows Lamprell and Whitehead (1992) and Lamprell and Healey (1998) for bivalves and Beechey (2012) for gastropods, with reference to Brodie et al. (1997), Jansen (2000), Malaquias and Reid (2008), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994) and Atlas of Living Australia (2014) for taxa not covered by Beechey. * = record from Australian Museum Malacology collection database. # = 2008 record from Smith (2009) survey provided by Smith (pers. comm.). Habitat (Hab): R = rocky, S = soft sediment (sand or mud), P = pelagic, O = other. Distribution (Dist): S = southern, N = northern, E = eastern overlap, C = cosmopolitan. Local status (Loc stat): A = abundant, C = common, U = uncommon, R = rare. Family Scientific name Common name Hab Bivalvia Arcidae Anadara trapezia Sydney Cockle S (Deshayes, 1840) Barbatia pistachia Hairy Ark-shell R (Lamarck, 1819) Glycymeridae Glycymeris grayana Gray's S (Dunker, 1857) Dog-cockle Mytilidae Gregariella splendida R (Dunker, 1857) # Trichomya hirsutus Hairy Mussel R (Lamarck, 1819) Xenostrobus securis Little Brown S (Lamarck, 1819) * Mussel Pteriidae Pinctada fucata Akoya Pearl S (Gould, 1850) Oyster Malleidae Vulsella vulsella Sponge Finger O (Linnaeus, 1758) # Oyster Pectinidae Pecten fumatus Southern S Reeve, 1852 Scallop Scaeochlamys livida Scaly Scallop R (Lamarck, 1819) Spondylidae Spondylus tenellus Slender O Reeve, 1856 # Thorny-Oyster Anomiidae Anomia trigonopsis Jingle Shell R Hutton, 1877 # Monia deliciosa S Iredale, 1936 # Limidae Lima nimbifer Cloud R Iredale, 1924 File-shell Ostreidae Saccostrea glomerata Sydney Rock R (Gould, 1850) Oyster Chamidae Chama fibula Brooch R Reeve, 1846 Jewel-box Galeommatidae Galeommatidae -- species 1 # Carditidae Cardita excavata Excavated S Deshayes, 1854 False-cockle Cardiidae Acrosterigma S kerslakae Healy & Lamprell 1992 # Acrosterigma Cockle species S species 2 Vepricardium Many-spined S multispinosum Heart Cockle (Sowerby, 1838) Hemidonacidae Hemidonax dactylus S Hedley, 1923 # Mactridae Mactra contraria Moon Pipi S Reeve, 1854 Tellinidae Tellina botanica Tellen species S (Hedley, 1918) Donacidae Donax brazieri Brazier's Wedge S Smith, 1892 Shell Donax deltoides Common Pipi S Lamarck, 1818 Veneridae Bassina pachyphylla Faintly-frilled S (Jonas, 1839) Venus Irus crenatus Boring Venus R (Lamarck, 1818) # Shell Irus cumingii Cuming's R (Deshayes, 1854) Boring-venus Corbulidae Corbula coxi Basket-shell S Pilsbry, 1897 # Hiatellidae Hiatella australis Australian R Lamarck, 1818 # Rock-borer Pholadidae Pholas australasiae Australian R Sowerby, 1849 Angel-wing Cleidothaeridae Cleidothaerus albidus White R (Lamarck, 1819) # Rock-clam Lucinidae Codakia rugifera Ridged Lucine S (Reeve, 1835) Gastropoda Nacellidae Cellana tramoserica Variegated R (Holten, 1802) Limpet Patellidae Scutellastra chapmani Star Limpet R (Tenison Woods, 1876) Scutellastra peronii Scaly Limpet R (Blainville, 1825) Lottiidae Notoacmea petterdi Petterd's R (Tenison Woods, Limpet 1876) # Patelloida Lateral-striped R latistrigata Limpet (Angas, 1865) # Patelloida mufria R (Hedley, 1915) # Haliotidae Haliotis Reddish-rayed R coccoradiata Abalone Reeve, 1846 Haliotis rubra Blacklip R Leach, 1814 Abalone Fisurellidae Amblychilepas