A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods.
Plants, besides providing nutrition, have always formed an important source of chemical compounds, which can be used for medicinal purposes. Human knowledge of the medicinal value of plants date back probably for more than five thousand years (Sofowora, 1982). Even in recent times, plants have been an important source of modern drugs like aspirin, ephedrine, digoxin, quinine and tubocurarine, to name only a few (Gilani, 2005). It has been noted that the original source of many important pharmaceuticals in current use have been plants used by indigenous people (Balick, 1996), who traditionally has been a rich source of knowledge on medicinal and edible plants or plant parts. It has been reported that about 64% of the total global population remains dependent on traditional medicine and medicinal plants for provision of their health-care needs (Cotton, 1996). In recent years traditional medicine has become of interest to both scientists and the general population for a number of reasons, which include high price of allopathic drugs beyond the reach of the poorer segments of society in almost every country, lack of access to medical clinics and hospitals by the rural population of developing countries, the side-effects and toxicities of modern synthetic drugs, and the realization that phytochemicals present in plants can be effective therapeutic agents by themselves or serve as effective adjunct therapies to modern drugs.
Along with the progress of human civilization and the accumulation of knowledge, people have become more concerned with their eating habits. A concept of 'functional food' has taken place, which denotes food that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. In other words, these foods provide health benefits beyond their nutritive values. This is not totally a novel concept for even in ancient times people added spices to their dietary items not only to impart color, taste or flavoring, but also for their health benefits. Functional foods are often also termed 'food supplements' or 'nutraceuticals'. In recent years, to consider just one country, the functional food market in Taiwan reached US$ 1.78 billion in 2005 (Sun 2007).
A number of plants or plant products have been demonstrated in scientific studies that they can be classified as functional foods. These include both medicinal plants and commonly consumed plants or plant products. To cite a few examples, carotenoids in green peppers (Capsicum annuum, which has been traditionally consumed in Central and South American countries for thousands of years) has been shown to demonstrate antimutagenic activity against some nitroarenes (Gonzaez, 1998). It may be noted that green peppers are also added to a variety of cooked food items and snacks in various regions of the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea, an edible vegetable (Cicer aretinum) is also considered a functional food and intake of chickpeas has been recommended in humans with altered lipid profile such as type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia and diabetes (Zulet, 1999). The functional properties of raw and processed pigeon pea, an edible vegetable (Cajanus cajan) flour has also been reported (Okpala, 2001). Functional foods that have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic, tea, grapes and nuts (Hasler, 2000). It has been reported that bitter herbs have been consumed from ancient times to alleviate various dyspeptic conditions--a condition suffered by about 15-30% of adult population throughout the world (Saller, 2001). Garlic, a commonly used spice contains over 2,000 biologically active substances and is of importance in dietoprophylaxis and dietotherapy (Swiderski, 2007). The organosulfur compounds present in garlic appear to be good agents for cancer chemoprevention through multiple mechanisms like carcinogen metabolism modulation, DNA adduct formation inhibition and upregulation of antioxidant defenses and DNA repair systems (Nagini, 2008). The Zingiberaceae family contains a number of plants whose rhizomes are eaten as vegetable or added to food items as spices. The family contains commonly known spices like ginger and turmeric. A study conducted in Taiwan found good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in a number of Zingiberaceae plants found within the country (Chen, 2008). The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for a number of ailments like wounds, rheumatism, gastrointestinal disorders, helminthiasis and rhinitis. Other spices used in traditional Indian cooking like onions and ginger has been found to favorably modulate the process of carcinogenesis, while fenugreek seeds has been reported to reduce blood glucose and lipids and can be used as an adjunct food in diabetes (Krishnaswamy, 2008). Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), garden pea (Pisum sativum), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) extracts reportedly demonstrated inhibition of pancreatic lipase and so can be considered promising sources for developing functional foods to decrease fat absorption (Slanc, 2009). In Korea, the wild plant Adenophora triphylla is commonly used in food materials and traditional medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antitussive. Leaf extracts of this plant showed notable levels of total phenolics and flavonoids and demonstrated good anti-oxidant activities. The results suggested that the plant can serve the function of a food supplement (Kim, 2009). Overall, there is a growing realization about medicinal plants that quite a number of them can serve as functional foods and so can be utilized both nutritionally and medicinally.
Bangladesh is a developing country with a majority of rural population, who lack access to modern healthcare or cannot afford the cost of allopathic drugs. A sizeable section of the population is below the poverty level of US$1 per day. As a result, malnutrition and diseases arising from malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions of living are prevalent. The primary health care of the rural population and a substantial section of urban population are provided by traditional medicinal practitioners or Kavirajes, who possess considerable expertise on medicinal plants. The medicinal plants utilized by the Kavirajes are usually kept secret and so can vary considerably between Kavirajes of various regions or tribes. It was the objective of the present study to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of different areas in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh to obtain information on medicinal plants used by them for treatment of diverse ailments. A further objective of the study was to determine which plant or plant part can be used as functional foods. The criteria for judging whether a medicinal plant can serve as a functional food were history of long-term edibility without any side-effects or toxicities, nutritive value of the plant, and whether the plant has been used by the Kavirajes for considerable lengths of time for treatment of single or multiple ailments. It is expected that such studies can make the particularly poorer sections of the people more conscious about consuming plants that can serve as functional foods and so can be effective in providing nutrition and be of preventive as well as curative values to people who can ill afford the cost of food and medicines.
Materials and Methods
2.1. Study area
Dinajpur district is one of the northern-most districts of Bangladesh and falls roughly between 88o20 89o20 E and 25o10 - 26o05 N. The area is bounded by Nilphamari and Rangpur districts to the east, West Bengal province of India to the west, Thakurgaon and Panchagarh districts to the north and Joypurhat district to the south. The Atrai and the Punabhaba rivers are the major rivers flowing through the district. The survey was conducted in and around the areas of Bhelamoyee and Shalbon in the district.
2.2. Data collection and sampling techniques
A total of 4 Kavirajes were interviewed for this survey. Informed consent was obtained from all Kavirajes prior to interviews. Kavirajes were explained the reasons for conducting the survey and the information that will be collected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for the interviews. The basic survey method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the informant takes the observer on guided field-walks through areas from where the informant collects the medicinal plants. The plants are shown to the observer along with providing information on plant name (local), plant parts used, ailments treated, formulations, dosages and side-effects, if any. The information was later cross-checked and every item verified in evening meetings held with the Kavirajes. Plant specimens, as pointed out by the informants (Kavirajes) were collected, pressed and dried on site. All collected specimens were later brought to the Bangladesh National Herbarium for complete identification.
