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A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods.

Introduction

Plants, besides providing nutrition, have always formed an important source of chemical compounds, which can be used for medicinal purposes. Human knowledge of the medicinal value of plants date back probably for more than five thousand years (Sofowora, 1982). Even in recent times, plants have been an important source of modern drugs like aspirin, ephedrine, digoxin, quinine and tubocurarine, to name only a few (Gilani, 2005). It has been noted that the original source of many important pharmaceuticals in current use have been plants used by indigenous people (Balick, 1996), who traditionally has been a rich source of knowledge on medicinal and edible plants or plant parts. It has been reported that about 64% of the total global population remains dependent on traditional medicine and medicinal plants for provision of their health-care needs (Cotton, 1996). In recent years traditional medicine has become of interest to both scientists and the general population for a number of reasons, which include high price of allopathic drugs beyond the reach of the poorer segments of society in almost every country, lack of access to medical clinics and hospitals by the rural population of developing countries, the side-effects and toxicities of modern synthetic drugs, and the realization that phytochemicals present in plants can be effective therapeutic agents by themselves or serve as effective adjunct therapies to modern drugs.

Along with the progress of human civilization and the accumulation of knowledge, people have become more concerned with their eating habits. A concept of 'functional food' has taken place, which denotes food that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. In other words, these foods provide health benefits beyond their nutritive values. This is not totally a novel concept for even in ancient times people added spices to their dietary items not only to impart color, taste or flavoring, but also for their health benefits. Functional foods are often also termed 'food supplements' or 'nutraceuticals'. In recent years, to consider just one country, the functional food market in Taiwan reached US$ 1.78 billion in 2005 (Sun 2007).

A number of plants or plant products have been demonstrated in scientific studies that they can be classified as functional foods. These include both medicinal plants and commonly consumed plants or plant products. To cite a few examples, carotenoids in green peppers (Capsicum annuum, which has been traditionally consumed in Central and South American countries for thousands of years) has been shown to demonstrate antimutagenic activity against some nitroarenes (Gonzaez, 1998). It may be noted that green peppers are also added to a variety of cooked food items and snacks in various regions of the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea, an edible vegetable (Cicer aretinum) is also considered a functional food and intake of chickpeas has been recommended in humans with altered lipid profile such as type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia and diabetes (Zulet, 1999). The functional properties of raw and processed pigeon pea, an edible vegetable (Cajanus cajan) flour has also been reported (Okpala, 2001). Functional foods that have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic, tea, grapes and nuts (Hasler, 2000). It has been reported that bitter herbs have been consumed from ancient times to alleviate various dyspeptic conditions--a condition suffered by about 15-30% of adult population throughout the world (Saller, 2001). Garlic, a commonly used spice contains over 2,000 biologically active substances and is of importance in dietoprophylaxis and dietotherapy (Swiderski, 2007). The organosulfur compounds present in garlic appear to be good agents for cancer chemoprevention through multiple mechanisms like carcinogen metabolism modulation, DNA adduct formation inhibition and upregulation of antioxidant defenses and DNA repair systems (Nagini, 2008). The Zingiberaceae family contains a number of plants whose rhizomes are eaten as vegetable or added to food items as spices. The family contains commonly known spices like ginger and turmeric. A study conducted in Taiwan found good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in a number of Zingiberaceae plants found within the country (Chen, 2008). The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for a number of ailments like wounds, rheumatism, gastrointestinal disorders, helminthiasis and rhinitis. Other spices used in traditional Indian cooking like onions and ginger has been found to favorably modulate the process of carcinogenesis, while fenugreek seeds has been reported to reduce blood glucose and lipids and can be used as an adjunct food in diabetes (Krishnaswamy, 2008). Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), garden pea (Pisum sativum), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) extracts reportedly demonstrated inhibition of pancreatic lipase and so can be considered promising sources for developing functional foods to decrease fat absorption (Slanc, 2009). In Korea, the wild plant Adenophora triphylla is commonly used in food materials and traditional medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antitussive. Leaf extracts of this plant showed notable levels of total phenolics and flavonoids and demonstrated good anti-oxidant activities. The results suggested that the plant can serve the function of a food supplement (Kim, 2009). Overall, there is a growing realization about medicinal plants that quite a number of them can serve as functional foods and so can be utilized both nutritionally and medicinally.

Bangladesh is a developing country with a majority of rural population, who lack access to modern healthcare or cannot afford the cost of allopathic drugs. A sizeable section of the population is below the poverty level of US$1 per day. As a result, malnutrition and diseases arising from malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions of living are prevalent. The primary health care of the rural population and a substantial section of urban population are provided by traditional medicinal practitioners or Kavirajes, who possess considerable expertise on medicinal plants. The medicinal plants utilized by the Kavirajes are usually kept secret and so can vary considerably between Kavirajes of various regions or tribes. It was the objective of the present study to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of different areas in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh to obtain information on medicinal plants used by them for treatment of diverse ailments. A further objective of the study was to determine which plant or plant part can be used as functional foods. The criteria for judging whether a medicinal plant can serve as a functional food were history of long-term edibility without any side-effects or toxicities, nutritive value of the plant, and whether the plant has been used by the Kavirajes for considerable lengths of time for treatment of single or multiple ailments. It is expected that such studies can make the particularly poorer sections of the people more conscious about consuming plants that can serve as functional foods and so can be effective in providing nutrition and be of preventive as well as curative values to people who can ill afford the cost of food and medicines.

Materials and Methods

2.1. Study area

Dinajpur district is one of the northern-most districts of Bangladesh and falls roughly between 88o20 89o20 E and 25o10 - 26o05 N. The area is bounded by Nilphamari and Rangpur districts to the east, West Bengal province of India to the west, Thakurgaon and Panchagarh districts to the north and Joypurhat district to the south. The Atrai and the Punabhaba rivers are the major rivers flowing through the district. The survey was conducted in and around the areas of Bhelamoyee and Shalbon in the district.

2.2. Data collection and sampling techniques

A total of 4 Kavirajes were interviewed for this survey. Informed consent was obtained from all Kavirajes prior to interviews. Kavirajes were explained the reasons for conducting the survey and the information that will be collected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for the interviews. The basic survey method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the informant takes the observer on guided field-walks through areas from where the informant collects the medicinal plants. The plants are shown to the observer along with providing information on plant name (local), plant parts used, ailments treated, formulations, dosages and side-effects, if any. The information was later cross-checked and every item verified in evening meetings held with the Kavirajes. Plant specimens, as pointed out by the informants (Kavirajes) were collected, pressed and dried on site. All collected specimens were later brought to the Bangladesh National Herbarium for complete identification.

