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A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi Villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal District, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Traditional medicine in various cultures approaches cure of diseases from a holistic view point where the human being and the ailments that he is suffering from is dynamically related to his culture, biota, and the environment.

Instead of a simple patient-disease-medicine concept; the traditional healer takes a number of factors into account including the patient's cultural beliefs, his ancestry, and various inter-related socioeconomic and psychological factors, which may have contributed to the disease process. As such, treatment can be simple or often complicated. Folk medicinal healers are a group of traditional medicinal healers who usually rely on simple procedures for treatment of diverse ailments. The major weapon of folk medicinal healers of Bangladesh, otherwise known as Kavirajes, is use of medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. A single plant or plant part or a combination of plants or plant parts are used in the form of decoctions, paste, or pills and administered to the patient orally or topically depending on the disease. The proficiency that a Kaviraj attains during his practice is obtained from a member of the immediate family from an earlier generation, and is supplemented with knowledge that the Kaviraj gains from his practice, and is passed to an immediate member of the next generation or to a trusted disciple. With time, the medicinal plants used by Kavirajes become highly divergent and can vary immensely between Kavirajes of even adjacent areas.

Our ethnomedicinal surveys carried out amongst different tribes and in various regions of the country strongly point to such divergent uses of medicinal plants by the Kavirajes (Rahmatullah et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009; Mia et al., 2009). Since Bangladesh has over 86,000 villages, with nearly each village containing one or more Kavirajes (depending on the village population), it is important to survey as many villages as possible to get a comprehensive view of medicinal plant usage by the Kavirajes.

In many cases, the sources of modern drugs have been plants used by indigenous people (Cotton, 1996). The medicinal plants used by traditional healers have a history of usage which dates back centuries ago. It has been shown that the average success rate of obtaining new medicines from plant sources is 1 in 125 (McCaleb, 1997), while the success rate of obtaining efficacious medicines from synthetic chemicals is about 1 in 10,000 (Chadwick and Marsh, 1994). Since the advent of modern or allopathic medicine, researchers had for the most part overlooked medicinal plants. However, in recent years, the emphasis is shifting back to medicines from plant sources, because of the emergence of various drug-resistant microorganisms, serious side-effects observed with a number of modern drugs, and because modern medicine does not have any effective cures for diseases like diabetes and arthritis, to name only two common diseases affecting millions of people throughout the world today.

The objective of the present study was to conduct a randomized ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of two villages, namely Paschim Shawra and Palordi in Gaurnadi Upazila of Barisal district, Bangladesh. Since village Kavirajes form the primary sources of such ethnomedicinal information, these particular villages were selected following a preliminary survey of villages in the area. In the preliminary survey, it was observed that the villages with a population approaching three thousand was serviced by three Kavirajes, who were noted for their practices in both the villages as well as adjoining areas. The villages also had both primary and secondary forests in the general area, which formed effective pools of medicinal plants, which were collected and used by the Kavirajes.

Materials and Methods

Area of Survey:

Gaurnadi Upazila (22.9736[degrees]N, 90.2306[degrees]E ) lies in the south-western part of Bangladesh and is part of Barisal Division. The Upazila (sub-district) has an area of 144.14 square kilometers. The annual average temperatures range from a high of 33.3[degrees]C to a minimum of 12.1[degrees]C; annual rainfall is 2506 mm. The villages surveyed, namely, Paschim Shawra and Palordi lie within Chandshi Union of Gaurnadi Upazila. Agriculture (35.74%) and agricultural laborer (25.62%) forms the main occupation of the village people.

Data Collection and Mode of Survey:

Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gauranadi Upazila were serviced by three Kavirajes namely Debola Nag, Md. Ahsanullah and Ramprassad. Initially, informed consent was obtained from each Kaviraj. The Kavirajes were informed about the purpose of the survey and consent taken for dissemination of the obtained data both nationally and internationally. Surveys were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field walks method as described by Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, one or more Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants.

