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A survey of the marine bivalves and gastropods of Shelly Beach, Port Macquarie, on the north coast of New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction

Australia has a rich marine mollusc fauna of global significance (Ponder et al. 2002). The tropical and sub-tropical coastal waters of northern Australia have high species diversity and form part of the extensive Indo-West Pacific bioregion, stretching from the east coast of Africa to Hawaii, while the temperate coastal waters of southern Australia support an ancient Palaeo-Austral fauna with fewer species but high levels of endemism (Ponder and Wells 1998; Ponder et al. 2002; Wilson 2010). Transitional or overlap zones of warm temperate waters along the east and west coasts of Australia contain a mix of southern and northern elements as well as some local endemics (Ponder and Wells 1998; Ponder et al. 2002; Reid and Williams 2004; Beechey 2012). The New South Wales (NSW) north coast lies in the heart of the eastern overlap zone (Ponder et al. 2002; Wilson 2010; Beechey 2012) and is an interesting area for the study of marine molluscs. The results of a field study of the marine bivalves and gastropods of a single site on the NSW north coast is presented here as an example of the region's marine mollusc fauna and to help promote a wider appreciation of this fauna's diversity and significance.

Study Area and Methods

Shelly Beach (31[degrees]27'S, 152[degrees]56'E) (Fig. 1) is located at Port Macquarie in Biripi Aboriginal Country, 310 km north-east of Sydney on the lower north coast of NSW, Australia. It is situated in the northern part of the Manning Shelf marine and coastal bioregion, which extends from Stockton (north of the Hunter River) to north of Nambucca Heads, and the northern part of the Central Eastern marine and coastal province, which extends from Lake Illawarra near Wollongong to Coffs Harbour (Commonwealth of Australia 2006). The beach is about 1200 m long and includes areas of sandy beach, cobble/boulder beach and intertidal rock platform with an underlying geology of serpentinite, basalt and dolerite (Och et al. 2007). A near-shore rocky reef is located towards the southern end of the beach. Shelly Beach is within the Port Macquarie urban area but the land immediately adjacent to the beach supports littoral rainforest, part of which is protected within Sea Acres Nature Reserve.

Observations on the marine bivalves and gastropods at Shelly Beach were made during diurnal site visits on 10 occasions between December 2009 and February 2015, predominantly during the austral summer months but also including visits in autumn, winter and spring (Appendix 1). Field survey methods comprised visual examination of accumulated deposits of shell material (molluscan death assemblages) (Fig. 2), beachcombing for fresh shells along the strandline, searches of intertidal habitats for live animals during low tide and investigation of shallow sub-tidal areas by snorkelling. No sorting of shell grit under magnification was done to identify micro-molluscs, so that the field survey covered only species of about 5 mm or larger. Shelled species were identified by reference to Dakin and Bennett (1987), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994), Jansen (2000), Grove (2011), Beechey (2012), Beechey (Australian Museum, Sydney) (pers. comm.) and communication with other experts (see acknowledgements). Sea slug specimens were photographed in situ and were identified by Rudman (Australian Museum) (pers. comm.). Reference was also made to the Australian Museum collection database (data supply April 2014) and to data from a 2008 survey by Smith (2009) for records of additional species from the Shelly Beach study area.

The broad habitat preference and distribution in Australia of each species were determined by reference to Lamprell and Whitehead (1992), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994), Brodie et al. (1997), Lamprell and Healey (1998), Malaquias and Reid (2008), Grove (2011), Beechey (2012) and the Atlas of Living Australia (2014). Four habitat categories were used: soft substrates (sand or mud), rocky substrates, pelagic, and other (e.g. attached to other fauna). Categories used for distribution in Australia were northern (tropical/subtropical), southern (temperate), eastern overlap zone or cosmopolitan. The relative abundance of species detected during the field survey was also recorded. Categories used were abundant (recorded in large numbers on most visits), common (regularly recorded in small to moderate numbers), uncommon (irregularly recorded in small numbers) or rare (three or fewer specimens recorded over duration of survey).

Results and Discussion

A total of 101 species (21 bivalves and 80 gastropods) was recorded over the duration of the field study (Table 1). Nine species were recorded as abundant, 28 as common, 31 as uncommon and 33 as rare. Abundant species included Donax deltoides, Cellana tramoserica, Turbo undulatus, Austrocochlea porcata, Bankivia fasciata and Nerita atrementosa. An additional 41 species from Shelly Beach were identified from secondary sources. The final total of 142 species (Table 1) comprised 34 bivalves (24 families) and 108 gastropods (51 families). The most speciose families were the Cypraeidae (seven species), Ranellidae (seven), Muricidae (seven) and Trochidae (six). Thirty-four species from the present field survey (seven bivalves and 27 gastropods) were additional to the list of species previously known from Shelly Beach (Smith 2009; Australian Museum data).

The present field study did not include micro-molluscs, with the smallest shells identified being Cantharidella picturata (5-7 mm), Nodilittorina unifasciata (6 mm) and Bullina lineata (7.5 mm). The survey by Smith (2009) also documented only species 5 mm or greater in size. Sampling and sorting of shell grit under magnification would be expected to identify a range of micro-mollusc species of less than 5 mm size at Shelly Beach. Marine micro-molluscan fauna known from within 20 km of Shelly Beach include members of the Anabathridae, Anatomidae, Pyramidellidae, Rissoidae and Skeneidae (Australian Museum data).