Results and discussion

3.1. Plants and their distribution into families

The result of the present study shows that 111 species of plants were used by the Kavirajes of Bhelamoyee and Shalbon areas in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. These medicinal plants belonged to 59 families (Table 1). The Fabaceae family provided the largest number of species (12), followed by the Apocynaceae and Euphorbiaceae families (7 plants each). The medicinal plants included a number of edible fruit plants. These plants included Carissa carandas, Bixa orellana, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Dillenia indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Moringa oleifera, and Manilkara zapota. Fresh fruits were consumed when in season for their nutritive as well as medicinal values. During off-season, the Kavirajes were found to administer dried fruits of plants like Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica. The seeds of Cajanus cajan, which is cultivated like the above-mentioned fruit plants are cooked like pulses and eaten occasionally by the general population. A number of other plants were also cultivated because of their use as spices as well as medicinal values. These plants were Mentha arvensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Amomum subulatum. Nymphaea nouchali is an aquatic plant, which grows both in the wild as well as planted in homestead ponds for ornamental purposes. The plant is cooked and eaten as vegetable, mostly by the rural population.

3.2. Plant parts used and mode of preparation

The various plant parts used included leaves, roots, stems, flowers, fruits, barks, seeds, gum, and rhizomes. Of these, leaves formed the part of the plant predominantly used (54.9%), followed by flowers (11.0%) and fruits (10.4%). Out of a total of 111 plants, it was observed that 60 plants had more than one plant part used in combination for medicinal purposes. 14 plants had uses of a combination of leaves with flowers, 10 plants had uses of a combination of leaves with fruits, and 9 plants had combined uses of leaves with roots. Other plant parts used in combination were leaves with stems, leaves with barks, leaves with gum, fruits with seeds, and leaves with seeds. In the case of several plants, three plant parts were administered in combination to treat ailments. These combinations included leaves with stems and roots (Cyperus scariosus), leaves with fruits and flower (Flacourtia sepiaria), and leaves with roots and fruits (Vitex negundo). In most cases, juice was extracted from the plant part(s) and taken orally or applied topically. Other modes of oral administration were boiling the plant part in water and drinking the syrup (e.g. Carissa carandas), direct taking of the plant part (e.g. root of Amaranthus spinosus), taking pills made from dried plant part (e.g. Terminalia arjuna) or cooking the plant part and taking it as vegetable (e.g. Typhonium trilobatum). Other modes of topical applications also included application of crushed plant part to affected area (e.g. Justicia adhatoda), mixing powdered plant parts with mustard oil followed by topical application (e.g. Costus speciosus) or mixing plant part paste with salt followed by topical application (e.g. Ricinus communis).

3.3. Medical applications

With one exception, in all cases, a single plant was used by the Kavirajes to treat one or multiple ailments. The exception was the use of a combination of Leucas aspera flowers with Ocimum tenuiflorum root juice for treatment of asthma and respiratory difficulties. Tabernaemontana divaricata did not have any medicinal use; its leaves and flowers were used as perfumery. Bauhinia acuminata also did not have any direct medical use; the leaves of this plant were used by Kavirajes as an ingredient or base for good mixing of Ayurvedic medicines. It is to be noted in this regard that Ayurvedic medicine is one of the oldest form of traditional medicine practiced in the Indian sub-continent. The practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine are also known in Bangladesh as Kavirajes. The Kavirajes interviewed in the present survey though practiced what is generally referred to as 'folk medicine', which while having certain similarities with Ayurvedic medicine is quite different in its simplicity and plant choice.

3.4. Plants which can be classified as functional foods

A number of plants were found among the 111 medicinal plants shown in Table 1 in which plant parts can serve both nutritive and medicinal purposes and so can be classified as functional foods. These plants were Amomum subulatum, Bixa orellana, Cajanus cajan, Carissa carandas, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coccinia grandis, Dillenia indica, Ferula asafoetida, Manilkara zapota, Mentha arvensis, Moringa oleifera, Nymphaea nouchali, Phyllanthus emblica, Spilanthes acmella, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia belerica, and Terminalia chebula. The edible parts of these plants along with the ailments that are treated or prevented with the edible parts are shown in Table 2. It is to be noted that Table 2 is not confined to the present survey only but also presents information obtained thus far in our ongoing ethnobotanical surveys conducted in different regions and among different tribes of Bangladesh.

It can be seen from Table 2, that the eighteen plants listed as food supplements are also in use in other regions of Bangladesh by Kavirajes, albeit to treat different ailments. The ailments for which the plant parts were used were diverse and ranged from disorders of body organs to parasitic diseases and diseases arising from bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Two plants appear unique (at least in our ethnobotanical data collected thus far) in their use by the Kavirajes of Dinajpur district. These plants are Ferula assafoetida and Mentha arvensis. Although our available data does not indicate the use of Ferula asafoetida and Mentha arvensis in other regions of Bangladesh (note that gathering of more ethnobotanical data may change this picture), a related species of Mentha arvensis, namely Mentha spicata was found to be commonly used by Kavirajes in other regions of the country. While Mentha arvensis was used by the Kavirajes of Dinajpur district for dysentery, indigestion, and stomach pain, uses of whole plant or leaves of Mentha spicata included treatment for cancer, nerve disorders, bronchitis, anorexia, indigestion, dysentery, stomach pain, vomiting, diabetes, edema, fever, headache, lack of appetite, stomach and intestinal diseases, helminthiasis, bloating, typhus, dermatitis, and seizures, and use as an appetizer (data not shown).

Besides curative purposes, the plants indicated as functional foods also can provide nutritive values, and regular consumption can have a preventive role against a number of ailments or to maintain healthy body organs. The most notable plants that we observed in this regard were Coccinia grandis (leaves are chewed every day by diabetic patients to keep blood sugar under control), Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula (fruits are consumed to maintain healthy body conditions), and Spilanthes acmella (leaves and flowers are taken on a regular basis both to prevent and to treat anemia). Plant parts from other plants like Mentha arvensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Amomum subulatum are added to cooked food items as spices by the general population on an almost daily basis and can play a preventive role in the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory problems, and through increasing palatability and flavor of foods make them more digestible and serve to maintain good health. It is further to be noted in this regard that Mentha arvensis is usually taken after partaking of meat and fatty items or items highly rich in calories, where digestibility may be of concern.

