A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi Villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal District, Bangladesh.
Traditional medicine in various cultures approaches cure of diseases from a holistic view point where the human being and the ailments that he is suffering from is dynamically related to his culture, biota, and the environment.
Instead of a simple patient-disease-medicine concept; the traditional healer takes a number of factors into account including the patient's cultural beliefs, his ancestry, and various inter-related socioeconomic and psychological factors, which may have contributed to the disease process. As such, treatment can be simple or often complicated. Folk medicinal healers are a group of traditional medicinal healers who usually rely on simple procedures for treatment of diverse ailments. The major weapon of folk medicinal healers of Bangladesh, otherwise known as Kavirajes, is use of medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. A single plant or plant part or a combination of plants or plant parts are used in the form of decoctions, paste, or pills and administered to the patient orally or topically depending on the disease. The proficiency that a Kaviraj attains during his practice is obtained from a member of the immediate family from an earlier generation, and is supplemented with knowledge that the Kaviraj gains from his practice, and is passed to an immediate member of the next generation or to a trusted disciple. With time, the medicinal plants used by Kavirajes become highly divergent and can vary immensely between Kavirajes of even adjacent areas.
Our ethnomedicinal surveys carried out amongst different tribes and in various regions of the country strongly point to such divergent uses of medicinal plants by the Kavirajes (Rahmatullah et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009; Mia et al., 2009). Since Bangladesh has over 86,000 villages, with nearly each village containing one or more Kavirajes (depending on the village population), it is important to survey as many villages as possible to get a comprehensive view of medicinal plant usage by the Kavirajes.
In many cases, the sources of modern drugs have been plants used by indigenous people (Cotton, 1996). The medicinal plants used by traditional healers have a history of usage which dates back centuries ago. It has been shown that the average success rate of obtaining new medicines from plant sources is 1 in 125 (McCaleb, 1997), while the success rate of obtaining efficacious medicines from synthetic chemicals is about 1 in 10,000 (Chadwick and Marsh, 1994). Since the advent of modern or allopathic medicine, researchers had for the most part overlooked medicinal plants. However, in recent years, the emphasis is shifting back to medicines from plant sources, because of the emergence of various drug-resistant microorganisms, serious side-effects observed with a number of modern drugs, and because modern medicine does not have any effective cures for diseases like diabetes and arthritis, to name only two common diseases affecting millions of people throughout the world today.
The objective of the present study was to conduct a randomized ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of two villages, namely Paschim Shawra and Palordi in Gaurnadi Upazila of Barisal district, Bangladesh. Since village Kavirajes form the primary sources of such ethnomedicinal information, these particular villages were selected following a preliminary survey of villages in the area. In the preliminary survey, it was observed that the villages with a population approaching three thousand was serviced by three Kavirajes, who were noted for their practices in both the villages as well as adjoining areas. The villages also had both primary and secondary forests in the general area, which formed effective pools of medicinal plants, which were collected and used by the Kavirajes.
Materials and Methods
Area of Survey:
Gaurnadi Upazila (22.9736[degrees]N, 90.2306[degrees]E ) lies in the south-western part of Bangladesh and is part of Barisal Division. The Upazila (sub-district) has an area of 144.14 square kilometers. The annual average temperatures range from a high of 33.3[degrees]C to a minimum of 12.1[degrees]C; annual rainfall is 2506 mm. The villages surveyed, namely, Paschim Shawra and Palordi lie within Chandshi Union of Gaurnadi Upazila. Agriculture (35.74%) and agricultural laborer (25.62%) forms the main occupation of the village people.
Data Collection and Mode of Survey:
Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gauranadi Upazila were serviced by three Kavirajes namely Debola Nag, Md. Ahsanullah and Ramprassad. Initially, informed consent was obtained from each Kaviraj. The Kavirajes were informed about the purpose of the survey and consent taken for dissemination of the obtained data both nationally and internationally. Surveys were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field walks method as described by Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, one or more Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants.
Plants were pointed out to the interviewers along with provision of local names and description of their uses. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were collected on the spot, dried, and brought to Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification.
