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A survey of non-conventional plant items consumed during periods of food scarcity by low income groups in Atra village of Khulna district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Bangladesh is a small developing country with a population surpassing 150 million and little industrial infrastructure. Agriculture still forms the backbone of the country's economy and the majority of the people live in the 86,000 villages spread throughout the country. There are only four cities within the country, the capital Dhaka being the only mega-city. Although Bangladesh is achieving around 6% GDP growth per year and is on the way of fulfilling a number of the Millennium Development Goals, a vast section of the population, particularly the rural and the urban slum population live under abject poverty. At least 40% of the population live in poverty, and 25% of them are classified to be extremely poor (Holmes et al. 2008). The poverty threshold has been put at an income of less than US$ 1 per day, and it is widely believed that much more of both the rural and urban population does not meet this poverty level income. As a consequence, the caloric intake per person per day is also low, being only 2,122 kilocalories per person per day, as estimated in 2005 (Japan Bank for International Cooperation, 2007). Although poverty is ubiquitously present within the country, incidences of poverty are highest in Khulna Division (Japan Bank for International Cooperation, 2007). A number of factors contribute to this poverty; among them are adverse weather conditions leading to periodic floods or drought, lack of transportation infrastructure, illiteracy, chronic energy crisis which hampers industrial development, and chronic labor unrests (Agricultural Development Bank, 2005).

Land ownership is another factor; 25.2% of people living under extreme poverty are landless, while another 39.2% people owns less than 0.05 acre of land (Japan Bank for International Cooperation, 2007). Since the population is rural, lack of land ownership compels households to work on other people's land as agricultural laborers. Demand for agricultural laborer is not constantly high but peaks only during sowing and harvesting times. At other times of the year, these people are workless and suffer from lack of income leading to food insecurity. At the same time, being situated in rural areas, these people lack the opportunity of finding suitably paid jobs contributing to the level of the unemployed. As a result, these people suffer from food shortages and malnutrition as well as malnutrition-related diseases. Lack of employment in rural areas cause massive migrations to the capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka, where again the people have to do menial jobs under low pay, with inadequate food intake, and living in urban slums under totally unhygienic conditions. It has been documented that women in rural Bangladesh suffer from chronic energy deficiency, which stems from inadequate intake of calories, and this is more prevalent among the rural poor (Ahmed et al. 1998). Women and children are more vulnerable to poverty; the former not only has heavy household chores to perform each day, but also by convention, eats only after male members of the family have been adequately fed. In a survey conducted among 383 pregnant women in poor urban areas of the country, it was observed that 40% of the women were anemic (Ahmed et al. 2003). Moreover, rural poverty has a seasonal dimension in Bangladesh. The wet season with torrential downpours are the causes of heavy flooding, leading to submerging of vast tracts of the country. This annual floods lead to shortages of food even among the affluent landowners and contribute to poverty with consequential lack of adequate intake of staple food items.

The staple food of Bangladesh people is rice, which depending on income level, is taken with vegetables, lentils, fish and meat. During times of food scarcity (which depending on income and land ownership) can be chronic as well as acute, the rural people particularly depend on non-conventional plant items as well as snails and mollusks for their nutritional needs and to satiate their hunger. We have previously documented a number of non-conventional items (mainly plants) consumed during times of food scarcity (Jahan et al. 2010; Biswas and Rahmatullah, 2011; Islam et al. 2011; Paul et al. 2011; Rahmatullah et al. 2011). The objective of this present study was to document the non-conventional plant items consumed by the low income people of Atra village in Khulna district (falling within Khulna Division) of Bangladesh during times of food scarcity.

Materials and Methods

The village of Atra in Khulna district was selected following a preliminary survey of various villages in Khulna district to determine as to which village had a substantial number of poor households and who consumed non-conventional plant items during times of food scarcity. Following selection of Atra village, a survey was made of the village households, and households identified who acknowledged that they had low incomes (at or below the poverty level income of US$ 1 per day) and had to survive on non-conventional plant items during times of inadequate traditional food intake. The households were then interviewed (particularly the head of the household and his wife) as to what plant items they consumed, which can be classified as non-conventional. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and an open-ended interview method where the persons interviewed were allowed to speak at large on their incomes, food availability, non-conventional plant items consumed, and places from where these plant items were collected. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language being spoken by both interviewers and those who were interviewed. The persons who were interviewed were then requested to take the interviewers to places from where they usually collected their non-conventional edible plant items. Plant specimens as pointed out by the interviewed persons were then collected and brought back to be identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka.