Discussion

A number of plants classified as functional foods (Table 2) have been studied scientifically for their nutritional content and pharmacological activities. This discussion will provide an overview of some of the more important plant species. The leaves of Spilanthes acmella and Dillenia indica are consumed by Khasi tribal women of India as unconventional wild edibles to supplement their regular diet (Agrahar, 2006). In the Sri Lankan traditional medicine, Spilanthes acmella flowers are used for their diuretic effects; this has been confirmed in scientific studies conducted in rats using cold extract of flowers (Ratnasooriya, 2004) and thus can have therapeutic uses in edema. Ethanol extracts of flower buds of the plant reportedly exhibited inhibitory activities on pancreatic lipase and so can be a potential source to reduce obesity (Ekanem, 2007). N-isobutyl-4,5- decadienamide isolated from the flowers of the plant has been reported to possess analgesic activity (Ansari, 1988). In Taiwan, the plant is used as a common spice and has been administered for years in traditional folk medicine to cure toothache, stammering, and stomatitis. A bio-active compound, spilanthol has been isolated from the plant which demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect on murine macrophages by down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators (Wu, 2008). Other reported bio-active compounds with good anti-oxidant activities, isolated from volatile oil from fresh leaves of this plant include germacrene-D, trans-b-caryophyllene, b-elemene, nor-copaanone and bicyclogermacrene (Kawaree, 2008). Antioxidant and vasorelaxant activities of extracts of the plant have also been demonstrated (Wongsawatkul, 2008). In Thai traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat toothache, rheumatism, and fever. A number of bio-active compounds isolated from chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant showed inhibitory activities against a number of microorganisms like Corynebacterium diptheriae and Bacillus subtilis. The compounds included phenolics like vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and trans-isoferulic acid; coumarin (scopoletin); and triterpenoids like 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, b-sitostenone, stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides, in addition to a mixture of stigmasteryl- and b-sitosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides (Prachayasittikul, 2009). Taken together, it may be concluded that the available studies justify the use of this plant has a functional food.

Partaking of Triphala (formulation from the dried fruits of three plants Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula) has been described in the ancient Indian Ayurvedic medicine to be good for maintaining healthy heart conditions as well as a therapeutic agent for heart diseases. Since then, numerous reports have been published on the preventive and curative properties of the fruits of these plants taken in combination or individually. Feeding of a dried powder of fruits from the three plants have been shown to reduce total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesterolemic rats and to increase excretion of bile acids (Nalini, 1999). When administered individually, the fruits of the plants were found to reduce cholesterol in cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits (Thakur, 1988). The methanolic extract of fruits of the three plants, individually or in combination, reportedly showed antioxidant potential in vitro and anti-diabetic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Sabu, 2002). Both acetone and methanol extracts of Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula reportedly showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Aqil, 2005). Pretreatment of mice with aqueous extract of Terminalia belerica fruits has been shown to confer protection against experimental Salmonellosis and result in total survival of animals when challenged with lethal doses of Salmonella typhimurium (Madani, 2008). Alcoholic extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia belerica conferred protective effects in isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats (Tariq, 1977). The antioxidant potential of Terminalia belerica (fruit), Terminalia chebula (fruit), and Nymphaea nouchali (flower) has been reported and attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds like hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycons and their glycosides (Saleem, 2001). Gallic acid, present in fruits of Terminalia belerica has been found to have a protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and kidney damages in rats (Shukla, 2005; Jadon, 2007).

Analysis of Terminalia belerica fruits indicated that they are enriched in iron, phosphorus, cobalt and selenium (Garg, 2005). The fruits of Terminalia chebula have been found to be enriched in magnesium (Garg, 2007). It has also been reported that the fruit tissue of Terminalia chebula contained 10.3 and 14.5 times more vitamin C and protein, respectively when compared with commercial apples. The recommended dietary allowance for selenium, potassium, manganese, iron and copper can also be met if 100g of the raw fruit is taken (Barthakur, 1991). The fruits of Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula have been found to be rich sources of gallic acid; the leaves and fruits of Terminalia belerica for ellagic acid; and the leaves of Moringa oleifera for kaempferol (Bajpai, 2005). All the above three compounds are bio-active, with gallic and ellagic acid being strong anti-oxidants and so can serve as preventing damages caused by cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes and a host of other disorders. In fact, the ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula have been postulated to possess the potential to play a role in the hepatic prevention of oxidative damage in living systems (Lee, 2005). Chemical analysis of edible fruit tissues of Phyllanthus emblica showed that it had, respectively, 3-fold and 160-fold protein and ascorbic acid concentrations than present in apples (Barthakur, 1991). The ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was found to be exceptionally stable in both fresh and dried fruits (Shishoo, 1997). The fruits also contain flavonoids, which have been shown to inhibit hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity and reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with hyperlipidemia (Anila). Powdered dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica has been suggested to become a useful remedy for Alzheimer's disease on account of its various beneficial effects such as improving memory, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity (Vasudevan, 2007); pre- and post-supplementation of fruit extract of the plant has also been shown to significantly reduce arsenic-induced oxidative stress in liver (Sharma, 2009).

The fruit juice of Manilkara zapota has been shown to be one of the rich sources of sugars, proteins, ascorbic acid, phenolics, carotenoids, and minerals like iron, copper, zinc, calcium and potassium; apart from the nutrients, the fruit juice also showed antioxidant activity (Kulkarni, 2007). Activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of fruits of this plant also revealed presence of a number of polyphenols with aniti-oxidant activity; the highest activity was demonstrated by Me-4-O-galloylchlorogenate (Jun, 2003). The fruits of Dillenia indica have also been found to be rich in phenolics with good antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities (Abdille, 2005).

Among five Cinnamomum species studied, Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaves demonstrated highest DPPH (1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity and reducing power, while Cinnamomum tamala leaves exhibited highest superoxide anion scavenging activity (Prasad, 2009). Consumption of Cinnamomum species thus can be of beneficial effect for both preventing and ameliorating diseases like cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, and diabetes for their antioxidant properties. Oleoresins obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum also showed excellent antioxidant activity as demonstrated through inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil. Volatile oils obtained from leaves and barks of this plant were also highly effective against a number of fungi tested (Singh, 2007). The plant is enriched in micro-nutrients like iron, cobalt, chromium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc (Singh, 2006). Eugenol, linalool, b-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide has been reported to be the major components in the leaf oil of Cinnamomum tamala (Baruah, 2005; Ahemd, 2000). Eugenol is an antioxidant and is known to protect nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro (Kar, 2009). Linalool has been reported to possess antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties including attenuation of allodynia in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in mice (Berliocchi, 2009). Thus the leaves of this plant, which are used as spice can be of both protective and curative values in different sorts of ailments causing pain or oxidative damages. Additionally, the leaves of this plant are known to contain a number of bio-active flavonoids like kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol-3-Orhamnoside and quercitrin (Singh, 2002). The antioxidant property and presence of polyphenols (which are antioxidants) have been confirmed in leaves of this plant using rat brain synaptosomes from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as a model system (Devi, 2007). Taken together, the various Cinnamomum species, which has been used as spices for hundreds of years in the Indian sub-continent and elsewhere can be effective food supplements and so can be characterized as functional foods.