Keyhole Limpet R nigrita (Sowerby, 1834) Montfortula rugosa Slit Limpet R (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Diodora lineata Lined Keyhole R (Sowerby, 1835) Limpet Scutus antipodes Black Elephant R Montfort, 1810 Snail Tugali parmophoidea Parmophoid R (Quoy & Gaimard, Notch-limpet 1834) Turbinidae Turbo torquatus Sydney Turban R Gmelin, 1791 Shell Turbo undulatus Green Turban R Solander, 1786 Shell Turbo militaris Military Turban R Reeve, 1848 Shell Astralium Tent shell R tentoriiformis (Jonas, 1845) Trochidae Austrocochlea Zebra R porcata Periwinkle (Adams, 1851) Austrocochlea Wavy Periwinkle R concamerata (Wood, 1828) Herpetopoma aspersa Speckled R (Philippi, 1846) Top-shell Cantharidella Painted R picturata (Adams Kelp-shell & Angas, 1864) Phasianotrochus Kelp Shell R eximius (Perry, 1811) Bankivia fasciata Banded Sand S (Menke, 1830) Shell Neritidae Nerita atrementosa Black R Reeve, 1855 Periwinkle Turritellidae Gazameda gunnii Gunn's S (Reeve, 1849) Screw-shell Batillariidae Pyrazus ebeninus Hercules Club S (Bruguiere, 1792) Mud Whelk Batillaria australis Australian S (Quoy & Gaimard, Mud Whelk 1834) Littorinidae Bembicium nanum Striped-mouth R (Lamarck, 1822) Conniwink Austrolittorina Blue Periwinkle R unifasciata (Gray, 1826) Nodilittorina Pyramid R pyramidalis Periwinkle (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) Hydrobiidae Tatea huonensis S (Tenison Woods, 1876) * Struthiolariidae Tylospira scutulata Ostrich Foot S (Gmelin, 1791) Shell Hipponicidae Antisabia aff. Horse Hoof R foliacea (Quoy & Limpet Gaimard, 1835) Malluvium devotum Devoted O (Hedley, 1904) Bonnet-limpet Calyptraeidae Sigapatella hedleyi Hedley's O Smith, 1915 Shelf-limpet Cypraeidae Cypraea Serpent's-head R caputserpentis Cowrie Linnaeus, 1758 Cypraea erosa Gnawed Cowrie R Linnaeus, 1758 Cypraea errones Wandering R Linnaeus, 1758 Cowrie Cypraea felina Kitten Cowrie R Gmelin, 1791 Cypraea flaveola White-spotted R Linnaeus, 1758 Cowrie Cypraea subviridis Greenish Cowry R Reeve, 1835 # Cypraea teres Tapering Cowrie R Gmelin, 1791 Natacidae Conuber conicum Conical Moon S (Lamarck, 1822) Snail Glossaulax didyma Bladder Moon S (Roding, 1798) Snail Natica gualtieriana Gualtieri's S Recluz, 1844 Natica Neverita incei Ince's Moon S (Philippi, 1853) Snail Tonnidae Tonna cerevisina Tun Shell S Hedley, 1919 Cassidae Semicassis labiatum Helmet Shell S (Perry, 1811) # Semicassis pyrum Pear Bonnet S (Lamarck, 1822) Ranellidae Cabestana spengleri Spengler's R (Perry, 1811) Rock-whelk Charonia lampas Knobbed Triton R rubicunda (Perry, 1811) # Cymatium labiosum Wide-lipped R (Wood, 1822) * # Triton Cymatium parthenopeum Hairy Oyster R (von Salis, 1793) Borer Cymatium exaratum Shouldered R (Reeve, 1844) Triton Ranella australasia Australasian R (Perry, 1811) Rock-whelk Sassia parkinsonia Parkinson's R (Perry, 1811) # Triton Janthinidae Janthina janthina Common Violet P (Linnaeus, 1758) Sea Snail Epitoniidae Opalia australis Austral R (Lamarck, 1822) Wentletrap Opalia ballinensis Ballina R (Smith, 1891) Wentletrap Muricidae Agnewia tritoniformis Triton-like R (Blainville, 1832) Rock-shell Chicoreus denudatus Denuded Murex R (Perry, 1811) # Coralliophila R squamosissima (Smith, 1876) * Cronia