It was observed that the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages used 51 plants for treatment of various ailments. These plants were classified as belonging to 33 families. The Fabaceae family contributed 6 plants, followed by the Lamiaceae with 4 plants, and Lythraceae and Zingiberaceae families with 3 plants per family. The results are summarized in Table 1. With the exception of certain plants, most plants were collected from the wild (62.75%), which included primary forests, secondary vegetative growth, and weeds, that would grow by the wayside, around homesteads, or on fields in between cultivation. The plants that were cultivated for commercial purposes as well as used as medicinal plants included Spondias pinnata (J.G. Konig ex L. f.) Kurz., Ananas sativus Schult. & Schult. f., Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq., Momordica charantia L., Manihot esculenta Crantz., Lawsonia inermis L., Punica granatum L., Piper betle L., Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Santalum album L., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Curcuma longa L., Tamarindus indica L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were cultivated for their rhizomes, which were also used as spices, and Piper betle cultivated, because the leaves were chewed by a substantial number of the village population as a habit.
The Kavirajes, in their formulations, used virtually all plant parts, but not necessarily from the same plant or plants. The various plant parts used included whole plants, leaves, stems, barks, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, gum, and rhizomes. Leaves constituted the major plant part used (43%), followed by whole plants (12%), rhizomes (6%). The results are shown in Table 2.
The mode of preparation of plants or plant parts for oral or topical administration was juice (extracted through crushing of the plant, e.g. Justicia adhatoda), powder of dried plant part(s) (e.g. leaf of Mucuna pruriens and Aristolochia indica), paste (e.g. Lawsonia inermis), or boiled plant or plant part e.g. Spondias pinnata. When fruits were used as medication, for the most part, the patients were advised to consume the fruit directly (e.g, Amomum subulatum). Usually skin disorders, cuts and wounds (sometimes accompanied by bleeding) had topical applications, while in the case of other ailments, administration was usually oral.
It was noted that a plant or plant part may be administered in combination with other plant part(s) or substances. For example, juice obtained from leaves of Justicia adhatoda was orally administered with honey for treatment of coughs. Juice obtained from macerated leaves of Litsea glutinosa was mixed with molasses and taken on an empty stomach for the treatment of stomach ache, debility, constipation, and flatulence. For treatment of jaundice, Glycosmis pentaphylla roots were fretted with stone and taken with raw milk and molasses; for infections, crushed roots were applied to affected areas. Again juice obtained from macerated whole plant of Eclipta alba was taken with coconut water for jaundice. Juice obtained from crushed leaves of Ananas sativus was taken with lime water to treat helmintic infestations. Powder from dried leaves and stems of Stephania glabra was mixed with cold water and honey and taken orally for the treatment of gout and arthritis. Powder from bark or wood of Santalum album was mixed with coconut fruit pulp and taken regularly as remedy for leucorrhea.
For the most part, a single plant part was observed to be used for treatment of a single or multiple ailments. For instance, the leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used for treatment of a single ailment, namely asthma. On the other hand, whole plant of Centella asiatica was used for the treatment of indigestion, flatulence, helminthiasis, and diarrhea. Occasionally, two different plant parts from the same plant may be used for treatment of two different ailments. To cite one instance, juice from young leaves of Punica granatum was topically applied to infections of inter-digital space of feet, while bark was boiled in water and the decoction was mixed with sugar and taken orally to treat blood dysentery.
There were a few instances of a combination of plant parts used for treatment of a single or multiple ailments. For skin diseases, crushed leaves of Azadirachta indica were mixed with macerated rhizomes of Curcuma longa and applied topically to affected areas. Again vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos was used to treat long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature.
Studies on the indigenous or folk medicinal use of medicinal plants are important from the scientific point of view in that it enables rapid scientific studies towards finding and development of newer drugs from centuries old practical use-derived knowledge of medicinal plants. In the present study, it was observed that a considerable number of plants on which scientific studies have been conducted are validated in their uses by the Kavirajes. Table 3 shows that plants like Andrographis paniculata, Justicia adhatoda, Ipomoea mauritiana, Centella asiatica, Alstonia scholaris, Ocimum gratissimum, Mikania cordata and Mucuna pruriens have been studied in greater details and the findings are well in agreement with their folk medicinal uses in the two villages of Gaurnadi Upazila.
It may be pointed out in this respect, that not all medicinal plants reported by the Kavirajes have been studied yet; in fact, scientific studies on most plants remain preliminary at the best and there is an enormous potential for conducting further scientific experiments regarding their pharmacological activities and their phytochemical constituents. Doubtlessly, more studies have the probability of validating the uses of more medicinal plants reported in the present survey.