Results and discussion
3.1. Plants and their distribution into families
The result of the present study shows that 111 species of plants were used by the Kavirajes of Bhelamoyee and Shalbon areas in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. These medicinal plants belonged to 59 families (Table 1). The Fabaceae family provided the largest number of species (12), followed by the Apocynaceae and Euphorbiaceae families (7 plants each). The medicinal plants included a number of edible fruit plants. These plants included Carissa carandas, Bixa orellana, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Dillenia indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Moringa oleifera, and Manilkara zapota. Fresh fruits were consumed when in season for their nutritive as well as medicinal values. During off-season, the Kavirajes were found to administer dried fruits of plants like Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica. The seeds of Cajanus cajan, which is cultivated like the above-mentioned fruit plants are cooked like pulses and eaten occasionally by the general population. A number of other plants were also cultivated because of their use as spices as well as medicinal values. These plants were Mentha arvensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Amomum subulatum. Nymphaea nouchali is an aquatic plant, which grows both in the wild as well as planted in homestead ponds for ornamental purposes. The plant is cooked and eaten as vegetable, mostly by the rural population.
3.2. Plant parts used and mode of preparation
The various plant parts used included leaves, roots, stems, flowers, fruits, barks, seeds, gum, and rhizomes. Of these, leaves formed the part of the plant predominantly used (54.9%), followed by flowers (11.0%) and fruits (10.4%). Out of a total of 111 plants, it was observed that 60 plants had more than one plant part used in combination for medicinal purposes. 14 plants had uses of a combination of leaves with flowers, 10 plants had uses of a combination of leaves with fruits, and 9 plants had combined uses of leaves with roots. Other plant parts used in combination were leaves with stems, leaves with barks, leaves with gum, fruits with seeds, and leaves with seeds. In the case of several plants, three plant parts were administered in combination to treat ailments. These combinations included leaves with stems and roots (Cyperus scariosus), leaves with fruits and flower (Flacourtia sepiaria), and leaves with roots and fruits (Vitex negundo). In most cases, juice was extracted from the plant part(s) and taken orally or applied topically. Other modes of oral administration were boiling the plant part in water and drinking the syrup (e.g. Carissa carandas), direct taking of the plant part (e.g. root of Amaranthus spinosus), taking pills made from dried plant part (e.g. Terminalia arjuna) or cooking the plant part and taking it as vegetable (e.g. Typhonium trilobatum). Other modes of topical applications also included application of crushed plant part to affected area (e.g. Justicia adhatoda), mixing powdered plant parts with mustard oil followed by topical application (e.g. Costus speciosus) or mixing plant part paste with salt followed by topical application (e.g. Ricinus communis).
3.3. Medical applications
With one exception, in all cases, a single plant was used by the Kavirajes to treat one or multiple ailments. The exception was the use of a combination of Leucas aspera flowers with Ocimum tenuiflorum root juice for treatment of asthma and respiratory difficulties. Tabernaemontana divaricata did not have any medicinal use; its leaves and flowers were used as perfumery. Bauhinia acuminata also did not have any direct medical use; the leaves of this plant were used by Kavirajes as an ingredient or base for good mixing of Ayurvedic medicines. It is to be noted in this regard that Ayurvedic medicine is one of the oldest form of traditional medicine practiced in the Indian sub-continent. The practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine are also known in Bangladesh as Kavirajes. The Kavirajes interviewed in the present survey though practiced what is generally referred to as 'folk medicine', which while having certain similarities with Ayurvedic medicine is quite different in its simplicity and plant choice.
3.4. Plants which can be classified as functional foods
A number of plants were found among the 111 medicinal plants shown in Table 1 in which plant parts can serve both nutritive and medicinal purposes and so can be classified as functional foods. These plants were Amomum subulatum, Bixa orellana, Cajanus cajan, Carissa carandas, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coccinia grandis, Dillenia indica, Ferula asafoetida, Manilkara zapota, Mentha arvensis, Moringa oleifera, Nymphaea nouchali, Phyllanthus emblica, Spilanthes acmella, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia belerica, and Terminalia chebula. The edible parts of these plants along with the ailments that are treated or prevented with the edible parts are shown in Table 2. It is to be noted that Table 2 is not confined to the present survey only but also presents information obtained thus far in our ongoing ethnobotanical surveys conducted in different regions and among different tribes of Bangladesh.
It can be seen from Table 2, that the eighteen plants listed as food supplements are also in use in other regions of Bangladesh by Kavirajes, albeit to treat different ailments. The ailments for which the plant parts were used were diverse and ranged from disorders of body organs to parasitic diseases and diseases arising from bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Two plants appear unique (at least in our ethnobotanical data collected thus far) in their use by the Kavirajes of Dinajpur district. These plants are Ferula assafoetida and Mentha arvensis. Although our available data does not indicate the use of Ferula asafoetida and Mentha arvensis in other regions of Bangladesh (note that gathering of more ethnobotanical data may change this picture), a related species of Mentha arvensis, namely Mentha spicata was found to be commonly used by Kavirajes in other regions of the country. While Mentha arvensis was used by the Kavirajes of Dinajpur district for dysentery, indigestion, and stomach pain, uses of whole plant or leaves of Mentha spicata included treatment for cancer, nerve disorders, bronchitis, anorexia, indigestion, dysentery, stomach pain, vomiting, diabetes, edema, fever, headache, lack of appetite, stomach and intestinal diseases, helminthiasis, bloating, typhus, dermatitis, and seizures, and use as an appetizer (data not shown).
Besides curative purposes, the plants indicated as functional foods also can provide nutritive values, and regular consumption can have a preventive role against a number of ailments or to maintain healthy body organs. The most notable plants that we observed in this regard were Coccinia grandis (leaves are chewed every day by diabetic patients to keep blood sugar under control), Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula (fruits are consumed to maintain healthy body conditions), and Spilanthes acmella (leaves and flowers are taken on a regular basis both to prevent and to treat anemia). Plant parts from other plants like Mentha arvensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Amomum subulatum are added to cooked food items as spices by the general population on an almost daily basis and can play a preventive role in the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory problems, and through increasing palatability and flavor of foods make them more digestible and serve to maintain good health. It is further to be noted in this regard that Mentha arvensis is usually taken after partaking of meat and fatty items or items highly rich in calories, where digestibility may be of concern.