The seeds of Cajanus cajan, which are eaten as pulses throughout Bangladesh are known to have a high content of potassium and phosphorus and moderate content of calcium and magnesium. The seeds also contain iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Also because of its protein content (19.34%), it is considered as a most important grain legume for human nutrition in the protein-deficient countries of the world (Nwokolo, 1987). Since the seeds of the plant are used in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh to combat diverse ailments like jaundice, coughs, bronchitis, itches, astringent, edema, tumor, snake bite, stimulant, edema, diarrhea, and skin disorders, this plant can also be considered an important functional food.

For a developing country like Bangladesh, it is important to identify functional foods, which can be consumed on a regular basis by the population to serve both nutritional and medicinal purposes. The present survey, besides collecting information on medicinal plants, also analyzed those plants with the objective of determining which medicinal plant can serve as a functional food. Since a number of plants have been identified, which can serve the dual purposes of medicinal and nutritive values they can be targeted for mass cultivation and conservation. At the same time, the population can be made aware of the consumption values of these plants or plant parts, which in turn can lead to reduced health costs, prevention and cure of a number of prevalent diseases, and an improved diet.

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(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (2) Abu Noman, (1) Md. Shahadat Hossan, (3) Md. Harun-Or-Rashid, (4) Taufiq Rahman, (5) Majeedul H. Chowdhury, (1) Rownak Jahan

(1) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

(2) Department of Pharmacy, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

(3) Department of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, 74 A-C, Jalan SS21/62, Damansara Utama, 47400 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

(4) Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, CB2 1PD, Cambridge, UK.

(5) New York City College of Technology The City University of New York 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA.

Mohammed Rahmatullah, Abu Noman, Md. Shahadat Hossan, Md. Harun-Or-Rashid, Taufiq Rahman, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Rownak Jahan; A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods; Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(4): 862-876, 2009

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-815739

E mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Bhelamoyee and
Shalbon areas in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh for treatment of
various ailments.

SI.    Botanical name     Family              Local name
No.

1      Andrographis       Acanthaceae         Kalomegh,
       paniculata                             Kalamnath,
       Nees

2      Justicia           Acanthaceae         Bashok,
       adhatoda L.                            Dankuni,
                                              Harb aksho

3      Justicia           Acanthaceae         Bishjaron
       gendarussa L.

4      Dracaena           Agavaceae           Agunikundu
       spicata Roxb.

5      Sansevieria        Agavaceae           Takbir mati
       roxburghiana
       Schultes &
       Schultes f.

6      Aerva              Amaranthaceae       Rong-chita
       sanguinolenta
       (L.) Bl.

7      Amaranthus         Amaranthaceae       Kata-khora
       spinosus L.

8      Crinum             Amaryllidaceae      Bon piyaz,
       asiaticum L.       alt. Liliaceae      Dhako-ali

9      Curculigo          Amaryllidaceae      Talmuli
       orchioides         alt.
       Gaertn.            Hypoxidaceae

10     Semecarpus         Anacardiaceae       Bhela
       anacardium L.

11     Alstonia           Apocynaceae         Chatim
       scholaris (L.)
       R.Br.

12     Carissa            Apocynaceae         Koromcha
       carandas L.

13     Catharanthus       Apocynaceae         Noyon tara
       roseus (L.)
       G.Donn.

14     Holarrhena         Apocynaceae         Kurchi
       pubescens
       Buch.-Ham.
       Wall. Ex
       G. Don

15     Nerium             Apocynaceae         Korobi
       indicum Mill.

16     Rauwolfia          Apocynaceae         Sharpagondha
       serpentina
       Benth.

17     Tabernaemontana    Apocynaceae         Bon korobi,
       divaricata                             Bon togor
       (L.) Roem. &
       Schult.

18     Scindapsus         Araceae             Takbir gach
       officinalis
       (Roxb.) Schott

19     Typhonium          Araceae             Cham ghas
       trilobatum
       (L.) Schott

20     Aristolochia       Aristolochiaceae    Ishwarmul
       indica L.

21     Calotropis         Asclepiadaceae      Boro akondo
       gigantea
       (L.) R.Br.

22     Hemidesmus         Asclepiadaceae      Anantamul
       indicus R.Br.

23     Asparagus          Asparagaceae        Shotomuli
       racemosus          alt. Liliaceae
       Willd.

24     Mikania cordata    Asteraceae/         Assam lota
       (Burm. f.) B.      Compositae
       L. Robinson

25     Spilanthes         Asteraceae/         Rakhal-porni,
       acmella Murr.      Compositae          Roshun shak

26     Wedelia            Asteraceae/         Mohabhringoraj
       chinensis          Compositae          Leaf, flower
       (Osbeck) Merr.

27     Xanthium           Asteraceae/         Hagra,
       indicum J.         Compositae          Ghaghra
       Koenig ex Roxb.

28     Oroxylum           Bignoniaceae        Kanai-dingi
       indicum Vent.

29     Bixa               Bixaceae            Lotkon
       orellana L.

30     Bombax ceiba L.    Bombacaceae         Shimul

31     Opuntia            Cactaceae           Monsha-debi
       dillenii
       (Ker-Gawl) Haw.

32     Mesua              Clusiaceae          Ashar pata,
       nagassarium        alt. Guttiferae     Nageshwar
       (Burm.f.)
       Kosterm.

33     Gloriosa           Colchicaceae        Ulot chandal
       superba L.         alt. Liliaceae

34     Terminalia         Combretaceae        Arjun
       arjuna Bedd.

35     Terminalia         Combretaceae        Bohera
       belerica Roxb.

36     Terminalia         Combretaceae        Horitoki
       chebula Retz.

37     Ipomoea            Convolvulaceae      Bhui-kumra
       mauritiana
       Jacq.

38     Costus             Costaceae alt.      Keu,
       speciosus          Zingiberaceae       Basukoron
       (Koen.) Sm.