Plants were pointed out to the interviewers along with provision of local names and description of their uses. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were collected on the spot, dried, and brought to Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification.

Result:

It was observed that the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages used 51 plants for treatment of various ailments. These plants were classified as belonging to 33 families. The Fabaceae family contributed 6 plants, followed by the Lamiaceae with 4 plants, and Lythraceae and Zingiberaceae families with 3 plants per family. The results are summarized in Table 1. With the exception of certain plants, most plants were collected from the wild (62.75%), which included primary forests, secondary vegetative growth, and weeds, that would grow by the wayside, around homesteads, or on fields in between cultivation. The plants that were cultivated for commercial purposes as well as used as medicinal plants included Spondias pinnata (J.G. Konig ex L. f.) Kurz., Ananas sativus Schult. & Schult. f., Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq., Momordica charantia L., Manihot esculenta Crantz., Lawsonia inermis L., Punica granatum L., Piper betle L., Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Santalum album L., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Curcuma longa L., Tamarindus indica L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were cultivated for their rhizomes, which were also used as spices, and Piper betle cultivated, because the leaves were chewed by a substantial number of the village population as a habit.

The Kavirajes, in their formulations, used virtually all plant parts, but not necessarily from the same plant or plants. The various plant parts used included whole plants, leaves, stems, barks, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, gum, and rhizomes. Leaves constituted the major plant part used (43%), followed by whole plants (12%), rhizomes (6%). The results are shown in Table 2.

The mode of preparation of plants or plant parts for oral or topical administration was juice (extracted through crushing of the plant, e.g. Justicia adhatoda), powder of dried plant part(s) (e.g. leaf of Mucuna pruriens and Aristolochia indica), paste (e.g. Lawsonia inermis), or boiled plant or plant part e.g. Spondias pinnata. When fruits were used as medication, for the most part, the patients were advised to consume the fruit directly (e.g, Amomum subulatum). Usually skin disorders, cuts and wounds (sometimes accompanied by bleeding) had topical applications, while in the case of other ailments, administration was usually oral.

It was noted that a plant or plant part may be administered in combination with other plant part(s) or substances. For example, juice obtained from leaves of Justicia adhatoda was orally administered with honey for treatment of coughs. Juice obtained from macerated leaves of Litsea glutinosa was mixed with molasses and taken on an empty stomach for the treatment of stomach ache, debility, constipation, and flatulence. For treatment of jaundice, Glycosmis pentaphylla roots were fretted with stone and taken with raw milk and molasses; for infections, crushed roots were applied to affected areas. Again juice obtained from macerated whole plant of Eclipta alba was taken with coconut water for jaundice. Juice obtained from crushed leaves of Ananas sativus was taken with lime water to treat helmintic infestations. Powder from dried leaves and stems of Stephania glabra was mixed with cold water and honey and taken orally for the treatment of gout and arthritis. Powder from bark or wood of Santalum album was mixed with coconut fruit pulp and taken regularly as remedy for leucorrhea.

For the most part, a single plant part was observed to be used for treatment of a single or multiple ailments. For instance, the leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used for treatment of a single ailment, namely asthma. On the other hand, whole plant of Centella asiatica was used for the treatment of indigestion, flatulence, helminthiasis, and diarrhea. Occasionally, two different plant parts from the same plant may be used for treatment of two different ailments. To cite one instance, juice from young leaves of Punica granatum was topically applied to infections of inter-digital space of feet, while bark was boiled in water and the decoction was mixed with sugar and taken orally to treat blood dysentery.

There were a few instances of a combination of plant parts used for treatment of a single or multiple ailments. For skin diseases, crushed leaves of Azadirachta indica were mixed with macerated rhizomes of Curcuma longa and applied topically to affected areas. Again vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos was used to treat long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature.