A number of plants classified as functional foods (Table 2) have been studied scientifically for their nutritional content and pharmacological activities. This discussion will provide an overview of some of the more important plant species. The leaves of Spilanthes acmella and Dillenia indica are consumed by Khasi tribal women of India as unconventional wild edibles to supplement their regular diet (Agrahar, 2006). In the Sri Lankan traditional medicine, Spilanthes acmella flowers are used for their diuretic effects; this has been confirmed in scientific studies conducted in rats using cold extract of flowers (Ratnasooriya, 2004) and thus can have therapeutic uses in edema. Ethanol extracts of flower buds of the plant reportedly exhibited inhibitory activities on pancreatic lipase and so can be a potential source to reduce obesity (Ekanem, 2007). N-isobutyl-4,5- decadienamide isolated from the flowers of the plant has been reported to possess analgesic activity (Ansari, 1988). In Taiwan, the plant is used as a common spice and has been administered for years in traditional folk medicine to cure toothache, stammering, and stomatitis. A bio-active compound, spilanthol has been isolated from the plant which demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect on murine macrophages by down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators (Wu, 2008). Other reported bio-active compounds with good anti-oxidant activities, isolated from volatile oil from fresh leaves of this plant include germacrene-D, trans-b-caryophyllene, b-elemene, nor-copaanone and bicyclogermacrene (Kawaree, 2008). Antioxidant and vasorelaxant activities of extracts of the plant have also been demonstrated (Wongsawatkul, 2008). In Thai traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat toothache, rheumatism, and fever. A number of bio-active compounds isolated from chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant showed inhibitory activities against a number of microorganisms like Corynebacterium diptheriae and Bacillus subtilis. The compounds included phenolics like vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and trans-isoferulic acid; coumarin (scopoletin); and triterpenoids like 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, b-sitostenone, stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides, in addition to a mixture of stigmasteryl- and b-sitosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides (Prachayasittikul, 2009). Taken together, it may be concluded that the available studies justify the use of this plant has a functional food.
Partaking of Triphala (formulation from the dried fruits of three plants Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula) has been described in the ancient Indian Ayurvedic medicine to be good for maintaining healthy heart conditions as well as a therapeutic agent for heart diseases. Since then, numerous reports have been published on the preventive and curative properties of the fruits of these plants taken in combination or individually. Feeding of a dried powder of fruits from the three plants have been shown to reduce total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesterolemic rats and to increase excretion of bile acids (Nalini, 1999). When administered individually, the fruits of the plants were found to reduce cholesterol in cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits (Thakur, 1988). The methanolic extract of fruits of the three plants, individually or in combination, reportedly showed antioxidant potential in vitro and anti-diabetic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Sabu, 2002). Both acetone and methanol extracts of Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula reportedly showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Aqil, 2005). Pretreatment of mice with aqueous extract of Terminalia belerica fruits has been shown to confer protection against experimental Salmonellosis and result in total survival of animals when challenged with lethal doses of Salmonella typhimurium (Madani, 2008). Alcoholic extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia belerica conferred protective effects in isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats (Tariq, 1977). The antioxidant potential of Terminalia belerica (fruit), Terminalia chebula (fruit), and Nymphaea nouchali (flower) has been reported and attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds like hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycons and their glycosides (Saleem, 2001). Gallic acid, present in fruits of Terminalia belerica has been found to have a protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and kidney damages in rats (Shukla, 2005; Jadon, 2007).
Analysis of Terminalia belerica fruits indicated that they are enriched in iron, phosphorus, cobalt and selenium (Garg, 2005). The fruits of Terminalia chebula have been found to be enriched in magnesium (Garg, 2007). It has also been reported that the fruit tissue of Terminalia chebula contained 10.3 and 14.5 times more vitamin C and protein, respectively when compared with commercial apples. The recommended dietary allowance for selenium, potassium, manganese, iron and copper can also be met if 100g of the raw fruit is taken (Barthakur, 1991). The fruits of Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula have been found to be rich sources of gallic acid; the leaves and fruits of Terminalia belerica for ellagic acid; and the leaves of Moringa oleifera for kaempferol (Bajpai, 2005). All the above three compounds are bio-active, with gallic and ellagic acid being strong anti-oxidants and so can serve as preventing damages caused by cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes and a host of other disorders. In fact, the ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula have been postulated to possess the potential to play a role in the hepatic prevention of oxidative damage in living systems (Lee, 2005). Chemical analysis of edible fruit tissues of Phyllanthus emblica showed that it had, respectively, 3-fold and 160-fold protein and ascorbic acid concentrations than present in apples (Barthakur, 1991). The ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was found to be exceptionally stable in both fresh and dried fruits (Shishoo, 1997). The fruits also contain flavonoids, which have been shown to inhibit hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity and reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with hyperlipidemia (Anila). Powdered dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica has been suggested to become a useful remedy for Alzheimer's disease on account of its various beneficial effects such as improving memory, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity (Vasudevan, 2007); pre- and post-supplementation of fruit extract of the plant has also been shown to significantly reduce arsenic-induced oxidative stress in liver (Sharma, 2009).
The fruit juice of Manilkara zapota has been shown to be one of the rich sources of sugars, proteins, ascorbic acid, phenolics, carotenoids, and minerals like iron, copper, zinc, calcium and potassium; apart from the nutrients, the fruit juice also showed antioxidant activity (Kulkarni, 2007). Activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of fruits of this plant also revealed presence of a number of polyphenols with aniti-oxidant activity; the highest activity was demonstrated by Me-4-O-galloylchlorogenate (Jun, 2003). The fruits of Dillenia indica have also been found to be rich in phenolics with good antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities (Abdille, 2005).
Among five Cinnamomum species studied, Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaves demonstrated highest DPPH (1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity and reducing power, while Cinnamomum tamala leaves exhibited highest superoxide anion scavenging activity (Prasad, 2009). Consumption of Cinnamomum species thus can be of beneficial effect for both preventing and ameliorating diseases like cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, and diabetes for their antioxidant properties. Oleoresins obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum also showed excellent antioxidant activity as demonstrated through inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil. Volatile oils obtained from leaves and barks of this plant were also highly effective against a number of fungi tested (Singh, 2007). The plant is enriched in micro-nutrients like iron, cobalt, chromium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc (Singh, 2006). Eugenol, linalool, b-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide has been reported to be the major components in the leaf oil of Cinnamomum tamala (Baruah, 2005; Ahemd, 2000). Eugenol is an antioxidant and is known to protect nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro (Kar, 2009). Linalool has been reported to possess antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties including attenuation of allodynia in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in mice (Berliocchi, 2009). Thus the leaves of this plant, which are used as spice can be of both protective and curative values in different sorts of ailments causing pain or oxidative damages. Additionally, the leaves of this plant are known to contain a number of bio-active flavonoids like kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol-3-Orhamnoside and quercitrin (Singh, 2002). The antioxidant property and presence of polyphenols (which are antioxidants) have been confirmed in leaves of this plant using rat brain synaptosomes from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as a model system (Devi, 2007). Taken together, the various Cinnamomum species, which has been used as spices for hundreds of years in the Indian sub-continent and elsewhere can be effective food supplements and so can be characterized as functional foods.