39     Kalanchoe          Crassulaceae        Pathorkuchi
       pinnata
       (Lam.) Pers.

40     Coccinia           Cucurbitaceae       Telakucha
       grandis (L.)
       Voigt

41     Cyperus            Cyperaceae          Nagarmotha
       scariosus Br.

42     Dillenia           Dilleniaceae        Amortishar
       indica L.

43     Dioscorea          Dioscoreaceae       Bon-alu, Kulu
       hispida Dennst.

44     Dioscorea          Dioscoreaceae       Shorochman
       bulbifera L.

45     Dioscorea          Dioscoreaceae       Thubri
       pentaphylla L.

46     Croton             Euphorbiaceae       Jaipal
       tiglium L.

47     Euphorbia          Euphorbiaceae       Dudhi
       hirta L.

48     Gelonium           Euphorbiaceae       Bar-dal
       multiflorum
       A. Juss.

49     Jatropha           Euphorbiaceae       Jamal-gota,
       gossypifolia L.

50     Phyllanthus        Euphorbiaceae       Amloki
       emblica L.

51     Phyllanthus        Euphorbiaceae       Bhui-amla
       niruri L.

52     Ricinus            Euphorbiaceae       Verenda,
       communis L.

53     Bauhinia           Fabaceae            Shet-kanchan
       acuminata L.

54     Butea              Fabaceae            Polash
       monosperma
       (Lam.) Taub.

55     Caesalpinia        Fabaceae            Natai
       bonduc
       (L.) Roxb.

56     Cajanus cajan      Fabaceae            Arhor
       (L.) Millsp.

57     Cassia alata L.    Fabaceae            Dadhmordon,

58     Cassia             Fabaceae            Shonalu,
       fistula L.                             Banor lathi

59     Cassia             Fabaceae            Boro kalo-
       occidentalis L.                        kashunda

60     Cassia             Fabaceae            Thon-thoni
       sophera L.

61     Cassia tora L.     Fabaceae            Chakinda

62     Desmodium          Fabaceae            Turog-chandal
       motorium
       (Houtt.) Merr.

63     Mimosa invisa      Fabaceae            Shada
       C. Martius ex                          lajjaboti
       Colla

64     Saraca asoca       Fabaceae            Ashok
       (Roxb.) De
       Wilde

65     Flacourtia         Flacourtiaceae      Bayuch,
       sepiaria Roxb.                         Premkata,
                                              Helahuta

66     Anisomeles         Gobura,             Ish-langol
       indica (L.)        Labiatae
       Kuntze

67     Leucas aspera      Labiatae            Kashta phol,
       (Willd.) Link                          Cheton kumar

68     Ocimum             Labiatae            Tulshi
       tenuiflorum L.     alt. Lamiaceae

69     Mentha             Lamiaceae           Pudina
       arvensis L.

70     Cinnamomum         Lauraceae           Korpur
       camphora (L.)
       J. Presl

71     Cinnamomum         Lauraceae           Tejpata
       tamala Nees
       and Eberm.

72     Cinnamomum         Lauraceae           Daruchini
       zeylanicum
       Blume

73     Litsea             Lauraceae           Pipul-jongi,
       chinensis Lamk.                        Kak-jonga,
                                              Bijla

74     Barringtonia       Lecythidaceae       Moha samudra, Leaf
       racemosa (L.)                          Dudh-kuruj
       Spreng.

75     Aloe               Liliaceae           Ghrito-kumari
       barbadensis
       Mill.

76     Lygodium           Lygodiaceae         Kukur mutha,
       flexuosum                              Kukur shuka,
       (L.) Sw.                               Bon tamak

77     Sida               Malvaceae           Pith-berela
       rhombifolia L.

78     Urena lobata L.    Malvaceae           Bon-okra

79     Stephania          Menispermaceae      Takamuti,
       japonica                               Makondi
       (Thunb.) Miers

80     Tinospora          M enisperm aceae    Guloncho-ban
       crispa (L.)
       Miers ex Hook.
       f. & Thoms

81     Mimosa             Mimosaceae          Shada lojjaboti
       pudica L.          alt. Leguminosae

82     Ficus              Moraceae            Kak-dumur
       hispida L.

83     Moringa            Moringaceae         Sajna
       oleifera Lam.

84     Myristica          Myristicaceae       Joiphol
       fragrans Houtt.

85     Syzygium           Myrtaceae           Labanga
       aromaticum (L.)
       Merr. & Perry

86     Syzygium           Myrtaceae           Bonjam,
       fruticosum                             Kathjam
       Roxb. DC.

87     Nymphaea           Nymphaeaceae        Lal shapla,
       nouchali                               Shaluk
       Burm. f.

88     Piper chaba        Piperaceae          Mach-
       W. Hunter                              machunda

89     Piper cubeba L.    Piperaceae          Kababchini

90     Piper longum L.    Piperaceae          Pipul

91     Cymbopogon         Poaceae             Lemonghas
       citratus (DC.)     alt. Gramineae
       Stapf

92     Hedyotis           Rubiaceae           Khetpapra
       corymbosa
       (L.) Lam.

93     Randia             Rubiaceae           Dhonkata
       dumetorum
       (Retz.) Lam.

94     Clausena           Rutaceae            Pan-porag
       heptaphylla
       (Roxb.) Hook.
       f.)

95     Santalum           Santalaceae         Shetchandan
       album L.

96     Manilkara          Sapotaceae          Sofeda
       zapota (L.)
       P. Royen

97     Scoparia           Scrophulariaceae    Bon-dhone,
       dulcis L.                              Chini-dhonia

98     Smilax             Smilacaceae         Kumari lota
       macrophylla        alt. Liliaceae
       Roxb.

99     Datura metel L.    S olanaceae         Dhutura

100    Physalis           Solanaceae          Bon-tepari,
       micrantha Link.                        Shod-tepari

101    Solanum            Solanaceae          Kakmachi
       nigrum L.

102    Abroma             Sterculiaceae       Ulot-kombol
       augusta L.f.

103    Sterculia          Sterculiaceae       Udal
       villosa Roxb.

104    Aquilaria          Thymelaeaceae       Agor
       malaccensis
       Lamk.

105    Ferula             Umbelliferae        Hing
       asafoetida L.

106    Clerodendrum       Verbenaceae         Bamonhati
       indicum (L.)       alt. Lamiaceae
       Kuntze.

107    Clerodendrum       Verbenaceae         Bhati, Foksha
       viscosum Vent.     alt. Lamiaceae

108    Vitex              Verbenaceae         Nishinda
       negundo L.

109    Cissus             Vitaceae            Harjora
       quadrangularis
       L.

110    Leea               Vitaceae            Hosti-korno
       macrophylla                            -polash
       Roxb. ex Hornem.

111    Amomum             Zingiberaceae       Elach
       subulatum Roxb.

SI.    Parts used        Ailments treated and dosage
No.