Discussion:

Studies on the indigenous or folk medicinal use of medicinal plants are important from the scientific point of view in that it enables rapid scientific studies towards finding and development of newer drugs from centuries old practical use-derived knowledge of medicinal plants. In the present study, it was observed that a considerable number of plants on which scientific studies have been conducted are validated in their uses by the Kavirajes. Table 3 shows that plants like Andrographis paniculata, Justicia adhatoda, Ipomoea mauritiana, Centella asiatica, Alstonia scholaris, Ocimum gratissimum, Mikania cordata and Mucuna pruriens have been studied in greater details and the findings are well in agreement with their folk medicinal uses in the two villages of Gaurnadi Upazila.

It may be pointed out in this respect, that not all medicinal plants reported by the Kavirajes have been studied yet; in fact, scientific studies on most plants remain preliminary at the best and there is an enormous potential for conducting further scientific experiments regarding their pharmacological activities and their phytochemical constituents. Doubtlessly, more studies have the probability of validating the uses of more medicinal plants reported in the present survey.

The second aspect that is of concern is that most medicinal plants are rapidly becoming endangered in their wild habitat. Serious efforts need to be made for their conservation and rapid scientific studies, before they become highly endangered or totally extinct. It is hoped that this ethnomedicinal survey shall lead to wider public and Governmental recognition of these medicinal plant species and spur conservation efforts towards saving both plants and the folk medicinal knowledge.

References

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(1) Anup Biswas, (1) Wahid Mozammel Haq, (2) Mira Akber, (1) Dilara Ferdausi, (1) Syeda Seraj, (1) Farhana Israt Jahan, (1) Anita Rani Chowdhury, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh. (2) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.

Anup Biswas, Wahid Mozammel Haq, Mira Akber, Dilara Ferdausi, Syeda Seraj, Farhana Israt Jahan, Anita Rani Chowdhury, Mohammed Rahmatullah: A Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi Villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal District, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Mohammed Rahmatullah, University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh

Fax: 88-02-8157339

E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Paschim
Shawra and Palordi villages, Gaurnadi Upazila,
Barisal district, Bangladesh.

Serial     Scientific Name   Family Name        Local Name
Number

1          Andrographis      Acanthaceae        Kalomegh
           paniculata
           (Burm. F.)
           Wall. ex Nees

2          Justicia          Acanthaceae        Bashok
           adhatoda L.

3          Aloe              Aloaceae           Ghritokumari
           barbadensis
           Mill.

4          Spondias          Anacardiaceae      Amra
           pinnata (J.G.
           Konig ex L. f.)
           Kurz.

5          Alstonia          Apocynaceae        Chaitan
           scholaris (L.)
           R.Br.

6          Aristolochia      Aristolochiaceae   Icha
           indica L.

7          Eclipta alba      Asteraceae         Khuchkhuchia
           (L.) Hassk.

8          Mikania cordata   Asteraceae         Refugee
           (Burm.f.) B. L.
           Robinson

9          Ananas sativus    Bromeliaceae       Anarosh
           Schult. &
           Schult. f

10         Ipomoea           Convolvulaceae     Bhui kumra
           mauritiana
           Jacq.

11         Kalanchoe         Crassulaceae       Pathorkuchi
           pinnata (Lam.)
           Pers.

12         Coccinia          Cucurbitaceae      Telakochu
           grandis (L.) J.
           Voigt

13         Momordica         Cucurbitaceae      Korola
           charantia L.

14         Manihot           Euphorbiaceae      Kasaba
           esculenta
           Crantz.

15         Adenanthera       Fabaceae           Rokto chondon
           pavonina L.

16         Cassia alata L.   Fabaceae           Daudraj

17         Cassia tora L.    Fabaceae           Charkada

18         Mucuna pruriens   Fabaceae           Alkushie
           (L.) DC.

19         Tamarindus        Fabaceae           Tetul
           indica L.

20         Saraca asoca      Fabaceae           Ashok
           (Roxb.) De
           Wilde.

21         Clerodendrum      Lamiaceae          Vaidir gach
           viscosum Vent.

22         Ocimum            Lamiaceae          Babu tulshi
           gratissimum L.

23         Ocimum            Lamiaceae          Krishna tulshi
           tenuiflorum L.

24         Litsea            Lauraceae          Lode piple
           glutinosa
           (Lour.)
           C.D.Robins.