The seeds of Cajanus cajan, which are eaten as pulses throughout Bangladesh are known to have a high content of potassium and phosphorus and moderate content of calcium and magnesium. The seeds also contain iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Also because of its protein content (19.34%), it is considered as a most important grain legume for human nutrition in the protein-deficient countries of the world (Nwokolo, 1987). Since the seeds of the plant are used in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh to combat diverse ailments like jaundice, coughs, bronchitis, itches, astringent, edema, tumor, snake bite, stimulant, edema, diarrhea, and skin disorders, this plant can also be considered an important functional food.
For a developing country like Bangladesh, it is important to identify functional foods, which can be consumed on a regular basis by the population to serve both nutritional and medicinal purposes. The present survey, besides collecting information on medicinal plants, also analyzed those plants with the objective of determining which medicinal plant can serve as a functional food. Since a number of plants have been identified, which can serve the dual purposes of medicinal and nutritive values they can be targeted for mass cultivation and conservation. At the same time, the population can be made aware of the consumption values of these plants or plant parts, which in turn can lead to reduced health costs, prevention and cure of a number of prevalent diseases, and an improved diet.
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(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (2) Abu Noman, (1) Md. Shahadat Hossan, (3) Md. Harun-Or-Rashid, (4) Taufiq Rahman, (5) Majeedul H. Chowdhury, (1) Rownak Jahan
(1) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
(2) Department of Pharmacy, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
(3) Department of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, 74 A-C, Jalan SS21/62, Damansara Utama, 47400 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
(4) Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, CB2 1PD, Cambridge, UK.
(5) New York City College of Technology The City University of New York 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA.
Mohammed Rahmatullah, Abu Noman, Md. Shahadat Hossan, Md. Harun-Or-Rashid, Taufiq Rahman, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Rownak Jahan; A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods; Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(4): 862-876, 2009
Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-815739
E mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Bhelamoyee and Shalbon areas in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. SI. Botanical name Family Local name No. 1 Andrographis Acanthaceae Kalomegh, paniculata Kalamnath, Nees 2 Justicia Acanthaceae Bashok, adhatoda L. Dankuni, Harb aksho 3 Justicia Acanthaceae Bishjaron gendarussa L. 4 Dracaena Agavaceae Agunikundu spicata Roxb. 5 Sansevieria Agavaceae Takbir mati roxburghiana Schultes & Schultes f. 6 Aerva Amaranthaceae Rong-chita sanguinolenta (L.) Bl. 7 Amaranthus Amaranthaceae Kata-khora spinosus L. 8 Crinum Amaryllidaceae Bon piyaz, asiaticum L. alt. Liliaceae Dhako-ali 9 Curculigo Amaryllidaceae Talmuli orchioides alt. Gaertn. Hypoxidaceae 10 Semecarpus Anacardiaceae Bhela anacardium L. 11 Alstonia Apocynaceae Chatim scholaris (L.) R.Br. 12 Carissa Apocynaceae Koromcha carandas L. 13 Catharanthus Apocynaceae Noyon tara roseus (L.) G.Donn. 14 Holarrhena Apocynaceae Kurchi pubescens Buch.-Ham. Wall. Ex G. Don 15 Nerium Apocynaceae Korobi indicum Mill. 16 Rauwolfia Apocynaceae Sharpagondha serpentina Benth. 17 Tabernaemontana Apocynaceae Bon korobi, divaricata Bon togor (L.) Roem. & Schult. 18 Scindapsus Araceae Takbir gach officinalis (Roxb.) Schott 19 Typhonium Araceae Cham ghas trilobatum (L.) Schott 20 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Ishwarmul indica L. 21 Calotropis Asclepiadaceae Boro akondo gigantea (L.) R.Br. 22 Hemidesmus Asclepiadaceae Anantamul indicus R.Br. 23 Asparagus Asparagaceae Shotomuli racemosus alt. Liliaceae Willd. 24 Mikania cordata Asteraceae/ Assam lota (Burm. f.) B. Compositae L. Robinson 25 Spilanthes Asteraceae/ Rakhal-porni, acmella Murr. Compositae Roshun shak 26 Wedelia Asteraceae/ Mohabhringoraj chinensis Compositae Leaf, flower (Osbeck) Merr. 27 Xanthium Asteraceae/ Hagra, indicum J. Compositae Ghaghra Koenig ex Roxb. 28 Oroxylum Bignoniaceae Kanai-dingi indicum Vent. 29 Bixa Bixaceae Lotkon orellana L. 30 Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae Shimul 31 Opuntia Cactaceae Monsha-debi dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. 32 Mesua Clusiaceae Ashar pata, nagassarium alt. Guttiferae Nageshwar (Burm.f.) Kosterm. 33 Gloriosa Colchicaceae Ulot chandal superba L. alt. Liliaceae 34 Terminalia Combretaceae Arjun arjuna Bedd. 35 Terminalia Combretaceae Bohera belerica Roxb. 36 Terminalia Combretaceae Horitoki chebula Retz. 37 Ipomoea Convolvulaceae Bhui-kumra mauritiana Jacq. 38 Costus Costaceae alt. Keu, speciosus Zingiberaceae Basukoron (Koen.) Sm. 39 Kalanchoe Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi pinnata (Lam.) Pers. 40 Coccinia Cucurbitaceae Telakucha grandis (L.) Voigt 41 Cyperus Cyperaceae Nagarmotha scariosus Br. 42 Dillenia Dilleniaceae Amortishar indica L. 43 Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae Bon-alu, Kulu hispida Dennst. 44 Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae Shorochman bulbifera L. 45 Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae Thubri pentaphylla L. 46 Croton Euphorbiaceae Jaipal tiglium L. 47 Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Dudhi hirta L. 48 Gelonium Euphorbiaceae Bar-dal multiflorum A. Juss. 49 Jatropha Euphorbiaceae Jamal-gota, gossypifolia L. 50 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Amloki emblica L. 51 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Bhui-amla niruri L. 52 Ricinus Euphorbiaceae Verenda, communis L. 53 Bauhinia Fabaceae Shet-kanchan acuminata L. 54 Butea Fabaceae Polash monosperma (Lam.) Taub. 55 Caesalpinia Fabaceae Natai bonduc (L.) Roxb. 56 Cajanus cajan Fabaceae Arhor (L.) Millsp. 