The second aspect that is of concern is that most medicinal plants are rapidly becoming endangered in their wild habitat. Serious efforts need to be made for their conservation and rapid scientific studies, before they become highly endangered or totally extinct. It is hoped that this ethnomedicinal survey shall lead to wider public and Governmental recognition of these medicinal plant species and spur conservation efforts towards saving both plants and the folk medicinal knowledge.
Bhaskar, A., V.G. Vidhya and M. Ramya, 2008. Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Fitoterapia, 79: 539-43.
Bishayee, A. and M. Chatterjee, 1994. Protective effects of Mikania cordata root extract against physical and chemical factors-induced gastric erosions in experimental animals. Planta Medica, 60: 110-3.
Cheng, C.L., J.S. Guo, J. Luk and M.W. Koo, 2004. The healing effects of Centella extract and asiaticoside on acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Life Sciences, 74: 2237-2249.
Cheng, C.L. and M.W. Koo, 2000. Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Life Sciences, 67: 2647-2653.
Cotton, C.M., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle and Application, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp: 399.
Chadwick, D.J. and J. Marsh, (eds), 1994. Ethnobotany and the search for new drugs, Ciba Foundation Symposium 185, John Wiley and Sons.
Dhuley, J.N., 1999. Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation induced coughing in animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67: 361-5.
Gandhi, M. and V.K. Vinayak, 1990. Preliminary evaluation of extracts of Alstonia scholaris bark for in vivo antimalarial activity in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 51-7.
Iwu, M., C. Okunji, M. Tchimene, N. Anele, K. Chah, U. Osonwa, P.A. Akpa and G.C. Onunkwo, 2009. Stability of cough linctus (streptol) formulated from named medicinal plant extracts. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 57: 229-32.
Kasture, S., S. Pontis, A. Pinna, N. Schintu, L. Spina, R. Longoni, N. Simola, M. Ballero and M. Morelli, 2009. Assessment of symptomatic and neuroprotective efficacy of Mucuna pruriens seed extract in rodent model of Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicity Research, 15: 111-22.
McCaleb, R.S., 1997. Medicinal plants for healing the planet: Biodiversity and Environmental Health, In: Biodiversity and Human Health, F. Grifo and J. Rosenthal (eds), Revised Edition, Island Press, pp: 230.
Manyam, B.V., M. Dhanasekaran, and T.A. Hare, 2004. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens. Phytotherapy Research, 18: 706-12.
Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany: a 'People and Plants' Conservation Manual, Chapman and Hall, London, pp: 268.
Maundu, P., 1995. Methodology for collecting and sharing indigenous knowledge: a case study. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 3: 3-5.
Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.S. Rahman, M.N. Hasan, B. Agarwala and R. Jahan, 2010. A Medicinal Plant Study of the Santal tribe in Rangpur District, Bangladesh. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16: 419-425.
Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and W.M. Haque, 2010. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna District, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7: 91-97.
Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, M.N.K. Azam, M.T. rahman and R. Jahan, 2009. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Bheramara Area in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 534-541.
Rahmatullah, M., A. Noman, M.S. Hossan, M.H. Rashid, T. Rahman, M.H. Chowdhury and R. Jahan, 2009. A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 862-876.
Rahmatullah, M., A.K. Das, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M. Khan, T. Rahman and M.H. Chowdhury, 2009. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Dhamrai Sub-district in Dhaka District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 881-888.
Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, A.T.M.A. Azam, M.R. Islam, M.A.M. Chowdhury, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and T. Rahman, 2009. Ethnobotanical Survey of the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 889-898.
Rahmatullah, M., I.J. Mukti, A.K.M.F. Haque, M.A.H. Mollik, K. Parvin, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and T. Rahman, 2009. An Ethnobotanical Survey and Pharmacological Evaluation of Medicinal Plants used by the Garo Tribal Community living in Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 3: 402-418.
Rana, A.C. and Y. Avadhoot, 1991. Hepatoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 14: 93-95.
Singha, P.K., S. Roy and S. Dev, 2007. Protective effect of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from Andrographis paniculata Nees. against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111: 13-21.