Information on broad distribution and habitats of the Shelly Beach fauna identified in this study is included in Table 1 and summarised in Fig. 3. Southern (temperate) species dominated the bivalve species diversity, with a mix of sandy and rocky habitat species including Anadara trapezia, Donax deltoides and Bassinia pachyphylla (sandy) and Barbatia pistachia, Trichomya hirsutus and Anomia trigonopsis (rocky). The gastropod species diversity was also dominated by southern species, of which most were rocky shore species including Cellana tramoserica, Turbo undulatus, Austrocochlea porcata and Bembicium nanum. Northern (sub-tropical) fauna comprised about 20% of total recorded species diversity at Shelly Beach and included Scaeochlamys livida, Vepricardium multispinosum, the seven cowries, Natica gualtieriana, Cronia aurantiaca and Hydatina physis.

Over half (57%) of the species recorded at Shelly Beach are Australian endemics. Most of these are temperate species from southern Australia and include Trichomya hirsutus, Glycymeris grayana, Codakia rugifera, Haliotis rubra, Turbo torquatus, Austrolittorina unifasciata and Chicoreus denudatus. Some of these temperate endemic species form part of the ancient Palaeo-Austral fauna. Williams et al. (2003), for example, suggested that Austrolittorina species may have been present on the shores of Gondwana since the Cretaceous. Another suite of species is endemic or largely restricted to the eastern Australian overlap zone. This group makes up about 12% of the recorded Shelly Beach fauna and includes Turbo militaris, Nodilittorina pyramidalis, Tylospira scutulata, Opalia ballinensis, Mitra cookii and Rostanga arbutus.

Several species recorded in this study represent extensions of known range. The record of Austrocochlea concamerata (Fig. 4) is a 150 km northerly extension from the previous limit at Port Stephens (Beechey 2012) and the record of Nassarius gaudiosus (Fig. 4) is a 150 km southerly range extension from the previous limit at Woolgoolga north of Coffs Harbour (Beechey 2012). Both species were rarely recorded at Shelly Beach, with only two A. concamerata and one N. gaudiosus shells found over the duration of the study.

Many of the species found at Shelly Beach were recorded only as dead shells, either as part of death assemblages or as fresh shells on the strandline. Examples include Bassina pachyphylla, Pyrazus ebineus, Tonna cerevisina, Janthina janthina, Opalia australis and Cymbiola magnifica. Molluscan death assemblages typically contain notably higher species richness than the local live community at a site, due to time-averaging of species richness (i.e. live species appearing and disappearing from the local community as environmental conditions vary over time but all persisting in the death assemblage) as well as post-mortem transport of shells from nearby different habitats by waves and currents (Kidwell 2002; Warwick and Light 2002; Smith 2008). Sampling of death assemblages can therefore provide a more complete species inventory than one-off live-sampling and can be an efficient tool for assessing regional species diversity for near-shore habitats (Warwick and Light 2002; Smith 2008). Conversely, identification of non-shelled molluscs such as nudibranchs necessarily relies on live survey.

A statewide assessment of marine intertidal molluscan death assemblages by Smith (2009) found the Port Macquarie area to have a relatively low species diversity of near-coastal marine molluscs compared to neighboring areas to both the north and south, and he conjectured that this might be related to a low amount of near-shore reef habitat resulting in absence or scarcity of some rocky habitat species in local death assemblages. Observations at Shelly Beach over an extended period and including live surveys added substantially to the list of 88 species compiled by Smith (2009) in a single two hour search, with many of these being rocky habitat species. Nevertheless, Smith's (2009) assessment of Shelly Beach as relatively depauperate remains broadly valid. The 142 species for Shelly Beach documented in this study can be compared, for example, to over 330 species at Mulloway Headland near Coffs Harbour (based on 40 surveys over a six year period) (Smith 2009).

Species were added over the duration of the present field survey, including two species found only in February 2015, and it is likely that further survey effort at Shelly Beach would identify additional species. The Australian Museum has records of approximately 290 marine bivalve and gastropod species found within 20 km of Shelly Beach (between about Point Plomer to the north and Laurieton to the south) (Australian Museum data), of which 215 are additional to the present study. Some of these are micro-molluscs not covered in the present study while others are pelagic, deepsea or estuarine species not likely to be often found at Shelly Beach. It is also noteworthy that 51 species (14 bivalves and 37 gastropods) recorded in the field survey component of the present study were not known from Australian Museum records to occur within 20 km of Shelly Beach, including several large and relatively common species such as Mactra contraria, Donax deltoides, Scutus antipodes, Turbo torquatus and Astralium tentoriiformis. These two points demonstrate the significant reference value of public museum collections, amassed over a period of greater than a century, and the need for ongoing work to maintain and continue building these collections.