57 Cassia alata L. Fabaceae Dadhmordon, 58 Cassia Fabaceae Shonalu, fistula L. Banor lathi 59 Cassia Fabaceae Boro kalo- occidentalis L. kashunda 60 Cassia Fabaceae Thon-thoni sophera L. 61 Cassia tora L. Fabaceae Chakinda 62 Desmodium Fabaceae Turog-chandal motorium (Houtt.) Merr. 63 Mimosa invisa Fabaceae Shada C. Martius ex lajjaboti Colla 64 Saraca asoca Fabaceae Ashok (Roxb.) De Wilde 65 Flacourtia Flacourtiaceae Bayuch, sepiaria Roxb. Premkata, Helahuta 66 Anisomeles Gobura, Ish-langol indica (L.) Labiatae Kuntze 67 Leucas aspera Labiatae Kashta phol, (Willd.) Link Cheton kumar 68 Ocimum Labiatae Tulshi tenuiflorum L. alt. Lamiaceae 69 Mentha Lamiaceae Pudina arvensis L. 70 Cinnamomum Lauraceae Korpur camphora (L.) J. Presl 71 Cinnamomum Lauraceae Tejpata tamala Nees and Eberm. 72 Cinnamomum Lauraceae Daruchini zeylanicum Blume 73 Litsea Lauraceae Pipul-jongi, chinensis Lamk. Kak-jonga, Bijla 74 Barringtonia Lecythidaceae Moha samudra, Leaf racemosa (L.) Dudh-kuruj Spreng. 75 Aloe Liliaceae Ghrito-kumari barbadensis Mill. 76 Lygodium Lygodiaceae Kukur mutha, flexuosum Kukur shuka, (L.) Sw. Bon tamak 77 Sida Malvaceae Pith-berela rhombifolia L. 78 Urena lobata L. Malvaceae Bon-okra 79 Stephania Menispermaceae Takamuti, japonica Makondi (Thunb.) Miers 80 Tinospora M enisperm aceae Guloncho-ban crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thoms 81 Mimosa Mimosaceae Shada lojjaboti pudica L. alt. Leguminosae 82 Ficus Moraceae Kak-dumur hispida L. 83 Moringa Moringaceae Sajna oleifera Lam. 84 Myristica Myristicaceae Joiphol fragrans Houtt. 85 Syzygium Myrtaceae Labanga aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry 86 Syzygium Myrtaceae Bonjam, fruticosum Kathjam Roxb. DC. 87 Nymphaea Nymphaeaceae Lal shapla, nouchali Shaluk Burm. f. 88 Piper chaba Piperaceae Mach- W. Hunter machunda 89 Piper cubeba L. Piperaceae Kababchini 90 Piper longum L. Piperaceae Pipul 91 Cymbopogon Poaceae Lemonghas citratus (DC.) alt. Gramineae Stapf 92 Hedyotis Rubiaceae Khetpapra corymbosa (L.) Lam. 93 Randia Rubiaceae Dhonkata dumetorum (Retz.) Lam. 94 Clausena Rutaceae Pan-porag heptaphylla (Roxb.) Hook. f.) 95 Santalum Santalaceae Shetchandan album L. 96 Manilkara Sapotaceae Sofeda zapota (L.) P. Royen 97 Scoparia Scrophulariaceae Bon-dhone, dulcis L. Chini-dhonia 98 Smilax Smilacaceae Kumari lota macrophylla alt. Liliaceae Roxb. 99 Datura metel L. S olanaceae Dhutura 100 Physalis Solanaceae Bon-tepari, micrantha Link. Shod-tepari 101 Solanum Solanaceae Kakmachi nigrum L. 102 Abroma Sterculiaceae Ulot-kombol augusta L.f. 103 Sterculia Sterculiaceae Udal villosa Roxb. 104 Aquilaria Thymelaeaceae Agor malaccensis Lamk. 105 Ferula Umbelliferae Hing asafoetida L. 106 Clerodendrum Verbenaceae Bamonhati indicum (L.) alt. Lamiaceae Kuntze. 107 Clerodendrum Verbenaceae Bhati, Foksha viscosum Vent. alt. Lamiaceae 108 Vitex Verbenaceae Nishinda negundo L. 109 Cissus Vitaceae Harjora quadrangularis L. 110 Leea Vitaceae Hosti-korno macrophylla -polash Roxb. ex Hornem. 111 Amomum Zingiberaceae Elach subulatum Roxb. SI. Parts used Ailments treated and dosage No. 1 Leaf, stem Long-term fever, any type of severe body pain. Mixture of leaves and stems is taken twice daily for 14 days Kalpanathfor long-term fever. Leaf juice is taken thrice daily for 21 days for body pain. 2 Leaf Coughs in human, any porcine diseases. Leaf juice is taken for 7 days. Any type of pain. Crushed leaves are applied to affected area once daily for 7 days. 3 Leaf Debility, pain. Juice from crushed leaves is taken twice daily for 8 days. 4 Leaf Paralysis. Leaf juice is massaged to affected area twice daily for 1 week. 5 Leaf Fever. Leaf juice is mixed with molasses and taken twice daily for 8 days. 6 Leaf Gout, gastric problems, to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds. Leaves are tied to areas affected by gout. Leaf juice is taken for 7 days for gastric troubles. Paste of leaves is applied to wounds to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds. 7 Root To stop frequent urination. Roots are taken on an empty stomach for 7 days. 8 Leaf, fruit Rheumatic pain, acidity, dysentery. Leaf juice is slightly warmed and applied to affected area twice daily for 4 days for rheumatic pain. Leaf juice and fruit is taken on an empty stomach thrice daily for 14 days for acidity and dysentery. 9 Leaf, root Leucorrhea, leukemia. Root juice is taken for 21 days for leucorrhea. Leaf juice is taken for 14 days for leukemia. 10 Leaf Jaundice. Leaves are boiled in water and then strained followed by drinking of the juice for 14 days. 11 Leaf Coughs, mucus, colds. Paste of leaves is taken with honey in the morning and evening on a full stomach for 7 days. 12 Leaf, fruit Appetite stimulant. Leaves are boiled in water to make a syrup and then taken twice daily for 7 days. Fruit is edible. 13 Leaf, flower Anti-cancer, diabetes, bacterial diseases, added as perfume to other medicines. Crushed leaves and flowers are heated and the decoction taken twice daily for 9 days. 1-2 fresh leaves are also swallowed with water daily to keep blood sugar under control during diabetes. 14 Leaf Hypertension, dysentery. Powdered leaves are boiled in water to extract juice followed by drinking of the juice twice daily for 12 days. 15 Leaf Any type of skin disorders. Crushed leaves are applied to affected areas of skin once daily for 10 days. 16 Leaf, stem Hypertension, mental instability. Pills made from crushed or powdered leaves and stems are taken thrice daily for 14 days. 17 Leaf, flower Used as perfume. 18 Leaf Fever, rheumatism, pain. Powdered leaves are taken for 21 days for fever and pain. Warmed leaves are applied to affected area for rheumatism. 19 Leaf Appetite stimulant. Leaves are cooked and taken as vegetable. 