25         Couroupita        Lecythidaceae      Naglingam
           guianensis
           Aubl.

26         Lagerstroemia     Lythraceae         Jarul
           speciosa (L.)
           Pers.

27         Lawsonia          Lythraceae         Mendi
           inermis L.

28         Punica            Lythraceae         Dalim
           granatum
           L.

29         Abelmoschus       Malvaceae          Lota kosturi
           moschatus
           Medik.

30         Azadirachta       Meliaceae          Neem
           indica A. Juss.

31         Stephania         Menispermaceae     Pir guruch
           glabra Miers

32         Ficus hispida     Moraceae           Dumur
           L.f.

33         Boerhaavia        Nyctaginaceae      Punnalova
           diffusa L.

34         Piper betle L.    Piperaceae         Paan

35         Plumbago          Plumbaginaceae     Rokto chita
           indica L.

36         Neolamarckia      Rubiaceae          Kodom
           cadamba (Roxb.)
           Bosser

37         Aegle marmelos    Rutaceae           Bel
           (L.) Corr.

38         Glycosmis         Rutaceae           Aidoli
           pentaphylla
           (Retz.) Corr.

39         Santalum          Santalaceae        Shet chondon
           album L.

40         Madhuca indica    Sapotaceae         Mohua
           J.F. Gmel.

41         Bacopa monnieri   Scrophulariaceae   Brammoni
           (L.) Pennell

42         Scoparia dulcis   Scrophulariaceae   Michripana
           L.

43         Smilax            Smilacaceae        Kumari lota
           zeylanica L.

44         Solanum           Solanaceae         Kontikari
           xanthocarpum
           Schrad. &
           Wendl.

45         Abroma augusta    Sterculiaceae      Ulot kombol
           L.f.

46         Centella          Umbelliferae       Thankuni
           asiatica (L.)
           Urb.

47         Nyctanthes        Verbenaceae        Shefali
           arbor tristis
           L.

48         Phyla nodiflora   Verbenaceae        Koi okra
           (L.) Greene

49         Amomum            Zingiberaceae      Boro elach
           subulatum Roxb.

50         Curcuma longa     Zingiberaceae      Holud
           L.

51         Zingiber          Zingiberaceae      Ada
           officinale
           Roscoe

Serial     Utilize Part      Ailment
Number

1          Whole plant,      Fever, intestinal and hepatic disorders.
           leaf              Juice obtained from macerated leaves is
                             given during fever; the whole plant is
                             orally administered for intestinal and
                             hepatic disorders.

                             Long-term fever with abnormally high
                             body temperature. Vegetable soup made
                             from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora,
                             Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum
                             xanthocarpum, along with leaves of
                             Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor
                             tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle
                             marmelos is taken orally twice daily for
                             1 week.

2          Leaf              Upper respiratory tract infections,
                             chest pain with coughs, bronchitis. Leaf
                             juice is taken twice daily for 7 days.
                             When administered to infants, honey may
                             be added.

                             Long-term fever with abnormally high
                             body temperature.

                             Vegetable soup made from whole plants of
                             Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis
                             paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum,
                             along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda,
                             Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania
                             glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken
                             orally twice daily for 1 week.

3          Leaf              Debility (general weakness), high blood
                             pressure, gastrointestinal problems
                             (irregular stool emanation).

                             The soft pulp from leaves is taken
                             orally.

4          Leaf, bark        Blood dysentery, dysentery. Bark or leaf
                             is boiled in water.

                             Two teaspoonful of the decoction is
                             taken with sugar for 3-4 days.

5          Bark              Malaria (symptoms: fever with chill and
                             body ache), fever.

                             Barks are soaked overnight in water, and
                             the water is taken orally in the morning
                             on an empty stomach.

6          Leaf              Internal body injury, body ache, cancer,
                             external tumor, asthma (symptoms:
                             breathing difficulty with whistling
                             sound). Dried leaf powder is added to
                             milk and taken for 2 months.