aurantiaca R (Hombron & Jaquinot, 1853) Dicathais orbita Common R (Gmelin, 1791) Cartrut-shell Lepsiella reticulata Net Lepsiella R (Blainville, 1832) * # Morula marginalba Mulberry Shell R (Blainville, 1832) Buccinidae Cominella eburnea Ivory Whelk S (Reeve, 1846) Columbellidae Mitrella tayloriana Taylor's R (Reeve, 1859) Dove-shell Nassariidae Nassarius gaudiosus Pointed Dog S (Hinds, 1844) Whelk Nassarius jonasii Jonas' Dog S (Dunker, 1846) # Whelk Nassarius nigellus Tasmanian Dog S (Reeve, 1854) # Whel Volutidae Amoria undulata Wavy Volute S (Lamarck, 1804) Amoria zebra Zebra Volute S (Leach, 1814) Cymbiola magnifica Magnificent S (Gebauer, 1802) Volute Olividae Amalda marginata Margined Olive S (Lamarck, 1811) Pseudolividae Zemira australis Southern S (Sowerby, 1833) False-olive Marginellidae Austroginella Fly-like S muscaria Margin-shell (Lamarck, 1822) Austroginella Johnston's S johnstoni Margin-shell (Petterd, 1884) Mitridae Mitra cookii Cook's Mitre R Sowerby, 1874 Cancellariidae Cancellaria undulata S Sowerby, 1849 # Conidae Conus aplustre Back-end Cone R Reeve, 1843 Turridae Epidirona hedleyi Striated Turrid S Iredale, 1931 # Terebridae Hastula brazieri Brazier's Auger S (Angas, 1871) Architectonicidae Adelphotectonica Reeve's S reevei (Hanley, Sundial-shell 1862) Philippia lutea Yellow R (Lamarck, 1822) Sundial-shell Bullidae Bulla quoyi Gray, S 1843 * Bulla vernicosa S Gould, 1859 Hydatinidae Hydatina physis Paper Bubble R (Linnaeus, 1758) Bullinidae Bullina lineata Lined R Gray, 1825 Bubble-shell Planaxidae Hinea brasiliana Clusterwink R (Lamarck, 1822) Trimusculidae Trimusculus conica Conical R Angas, 1864 # Lung-limpet Ellobiidae Ophicardelus quoyi S H. & A. Adams, 1855 * Ophicardelus S sulcatus H. & A. Adams, 1855 * Siphonariidae Siphonaria Denticulated R denticulata Quoy Siphon Shell & Gaimard, 1833 Siphonaria Corded Siphon R funiculata Shell Reeve, 1856 # Umbraculidae Umbraculum Umbrella-shell R umbraculum (Lightfoot, 1786) Aplysiidae Aplysia dactylomela Spotted Sea Hare R Rang, 1828 Aplysia parvula Dwarf Sea Hare R Guilding in Morch, 1863 * Dolabrifera brazieri Sea Hare species R Sowerby, 1870 Dendrodorididae Dendrodoris fumata Sea-slug species R (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1830) * Dendrodoris nigra Black Sea-slug R (Stimpson, 1855) Dorididae Jorunna pantherina Sea-slug species R (Angas, 1864) Rostanga arbutus Sea-slug species R (Angas, 1864) Glaucidae Austraeolis ornata Sea-slug species R (Angas, 1864) * Phyllodesmium Sea-slug species R serratum (Baba, 1949) * Elysiidae Elysia maoria Sea Slug species R Powell, 1937 * Limapontiidae Placida dendritica Sea Slug species R (Alder & Hancock, 1843) * Pleurobranchidae Pleurobranchus Peron's Side- R peroni Cuvier, gill Slug 1804 * Family Scientific name Dist Loc stat Bivalvia Arcidae Anadara trapezia S C (Deshayes, 1840) Barbatia pistachia S C (Lamarck, 1819) Glycymeridae Glycymeris grayana S U (Dunker, 1857) Mytilidae Gregariella splendida E -- (Dunker, 1857) # Trichomya hirsutus S C (Lamarck, 1819) Xenostrobus securis S -- (Lamarck, 1819) * Pteriidae Pinctada fucata N C (Gould, 1850) Malleidae Vulsella vulsella C -- (Linnaeus, 1758) # Pectinidae Pecten fumatus S R Reeve, 1852 Scaeochlamys