Some of the interesting marine molluscs found at Shelly Beach are illustrated. Information on general biology is from Lamprell and Whitehead (1992), Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994), Brodie et al. (1997), Lamprell and Healey (1998), Rudman (1999), Rudman (2002), Rudman (2003), Grove (2011) and Beechey (2012). Bassina pachyphylla and Glycymeris grayana (Fig. 5) are both endemic, living in littoral sands in south-eastern Australia. They each have distinctively patterned shells, the former rusty-brown in colour with paler radiating bands and the latter with reddish-brown zig-zag lines on a pale background. Vepricardium multispinosum (Fig. 6) is found in sandy beaches and sub-tidal areas in the Indo-West Pacific. It is uncommon in NSW, occurring south to about Sydney, and in the Shelly Beach survey was represented by a single worn shell. Scutus antipodes (Fig. 7) is a striking-looking animal with a large jet-black body and a rectangular white shell partly hidden under mantle folds. It is common on rocky shores of southern Australia and New Zealand, hiding under rocks by day and emerging at night to feed on algae. Turbo torquatus (Fig. 8) is one of the largest gastropods occurring at Shelly Beach, with a shell size of up to 110 mm. It is an Australian endemic with two disjunct populations, one in NSW south to Green Cape and one from eastern South Australia to Western Australia. Quaternary fossils from Victoria indicate that it had a continuous range around southern Australia in the recent geological past. Bankivia fasciata (Fig. 9), another Australian endemic, lives in subtidal sands on ocean beaches from south-east Queensland to Tasmania and South Australia and has a wide variation in shell colour and pattern. Nerita atrementosa (Fig. 10) (found in Australia, New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands) and Bembicium nanum (Fig. 11) (endemic) are part of a suite of algal-grazing gastropod species common in the intertidal zone of rocky shores in south-eastern Australia. Cypraea erosa (Fig. 12) is a widespread IndoWest Pacific cowrie found from east Africa to Hawaii and it is the most southerly occurring of the tropical cowries in eastern Australia, occurring as far south as Eden. It has a distinctive thickened rim marked with vertical streaks. Cymatium parthenopeum (Fig. 13) is widely distributed in subtropical and warm temperate seas of both hemispheres and in Australia is found in temperate waters from the NSW north coast to south-west Western Australia. Live animals have a hairy periostracum and prey on bivalves including oysters. Opalia australis (Fig. 14), another endemic, lives amongst anemones in the intertidal and shallow subtidal areas of rocky shores of southern Australia, from the NSW north coast to south-west Western Australia. The carnivorous volutes Amoria undulata and Amoria zebra (Fig. 15) (both endemic) live in intertidal and sub-tidal sandy habitats. Amoria undulata is a temperate southern species, with a discontinuous distribution from southern Queensland to Western Australia while A. zebra is an eastern overlap zone species, found from north Queensland south to about Sydney. Amoria zebra shells were commonly found in death assemblages at Shelly Beach while A. undulata was scarce. Hydatina physis (front cover) is found throughout the tropics including northern Australia. Live specimens were most commonly seen sub-tidally at Shelly Beach. The thin fragile shell is too small to contain the fleshy body. Umbraculum umbraculum (Fig. 16) is an unusual-looking animal with a body covered in large pustules and topped by a saucer-shaped shell. It is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific region, extending into southern Australian waters. Dolabrifera brazieri (Fig. 17) is another unusual-looking animal, covered in large soft tubercles. It is a species of sea hare found in south-eastern Australia and New Zealand and grazes on algal films on rocks. Dendrodoris nigra (Fig. 18) is usually black or dark grey in colour and is widespread in the IndoWest Pacific, extending south to about Sydney on the Australian east coast. It can be common in the intertidal zone where it feeds on sponges. Rostanga arbutus (Fig. 19), an eastern overlap zone endemic, is another sponge-feeding nudibranch. It favours red and orange sponges and appears to retain the sponge colour pigments in its skin, providing the animal with cryptic colouration while it feeds.

Conclusion

Marine bivalves and gastropods are an important part of near-coastal marine ecosystems and can be a useful indicator for total macro-invertebrate species diversity on rocky intertidal shores (Smith 2005). This study provides an example illustrating the significant diversity and biogeographical interest of the near-coastal marine bivalve and gastropod fauna of the NSW north coast.

Michael J Murphy

'Blackbird Grange' 2 Rundle Street Coonabarabran NSW 2357

Acknowledgements

Jess, Sue, Nicola, Sam, Philby, Callum, Briannon and Erin Murphy helped with field work at Shelly Beach. Steve Dean, Winston Ponder, Simon Grove and particularly Des Beechey and Bill Rudman provided assistance with species identifications. Steve Smith provided a species list for Shelly Beach from his 2008 survey (Smith 2009) and Mandy Reid and Janet Waterhouse provided information on specimens from the Australian Museum malacology collection database. An anonymous reviewer provided constructive comments which improved the final paper. All photographs are by the author and show specimens from Shelly Beach.

References

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Received 31 July 2014; accepted 16 April 2015

Appendix 1. Shelly Beach field survey dates.

Sprmg           Summer              Autumn        Winter

4, 5 Sep 2010   20 Dec 2009         19 May 2011   6, 7 Jul 2010
                29 Jan-2 Feb 2011                 30 Jun-1 Jul 2012
                30 Jan-4 Feb 2013                 21 Jul 2014
                18 Feb 2014
                5, 8 Feb 2015

Table 1. Marine bivalve and gastropod species recorded at
Shelly Beach, Port Macquarie. Taxonomy follows Lamprell and
Whitehead (1992) and Lamprell and Healey (1998) for bivalves
and Beechey (2012) for gastropods, with reference to Brodie
et al. (1997), Jansen (2000), Malaquias and Reid (2008),
Wilson (1993), Wilson (1994) and Atlas of Living Australia
(2014) for taxa not covered by Beechey. * = record from
Australian Museum Malacology collection database. # = 2008
record from Smith (2009) survey provided by Smith (pers.
comm.). Habitat (Hab): R = rocky, S = soft sediment (sand or
mud), P = pelagic, O = other. Distribution (Dist): S =
southern, N = northern, E = eastern overlap, C =
cosmopolitan. Local status (Loc stat): A = abundant, C =
common, U = uncommon, R = rare.