Moushumi, S.J., R. Ahmed, H. Ahmed, M. Ali, W.M. Haq, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. Hypoglycemic, Hypocholesterolemic and Hypotriglyceridemic Activity of Tuber Roots of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae) When Administered to Rats. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 174-176.
Trivedi, N.P., U.M. Rawal and B.P. Patel, 2007. Hepatoprotective effect of andrographolide against hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative injury. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 6: 271-280.
(1) Anup Biswas, (1) Wahid Mozammel Haq, (2) Mira Akber, (1) Dilara Ferdausi, (1) Syeda Seraj, (1) Farhana Israt Jahan, (1) Anita Rani Chowdhury, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah
(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh. (2) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
Anup Biswas, Wahid Mozammel Haq, Mira Akber, Dilara Ferdausi, Syeda Seraj, Farhana Israt Jahan, Anita Rani Chowdhury, Mohammed Rahmatullah: A Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi Villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal District, Bangladesh
Corresponding Author: Mohammed Rahmatullah, University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages, Gaurnadi Upazila, Barisal district, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Name Family Name Local Name Number 1 Andrographis Acanthaceae Kalomegh paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. ex Nees 2 Justicia Acanthaceae Bashok adhatoda L. 3 Aloe Aloaceae Ghritokumari barbadensis Mill. 4 Spondias Anacardiaceae Amra pinnata (J.G. Konig ex L. f.) Kurz. 5 Alstonia Apocynaceae Chaitan scholaris (L.) R.Br. 6 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Icha indica L. 7 Eclipta alba Asteraceae Khuchkhuchia (L.) Hassk. 8 Mikania cordata Asteraceae Refugee (Burm.f.) B. L. Robinson 9 Ananas sativus Bromeliaceae Anarosh Schult. & Schult. f 10 Ipomoea Convolvulaceae Bhui kumra mauritiana Jacq. 11 Kalanchoe Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi pinnata (Lam.) Pers. 12 Coccinia Cucurbitaceae Telakochu grandis (L.) J. Voigt 13 Momordica Cucurbitaceae Korola charantia L. 14 Manihot Euphorbiaceae Kasaba esculenta Crantz. 15 Adenanthera Fabaceae Rokto chondon pavonina L. 16 Cassia alata L. Fabaceae Daudraj 17 Cassia tora L. Fabaceae Charkada 18 Mucuna pruriens Fabaceae Alkushie (L.) DC. 19 Tamarindus Fabaceae Tetul indica L. 20 Saraca asoca Fabaceae Ashok (Roxb.) De Wilde. 21 Clerodendrum Lamiaceae Vaidir gach viscosum Vent. 22 Ocimum Lamiaceae Babu tulshi gratissimum L. 23 Ocimum Lamiaceae Krishna tulshi tenuiflorum L. 24 Litsea Lauraceae Lode piple glutinosa (Lour.) C.D.Robins. 25 Couroupita Lecythidaceae Naglingam guianensis Aubl. 26 Lagerstroemia Lythraceae Jarul speciosa (L.) Pers. 27 Lawsonia Lythraceae Mendi inermis L. 28 Punica Lythraceae Dalim granatum L. 29 Abelmoschus Malvaceae Lota kosturi moschatus Medik. 30 Azadirachta Meliaceae Neem indica A. Juss. 31 Stephania Menispermaceae Pir guruch glabra Miers 32 Ficus hispida Moraceae Dumur L.f. 33 Boerhaavia Nyctaginaceae Punnalova diffusa L. 34 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Paan 35 Plumbago Plumbaginaceae Rokto chita indica L. 36 Neolamarckia Rubiaceae Kodom cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser 37 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bel (L.) Corr. 38 Glycosmis Rutaceae Aidoli pentaphylla (Retz.) Corr. 39 Santalum Santalaceae Shet chondon album L. 40 Madhuca indica Sapotaceae Mohua J.F. Gmel. 41 Bacopa monnieri Scrophulariaceae Brammoni (L.) Pennell 42 Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae Michripana L. 43 Smilax Smilacaceae Kumari lota zeylanica L. 44 Solanum Solanaceae Kontikari xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. 45 Abroma augusta Sterculiaceae Ulot kombol L.f. 46 Centella Umbelliferae Thankuni asiatica (L.) Urb. 47 Nyctanthes Verbenaceae Shefali arbor tristis L. 48 Phyla nodiflora Verbenaceae Koi okra (L.) Greene 49 Amomum Zingiberaceae Boro elach subulatum Roxb. 50 Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae Holud L. 51 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Ada officinale Roscoe Serial Utilize Part Ailment Number 1 Whole plant, Fever, intestinal and hepatic disorders. leaf Juice obtained from macerated leaves is given during fever; the whole plant is orally administered for intestinal and hepatic disorders. Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 2 Leaf Upper respiratory tract infections, chest pain with coughs, bronchitis. Leaf juice is taken twice daily for 7 days. When administered to infants, honey may be added. Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 3 Leaf Debility (general weakness), high blood pressure, gastrointestinal problems (irregular stool emanation). The soft pulp from leaves is taken orally. 4 Leaf, bark Blood dysentery, dysentery. Bark or leaf is boiled in water. Two teaspoonful of the decoction is taken with sugar for 3-4 days. 5 Bark Malaria (symptoms: fever with chill and body ache), fever. Barks are soaked overnight in water, and the water is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach. 6 Leaf Internal body injury, body ache, cancer, external tumor, asthma (symptoms: breathing difficulty with whistling sound). Dried leaf powder is added to milk and taken for 2 months. 7 Whole plant Jaundice (symptoms: abdominal pain, bitter taste in mouth, loss of appetite), leucorrhea (symptoms: discharge of whitish mucous material from vagina or urethra). Juice obtained from macerated whole plant is taken with coconut water for jaundice. Juice from macerated whole plant is taken with sugar every morning before breakfast for leucorrhea. 8 Leaf, stem Gastric problems (symptoms: abdominal pain with continuous gas emission), bleeding from cuts and wounds. One cup of juice obtained from macerated leaves and stems is taken orally for gastric problems. Juice obtained from macerated leaves and stems is applied to cuts and wounds to stop bleeding. 9 Leaf (white Helminthiasis (symptoms: excessive part) salivation, abdominal pain). Juice obtained from crushed leaves is taken with 2 drops of lime water once daily (2 teaspoonful) for 3 days. 10 Rhizome Heart diseases (symptoms: chest pain), sexual weakness. 11 Leaf Diarrhea Rhizomes are cooked and eaten as (symptoms: vegetable. movements), irregular frequent and urination, dysuria or urinary tract watery bowel infection (symptoms: sudden abdominal pain, burning sensations in urinary tract). Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken orally with salt in the morning on an empty stomach thrice daily for 21 days. 12 Whole plant Diabetes (symptoms: frequent urination), dysentery (symptoms: intestinal cramping or disturbances). Juice obtained from macerated whole plant is taken orally (1 cup) in the morning on an empty stomach. To increase palatability, sugar may be added. 13 Leaf Severe diarrhea, dysentery, acidity, blood purifier. Two teaspoonful of juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken orally for 7 days. 14 Leaf, tuber Debility, to boost up immune system after long-term fever. Leaves are cooked and taken as vegetable. Tubers can be eaten directly. 15 Wood Blood purifier. Powder from dried wood is taken orally. 16 Leaf Skin diseases like tinea infections (symptoms: persistent itching appearing as discolored skin patches), scabies, and herpes. Crushed leaves are applied topically to affected areas of skin once daily for 10 days. 17 Seed Tinea infections (symptoms: persistent itching and skin irritation), itches. Fine powder obtained from crushed seeds is applied topically to affected areas with a few drops of oil. 18 Leaf, seed Neurological disorder (symptoms: memory loss due to ageing), acidity, debility, diabetes, anemia, ageing, burning sensation or pain in the stomach after one to four hours following a meal, polyuria. Powder from crushed leaves or seeds is taken orally with tea or coffee. Mature seedsare also cooked and taken as vegetable. 19 Leaf of young Dysentery, severe diarrhea, whooping tree before cough (symptoms: presence of mucus, fruiting prolonged cough, noise during breathingafter cough), chest pain. Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken with table salt thrice daily for 1 sweek. 20 Bark Inflammation occurring through insect bites with subsequent infections, menstrual problems, wounds. Bark juice is taken once every morning for 14 days for menstrual problems. Bark juice is applied to affected areas in case of insect bites. 21 Leaf Sialorrhea or ptyalism (symptoms: excessive salivation), helminthiasis (symptoms: abdominal pain). Pellets made from crushed leaves are taken once daily for 7 days. 22 Leaf Chest pain, coughs, and respiratory tract infections (symptoms: chest pain and coughs with sputum, mucus in stool). Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken thrice daily for 7 days. 23 Leaf Respiratory tract infections (symptoms: long-term cold and coughs). Juice obtained from macerated leaves istaken thrice daily for 7 days. 24 Leaf Stomach ache, debility, constipation, flatulence. Juice obtained from macerated leaves is mixed with molasses and taken on an empty stomach once daily for 7 days. 25 Leaf, bark Snake bite. Macerated mixture of leaf and bark is appliedto bitten area. 26 Leaf Diabetes (symptoms: frequent urination with polyuria, i.e. large volumes of urine). Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken once daily. 27 Leaf To keep head cool (symptoms: getting excited over a trifle matter). Crushed leaves are soaked in water and applied to scalp. 28 Immature leaf, Infections of inter-digital space of bark feet, blood dysentery. uice from young leaves is applied to infections. Bark is boiled in water and the decoction is mixed with sugar. Two teaspoonfuls of the mixture is taken thrice daily for 3-4 days for blood dysentery. 29 Leaf, seed Sexual weakness, cancer. Powder obtained from dried leaf or seed is taken orally with tea or coffee. 30 Leaf Skin diseases like scabies (symptoms: persistent itching with skin irritations), eczema, gum diseases (loosening of tooth, tooth ache). For skin diseases, crushed leaves of Azadirachta indica are mixed with macerated rhizomes of Curcuma longa and applied topically to affected areas. For gum diseases, powder obtained from dried leaves are taken with rice or applied to base of tooth. 31 Leaf, stem Gout, arthritis (symptoms: pain and stiffness in toe), leucorrhea (symptoms: discharge of white mucous material from the vagina). Powder from dried leaves and stems is mixed with cold water and honey. One teaspoonful of the mixture is taken twice daily for 2 weeks. Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 32 Mucilage (gum), Persistent itching, fruit skin irritation, swelling, inflammation. Gum is topically applied to affected areas. Fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetable. 33 Leaf, stem Anemia (symptoms: paleness of body, fatigue), inflammation, irregular urination. Two teaspoonful of juice obtained from crushed leaves are taken orally. Alternately, leaves and stems are cooked and eaten as vegetable. 34 Young leaf Skin diseases like tinea infections, scabies, herpes (symptoms: persistent itching, painful blisters on the skin). Crushed leaves are applied to affected areas twice daily for 7 days. 35 Leaf Blood purifier. Young leaves are taken orally. 36 Young leaf Gastric problem (symptoms: generalized abdominal pain, especially due to acidity). Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken with salt twice daily for 7 days. 37 Leaf Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 38 Root Jaundice (symptoms: yellowing of the skin, bitter taste of edible things, abdominal pain, whiteness of eyes), any kind of infection. For jaundice, roots are fretted with stone and taken with raw milk and molasses for 3-4 days. For infections, crushed roots are applied to affected areas. 39 Bark, wood Leucorrhea (symptoms: discharge of mucous material from vagina), sexual weakness (symptoms: passing of semen in urine). Powder from bark or wood is mixed with coconut fruit pulp and taken regularly. 40 Leaf Flatulence. Powder obtained from dried leaves is taken orally with honey. 41 Leaf Loss of memory (symptoms: mental distress, loss of thinking ability. Juice from macerated leaves is taken orally with raw milk once daily for 7 days. 42 Whole plant Aphrodisiac, sexual disorders (passing of semen in urine), dysentery, and diabetes (symptoms: frequent urination). Juice obtained from macerated whole plant is taken orally once daily on an empty stomach for 7 days. 43 Stem Gonorrhea (symptoms: infrequent and painful urination, pain around the urethra), loss of libido (symptoms: reduced sexual desire), diabetes. Stem is chewed; alternately, juice obtained from macerated stem is taken orally. 44 Whole plant Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 45 Leaf, flower, Leucorrhea (symptoms: discharge of root whitish mucous material from vagina), problem with urination (symptoms: burning sensations in the urinary tract), menstrual problems. Juice obtained from a mixture of macerated leaves and flowers is taken for 7-14 days for leucorrhea. Roots are sliced and soaked in water overnight. The water is taken the following morning. This is continued for 7 days for treatment of problem with urination and menstrual problems. 46 Whole plant Indigestion, flatulence, helminthiasis, diarrhea. V cup of juice obtained from macerated whole plant is taken orally every morning on an empty stomach. Alternately, the whole plant is cooked and eaten as vegetable. 