Results and Discussion

Most of the people of Atra village were observed to be poor. Very few people owned land above 1 acre per family. The landless people had to depend on the landowners for providing them jobs, which essentially consisted of being agricultural laborers. Even people owning around 1 acre of land admitted that due to seasonal variations and crop failures they had to become occasionally dependent on non-conventional plant items, at least to supplement their daily intake of rice. The poorest section of the Atra village population mentioned that they were dependent on non-conventional edible plant items almost throughout the whole year.

The major cereal diet of the Atra people was rice, which was eaten following boiling, with lentils, vegetables, fish or meat. Meat was eaten even by the affluent households only on several days in a year, these days being festive occasions or arrival of guests. Among meat items, poultry was eaten most frequently followed by beef and then mutton. Fish was cultivated by some landowners who has built ponds on their lands as well as caught from a nearby river. The village had adjoining marshy lands in which small fish could be found and caught and which were also the habitat of a number of non-conventional edible aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. Lentils and vegetables were the major ingredients taken with rice. When rice was available, the poorer households could not afford even lentils or conventional vegetables, but ate rice garnished with slices of onion, or more often, with one or two hot peppers. In these cases, rice was usually put in water following cooking and then the whole thing was taken with onions and hot peppers. The affluent households used spices in their vegetable, lentil, fish and meat preparations along with salt and cooking oil; the poor households used essentially salt and a little oil in their vegetable and lentil dishes.

It was observed that the poor households consumed a total of 36 plant species during times of food scarcity. These plant species were distributed into 25 families. The Fabaceae family contributed the largest number of species at 4, while the Araceae and the Arecaceae family contributed 3 plants each. The various plant species consumed were collected from marshy lands, ponds, fallow lands, land beside roadsides, and the wild. Essentially, the village did not have any wild (forested areas); wild means that these plants grew untended in empty places and were not owned by anybody. One plant part, namely fruits of Nypa fruticans were collected from banks of rivulets flowing by the village, where groves of this plant could be found plentifully.

The Araceae family plants usually grew wild near or within marshy areas. Some households would plant a few of these plants around empty parts of the land where the house stood, but the usual habitat of these plants was areas where the soil had more moisture. This was especially true for Typhonium trilobatum. Amorphophallus campanulatus could be found in groves of coconut or betel nut palms, where they grew untended. The tubers of this plant can cause irritation in the throat; as a result, although the tubers are consumed throughout Bangladesh, this is done occasionally. However, the stems of this plant are not consumed at all during normal times and are not sold commercially. Phoenix sylvestris was both cultivated for its sap from which molasses was made, but also could be found in groves or as scattered palms on lands not owned by anybody. During times of food scarcity, the poorer people would gather fruits from these untended plants. During winter, the sap of this plant was collected to be taken in the juice form or to be converted into molasses.

Ipomoea aquatica was usually collected from the sides of ponds, ditches filled with water, or marshes. The plant is occasionally eaten in Bangladesh as a vegetable, but is considered an inferior variety of vegetable and consumed more by the poorer people of the cities and villages. It grows profusely and was collected quite easily by the poor households of Atra village. The flower sepals of Dillenia indica do not form a part of the usual diet of the people of Bangladesh; their more common uses are taking them in the form of chutney or pickles. In these forms, they are mostly taken for their perceived medicinal values. The seeds of Cajanus cajan are consumed as a lentil soup in Bangladesh but mostly by the poor people; they are considered as an inferior variety of lentil compared to 'masoor' (Lens culinaris) or 'mung' (Vigna radiata), which are the lentils usually consumed. The fruits of Tamarindus indica are taken usually in the pickled form or added to a dish to impart taste; the leaves of this plant are not consumed at all except during times of food scarcity. In fact, consumption of leaves of this plant was a new finding not previously observed in our earlier surveys. Other new findings of non-conventional plant parts included consumption of fruits of Daemonorops jenkinsianus and Nypa fruticans, seeds of Terminalia catappa, leaves of Coccinia cordifolia, fruits of Pithecellobium dulce, flowers of Sesbania grandiflora, and fruits of Flacourtia indica.