Family              Scientific name         Common name        Hab

Bivalvia
Arcidae             Anadara trapezia        Sydney Cockle      S
                      (Deshayes, 1840)
                    Barbatia pistachia      Hairy Ark-shell    R
                      (Lamarck, 1819)
Glycymeridae        Glycymeris grayana      Gray's             S
                      (Dunker, 1857)          Dog-cockle
Mytilidae           Gregariella splendida                      R
                      (Dunker, 1857) #
                    Trichomya hirsutus      Hairy Mussel       R
                      (Lamarck, 1819)
                    Xenostrobus securis     Little Brown       S
                      (Lamarck, 1819) *       Mussel
Pteriidae           Pinctada fucata         Akoya Pearl        S
                      (Gould, 1850)           Oyster
Malleidae           Vulsella vulsella       Sponge Finger      O
                      (Linnaeus, 1758) #      Oyster
Pectinidae          Pecten fumatus          Southern           S
                      Reeve, 1852             Scallop
                    Scaeochlamys livida     Scaly Scallop      R
                      (Lamarck, 1819)
Spondylidae         Spondylus tenellus      Slender            O
                      Reeve, 1856 #           Thorny-Oyster
Anomiidae           Anomia trigonopsis      Jingle Shell       R
                      Hutton, 1877 #
                    Monia deliciosa                            S
                      Iredale, 1936 #
Limidae             Lima nimbifer           Cloud              R
                      Iredale, 1924           File-shell
Ostreidae           Saccostrea glomerata    Sydney Rock        R
                      (Gould, 1850)           Oyster
Chamidae            Chama fibula            Brooch             R
                      Reeve, 1846             Jewel-box
Galeommatidae       Galeommatidae                              --
                      species 1 #
Carditidae          Cardita excavata        Excavated          S
                      Deshayes, 1854          False-cockle
Cardiidae           Acrosterigma                               S
                      kerslakae Healy &
                      Lamprell 1992 #
                    Acrosterigma            Cockle species     S
                      species 2
                    Vepricardium            Many-spined        S
                      multispinosum           Heart Cockle
                      (Sowerby, 1838)
Hemidonacidae       Hemidonax dactylus                         S
                      Hedley, 1923 #
Mactridae           Mactra contraria        Moon Pipi          S
                      Reeve, 1854
Tellinidae          Tellina botanica        Tellen species     S
                      (Hedley, 1918)
Donacidae           Donax brazieri          Brazier's Wedge    S
                      Smith, 1892             Shell
                    Donax deltoides         Common Pipi        S
                      Lamarck, 1818
Veneridae           Bassina pachyphylla     Faintly-frilled    S
                      (Jonas, 1839)           Venus
                    Irus crenatus           Boring Venus       R
                      (Lamarck, 1818) #       Shell
                    Irus cumingii           Cuming's           R
                      (Deshayes, 1854)        Boring-venus
Corbulidae          Corbula coxi            Basket-shell       S
                      Pilsbry, 1897 #
Hiatellidae         Hiatella australis      Australian         R
                      Lamarck, 1818 #         Rock-borer
Pholadidae          Pholas australasiae     Australian         R
                      Sowerby, 1849           Angel-wing
Cleidothaeridae     Cleidothaerus albidus   White              R
                      (Lamarck, 1819) #       Rock-clam
Lucinidae           Codakia rugifera        Ridged Lucine      S
                      (Reeve, 1835)