7          Whole plant       Jaundice (symptoms: abdominal pain,
                             bitter taste in mouth, loss of
                             appetite), leucorrhea (symptoms:
                             discharge of whitish mucous material
                             from vagina or urethra). Juice obtained
                             from macerated whole plant is taken with
                             coconut water for jaundice. Juice from
                             macerated whole plant is taken with
                             sugar every morning before breakfast for
                             leucorrhea.

8          Leaf, stem        Gastric problems (symptoms: abdominal
                             pain with continuous gas emission),
                             bleeding from cuts and wounds. One cup
                             of juice obtained from macerated leaves
                             and stems is taken orally for gastric
                             problems. Juice obtained from macerated
                             leaves and stems is applied to cuts and
                             wounds to stop bleeding.

9          Leaf (white       Helminthiasis (symptoms: excessive
           part)             salivation, abdominal pain). Juice
                             obtained from crushed leaves is taken
                             with 2 drops of lime water once daily (2
                             teaspoonful) for 3 days.

10         Rhizome           Heart diseases (symptoms: chest pain),
                             sexual weakness.

11         Leaf Diarrhea     Rhizomes are cooked and eaten as
           (symptoms:        vegetable. movements), irregular
           frequent and      urination, dysuria or urinary tract
           watery bowel      infection (symptoms: sudden abdominal
                             pain, burning sensations in urinary
                             tract). Juice obtained from macerated
                             leaves is taken orally with salt in the
                             morning on an empty stomach thrice daily
                             for 21 days.

12         Whole plant       Diabetes (symptoms: frequent urination),
                             dysentery (symptoms: intestinal cramping
                             or disturbances). Juice obtained from
                             macerated whole plant is taken orally (1
                             cup) in the morning on an empty stomach.
                             To increase palatability, sugar may be
                             added.

13         Leaf              Severe diarrhea, dysentery, acidity,
                             blood purifier. Two teaspoonful of juice
                             obtained from macerated leaves is taken
                             orally for 7 days.

14         Leaf, tuber       Debility, to boost up immune system
                             after long-term fever. Leaves are cooked
                             and taken as vegetable. Tubers can be
                             eaten directly.

15         Wood              Blood purifier. Powder from dried wood
                             is taken orally.

16         Leaf              Skin diseases like tinea infections
                             (symptoms: persistent itching appearing
                             as discolored skin patches), scabies,
                             and herpes. Crushed leaves are applied
                             topically to affected areas of skin once
                             daily for 10 days.

17         Seed              Tinea infections (symptoms: persistent
                             itching and skin irritation), itches.
                             Fine powder obtained from crushed seeds
                             is applied topically to affected areas
                             with a few drops of oil.

18         Leaf, seed        Neurological disorder (symptoms: memory
                             loss due to ageing), acidity, debility,
                             diabetes, anemia, ageing, burning
                             sensation or pain in the stomach after
                             one to four hours following a meal,
                             polyuria. Powder from crushed leaves or
                             seeds is taken orally with tea or
                             coffee. Mature seedsare also cooked and
                             taken as vegetable.

19         Leaf of young     Dysentery, severe diarrhea, whooping
           tree before       cough (symptoms: presence of mucus,
           fruiting          prolonged cough, noise during
                             breathingafter cough), chest pain. Juice
                             obtained from macerated leaves is taken
                             with table salt thrice daily for 1
                             sweek.

20         Bark              Inflammation occurring through insect
                             bites with subsequent infections,
                             menstrual problems, wounds. Bark juice
                             is taken once every morning for 14 days
                             for menstrual problems. Bark juice is
                             applied to affected areas in case of
                             insect bites.

21         Leaf              Sialorrhea or ptyalism (symptoms:
                             excessive salivation), helminthiasis
                             (symptoms: abdominal pain). Pellets made
                             from crushed leaves are taken once daily
                             for 7 days.