20 Leaf, root Allergy, skin diseases. Leaves and roots are boiled together to extract juice. Juice is applied twice daily for 7 days. 21 Leaf, stem Body pain, asthma. Leaves and stems are mixed together, powdered and pills made from the powder. For body pain, pills are taken once daily for 7 days. For asthma, pills are taken once daily for 14 days. 22 Leaf, root Nerve weakness, debility. Juice from mixed leaves and roots is taken for 7 days. 23 Leaf, root Physical and mental weakness. Leaves and roots are boiled together to make a syrup and taken twice daily for 14 days. 24 Leaf, flower Skin diseases. Juice from leaf and flower is applied to affected area. 25 Leaf, flower S top bleeding from gums, dysentery, anti- bacterial, anemia. Leaves are boiled in water followed by gargling with the water for stopping bleeding from gums. Leaf juice is taken for 7 days for dysentery. Leaf juice is also used for bacterial infections. Leaf and flower juice is taken on a regular basis for anemia. 26 Stop hair loss, promote growth. Juice from leaves and flowers is applied to hair for 7 days. 27 Leaf To induce blood clotting. Leaf paste is applied to cuts and wounds. 28 Fruit Jaundice. Fruit juice is taken twice daily for 14 days. 29 Leaf, fruit Appetite stimulant, aids digestion, debility. Pills made from a mixture of leaf and fruit is taken thrice daily for 1 week. Fruit is edible and consumed when in season. 30 Leaf, root Debility, to increase growth. Leaves and roots are boiled and the juice extracted. Extracted juice is taken thrice daily for 3 weeks. 31 Leaf Paralysis. Leaf juice is massaged on the paralyzed area twice daily for 4 weeks. 32 Leaf, bark Constipation. A mixture of leaf and bark is taken twice daily for 1 week. 33 Leaf Skin diseases, rheumatism, leucorrhea. Powdered leaves are mixed with warm oil and applied to affected area for 21 days. 34 Bark Heart diseases, rheumatism. Pills made from bark powder is taken twice daily for 21 days. 35 Leaf, fruit Impotency, coughs, indigestion. Leaves and fruits are boiled to extract juice. Juice is taken thrice daily for 7 days. Fruits are edible and consumed when in season to maintain healthy body conditions. 36 Leaf, fruit Bacterial diseases. Crushed leaves are boiled and juice extracted. Juice is taken thrice daily for 8 days. Fruits are edible and consumed when in season to maintain healthy body conditions. 37 Leaf, root Leucorrhea, sexually transmitted diseases. Leaves and roots are boiled in water to extract juice. Extracted juice is taken twice daily for 21 days. 38 Leaf, stem (1) Rheumatism. Powdered leaf and stem is mixed with mustard oil and applied to affected area. (2) To hypnotize somebody, debility. Leaf juice is taken twice daily for 14 days. 39 Leaf Kidney stones, any type of wounds, indigestion. Juice from leaves is taken thrice daily for 21 days. 40 Leaf Hypertension, diabetes. Leaf juice is taken thrice daily for 7 days. Leaves are also chewed every morning to keep blood sugar under control during diabetes. 41 Leaf, Debility, fever. Juice from crushed leaves, stem, root stems and roots are mixed together and taken. 42 Leaf, fruit Dysentery. Leaf juice is taken twice daily for 21 days. Fruits are edible and consumed when in season. 43 Leaf, root, Mole, insect bites, insomnia. Leaf, root, tuber, upper tuber and upper part of tuber are boiled in part of tuber water and the juice taken twice daily in the morning and evening on a full stomach for 7 days. 44 Leaf Elephantitis. Leaves are boiled and the juice fed thrice daily for 10 days. 45 Leaf, vine Paralysis. Juice from leaf and vine is applied. 46 Leaf Body pain, swelling. Juice from crushed leaves is taken for 7 days as remedy for body pain. Slightly warmed leaves are applied to affected areas to reduce swellings. 47 Leaf, flower Mucus in stool. Paste of leaf and flower is taken with molasses. 48 Leaf Dysentery. 3 drops of leaf juice is taken for 7 days. 49 Fruit, seed (1) Constipation. Powdered fruit or seed is Kendar, taken on a full stomach for 7 days. Majongach (2) Tooth decay. Leaf juice is applied to teeth for 1 week. 50 Leaf, Hair loss, indigestion, debility. Crushed bark, fruit leaves and barks are boiled to extract juice. Juice is taken thrice daily for 14 days. Fruits are edible and consumed when in season to maintain healthy body conditions. 51 Leaf, flower Mucus in stool. Anti-bacterial, analgesic. Paste of leaf and flower is taken with molasses for 7 days. 52 Leaf, root Analgesic. Juice from leaves and roots is Venna taken. At the same time, a pinch of salt is mixed with leaf paste, slightly warmed and applied to areas of pain. 53 Leaf Preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. Leaf juice is added as an ingredient for good mixing in Ayurvedic medicines. 54 Leaf, gum Helmintic infections, wounds. Leaf juice is taken for 7 days for helminthiasis. Gum is applied to wounds for healing. 55 Leaf, fruit Skin diseases, debility. Leaves and fruits are mixed and boiled in water followed by drinking of the decoction twice daily for 3 weeks. 56 Leaf, Jaundice. Juice from leaves and flowers is flower, seed taken thrice daily for 21 days. Seeds are cooked and eaten as pulses. 57 Leaf Scabies, skin diseases. Leaf juice is Dadhmonijol applied to affected area thrice daily for 1 0 days; alternately twice daily till cure. 58 Leaf, fruit Long-term coughs, nervous weakness, constipation. Juice from leaves and fruits is taken thrice daily for 14 days. Leaf juice is taken thrice daily for 2 weeks for constipation. 59 Leaf Eczema, gastric problems. Paste of leaf is applied to eczema for 21 days. Juice of leaves is taken in the morning and evening on a full stomach for 14 days for gastric disorders. 60 Leaf Pain-killer, insect and snake bites. Leaves are chewed with salt and applied to bitten area. 61 Leaf Itches, eczema. Juice from leaves is mixed with oil and applied to affected area for 7-14 days. 62 Leaf Frequent urination. The leaves are chewed and the juice taken every morning on an empty stomach for 5 days. 63 Leaf, bark Pain, skin diseases. A paste of leaf and bark is applied to affected area for 2 weeks. 