Gastropoda

Nacellidae          Cellana tramoserica     Variegated         R
                      (Holten, 1802)          Limpet
Patellidae          Scutellastra chapmani   Star Limpet        R
                      (Tenison Woods,
                      1876)
                    Scutellastra peronii    Scaly Limpet       R
                      (Blainville, 1825)
Lottiidae           Notoacmea petterdi      Petterd's          R
                      (Tenison Woods,         Limpet
                      1876) #
                    Patelloida              Lateral-striped    R
                      latistrigata            Limpet
                      (Angas, 1865) #
                    Patelloida mufria                          R
                      (Hedley, 1915) #
Haliotidae          Haliotis                Reddish-rayed      R
                      coccoradiata            Abalone
                      Reeve, 1846
                    Haliotis rubra          Blacklip           R
                      Leach, 1814             Abalone
Fisurellidae        Amblychilepas           Keyhole Limpet     R
                      nigrita
                      (Sowerby, 1834)
                    Montfortula rugosa      Slit Limpet        R
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,
                      1834)
                    Diodora lineata         Lined Keyhole      R
                      (Sowerby, 1835)         Limpet
                    Scutus antipodes        Black Elephant     R
                      Montfort, 1810          Snail
                    Tugali parmophoidea     Parmophoid         R
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,        Notch-limpet
                      1834)
Turbinidae          Turbo torquatus         Sydney Turban      R
                      Gmelin, 1791            Shell
                    Turbo undulatus         Green Turban       R
                      Solander, 1786          Shell
                    Turbo militaris         Military Turban    R
                      Reeve, 1848             Shell
                    Astralium               Tent shell         R
                      tentoriiformis
                      (Jonas, 1845)
Trochidae           Austrocochlea           Zebra              R
                      porcata                 Periwinkle
                      (Adams, 1851)
                    Austrocochlea           Wavy Periwinkle    R
                      concamerata
                      (Wood, 1828)
                    Herpetopoma aspersa     Speckled           R
                      (Philippi, 1846)        Top-shell
                    Cantharidella           Painted            R
                      picturata (Adams        Kelp-shell
                      & Angas, 1864)
                    Phasianotrochus         Kelp Shell         R
                      eximius
                      (Perry, 1811)
                    Bankivia fasciata       Banded Sand        S
                      (Menke, 1830)           Shell
Neritidae           Nerita atrementosa      Black              R
                      Reeve, 1855             Periwinkle
Turritellidae       Gazameda gunnii         Gunn's             S
                      (Reeve, 1849)           Screw-shell
Batillariidae       Pyrazus ebeninus        Hercules Club      S
                      (Bruguiere, 1792)       Mud Whelk
                    Batillaria australis    Australian         S
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,        Mud Whelk
                      1834)
Littorinidae        Bembicium nanum         Striped-mouth      R
                      (Lamarck, 1822)         Conniwink
                    Austrolittorina         Blue Periwinkle    R
                      unifasciata
                      (Gray, 1826)
                    Nodilittorina           Pyramid            R
                      pyramidalis             Periwinkle
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,
                      1833)
Hydrobiidae         Tatea huonensis                            S
                      (Tenison Woods,
                      1876) *
Struthiolariidae    Tylospira scutulata     Ostrich Foot       S
                      (Gmelin, 1791)          Shell
Hipponicidae        Antisabia aff.          Horse Hoof         R
                      foliacea (Quoy &        Limpet
                      Gaimard, 1835)
                    Malluvium devotum       Devoted            O
                      (Hedley, 1904)          Bonnet-limpet
Calyptraeidae       Sigapatella hedleyi     Hedley's           O
                      Smith, 1915             Shelf-limpet
Cypraeidae          Cypraea                 Serpent's-head     R
                      caputserpentis          Cowrie
                      Linnaeus, 1758
                    Cypraea erosa           Gnawed Cowrie      R
                      Linnaeus, 1758
                    Cypraea errones         Wandering          R
                      Linnaeus, 1758          Cowrie
                    Cypraea felina          Kitten Cowrie      R
                      Gmelin, 1791
                    Cypraea flaveola        White-spotted      R
                      Linnaeus, 1758          Cowrie
                    Cypraea subviridis      Greenish Cowry     R
                      Reeve, 1835 #
                    Cypraea teres           Tapering Cowrie    R
                      Gmelin, 1791
Natacidae           Conuber conicum         Conical Moon       S
                      (Lamarck, 1822)         Snail
                    Glossaulax didyma       Bladder Moon       S
                      (Roding, 1798)          Snail
                    Natica gualtieriana     Gualtieri's        S
                      Recluz, 1844            Natica
                    Neverita incei          Ince's Moon        S
                      (Philippi, 1853)        Snail
Tonnidae            Tonna cerevisina        Tun Shell          S
                      Hedley, 1919
Cassidae            Semicassis labiatum     Helmet Shell       S
                      (Perry, 1811) #
                    Semicassis pyrum        Pear Bonnet        S
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
Ranellidae          Cabestana spengleri     Spengler's         R
                      (Perry, 1811)           Rock-whelk
                    Charonia lampas         Knobbed Triton     R
                      rubicunda
                      (Perry, 1811) #
                    Cymatium labiosum       Wide-lipped        R
                      (Wood, 1822) * #        Triton
                    Cymatium parthenopeum   Hairy Oyster       R