22         Leaf              Chest pain, coughs, and respiratory
                             tract infections (symptoms: chest pain
                             and coughs with sputum, mucus in stool).
                             Juice obtained from macerated leaves is
                             taken thrice daily for 7 days.

23         Leaf              Respiratory tract infections (symptoms:
                             long-term cold and coughs). Juice
                             obtained from macerated leaves istaken
                             thrice daily for 7 days.

24         Leaf              Stomach ache, debility, constipation,
                             flatulence. Juice obtained from
                             macerated leaves is mixed with molasses
                             and taken on an empty stomach once daily
                             for 7 days.

25         Leaf, bark        Snake bite. Macerated mixture of leaf
                             and bark is appliedto bitten area.

26         Leaf              Diabetes (symptoms: frequent urination
                             with polyuria, i.e. large volumes of
                             urine). Juice obtained from macerated
                             leaves is taken once daily.

27         Leaf              To keep head cool (symptoms: getting
                             excited over a trifle matter). Crushed
                             leaves are soaked in water and applied
                             to scalp.

28         Immature leaf,    Infections of inter-digital space of
           bark              feet, blood dysentery. uice from young
                             leaves is applied to infections. Bark is
                             boiled in water and the decoction is
                             mixed with sugar. Two teaspoonfuls of
                             the mixture is taken thrice daily for
                             3-4 days for blood dysentery.

29         Leaf, seed        Sexual weakness, cancer. Powder obtained
                             from dried leaf or seed is taken orally
                             with tea or coffee.

30         Leaf              Skin diseases like scabies (symptoms:
                             persistent itching with skin
                             irritations), eczema, gum diseases
                             (loosening of tooth, tooth ache). For
                             skin diseases, crushed leaves of
                             Azadirachta indica are mixed with
                             macerated rhizomes of Curcuma longa and
                             applied topically to affected areas. For
                             gum diseases, powder obtained from dried
                             leaves are taken with rice or applied to
                             base of tooth.

31         Leaf, stem        Gout, arthritis
                             (symptoms: pain and
                             stiffness in toe),
                             leucorrhea
                             (symptoms: discharge
                             of white mucous
                             material from the
                             vagina). Powder from
                             dried leaves and
                             stems is mixed with
                             cold water and
                             honey. One
                             teaspoonful of the
                             mixture is taken
                             twice daily for 2
                             weeks. Long-term
                             fever with
                             abnormally high body
                             temperature.
                             Vegetable soup made
                             from whole plants of
                             Phyla nodiflora,
                             Andrographis
                             paniculata, and
                             Solanum
                             xanthocarpum, along
                             with leaves of
                             Justicia adhatoda,
                             Nyctanthes arbor
                             tristis, Stephania
                             glabra, and Aegle
                             marmelos is taken
                             orally twice daily
                             for 1 week.

32         Mucilage (gum),   Persistent itching,
           fruit             skin irritation,
                             swelling,
                             inflammation. Gum is
                             topically applied to
                             affected areas.
                             Fruits are cooked
                             and eaten as
                             vegetable.

33         Leaf, stem        Anemia (symptoms:
                             paleness of body,
                             fatigue),
                             inflammation,
                             irregular urination.
                             Two teaspoonful of
                             juice obtained from
                             crushed leaves are
                             taken orally.
                             Alternately, leaves
                             and stems are cooked
                             and eaten as
                             vegetable.

34         Young leaf        Skin diseases like tinea infections,
                             scabies, herpes (symptoms: persistent
                             itching, painful blisters on the skin).
                             Crushed leaves are applied to affected
                             areas twice daily for 7 days.

35         Leaf              Blood purifier. Young leaves are taken
                             orally.

36         Young leaf        Gastric problem (symptoms: generalized
                             abdominal pain, especially due to
                             acidity). Juice obtained from macerated
                             leaves is taken with salt twice daily
                             for 7 days.

37         Leaf              Long-term fever with abnormally high
                             body temperature. Vegetable soup made
                             from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora,
                             Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum
                             xanthocarpum, along with leaves of
                             Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor
                             tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle
                             marmelos is taken orally twice daily for
                             1 week.