64 Leaf White discharge. Juice from leaves is taken thrice daily for 8 days. 65 Leaf, Leucorrhea. Juice from leaf, fruit and fruit, flower is taken for 7 days. flower 66 Leaf Tearing of internal organs during delivery. Leaf juice is taken for 7 days. 67 Leaf, Bone fractures, debility, asthma, root, flower respiratory difficulties, coughs. Leaf paste is applied to bone fractures. Root juice is taken for debility. Flowers are mixed with root juice from Ocimum tenuiflorum and honey and taken for asthma and respiratory difficulties. Flower juice is taken for coughs. 68 Leaf, Coughs, anti-bacterial, asthma, respiratory stem, root difficulties, mucus, leucorrhea. Juice from leaf and stem is considered anti-bacterial. Root juice is mixed with flowers of Leucas aspera and honey for asthma and respiratory difficulties. Leaf juice is taken for coughs, mucus, and leucorrhea. 69 Leaf, stem Dysentery, indigestion, stomach pain. Leaf juice is taken thrice daily for 7 days. Leaves and stems are also used as spice. 70 Leaf, bark Skin diseases and toothache. Powdered leaves and barks are applied to affected areas of skin and gums. 71 Leaf Coughs, colds. Leaves are chewed; alternately, pills made from powdered leaves are taken for 4 days. Leaf is also used as spice. 72 Bark Debility, dysentery, growth retardation. Pills made from bark powder is taken twice daily for 13 days. Bark is also used as spice. 73 Leaf, flower (1) Burning sensations during urination. Paste of flower along with juice of leaves boiled in water is taken for 7 days. (2) To increase physical strength, constipation. Leaves are boiled in water and the extracted juice taken once every morning for 21 days. 74 Stop bleeding from gums. Leaf paste is applied to gums. 75 Leaf Leucorrhea. Leaves are boiled with water and sugar and the juice extracted. Extracted juice is taken thrice daily for 14 days. 76 Root Dysentery. Juice from warmed roots is taken on a full stomach in the morning and evening for 14 days. 77 Fruit Leucorrhea, wet dream. Juice from crushed fruits are taken in the morning and evening on a full stomach for 7 days. 78 Leaf Skin diseases. Leaf juice is applied to affected area. 79 Leaf, Bone fractures, debility. Leaves are tied flower around fractured area. Leaves or flowers immersed in warm water are taken for 7 days for debility. 80 Leaf, stem Rheumatism, body pain. Leaf and stem juice is massaged onto the affected area twice daily for 7 days. 81 Leaf Rheumatic pain. Juice is taken thrice daily for 7 days. 82 Leaf Jaundice. Leaves are boiled in water and taken twice daily for 3 weeks. 83 Leaf, fruit Chicken pox, body pain. Pills are made from a paste of leaves and fruits and taken thrice daily for 8 days. Leaves and fruits are edible; they are cooked and eaten as vegetable. Leaves are hung around the walls and consumed by household members as a preventive measure against chicken pox. 84 Fruit White discharge in urine. Fruits are taken. 85 Leaf, Coughs, debility, increase mental strength. flower, Crushed leaves and flowers are taken with flower bud honey for 7 days. Dried flower bud is used as spice. 86 Leaf Appetite stimulant. Leaf juice and molasses are mixed together and taken twice daily for 7 days. 87 Tuber Cancer. Tubers are eaten. Tubers are also cooked and eaten as vegetable. 88 Leaf Debility, rheumatic pain. Leaves are fried in oil and taken twice daily for 7 days. 89 Leaf, stem Rheumatism. Juice from leaf and stem is applied to the affected area twice daily for 7 days. 90 Leaf, flower Indigestion, stomach disorders. Juice from leaves and flowers is taken on an empty stomach thrice daily for 7 days. 91 Leaf Bleeding from wounds. Juice from crushed leaves is applied to wounds to stop bleeding. 92 Leaf, flower To promote growth. Juice from leaves and flowers are taken thrice daily for 7 days. 93 Leaf, stem Bone fractures. Paste of leaves and stems is applied to fractured area for 2-3 weeks. 94 Leaf Toothache. Leaf juice is applied thrice daily to affected area for 7 days. Leaf is also chewed occasionally as preventive measure for tooth decay. 95 Leaf, stem Dysentery. Leaves and stems are crushed and boiled to extract juice. Juice is taken twice daily for 7 days. 96 Fruit Diseases arising out from malnutrition. Fruits are edible and eaten. 97 Leaf, flower To dissolve gall bladder stones. Juice of leaf and flowers is taken for 7-15 days. 98 Leaf, stem Rheumatism, body pain. Crushed leaves and stems are applied to affected area. 99 Leaf, flower Joint pain, pain in leg. Leaves are soaked in oil, warmed and applied to areas of pain. 100 Fruit Debility. Dried and powdered fruits are kept beside the head. 101 Leaf Jaundice, debility. Leaves are boiled to extract juice. Juice is taken thrice daily for 7 days. 102 Leaf, Leucorrhea, menstrual problems. Juice from root, flower leaf and flower is taken for 7-14 days for leucorrhea. Small pieces of roots are taken for 7 days for menstrual problems. 103 Leaf Cleansing of gastric tract. Leaf juice is taken every morning on an empty stomach for 7 days. 104 Leaf, bark Headache. Paste of leaf and bark is applied to the forehead. 105 Leaf, Asthma. Juice from leaf, flower and seed is flower, seed mixed together and taken twice daily for 7 days. Seed is also used as spice. 106 Leaf Skin infections in throat of children. Leaf juice is taken twice daily on a full stomach. 107 Leaf, fruit Helminthiasis, dysentery, jaundice. Juice is extracted from powdered or crushed leaves and fruits and taken thrice daily for 7 days for helminthiasis and dysentery. Leaf juice is taken thrice daily for 14 days for jaundice. 108 Leaf, Dental and skin diseases, fever. Juice from root, fruit leaf, root and fruit is taken twice daily for 21 days. 109 Leaf Bone fracture. Crushed leaves are applied to fractures. 