livida N C (Lamarck, 1819) Spondylidae Spondylus tenellus S -- Reeve, 1856 # Anomiidae Anomia trigonopsis S -- Hutton, 1877 # Monia deliciosa S -- Iredale, 1936 # Limidae Lima nimbifer S R Iredale, 1924 Ostreidae Saccostrea glomerata E U (Gould, 1850) Chamidae Chama fibula N C Reeve, 1846 Galeommatidae Galeommatidae -- -- species 1 # Carditidae Cardita excavata S C Deshayes, 1854 Cardiidae Acrosterigma E -- kerslakae Healy & Lamprell 1992 # Acrosterigma -- R species 2 Vepricardium N R multispinosum (Sowerby, 1838) Hemidonacidae Hemidonax dactylus N -- Hedley, 1923 # Mactridae Mactra contraria S C Reeve, 1854 Tellinidae Tellina botanica S U (Hedley, 1918) Donacidae Donax brazieri S C Smith, 1892 Donax deltoides S A Lamarck, 1818 Veneridae Bassina pachyphylla S U (Jonas, 1839) Irus crenatus S -- (Lamarck, 1818) # Irus cumingii S C (Deshayes, 1854) Corbulidae Corbula coxi C -- Pilsbry, 1897 # Hiatellidae Hiatella australis C -- Lamarck, 1818 # Pholadidae Pholas australasiae S R Sowerby, 1849 Cleidothaeridae Cleidothaerus albidus S -- (Lamarck, 1819) # Lucinidae Codakia rugifera S U (Reeve, 1835) Gastropoda Nacellidae Cellana tramoserica S A (Holten, 1802) Patellidae Scutellastra chapmani S C (Tenison Woods, 1876) Scutellastra peronii S C (Blainville, 1825) Lottiidae Notoacmea petterdi S -- (Tenison Woods, 1876) # Patelloida S -- latistrigata (Angas, 1865) # Patelloida mufria S -- (Hedley, 1915) # Haliotidae Haliotis S R coccoradiata Reeve, 1846 Haliotis rubra S U Leach, 1814 Fisurellidae Amblychilepas S U nigrita (Sowerby, 1834) Montfortula rugosa S C (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Diodora lineata S C (Sowerby, 1835) Scutus antipodes S C Montfort, 1810 Tugali parmophoidea S R (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Turbinidae Turbo torquatus S U Gmelin, 1791 Turbo undulatus S A Solander, 1786 Turbo militaris E R Reeve, 1848 Astralium E C tentoriiformis (Jonas, 1845) Trochidae Austrocochlea S A porcata (Adams, 1851) Austrocochlea S R concamerata (Wood, 1828) Herpetopoma aspersa S C (Philippi, 1846) Cantharidella S U picturata (Adams & Angas, 1864) Phasianotrochus S C eximius (Perry, 1811) Bankivia fasciata S A (Menke, 1830) Neritidae Nerita atrementosa S A Reeve, 1855 Turritellidae Gazameda gunnii S R (Reeve, 1849) Batillariidae Pyrazus ebeninus N U (Bruguiere, 1792) Batillaria australis S R (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Littorinidae Bembicium nanum S A (Lamarck, 1822) Austrolittorina S A unifasciata (Gray, 1826) Nodilittorina E A pyramidalis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) Hydrobiidae Tatea huonensis S -- (Tenison Woods, 1876) * Struthiolariidae Tylospira scutulata E U (Gmelin, 1791) Hipponicidae Antisabia aff. S U foliacea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1835) Malluvium devotum S R (Hedley, 1904) Calyptraeidae Sigapatella hedleyi S R Smith, 1915 Cypraeidae Cypraea N U caputserpentis Linnaeus, 1758 Cypraea erosa N U Linnaeus, 1758 Cypraea errones N U Linnaeus, 1758 Cypraea felina N U Gmelin, 1791 Cypraea flaveola N R Linnaeus, 1758 Cypraea subviridis N -- Reeve, 1835 # Cypraea teres N R Gmelin, 1791 Natacidae Conuber conicum S U (Lamarck, 1822) Glossaulax didyma N C (Roding, 1798) Natica