38         Root              Jaundice (symptoms: yellowing of the
                             skin, bitter taste of edible things,
                             abdominal pain, whiteness of eyes), any
                             kind of infection. For jaundice, roots
                             are fretted with stone and taken with
                             raw milk and molasses for 3-4 days. For
                             infections, crushed roots are applied to
                             affected areas.

39         Bark, wood        Leucorrhea (symptoms: discharge of
                             mucous material from vagina), sexual
                             weakness (symptoms: passing of semen in
                             urine). Powder from bark or wood is
                             mixed with coconut fruit pulp and taken
                             regularly.

40         Leaf              Flatulence. Powder obtained from dried
                             leaves is taken orally with honey.

41         Leaf              Loss of memory (symptoms: mental
                             distress, loss of thinking ability.
                             Juice from macerated leaves is taken
                             orally with raw milk once daily for 7
                             days.

42         Whole plant       Aphrodisiac, sexual disorders (passing
                             of semen in urine), dysentery, and
                             diabetes (symptoms: frequent urination).
                             Juice obtained from macerated whole
                             plant is taken orally once daily on an
                             empty stomach for 7 days.

43         Stem              Gonorrhea (symptoms: infrequent and
                             painful urination, pain around the
                             urethra), loss of libido (symptoms:
                             reduced sexual desire), diabetes. Stem
                             is chewed; alternately, juice obtained
                             from macerated stem is taken orally.

44         Whole plant       Long-term fever with abnormally high
                             body temperature. Vegetable soup made
                             from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora,
                             Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum
                             xanthocarpum, along with leaves of
                             Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor
                             tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle
                             marmelos is taken orally twice daily for
                             1 week.

45         Leaf, flower,     Leucorrhea (symptoms: discharge of
           root              whitish mucous material from vagina),
                             problem with urination (symptoms:
                             burning sensations in the urinary
                             tract), menstrual problems. Juice
                             obtained from a mixture of macerated
                             leaves and flowers is taken for 7-14
                             days for leucorrhea. Roots are sliced
                             and soaked in water overnight. The water
                             is taken the following morning. This is
                             continued for 7 days for treatment of
                             problem with urination and menstrual
                             problems.

46         Whole plant       Indigestion, flatulence, helminthiasis,
                             diarrhea. V cup of juice obtained from
                             macerated whole plant is taken orally
                             every morning on an empty stomach.
                             Alternately, the whole plant is cooked
                             and eaten as vegetable.

47         Leaf              Long-term fever, night fever, weight
                             loss. Juice obtained from macerated
                             leaves is taken orally once daily till
                             cure. Long-term fever with abnormally
                             high body temperature. Vegetable soup
                             made from whole plants of Phyla
                             nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and
                             Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves
                             of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor
                             tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle
                             marmelos is taken orally twice daily for
                             1 week.

48         Whole plant       Long-term fever with abnormally high
                             body temperature. Vegetable soup made
                             from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora,
                             Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum
                             xanthocarpum, along with leaves of
                             Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor
                             tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle
                             marmelos is taken orally twice daily for
                             1 week.

49         Fruit             Loss of taste, e.g. after fever,
                             appetizer. Fruits are eaten.

50         Rhizome           Skin diseases like scabies (symptoms:
                             persistent itching with skin
                             irritations), eczema, gum diseases
                             (loosening of tooth, tooth ache). For
                             skin diseases, crushed leaves of
                             Azadirachta indica are mixed with
                             macerated rhizomes of Curcuma longa and
                             applied topically to affected areas. kin
                             diseases (symptoms: persistent itching
                             and skin irritation), scabies, boils.
                             Crushed rhizomes are topically applied
                             to affected areas.

51         Rhizome           Abdominal pain, dry cough. % teaspoonfil
                             of juice obtained from crushed rhizome
                             is taken orally.

Table 2: Percent use of whole plant or plant parts
by the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi
villages.