47 Leaf Long-term fever, night fever, weight loss. Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken orally once daily till cure. Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 48 Whole plant Long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature. Vegetable soup made from whole plants of Phyla nodiflora, Andrographis paniculata, and Solanum xanthocarpum, along with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania glabra, and Aegle marmelos is taken orally twice daily for 1 week. 49 Fruit Loss of taste, e.g. after fever, appetizer. Fruits are eaten. 50 Rhizome Skin diseases like scabies (symptoms: persistent itching with skin irritations), eczema, gum diseases (loosening of tooth, tooth ache). For skin diseases, crushed leaves of Azadirachta indica are mixed with macerated rhizomes of Curcuma longa and applied topically to affected areas. kin diseases (symptoms: persistent itching and skin irritation), scabies, boils. Crushed rhizomes are topically applied to affected areas. 51 Rhizome Abdominal pain, dry cough. % teaspoonfil of juice obtained from crushed rhizome is taken orally. Table 2: Percent use of whole plant or plant parts by the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages. Plant part Percent Use (%) Leaf 43 Bark 4 Whole plant 12 Rhizome 6 Stem 2 Seed 2 Root 2 Wood 2 Fruit 2 Synergistically 25 used Table 3: Relevant scientific findings on several medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages. Plant Ailments Relevant scientific findings treated by the Kavirajes Andrographis Hepatic Hepatoprotective effect of paniculata disorder andrographolide against (Burm. f.) hexachlorocyclohexane- Wall. ex Nees inducedoxidative injury; protective activity of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from the plant against ethanol- induced hepatic and renal toxicity in mice (Singha, 2007); hepatoprotective effect of the plant against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage (Rana and Avadhoot, 1991); hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of the plant in BHC induced liver damage in mice (Trivedi et al., 2007) Ipomoea Heart diseases Hypoglycemic, mauritiana (symptoms: hypocholesterolemic and Jacq. chest pain) activity of tuber roots hypotriglyceridemic of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae) when administered to rats (Rahmatullah et al., 2010). Justicia Upper Antitussive effect of adhatoda L. respiratory Adhatoda vasica extract tract on mechanical chest pain infections, with coughs, bronchitis, or chemical stimulation- induced coughing in animals (Dhuley, 1999). Centella Dysentery, Healing effects of plant asiatica (L.) stomach extract and a Urb. problems. phytochemical (asiaticoside) isolated from the plant against acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats (Cheng et al., 2004); protective action of the plant against ethanol- induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats (Cheng and Koo, 2000). Alstonia Malaria Preliminary evaluation of scholaris (L.) (symptoms: extracts of Alstonia R.Br. fever with scholaris bark for in chill and body vivo antimalarial ache) activity in mice (Gandhi et al., 1990). Mikania cordata Gastric Protective effects of (Burm.f.) B. L. problems, blood Mikania cordata root Robinson clotting agent extract against physical and chemical factors- induced gastric erosions in experimental animals (Bishayee and Chatterjee, 1994). Mucuna pruriens Neurological Assessment of symptomatic (L.) DC. disorder and neuroprotective (symptoms: efficacy of Mucuna memory loss pruriens seed extract in due to ageing), rodent model of acidity, Parkinson's disease debility, (Kasture et al., 2009); diabetes neuroprotective effects of Mucuna pruriens (Manyam et al., 2004); hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats (Bhaskar et al., 2008). Ocimum Chest pain, Stability of cough gratissimum L. coughs, and linctus (streptol) respiratory formulated from tract with infections. (symptoms: sputum, mucus chest pain and in stool) coughs Ocimum gratissimum plant extracts (Iwu et al., 2009).
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Biswas, Anup; Haq, Wahid Mozammel; Akber, Mira; Ferdausi, Dilara; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Farhana Israt|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2011|
|Previous Article:||Studies with callus induction of Vitex negundo: an aromatic medicinal plant.|
|Next Article:||Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of four adjoining villages of Narail and Jessore Districts, Bangladesh.|