Consumption of non-conventional edible plants is not a phenomenon exclusive to Bangladesh, but is practiced by low income people, or people suffering from food scarcity in various parts of the world, particularly Africa. The people of Western Sahel in Africa have been reported to depend upon a number of wild plants as their food source, and this dependency increases during shortages of staple diet under conditions like drought (Cook et al. 2000). In fact, quite often, these non-conventional plants growing in the wild have good or even superior nutritional qualities than conventionally eaten crops. A number of wild plants consumed by the inhabitants of Niger in Africa have been shown to possess good or excellent qualities of proteins, amino acids, minerals, and essential fatty acids (Cook et al. 2000; Freiberger et al. 1998; Sena et al. 1998). Of the 24 indigenous plants consumed by the population of Burkina Faso in Africa (to supplement their daily diet), three plants were reported to have high protein content, four had large amounts of essential fatty acids, three were rich in calcium, and three were rich in iron (Glew et al. 1997). The Ferlo region of Northern Senegal in Africa suffers from seasonal food shortages, particularly of vitamins, because of the existing arid conditions. The population, to overcome this deficiency, consumes 5 indigenous plant species on a large scale and another 20 plant species on a lesser scale (Becker, 1983).

It is quite possible that following appropriate scientific analysis as to their nutritional contents, the non-conventional plants consumed by the low income people of Atra village during times of food scarcity, may prove to be of better nutritional value than the conventionally eaten staple diet of rice with lentils and vegetables. Moreover, it is to be noted, that the non-conventional plants consumed by the people of Atra grow in 'semi-wild' or wild conditions, e.g. in marshy areas or by roadsides and fallow lands. Since they grow untended by themselves without any proper maintenance, application of fertilizers or pesticides, they are more stress tolerant. As a result they can be of enormous significance, when growing conditions are adverse for normal crops. Such conditions are present in many countries of the world throughout the year, and in Bangladesh under adverse weather conditions. Also, it has been predicted that with global climate changes such adverse conditions will increase. As a result, these non-conventional plants merit further scientific studies for they can become crops of the future.

References

Agricultural Development Bank (ADB), 2005. Country Strategy and Program Bangladesh.

Ahmed, F., I. Mahmuda, A. Sattar and M. Akhtaruzzaman, 2003. Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12: 460-466.

Ahmed, S.M., A. Adams, A.M. Chowdhury and A. Bhuiya, 1998. Chronic energy deficiency in women from rural Bangladesh: some socioeconomic determinants. Journal of Biosocial Science, 30: 349-358.

Becker, B., 1983. The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal). Agroforestry Systems, 1: 257-267.

Biswas, K.R. and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of non-conventional plants consumed during times of food scarcity in three adjoining villages of Narail and Jessore districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 1-5.

Cook, J.A., D.J. VanderJagt, A. Pastuszyn, R.S. Glew, G. Mounkaila, M. Millson and R.H. Glew, 2000. Nutrient and chemical composition of 13 wild plant foods of Niger. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 13: 83-92.

Freiberger, C.E., D.J. VanderJagt, A. Pastuszyn, R.S. Glew, G. Mounkaila, M. Millson and R.H. Glew, 1998. Nutrient content of the edible leaves of seven wild plants from Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 53: 57-69.

Glew, R.H., D.J. VanderJagt, C. Lockett, L.E. Grivetti, G.C. Smith, A. Pastuszyn and M. Millson, 1997. Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral composition of 24 indigenous plants of Burkina Faso. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 10: 205-217.