                      (von Salis, 1793)       Borer
                    Cymatium exaratum       Shouldered         R
                      (Reeve, 1844)           Triton
                    Ranella australasia     Australasian       R
                      (Perry, 1811)           Rock-whelk
                    Sassia parkinsonia      Parkinson's        R
                      (Perry, 1811) #         Triton
Janthinidae         Janthina janthina       Common Violet      P
                      (Linnaeus, 1758)        Sea Snail
Epitoniidae         Opalia australis        Austral            R
                      (Lamarck, 1822)         Wentletrap
                    Opalia ballinensis      Ballina            R
                      (Smith, 1891)           Wentletrap
Muricidae           Agnewia tritoniformis   Triton-like        R
                      (Blainville, 1832)      Rock-shell
                    Chicoreus denudatus     Denuded Murex      R
                      (Perry, 1811) #
                    Coralliophila                              R
                      squamosissima
                      (Smith, 1876) *
                    Cronia aurantiaca                          R
                      (Hombron &
                      Jaquinot, 1853)
                    Dicathais orbita        Common             R
                      (Gmelin, 1791)          Cartrut-shell
                    Lepsiella reticulata    Net Lepsiella      R
                      (Blainville,
                      1832) * #
                    Morula marginalba       Mulberry Shell     R
                      (Blainville, 1832)
Buccinidae          Cominella eburnea       Ivory Whelk        S
                      (Reeve, 1846)
Columbellidae       Mitrella tayloriana     Taylor's           R
                      (Reeve, 1859)           Dove-shell
Nassariidae         Nassarius gaudiosus     Pointed Dog        S
                      (Hinds, 1844)           Whelk
                    Nassarius jonasii       Jonas' Dog         S
                      (Dunker, 1846) #        Whelk
                    Nassarius nigellus      Tasmanian Dog      S
                      (Reeve, 1854) #         Whel
Volutidae           Amoria undulata         Wavy Volute        S
                      (Lamarck, 1804)
                    Amoria zebra            Zebra Volute       S
                      (Leach, 1814)
                    Cymbiola magnifica      Magnificent        S
                      (Gebauer, 1802)         Volute
Olividae            Amalda marginata        Margined Olive     S
                      (Lamarck, 1811)
Pseudolividae       Zemira australis        Southern           S
                      (Sowerby, 1833)         False-olive
Marginellidae       Austroginella           Fly-like           S
                      muscaria                Margin-shell
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
                    Austroginella           Johnston's         S
                      johnstoni               Margin-shell
                      (Petterd, 1884)
Mitridae            Mitra cookii            Cook's Mitre       R
                      Sowerby, 1874
Cancellariidae      Cancellaria undulata                       S
                      Sowerby, 1849 #
Conidae             Conus aplustre          Back-end Cone      R
                      Reeve, 1843
Turridae            Epidirona hedleyi       Striated Turrid    S
                      Iredale, 1931 #
Terebridae          Hastula brazieri        Brazier's Auger    S
                      (Angas, 1871)
Architectonicidae   Adelphotectonica        Reeve's            S
                      reevei (Hanley,         Sundial-shell
                      1862)
                    Philippia lutea         Yellow             R
                      (Lamarck, 1822)         Sundial-shell
Bullidae            Bulla quoyi Gray,                          S
                      1843 *
                    Bulla vernicosa                            S
                      Gould, 1859
Hydatinidae         Hydatina physis         Paper Bubble       R
                      (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bullinidae          Bullina lineata         Lined              R
                      Gray, 1825              Bubble-shell
Planaxidae          Hinea brasiliana        Clusterwink        R
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
Trimusculidae       Trimusculus conica      Conical            R
                      Angas, 1864 #           Lung-limpet
Ellobiidae          Ophicardelus quoyi                         S
                      H. & A. Adams,
                      1855 *
                    Ophicardelus                               S
                      sulcatus H. & A.
                      Adams, 1855 *
Siphonariidae       Siphonaria              Denticulated       R
                      denticulata Quoy        Siphon Shell
                      & Gaimard, 1833
                    Siphonaria              Corded Siphon      R
                      funiculata              Shell
                      Reeve, 1856 #
Umbraculidae        Umbraculum              Umbrella-shell     R
                      umbraculum
                      (Lightfoot, 1786)
Aplysiidae          Aplysia dactylomela     Spotted Sea Hare   R
                      Rang, 1828
                    Aplysia parvula         Dwarf Sea Hare     R
                      Guilding in
                      Morch, 1863 *
                    Dolabrifera brazieri    Sea Hare species   R
                      Sowerby, 1870
Dendrodorididae     Dendrodoris fumata      Sea-slug species   R
                      (Ruppell &
                      Leuckart, 1830) *
                    Dendrodoris nigra       Black Sea-slug     R
                      (Stimpson, 1855)
Dorididae           Jorunna pantherina      Sea-slug species   R
                      (Angas, 1864)
                    Rostanga arbutus        Sea-slug species   R
                      (Angas, 1864)
Glaucidae           Austraeolis ornata      Sea-slug species   R
                      (Angas, 1864) *
                    Phyllodesmium           Sea-slug species   R
                      serratum (Baba,
                      1949) *
Elysiidae           Elysia maoria           Sea Slug species   R
                      Powell, 1937 *
Limapontiidae       Placida dendritica      Sea Slug species   R
                      (Alder & Hancock,
                      1843) *
Pleurobranchidae    Pleurobranchus          Peron's Side-      R
                      peroni Cuvier,          gill Slug
                      1804 *