Plant part         Percent
                   Use (%)

Leaf               43
Bark               4
Whole plant        12
Rhizome            6
Stem               2
Seed               2
Root               2
Wood               2
Fruit              2
Synergistically    25
  used

Table 3: Relevant scientific findings on several medicinal
plants used by Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi
villages.

Plant                 Ailments          Relevant scientific findings
                      treated by the
                      Kavirajes

Andrographis          Hepatic           Hepatoprotective effect of
paniculata            disorder          andrographolide against
(Burm. f.)                              hexachlorocyclohexane-
Wall. ex Nees                           inducedoxidative injury;
                                        protective activity of
                                        andrographolide and
                                        arabinogalactan proteins from
                                        the plant against ethanol-
                                        induced hepatic and renal
                                        toxicity in mice (Singha,
                                        2007); hepatoprotective effect
                                        of the plant against carbon
                                        tetrachloride-induced liver
                                        damage (Rana and Avadhoot,
                                        1991); hepatoprotective and
                                        antioxidant property of the
                                        plant in BHC induced liver
                                        damage in mice (Trivedi et
                                        al., 2007)

Ipomoea               Heart diseases    Hypoglycemic,
mauritiana            (symptoms:        hypocholesterolemic and
Jacq.                 chest pain)       activity of tuber roots
hypotriglyceridemic                     of Ipomoea mauritiana
                                        Jacq. (Convolvulaceae)
                                        when administered to rats
                                        (Rahmatullah et al.,
                                        2010).

Justicia              Upper             Antitussive effect of
adhatoda L.           respiratory       Adhatoda vasica extract
                      tract             on mechanical chest pain
                      infections,       with coughs, bronchitis,
                                        or chemical stimulation-
                                        induced coughing in
                                        animals (Dhuley, 1999).

Centella              Dysentery,        Healing effects of plant
asiatica (L.)         stomach           extract and a
Urb.                  problems.         phytochemical
                                        (asiaticoside) isolated
                                        from the plant against
                                        acetic acid-induced
                                        gastric ulcers in rats
                                        (Cheng et al., 2004);
                                        protective action of the
                                        plant against ethanol-
                                        induced gastric mucosal
                                        lesions in rats (Cheng
                                        and Koo, 2000).

Alstonia              Malaria           Preliminary evaluation of
scholaris (L.)        (symptoms:        extracts of Alstonia
R.Br.                 fever with        scholaris bark for in
                      chill and body    vivo antimalarial
                      ache)             activity in mice (Gandhi
                                        et al., 1990).

Mikania cordata       Gastric           Protective effects of
(Burm.f.) B. L.       problems, blood   Mikania cordata root
Robinson              clotting agent    extract against physical
                                        and chemical factors-
                                        induced gastric erosions
                                        in experimental animals
                                        (Bishayee and Chatterjee,
                                        1994).

Mucuna pruriens       Neurological      Assessment of symptomatic
(L.) DC.              disorder          and neuroprotective
                      (symptoms:        efficacy of Mucuna
                      memory loss       pruriens seed extract in
                      due to ageing),   rodent model of
                      acidity,          Parkinson's disease
                      debility,         (Kasture et al., 2009);
                      diabetes          neuroprotective effects
                                        of Mucuna pruriens
                                        (Manyam et al., 2004);
                                        hypoglycemic effect of
                                        Mucuna pruriens seed
                                        extract on normal and
                                        streptozotocin-diabetic
                                        rats (Bhaskar et al.,
                                        2008).

Ocimum                Chest pain,       Stability of cough
gratissimum L.        coughs, and       linctus (streptol)
                      respiratory       formulated from
                      tract with        infections. (symptoms:
                      sputum, mucus     chest pain and
                      in stool)         coughs Ocimum gratissimum
                                        plant extracts (Iwu et
                                        al., 2009).
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Biswas, Anup; Haq, Wahid Mozammel; Akber, Mira; Ferdausi, Dilara; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Farhana Israt
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Mar 1, 2011
Words:5373
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