Holmes, R., J. Farrington, T. Rahman and R. Slater, 2008. Extreme poverty in Bangladesh: protecting and promoting rural livelihoods. Project Briefing, No. 15, September 2008. Overseas Development Institute, DFID.

Islam, M.T., P.R. Das, A.F.M.S.B. Mahmud, M.E. Hasan, F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, F. Islam, Z. Khatun, A.R. Chowdhury, M.A. Rahman and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of non-conventional plant items consumed during food scarcity in two randomly selected villages of Kurigram district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 233-239.

Jahan, F.I., M.T. Islam, M. Rajib-ul-Hasan, A.R. Chowdhury, S. Seraj, M.S. Aziz, R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, R. Freedman and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey on non-conventional plant parts consumed during Monga a seasonal famine which affects the northern districts of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 230-236.

Japan Bank for International Cooperation, 2007. Poverty Profile, People's Republic of Bangladesh, Executive Summary.

Paul, A.K., P. Chakma, N. Nahar, M. Akber, D. Ferdausi, S. Ahsan, D. Nasrin, F. Jamal, R. Ahmed and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of non-conventional plant items consumed during times of food scarcity by the Chakma people of Hatimara village of Rangamati district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 87-91.

Rahmatullah, M., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, Z. Khatun, F. Islam, M.M. Sattar, T. Khan, T. Ishika, M. Rahman and R. Jahan, 2011. Correlation between non-conventional plants consumed during food scarcity and their folk medicinal usages: a case study in two villages of Kurigram district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 240-246.

Sena, L.P., D.J. VanderJagt, C. Rivera, A.T.C. Tsin, I. Muhamadu, O. Mahamadou, M. Millson, A. Pastuszyn and R.H. Glew, 1998. Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 52: 17-30.

(1) Anita Paul, (2) Sadique Mohammad Arif, (2) Sujit Biswas, (1) Muhammad Tazul Islam, (2) Md. Hasan Al Arif, (2) Shuvagata Kahali, (1) Alok Kumar Paul, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

(2) Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.

Anita Paul, Sadique Mohammad Arif, Sujit Biswas, Muhammad Tazul Islam, Md. Hasan Al Arif, Shuvagata Kahali, Alok Kumar Paul, Mohammed Rahmatullah: A survey of non-conventional plant items consumed during periods of food scarcity by low income groups in Atra village of Khulna district, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh

E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com

Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Non-conventional plant items consumed by the poor
people of Atra village in Khulna district, Bangladesh during
times of food scarcity.

Plant name                  Family             Local name

Hygrophila auriculata       Acanthaceae        Kule khara,
(Schum.) Heyne English:                        Talmakhna
Hygrophila

Alternanthera sessilis      Amaranthaceae      Malancha
(L.) R. Br. ex DC.
English: Sessile
joyweed

Amaranthus spinosus         Amaranthaceae      Kata shak,
L. English: Spiny                              Kata notey
amaranth

Spondias pinnata            Anacardiaceae      Pati amra
(L. f.) Kurz. English:
Wild mango

Amorphophallus              Araceae            Ol kochu, Ol
campanulatus Blume.
English:  Elephant foot
yam

Colocasia esculenta         Araceae            Kochu
(L.) Schott English:
Green taro

Typhonium trilobatum        Araceae            Ghatkul,
(L.) Schott. English:                          Ghetkun
Bengal arum

Daemonorops jenkinsianus    Arecaceae          Gola beth
(Griff.) Mart. English:
Dragon's blood palm

Nypa fruticans Wurmb.       Arecaceae          Golpata
English: Nipah palm

Phoenix  sylvestris         Arecaceae          Khejur
(L.) Roxb. English:
Wild date palm

Enhydra fluctuans           Asteraceae         Helencha
Lour. English: Water
cress

Chenopodium album L.        Chenopodiaceae     Beto shak
English: White goosefoot

Terminalia catappa L.       Combretaceae       Kat badam
English: tropical almond

Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.     Convolvulaceae     Kolmi shak
English: Swamp morning
glory

Ipomoea batatas (L.)        Convolvulaceae     Mishti alu
Lam. English: Sweet
potato