1      Leaf, stem        Long-term fever, any type of severe body
                         pain. Mixture of leaves and stems is taken
                         twice daily for 14 days Kalpanathfor
                         long-term fever. Leaf juice is taken thrice
                         daily for 21 days for body pain.

2      Leaf              Coughs in human, any porcine diseases. Leaf
                         juice is taken for 7 days. Any type of
                         pain. Crushed leaves are applied to
                         affected area once daily for 7 days.

3      Leaf              Debility, pain. Juice from crushed leaves
                         is taken twice daily for 8 days.

4      Leaf              Paralysis. Leaf juice is massaged to
                         affected area twice daily for 1 week.

5      Leaf              Fever. Leaf juice is mixed with molasses
                         and taken twice daily for 8 days.

6      Leaf              Gout, gastric problems, to stop bleeding
                         from cuts and wounds. Leaves are tied to
                         areas affected by gout. Leaf juice is taken
                         for 7 days for gastric troubles. Paste of
                         leaves is applied to wounds to stop
                         bleeding from cuts and wounds.

7      Root              To stop frequent urination. Roots are taken
                         on an empty stomach for 7 days.

8      Leaf, fruit       Rheumatic pain, acidity, dysentery. Leaf
                         juice is slightly warmed and applied to
                         affected area twice daily for 4 days for
                         rheumatic pain. Leaf juice and fruit is
                         taken on an empty stomach thrice daily for
                         14 days for acidity and dysentery.

9      Leaf, root        Leucorrhea, leukemia. Root juice is taken
                         for 21 days for leucorrhea. Leaf juice is
                         taken for 14 days for leukemia.

10     Leaf              Jaundice. Leaves are boiled in water and
                         then strained followed by drinking of the
                         juice for 14 days.

11     Leaf              Coughs, mucus, colds. Paste of leaves is
                         taken with honey in the morning and evening
                         on a full stomach for 7 days.

12     Leaf, fruit       Appetite stimulant. Leaves are boiled in
                         water to make a syrup and then taken twice
                         daily for 7 days. Fruit is edible.

13     Leaf, flower      Anti-cancer, diabetes, bacterial diseases,
                         added as perfume to other medicines.
                         Crushed leaves and flowers are heated and
                         the decoction taken twice daily for 9 days.
                         1-2 fresh leaves are also swallowed with
                         water daily to keep blood sugar under
                         control during diabetes.

14     Leaf              Hypertension, dysentery. Powdered leaves
                         are boiled in water to extract juice
                         followed by drinking of the juice twice
                         daily for 12 days.

15     Leaf              Any type of skin disorders. Crushed leaves
                         are applied to affected areas of skin once
                         daily for 10 days.

16     Leaf, stem        Hypertension, mental instability. Pills
                         made from crushed or powdered leaves and
                         stems are taken thrice daily for 14 days.

17     Leaf, flower      Used as perfume.

18     Leaf              Fever, rheumatism, pain. Powdered leaves
                         are taken for 21 days for fever and pain.
                         Warmed leaves are applied to affected area
                         for rheumatism.

19     Leaf              Appetite stimulant. Leaves are cooked and
                         taken as vegetable.

20     Leaf, root        Allergy, skin diseases. Leaves and roots
                         are boiled together to extract juice. Juice
                         is applied twice daily for 7 days.

21     Leaf, stem        Body pain, asthma. Leaves and stems are
                         mixed together, powdered and pills made
                         from the powder. For body pain, pills are
                         taken once daily for 7 days. For asthma,
                         pills are taken once daily for 14 days.

22     Leaf, root        Nerve weakness, debility. Juice from mixed
                         leaves and roots is taken for 7 days.

23     Leaf, root        Physical and mental weakness. Leaves and
                         roots are boiled together to make a syrup
                         and taken twice daily for 14 days.

24     Leaf, flower      Skin diseases. Juice from leaf and flower
                         is applied to affected area.

25     Leaf, flower      S top bleeding from gums, dysentery, anti-
                         bacterial, anemia. Leaves are boiled in
                         water followed by gargling with the water
                         for stopping bleeding from gums. Leaf juice
                         is taken for 7 days for dysentery. Leaf
                         juice is also used for bacterial
                         infections. Leaf and flower juice is taken
                         on a regular basis for anemia.

26                       Stop hair loss, promote growth. Juice from
                         leaves and flowers is applied to hair for 7
                         days.

27     Leaf              To induce blood clotting. Leaf paste is
                         applied to cuts and wounds.

28     Fruit             Jaundice. Fruit juice is taken twice daily
                         for 14 days.

29     Leaf, fruit       Appetite stimulant, aids digestion,
                         debility. Pills made from a mixture of leaf
                         and fruit is taken thrice daily for 1 week.
                         Fruit is edible and consumed when in
                         season.

30     Leaf, root        Debility, to increase growth. Leaves and
                         roots are boiled and the juice extracted.
                         Extracted juice is taken thrice daily for 3
                         weeks.

31     Leaf              Paralysis. Leaf juice is massaged on the
                         paralyzed area twice daily for 4 weeks.

32     Leaf, bark        Constipation. A mixture of leaf and bark is
                         taken twice daily for 1 week.

33     Leaf              Skin diseases, rheumatism, leucorrhea.
                         Powdered leaves are mixed with warm oil and
                         applied to affected area for 21 days.

34     Bark              Heart diseases, rheumatism. Pills made from
                         bark powder is taken twice daily for 21
                         days.

35     Leaf, fruit       Impotency, coughs, indigestion. Leaves and
                         fruits are boiled to extract juice. Juice
                         is taken thrice daily for 7 days. Fruits
                         are edible and consumed when in season to
                         maintain healthy body conditions.

36     Leaf, fruit       Bacterial diseases. Crushed leaves are
                         boiled and juice extracted. Juice is taken
                         thrice daily for 8 days. Fruits are edible
                         and consumed when in season to maintain
                         healthy body conditions.

37     Leaf, root        Leucorrhea, sexually transmitted diseases.
                         Leaves and roots are boiled in water to
                         extract juice. Extracted juice is taken
                         twice daily for 21 days.

38     Leaf, stem        (1) Rheumatism. Powdered leaf and stem is
                         mixed with mustard oil and applied to
                         affected area.

                         (2) To hypnotize somebody, debility. Leaf
                         juice is taken twice daily for 14 days.

39     Leaf              Kidney stones, any type of wounds,
                         indigestion. Juice from leaves is taken
                         thrice daily for 21 days.

40     Leaf              Hypertension, diabetes. Leaf juice is taken
                         thrice daily for 7 days. Leaves are also
                         chewed every morning to keep blood sugar
                         under control during diabetes.