110 Leaf Rheumatic pain. Leaves are shredded, mixed with mustard oil and heated. The mixture is applied to affected areas for 21 days. 111 Leaf, seed Coughs, sexually transmitted diseases. Ashes of burned leaves are mixed with mustard oil and taken twice daily for 7 days. Seeds are used as spice. Note that bold lettering indicates plants where whole plant or plant parts can serve as functional foods. Table 2: Medicinal plants of Dinajpur district indicating plant parts which can be classified as functional foods based on their edibility and preventive or curative effects of various ailments. Plant name Edible part Ailments for which plant parts are used to provide preventive or curative effects (includes data from ethnobotanical surveys conducted in other regions of Bangladesh) Amomum subulatum Seed Acne, gout, spasms, indigestion, cardiac arrhythmia. Bixa orellana Fruit Cancer, gonorrhea, kidney diseases, malaria, colic, digestive aid, debility, appetite stimulant, gastric ulcer, cuts or wounds on hands or feet. Cajanus cajan Seed Jaundice, coughs, bronchitis, itches, astringent, edema, tumor, snake bite, stimulant, edema, diarrhea, skin disorders. Carissa carandas Fruit Malaria, epilepsy, nerve disorders, pain, headache, fever, insanity, anorexia, appetizer, blood purifier, myopathic spasm, dog bite, coughs, colds, itches, leprosy. Cinnamomum tamala Leaf Diabetes, flatulency, sore throat, tumor, coughs, cold, to maintain strong teeth, impotency, hypocholesterolemic, stimulant, itches, astringent, colic, antidote to poison, scars, anorexia, indigestion, diarrhea, piles, dermatitis, jaundice, indigestion, carminative, biliary disorders. Cinnamomum Bark Tonic, hypocholesterolemic, zeylanicum cardiac disorders, debility, dysentery, growth promoter, appetite stimulant, laxative, anorexia, low sperm count, rheumatism, biliary disorders, diabetes, to reduce nervous tension, to increase memory, colds, to stop vomiting, headache, rheumatic pain. Coccinia grandis Leaf Diabetes, edema, eye diseases, carminative, hypertension, fever, inflammation, headache, typhoid, sunstroke, coughs, nerve depressant, jaundice, stomach pain, dizziness, mental disorders, respiratory disorders, eczema, acne, leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, blood dysentery, increased temperature of hands or head, bloating, blood disorders, dermatitis, myopathic spasm, baldness, scars, leukoderma, lesions of the tongue, burning sensations in hands or feet, insanity, bed wetting in children. Dillenia indica Fruit Cholera, purgative, antidote to poison, anti-hemorrhagic, anorexia, dysentery, appetizer, abortifacient, stomach pain, astringent, fever, coughs, appetite stimulant, acidity, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic pain, epilepsy, to increase lactation, low sperm count, boils, sprains, debility, headache, hypertension, food toxicity. Ferula asafoetida Seed Asthma. Manilkara zapota Fruit Hepatic disorders, dysentery, tonic, appetizer, hypertension, diseases arising out of malnutrition, astringent, fever. Mentha arvensis Leaf, stem Dysentery, indigestion, stomach pain. Moringa oleifera Leaf, fruit Colds, fever, joint pain, gout, hypertension, constipation, acidity, epilepsy, skin eruptions, leukoderma, tonic, helminthiasis, body pain, chicken pox, stimulant, vomiting-induced stomach pain, emetic, carminative, toothache, cracked foot, sterility, cancer, skin lesions, constipation, indigestion, edema, wounds, eczema, boils, myopathic spasms, night blindness, dermatitis, hernia, cardiovascular disorders, snake bite, paralysis, tetanus, rheumatoid arthritis, waist pain, spleen enlargement, sedative, cathartic, diabetes, leprosy, conjunctivitis, pain. Nymphaea nouchali Leaf, stem Indigestion, cardiovascular disorders, anti-hemorrhagic, stomach pain, cancer, menstruation control, astringent, diarrhea, indigestion, diabetes. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Appetizer, gonorrhea, toothache, itches, leucorrhea, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, jaundice, eye diseases, heatstroke, edema, gastrointestinal disorders (stomach pain, acidity, constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, indigestion), body ache, appetite stimulant, impotency, debility, anemia, fever, sudden unconsciousness, alopecia, skin diseases, to maintain healthy hair, hair loss and graying of hair, to maintain strong teeth, fistula, sore throat, pain, sex stimulant, jaundice, to strengthen body organs (heart, stomach, liver, muscle, nerves), hepatitis, cold, loss of taste, anorexia, burning sensations during urination, acne, marks on face, to increase facial complexion. Spilanthes acmella Leaf To stop bleeding from gums, dysentery, anemia, toothache, oral lesions, stomach pain, gastrointestinal problems, insect repellent, erectile dysfunction, to increase sperm count, head infections. Syzygium aromaticum Flower bud Coughs, debility, to increase mental alertness. Terminalia belerica Fruit Constipation, sexual diseases, leprosy, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, blood dysentery, tonic, fever, erectile dysfunction, coughs, indigestion, impotency, sex stimulant, edema, respiratory problems, hair tonic, appetite stimulant, acidity, nerve stimulant, edema, inflammation, to increase sensitivity of the senses, anorexia, headache, nerve stimulant, hernia, typhus, stimulant, intestinal infection, skin diseases, constipation, asthma, allergy, to maintain healthy body organs (heart, lungs, liver), lung problems, liver dysfunctions, bloating, untimely graying of hair. Terminalia chebula Fruit Cancer, jaundice, bronchitis, indigestion, piles, syphilis, leucorrhea, conjunctivitis, tumor, itches, cardiovascular disorders, tuberculosis, heatstroke, ulcer, energy stimulant, burns, low sperm count, debility, inflammation, purgative, coughs, urinary troubles, carminative, asthma, biliary problems, jaundice, stimulation of appetite, digestive aid, acidity, bloating, constipation, hair loss, leprosy, edema, malaria, hepatitis, hoarseness, sore throat, leucorrhea, helminthiasis, pain, hepatic disorders, respiratory problems, acne, marks on face, to improve facial complexion.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Noman, Abu; Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Rahman, Taufiq; Chowd|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2009|
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