Family              Scientific name         Dist   Loc
                                                   stat
Bivalvia
Arcidae             Anadara trapezia        S      C
                      (Deshayes, 1840)
                    Barbatia pistachia      S      C
                      (Lamarck, 1819)
Glycymeridae        Glycymeris grayana      S      U
                      (Dunker, 1857)
Mytilidae           Gregariella splendida   E      --
                      (Dunker, 1857) #
                    Trichomya hirsutus      S      C
                      (Lamarck, 1819)
                    Xenostrobus securis     S      --
                      (Lamarck, 1819) *
Pteriidae           Pinctada fucata         N      C
                      (Gould, 1850)
Malleidae           Vulsella vulsella       C      --
                      (Linnaeus, 1758) #
Pectinidae          Pecten fumatus          S      R
                      Reeve, 1852
                    Scaeochlamys livida     N      C
                      (Lamarck, 1819)
Spondylidae         Spondylus tenellus      S      --
                      Reeve, 1856 #
Anomiidae           Anomia trigonopsis      S      --
                      Hutton, 1877 #
                    Monia deliciosa         S      --
                      Iredale, 1936 #
Limidae             Lima nimbifer           S      R
                      Iredale, 1924
Ostreidae           Saccostrea glomerata    E      U
                      (Gould, 1850)
Chamidae            Chama fibula            N      C
                      Reeve, 1846
Galeommatidae       Galeommatidae           --     --
                      species 1 #
Carditidae          Cardita excavata        S      C
                      Deshayes, 1854
Cardiidae           Acrosterigma            E      --
                      kerslakae Healy &
                      Lamprell 1992 #
                    Acrosterigma            --     R
                      species 2
                    Vepricardium            N      R
                      multispinosum
                      (Sowerby, 1838)
Hemidonacidae       Hemidonax dactylus      N      --
                      Hedley, 1923 #
Mactridae           Mactra contraria        S      C
                      Reeve, 1854
Tellinidae          Tellina botanica        S      U
                      (Hedley, 1918)
Donacidae           Donax brazieri          S      C
                      Smith, 1892
                    Donax deltoides         S      A
                      Lamarck, 1818
Veneridae           Bassina pachyphylla     S      U
                      (Jonas, 1839)
                    Irus crenatus           S      --
                      (Lamarck, 1818) #
                    Irus cumingii           S      C
                      (Deshayes, 1854)
Corbulidae          Corbula coxi            C      --
                      Pilsbry, 1897 #
Hiatellidae         Hiatella australis      C      --
                      Lamarck, 1818 #
Pholadidae          Pholas australasiae     S      R
                      Sowerby, 1849
Cleidothaeridae     Cleidothaerus albidus   S      --
                      (Lamarck, 1819) #
Lucinidae           Codakia rugifera        S      U
                      (Reeve, 1835)