41     Leaf,             Debility, fever. Juice from crushed leaves,
       stem, root        stems and roots are mixed together and
                         taken.

42     Leaf, fruit       Dysentery. Leaf juice is taken twice daily
                         for 21 days. Fruits are edible and consumed
                         when in season.

43     Leaf, root,       Mole, insect bites, insomnia. Leaf, root,
       tuber, upper      tuber and upper part of tuber are boiled in
       part of tuber     water and the juice taken twice daily in
                         the morning and evening on a full stomach
                         for 7 days.

44     Leaf              Elephantitis. Leaves are boiled and the
                         juice fed thrice daily for 10 days.

45     Leaf, vine        Paralysis. Juice from leaf and vine is
                         applied.

46     Leaf              Body pain, swelling. Juice from crushed
                         leaves is taken for 7 days as remedy for
                         body pain. Slightly warmed leaves are
                         applied to affected areas to reduce
                         swellings.

47     Leaf, flower      Mucus in stool. Paste of leaf and flower is
                         taken with molasses.

48     Leaf              Dysentery. 3 drops of leaf juice is taken
                         for 7 days.

49     Fruit, seed       (1) Constipation. Powdered fruit or seed is
       Kendar,           taken on a full stomach for 7 days.
       Majongach
                         (2) Tooth decay. Leaf juice is applied to
                         teeth for 1 week.

50     Leaf,             Hair loss, indigestion, debility. Crushed
       bark, fruit       leaves and barks are boiled to extract
                         juice. Juice is taken thrice daily for 14
                         days. Fruits are edible and consumed when
                         in season to maintain healthy body
                         conditions.

51     Leaf, flower      Mucus in stool. Anti-bacterial, analgesic.
                         Paste of leaf and flower is taken with
                         molasses for 7 days.

52     Leaf, root        Analgesic. Juice from leaves and roots is
       Venna             taken. At the same time, a pinch of salt is
                         mixed with leaf paste, slightly warmed and
                         applied to areas of pain.

53     Leaf              Preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. Leaf
                         juice is added as an ingredient for good
                         mixing in Ayurvedic medicines.

54     Leaf, gum         Helmintic infections, wounds. Leaf juice is
                         taken for 7 days for helminthiasis. Gum is
                         applied to wounds for healing.

55     Leaf, fruit       Skin diseases, debility. Leaves and fruits
                         are mixed and boiled in water followed by
                         drinking of the decoction twice daily for 3
                         weeks.

56     Leaf,             Jaundice. Juice from leaves and flowers is
       flower, seed      taken thrice daily for 21 days. Seeds are
                         cooked and eaten as pulses.

57     Leaf              Scabies, skin diseases. Leaf juice is
       Dadhmonijol       applied to affected area thrice daily for 1
                         0 days; alternately twice daily till cure.

58     Leaf, fruit       Long-term coughs, nervous weakness,
                         constipation. Juice from leaves and fruits
                         is taken thrice daily for 14 days. Leaf
                         juice is taken thrice daily for 2 weeks for
                         constipation.

59     Leaf              Eczema, gastric problems. Paste of leaf is
                         applied to eczema for 21 days. Juice of
                         leaves is taken in the morning and evening
                         on a full stomach for 14 days for gastric
                         disorders.

60     Leaf              Pain-killer, insect and snake bites. Leaves
                         are chewed with salt and applied to bitten
                         area.

61     Leaf              Itches, eczema. Juice from leaves is mixed
                         with oil and applied to affected area for
                         7-14 days.

62     Leaf              Frequent urination. The leaves are chewed
                         and the juice taken every morning on an
                         empty stomach for 5 days.

63     Leaf, bark        Pain, skin diseases. A paste of leaf and
                         bark is applied to affected area for 2
                         weeks.

64     Leaf              White discharge. Juice from leaves is taken
                         thrice daily for 8 days.

65     Leaf,             Leucorrhea. Juice from leaf, fruit and
       fruit,            flower is taken for 7 days.
       flower

66     Leaf              Tearing of internal organs during delivery.
                         Leaf juice is taken for 7 days.

67     Leaf,             Bone fractures, debility, asthma,
       root, flower      respiratory difficulties, coughs. Leaf
                         paste is applied to bone fractures. Root
                         juice is taken for debility. Flowers are
                         mixed with root juice from Ocimum
                         tenuiflorum and honey and taken for asthma
                         and respiratory difficulties. Flower juice
                         is taken for coughs.

68     Leaf,             Coughs, anti-bacterial, asthma, respiratory
       stem, root        difficulties, mucus, leucorrhea. Juice from
                         leaf and stem is considered anti-bacterial.
                         Root juice is mixed with flowers of Leucas
                         aspera and honey for asthma and respiratory
                         difficulties. Leaf juice is taken for
                         coughs, mucus, and leucorrhea.

69     Leaf, stem        Dysentery, indigestion, stomach pain. Leaf
                         juice is taken thrice daily for 7 days.
                         Leaves and stems are also used as spice.

70     Leaf, bark        Skin diseases and toothache. Powdered
                         leaves and barks are applied to affected
                         areas of skin and gums.

71     Leaf              Coughs, colds. Leaves are chewed;
                         alternately, pills made from powdered
                         leaves are taken for 4 days. Leaf is also
                         used as spice.

72     Bark              Debility, dysentery, growth retardation.
                         Pills made from bark powder is taken twice
                         daily for 13 days. Bark is also used as
                         spice.

73     Leaf, flower      (1) Burning sensations during urination.
                         Paste of flower along with juice of leaves
                         boiled in water is taken for 7 days.

                         (2) To increase physical strength,
                         constipation. Leaves are boiled in water
                         and the extracted juice taken once every
                         morning for 21 days.

74                       Stop bleeding from gums. Leaf paste is
                         applied to gums.

75     Leaf              Leucorrhea. Leaves are boiled with water
                         and sugar and the juice extracted.
                         Extracted juice is taken thrice daily for
                         14 days.

76     Root              Dysentery. Juice from warmed roots is taken
                         on a full stomach in the morning and
                         evening for 14 days.

77     Fruit             Leucorrhea, wet dream. Juice from crushed
                         fruits are taken in the morning and evening
                         on a full stomach for 7 days.

78     Leaf              Skin diseases. Leaf juice is applied to
                         affected area.

79     Leaf,             Bone fractures, debility. Leaves are tied
       flower            around fractured area. Leaves or flowers
                         immersed in warm water are taken for 7 days
                         for debility.

80     Leaf, stem        Rheumatism, body pain. Leaf and stem juice
                         is massaged onto the affected area twice
                         daily for 7 days.