gualtieriana N U Recluz, 1844 Neverita incei S C (Philippi, 1853) Tonnidae Tonna cerevisina E U Hedley, 1919 Cassidae Semicassis labiatum S -- (Perry, 1811) # Semicassis pyrum S R (Lamarck, 1822) Ranellidae Cabestana spengleri S C (Perry, 1811) Charonia lampas S -- rubicunda (Perry, 1811) # Cymatium labiosum N -- (Wood, 1822) * # Cymatium parthenopeum S R (von Salis, 1793) Cymatium exaratum S R (Reeve, 1844) Ranella australasia S C (Perry, 1811) Sassia parkinsonia S -- (Perry, 1811) # Janthinidae Janthina janthina C R (Linnaeus, 1758) Epitoniidae Opalia australis S U (Lamarck, 1822) Opalia ballinensis E R (Smith, 1891) Muricidae Agnewia tritoniformis S U (Blainville, 1832) Chicoreus denudatus S -- (Perry, 1811) # Coralliophila N -- squamosissima (Smith, 1876) * Cronia aurantiaca N U (Hombron & Jaquinot, 1853) Dicathais orbita S C (Gmelin, 1791) Lepsiella reticulata S -- (Blainville, 1832) * # Morula marginalba N C (Blainville, 1832) Buccinidae Cominella eburnea S C (Reeve, 1846) Columbellidae Mitrella tayloriana S U (Reeve, 1859) Nassariidae Nassarius gaudiosus N R (Hinds, 1844) Nassarius jonasii S -- (Dunker, 1846) # Nassarius nigellus S -- (Reeve, 1854) # Volutidae Amoria undulata S R (Lamarck, 1804) Amoria zebra E C (Leach, 1814) Cymbiola magnifica E R (Gebauer, 1802) Olividae Amalda marginata S R (Lamarck, 1811) Pseudolividae Zemira australis S R (Sowerby, 1833) Marginellidae Austroginella S U muscaria (Lamarck, 1822) Austroginella S U johnstoni (Petterd, 1884) Mitridae Mitra cookii E R Sowerby, 1874 Cancellariidae Cancellaria undulata S -- Sowerby, 1849 # Conidae Conus aplustre E U Reeve, 1843 Turridae Epidirona hedleyi E -- Iredale, 1931 # Terebridae Hastula brazieri S R (Angas, 1871) Architectonicidae Adelphotectonica S R reevei (Hanley, 1862) Philippia lutea S U (Lamarck, 1822) Bullidae Bulla quoyi Gray, S -- 1843 * Bulla vernicosa N U Gould, 1859 Hydatinidae Hydatina physis N U (Linnaeus, 1758) Bullinidae Bullina lineata N R Gray, 1825 Planaxidae Hinea brasiliana S C (Lamarck, 1822) Trimusculidae Trimusculus conica S -- Angas, 1864 # Ellobiidae Ophicardelus quoyi S -- H. & A. Adams, 1855 * Ophicardelus S -- sulcatus H. & A. Adams, 1855 * Siphonariidae Siphonaria S C denticulata Quoy & Gaimard, 1833 Siphonaria S -- funiculata Reeve, 1856 # Umbraculidae Umbraculum N U umbraculum (Lightfoot, 1786) Aplysiidae Aplysia dactylomela N R Rang, 1828 Aplysia parvula C -- Guilding in Morch, 1863 * Dolabrifera brazieri E R Sowerby, 1870 Dendrodorididae Dendrodoris fumata C -- (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1830) * Dendrodoris nigra N U (Stimpson, 1855) Dorididae Jorunna pantherina N R (Angas, 1864) Rostanga arbutus E R (Angas, 1864) Glaucidae Austraeolis ornata S -- (Angas, 1864) * Phyllodesmium C -- serratum (Baba, 1949) * Elysiidae Elysia maoria E -- Powell, 1937 * Limapontiidae Placida dendritica S -- (Alder & Hancock, 1843) * Pleurobranchidae Pleurobranchus N -- peroni Cuvier, 1804 *
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|Title Annotation:||Research Reports|
|Author:||Murphy, Michael J.|
|Publication:||The Victorian Naturalist|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2015|
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