Gastropoda

Nacellidae          Cellana tramoserica     S      A
                      (Holten, 1802)
Patellidae          Scutellastra chapmani   S      C
                      (Tenison Woods,
                      1876)
                    Scutellastra peronii    S      C
                      (Blainville, 1825)
Lottiidae           Notoacmea petterdi      S      --
                      (Tenison Woods,
                      1876) #
                    Patelloida              S      --
                      latistrigata
                      (Angas, 1865) #
                    Patelloida mufria       S      --
                      (Hedley, 1915) #
Haliotidae          Haliotis                S      R
                      coccoradiata
                      Reeve, 1846
                    Haliotis rubra          S      U
                      Leach, 1814
Fisurellidae        Amblychilepas           S      U
                      nigrita
                      (Sowerby, 1834)
                    Montfortula rugosa      S      C
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,
                      1834)
                    Diodora lineata         S      C
                      (Sowerby, 1835)
                    Scutus antipodes        S      C
                      Montfort, 1810
                    Tugali parmophoidea     S      R
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,
                      1834)
Turbinidae          Turbo torquatus         S      U
                      Gmelin, 1791
                    Turbo undulatus         S      A
                      Solander, 1786
                    Turbo militaris         E      R
                      Reeve, 1848
                    Astralium               E      C
                      tentoriiformis
                      (Jonas, 1845)
Trochidae           Austrocochlea           S      A
                      porcata
                      (Adams, 1851)
                    Austrocochlea           S      R
                      concamerata
                      (Wood, 1828)
                    Herpetopoma aspersa     S      C
                      (Philippi, 1846)
                    Cantharidella           S      U
                      picturata (Adams
                      & Angas, 1864)
                    Phasianotrochus         S      C
                      eximius
                      (Perry, 1811)
                    Bankivia fasciata       S      A
                      (Menke, 1830)
Neritidae           Nerita atrementosa      S      A
                      Reeve, 1855
Turritellidae       Gazameda gunnii         S      R
                      (Reeve, 1849)
Batillariidae       Pyrazus ebeninus        N      U
                      (Bruguiere, 1792)
                    Batillaria australis    S      R
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,
                      1834)
Littorinidae        Bembicium nanum         S      A
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
                    Austrolittorina         S      A
                      unifasciata
                      (Gray, 1826)
                    Nodilittorina           E      A
                      pyramidalis
                      (Quoy & Gaimard,
                      1833)
Hydrobiidae         Tatea huonensis         S      --
                      (Tenison Woods,
                      1876) *
Struthiolariidae    Tylospira scutulata     E      U
                      (Gmelin, 1791)
Hipponicidae        Antisabia aff.          S      U
                      foliacea (Quoy &
                      Gaimard, 1835)
                    Malluvium devotum       S      R
                      (Hedley, 1904)
Calyptraeidae       Sigapatella hedleyi     S      R
                      Smith, 1915
Cypraeidae          Cypraea                 N      U
                      caputserpentis
                      Linnaeus, 1758
                    Cypraea erosa           N      U
                      Linnaeus, 1758
                    Cypraea errones         N      U
                      Linnaeus, 1758
                    Cypraea felina          N      U
                      Gmelin, 1791
                    Cypraea flaveola        N      R
                      Linnaeus, 1758
                    Cypraea subviridis      N      --
                      Reeve, 1835 #
                    Cypraea teres           N      R
                      Gmelin, 1791
Natacidae           Conuber conicum         S      U
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
                    Glossaulax didyma       N      C
                      (Roding, 1798)
                    Natica gualtieriana     N      U
                      Recluz, 1844
                    Neverita incei          S      C
                      (Philippi, 1853)
Tonnidae            Tonna cerevisina        E      U
                      Hedley, 1919
Cassidae            Semicassis labiatum     S      --
                      (Perry, 1811) #
                    Semicassis pyrum        S      R
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
Ranellidae          Cabestana spengleri     S      C
                      (Perry, 1811)
                    Charonia lampas         S      --
                      rubicunda
                      (Perry, 1811) #
                    Cymatium labiosum       N      --
                      (Wood, 1822) * #
                    Cymatium parthenopeum   S      R
                      (von Salis, 1793)
                    Cymatium exaratum       S      R
                      (Reeve, 1844)
                    Ranella australasia     S      C
                      (Perry, 1811)
                    Sassia parkinsonia      S      --
                      (Perry, 1811) #
Janthinidae         Janthina janthina       C      R
                      (Linnaeus, 1758)
Epitoniidae         Opalia australis        S      U
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
                    Opalia ballinensis      E      R
                      (Smith, 1891)
Muricidae           Agnewia tritoniformis   S      U
                      (Blainville, 1832)
                    Chicoreus denudatus     S      --
                      (Perry, 1811) #
                    Coralliophila           N      --
                      squamosissima
                      (Smith, 1876) *
                    Cronia aurantiaca       N      U
                      (Hombron &
                      Jaquinot, 1853)
                    Dicathais orbita        S      C
                      (Gmelin, 1791)
                    Lepsiella reticulata    S      --
                      (Blainville,
                      1832) * #
                    Morula marginalba       N      C
                      (Blainville, 1832)
Buccinidae          Cominella eburnea       S      C
                      (Reeve, 1846)
Columbellidae       Mitrella tayloriana     S      U
                      (Reeve, 1859)
Nassariidae         Nassarius gaudiosus     N      R
                      (Hinds, 1844)
                    Nassarius jonasii       S      --
                      (Dunker, 1846) #
                    Nassarius nigellus      S      --
                      (Reeve, 1854) #
Volutidae           Amoria undulata         S      R
                      (Lamarck, 1804)
                    Amoria zebra            E      C
                      (Leach, 1814)
                    Cymbiola magnifica      E      R
                      (Gebauer, 1802)
Olividae            Amalda marginata        S      R
                      (Lamarck, 1811)
Pseudolividae       Zemira australis        S      R
                      (Sowerby, 1833)
Marginellidae       Austroginella           S      U
                      muscaria
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
                    Austroginella           S      U
                      johnstoni
                      (Petterd, 1884)
Mitridae            Mitra cookii            E      R
                      Sowerby, 1874
Cancellariidae      Cancellaria undulata    S      --
                      Sowerby, 1849 #
Conidae             Conus aplustre          E      U
                      Reeve, 1843
Turridae            Epidirona hedleyi       E      --
                      Iredale, 1931 #
Terebridae          Hastula brazieri        S      R
                      (Angas, 1871)
Architectonicidae   Adelphotectonica        S      R
                      reevei (Hanley,
                      1862)
                    Philippia lutea         S      U
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
Bullidae            Bulla quoyi Gray,       S      --
                      1843 *
                    Bulla vernicosa         N      U
                      Gould, 1859
Hydatinidae         Hydatina physis         N      U
                      (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bullinidae          Bullina lineata         N      R
                      Gray, 1825
Planaxidae          Hinea brasiliana        S      C
                      (Lamarck, 1822)
Trimusculidae       Trimusculus conica      S      --
                      Angas, 1864 #
Ellobiidae          Ophicardelus quoyi      S      --
                      H. & A. Adams,
                      1855 *
                    Ophicardelus            S      --
                      sulcatus H. & A.
                      Adams, 1855 *
Siphonariidae       Siphonaria              S      C
                      denticulata Quoy
                      & Gaimard, 1833
                    Siphonaria              S      --
                      funiculata
                      Reeve, 1856 #
Umbraculidae        Umbraculum              N      U
                      umbraculum
                      (Lightfoot, 1786)
Aplysiidae          Aplysia dactylomela     N      R
                      Rang, 1828
                    Aplysia parvula         C      --
                      Guilding in
                      Morch, 1863 *
                    Dolabrifera brazieri    E      R
                      Sowerby, 1870
Dendrodorididae     Dendrodoris fumata      C      --
                      (Ruppell &
                      Leuckart, 1830) *
                    Dendrodoris nigra       N      U
                      (Stimpson, 1855)
Dorididae           Jorunna pantherina      N      R
                      (Angas, 1864)
                    Rostanga arbutus        E      R
                      (Angas, 1864)
Glaucidae           Austraeolis ornata      S      --
                      (Angas, 1864) *
                    Phyllodesmium           C      --
                      serratum (Baba,
                      1949) *
Elysiidae           Elysia maoria           E      --
                      Powell, 1937 *
Limapontiidae       Placida dendritica      S      --
                      (Alder & Hancock,
                      1843) *
Pleurobranchidae    Pleurobranchus          N      --
                      peroni Cuvier,
                      1804 *
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Title Annotation:Research Reports
Author:Murphy, Michael J.
Publication:The Victorian Naturalist
Date:Jun 1, 2015
Words:5459
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