Coccinia cordifolia         Cucurbitaceae      Telakucha
(L.) Cogn. English:

Ivy gourd

Dillenia indica L.          Dilleniaceae       Chalta
English: Elephant apple

Dioscorea esculenta         Dioscoreaceae      Maetae alu
(Lour.) Burkill
English: Lesser yam

Dryopteris filix-mas L.     Dryopteridaceae    Dheki shak
English: Common male
fern

Phyllanthus acidus (L.)     Euphorbiaceae      Noal, Orboroi
Skeels English: Malay
gooseberry

Cajanus cajan (L.)          Fabaceae           Orhorer dal
Millsp. English: Pigeon
pea

Pithecellobium dulce        Fabaceae           Khoya babla,
(Roxb.) Benth.                                 Jilapi fol
English: Monkeypod                             gach

Sesbania grandiflora        Fabaceae           Bokful
(L.) Pers. English:
August flower

Tamarindus indica L.        Fabaceae           Tetul
English: Tamarind

Glinus oppositifolius       Molluginaceae      Gima shak
(l.) A. DC. English:
Slender carpetweed

A rtocarpus lakoocha        Moraceae           Deua fol
Wall. ex Roxb. English:
Lakoocha

Ficus hispida L.            Moraceae           Dumur
English: Hairy fig

Syzygium fruticosum         Myrtaceae          Khudi jam
(Roxb.) DC. English:
Water apple

Syzygium syzygioides        Myrtaceae          Khori jam
(Miq.) Merr. & L.M.
Perry English: James'
catseye

Nymphaea nouchali Burm.     Nyphaeaceae        Shapla
f. English: Red and
blue water lily

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.       Onagraceae         Pani fol
English: Water chestnut

Oxalis corniculata L.       Oxalidaceae        Ambali shak
English: Wood sorrel)

Ziziphus mauritiana         Rhamnaceae         Boroi
Lam. English: Indian
jujube

Flacourtia indica           Salicaceae         Dunkhar
(Burm. f.) Merr.
English: Governor's plum

Bacopa monnieri (L.)        Scrophulariaceae   Brahmi shak
Penn. English: Water
hyssop

Centella asiatica (L.)      Umbelliferae       Thankuni
Urb. English: Indian
pennywort

Plant name                  Parts eaten       Mode of consumption

Hygrophila auriculata       Leaf,             Cooked in the form
(Schum.) Heyne English:     new stems         of vegetable, fried.
Hygrophila

Alternanthera sessilis      Leaf,             Cooked in the
(L.) R. Br. ex DC.          new stems         form of vegetable,
English: Sessile                              fried, boiled in
joyweed                                       water and taken as
                                              soup.

Amaranthus spinosus         Leaf, fresh       Fried, boiled in
L. English: Spiny           stems             water and taken as
amaranth                                      soup.

Spondias pinnata            Fruit pulp,       Taken as juice or
(L. f.) Kurz. English:      fresh new         boiled in water and
Wild mango                  leaves            taken as soup.

Amorphophallus              Stem, tuber       Cooked in the form
campanulatus Blume.                           of vegetable,
English:  Elephant foot                       fried. Tubers are
yam                                           also boiled in
                                              water and taken in
                                              the mashed form.

Colocasia esculenta         Leaf, rhizome     Cooked in the form
(L.) Schott English:                          of vegetable, fried.
Green taro

Typhonium trilobatum        Leaf              Cooked in the form
(L.) Schott. English:                         of vegetable,
Bengal arum                                   fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup.

Daemonorops jenkinsianus    Ripe fruit        Eaten raw when
(Griff.) Mart. English:                       fresh.
Dragon's blood palm

Nypa fruticans Wurmb.       Fruit pulp        Eaten raw when
English: Nipah palm                           fresh.

Phoenix  sylvestris         Pulp of ripe      Eaten raw.
(L.) Roxb. English:         fruit
Wild date palm

Enhydra fluctuans           Leaf, new         Cooked in the form
Lour. English: Water        stems             of vegetable,
cress                                         fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup.

Chenopodium album L.        Leaf, new         Cooked in the form
English: White goosefoot    stems             of vegetable,
                                              fried, boiled in
                                              water with tamarind
                                              and taken as soup.

Terminalia catappa L.       Seed              Seeds are eaten in
English: tropical almond                      the raw form.

Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.     Leaf, new         Cooked in the form
English: Swamp morning      stems             of vegetable,
glory                                         fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup.

Ipomoea batatas (L.)        Tuber             Boiled in water
Lam. English: Sweet                           and taken in the
potato                                        mashed form.

Coccinia cordifolia         Leaf              Juice obtained from
(L.) Cogn. English:                           macerated leaves is
                                              taken raw or leaves
                                              are cooked as curry
Ivy gourd                                     with taki fish
                                              (Spotted snakehead
                                              or Chana punctata).
                                              Note that this fish
                                              can be found in
                                              abundance in marshes
                                              and small water
                                              bodies like ponds.

Dillenia indica L.          Flower sepal      Boiled in water and
English: Elephant apple                       taken as soup or
                                              eaten raw mixed
                                              with salt and other
                                              spices.

Dioscorea esculenta         Tuber             Cooked in the form
(Lour.) Burkill                               of vegetable,
English: Lesser yam                           fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup.

Dryopteris filix-mas L.     Leaf, new stem    Cooked in the form
English: Common male                          of vegetable, fried.
fern

Phyllanthus acidus (L.)     Fruit             Taken raw with
Skeels English: Malay                         salt, boiled in
gooseberry                                    water and taken as
                                              soup.

Cajanus cajan (L.)          Seed              Boiled in water and
Millsp. English: Pigeon                       taken as soup.
pea

Pithecellobium dulce        Fruit             Eaten raw.
(Roxb.) Benth.
English: Monkeypod

Sesbania grandiflora        Flower            Eaten in the fried
(L.) Pers. English:                           form.
August flower

Tamarindus indica L.        New leaf,         Boiled in water
English: Tamarind           fruit pulp        and taken as soup.

Glinus oppositifolius       Leaf, new stem    Cooked in the form
(l.) A. DC. English:                          of vegetable, fried.
Slender carpetweed

A rtocarpus lakoocha        Fruit  pulp       Boiled in water
Wall. ex Roxb. English:     (available        and taken as soup.
Lakoocha                    during the
                            winter season)

Ficus hispida L.            Barks of          Cooked in the form
English: Hairy fig          floral stem       of vegetable or
                                              boiled in water and
                                              taken as soup.

Syzygium fruticosum         Fruit pulp        Eaten with salt.
(Roxb.) DC. English:
Water apple

Syzygium syzygioides        Fruit pulp        Eaten with salt.
(Miq.) Merr. & L.M.
Perry English: James'
catseye

Nymphaea nouchali Burm.     Flower stems,     Cooked in the form
f. English: Red and         seeds             of vegetable,
blue water lily                               fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup. Seeds are
                                              also eaten in the
                                              puffed form.

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.       Fruit pulp        Taken raw or fried.
English: Water chestnut

Oxalis corniculata L.       Leaf              Cooked in the form
English: Wood sorrel)                         of vegetable,
                                              fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup.

Ziziphus mauritiana         Fruit             Taken raw when
Lam. English: Indian                          ripe; unripe fruits
jujube                                        are taken in the
                                              pickled form with
                                              salt and other
                                               spices.

Flacourtia indica           Fruit pulp        Taken raw when
(Burm. f.) Merr.                              fresh.
English: Governor's plum

Bacopa monnieri (L.)        Leaf, new         Cooked in the form
Penn. English: Water        stems             of vegetable,
hyssop                                        fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup.

Centella asiatica (L.)      Leaf              Cooked in the form
Urb. English: Indian                          of vegetable,
pennywort                                     fried, boiled in
                                              water and taken as
                                              soup, or sometimes
                                              eaten raw.
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Author:Paul, Anita; Arif, Sadique Mohammad; Biswas, Sujit; Islam, Muhammad Tazul; Arif, Md. Hasan Al; Kahal
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jul 1, 2012
Words:4014
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