81     Leaf              Rheumatic pain. Juice is taken thrice daily
                         for 7 days.

82     Leaf              Jaundice. Leaves are boiled in water and
                         taken twice daily for 3 weeks.

83     Leaf, fruit       Chicken pox, body pain. Pills are made from
                         a paste of leaves and fruits and taken
                         thrice daily for 8 days. Leaves and fruits
                         are edible; they are cooked and eaten as
                         vegetable. Leaves are hung around the walls
                         and consumed by household members as a
                         preventive measure against chicken pox.

84     Fruit             White discharge in urine. Fruits are taken.

85     Leaf,             Coughs, debility, increase mental strength.
       flower,           Crushed leaves and flowers are taken with
       flower bud        honey for 7 days. Dried flower bud is used
                         as spice.

86     Leaf              Appetite stimulant. Leaf juice and molasses
                         are mixed together and taken twice daily
                         for 7 days.

87     Tuber             Cancer. Tubers are eaten. Tubers are also
                         cooked and eaten as vegetable.

88     Leaf              Debility, rheumatic pain. Leaves are fried
                         in oil and taken twice daily for 7 days.

89     Leaf, stem        Rheumatism. Juice from leaf and stem is
                         applied to the affected area twice daily
                         for 7 days.

90     Leaf, flower      Indigestion, stomach disorders. Juice from
                         leaves and flowers is taken on an empty
                         stomach thrice daily for 7 days.

91     Leaf              Bleeding from wounds. Juice from crushed
                         leaves is applied to wounds to stop
                         bleeding.

92     Leaf, flower      To promote growth. Juice from leaves and
                         flowers are taken thrice daily for 7 days.

93     Leaf, stem        Bone fractures. Paste of leaves and stems
                         is applied to fractured area for 2-3 weeks.

94     Leaf              Toothache. Leaf juice is applied thrice
                         daily to affected area for 7 days. Leaf is
                         also chewed occasionally as preventive
                         measure for tooth decay.

95     Leaf, stem        Dysentery. Leaves and stems are crushed and
                         boiled to extract juice. Juice is taken
                         twice daily for 7 days.

96     Fruit             Diseases arising out from malnutrition.
                         Fruits are edible and eaten.

97     Leaf, flower      To dissolve gall bladder stones. Juice of
                         leaf and flowers is taken for 7-15 days.

98     Leaf, stem        Rheumatism, body pain. Crushed leaves and
                         stems are applied to affected area.

99     Leaf, flower      Joint pain, pain in leg. Leaves are soaked
                         in oil, warmed and applied to areas of
                         pain.

100    Fruit             Debility. Dried and powdered fruits are
                         kept beside the head.

101    Leaf              Jaundice, debility. Leaves are boiled to
                         extract juice. Juice is taken thrice daily
                         for 7 days.

102    Leaf,             Leucorrhea, menstrual problems. Juice from
       root, flower      leaf and flower is taken for 7-14 days for
                         leucorrhea. Small pieces of roots are taken
                         for 7 days for menstrual problems.

103    Leaf              Cleansing of gastric tract. Leaf juice is
                         taken every morning on an empty stomach for
                         7 days.

104    Leaf, bark        Headache. Paste of leaf and bark is applied
                         to the forehead.

105    Leaf,             Asthma. Juice from leaf, flower and seed is
       flower, seed      mixed together and taken twice daily for 7
                         days. Seed is also used as spice.

106    Leaf              Skin infections in throat of children. Leaf
                         juice is taken twice daily on a full
                         stomach.

107    Leaf, fruit       Helminthiasis, dysentery, jaundice. Juice
                         is extracted from powdered or crushed
                         leaves and fruits and taken thrice daily
                         for 7 days for helminthiasis and dysentery.
                         Leaf juice is taken thrice daily for 14
                         days for jaundice.

108    Leaf,             Dental and skin diseases, fever. Juice from
       root, fruit       leaf, root and fruit is taken twice daily
                         for 21 days.

109    Leaf              Bone fracture. Crushed leaves are applied
                         to fractures.

110    Leaf              Rheumatic pain. Leaves are shredded, mixed
                         with mustard oil and heated. The mixture is
                         applied to affected areas for 21 days.

111    Leaf, seed        Coughs, sexually transmitted diseases.
                         Ashes of burned leaves are mixed with
                         mustard oil and taken twice daily for 7
                         days. Seeds are used as spice.

Note that bold lettering indicates plants where whole plant or plant
parts can serve as functional foods.

Table 2: Medicinal plants of Dinajpur district indicating plant
parts which can be classified as functional foods based on their
edibility and preventive or curative effects of various ailments.

Plant name            Edible part    Ailments for which plant parts
                                     are used to provide preventive
                                     or curative effects (includes
                                     data from ethnobotanical surveys
                                     conducted in other regions of
                                     Bangladesh)

Amomum subulatum      Seed           Acne, gout, spasms, indigestion,
                                     cardiac arrhythmia.

Bixa orellana         Fruit          Cancer, gonorrhea, kidney
                                     diseases, malaria, colic,
                                     digestive aid, debility,
                                     appetite stimulant, gastric
                                     ulcer, cuts or wounds on hands
                                     or feet.

Cajanus cajan         Seed           Jaundice, coughs, bronchitis,
                                     itches, astringent, edema,
                                     tumor, snake bite, stimulant,
                                     edema, diarrhea, skin disorders.

Carissa carandas      Fruit          Malaria, epilepsy, nerve
                                     disorders, pain, headache,
                                     fever, insanity, anorexia,
                                     appetizer, blood purifier,
                                     myopathic spasm, dog bite,
                                     coughs, colds, itches, leprosy.

Cinnamomum tamala     Leaf           Diabetes, flatulency, sore
                                     throat, tumor, coughs, cold, to
                                     maintain strong teeth,
                                     impotency, hypocholesterolemic,
                                     stimulant, itches, astringent,
                                     colic, antidote to poison,
                                     scars, anorexia, indigestion,
                                     diarrhea, piles, dermatitis,
                                     jaundice, indigestion,
                                     carminative, biliary disorders.

Cinnamomum            Bark           Tonic, hypocholesterolemic,
zeylanicum                           cardiac disorders, debility,
                                     dysentery, growth promoter,
                                     appetite stimulant, laxative,
                                     anorexia, low sperm count,
                                     rheumatism, biliary disorders,
                                     diabetes, to reduce nervous
                                     tension, to increase memory,
                                     colds, to stop vomiting,
                                     headache, rheumatic pain.

Coccinia grandis      Leaf           Diabetes, edema, eye diseases,
                                     carminative, hypertension,
                                     fever, inflammation, headache,
                                     typhoid, sunstroke, coughs,
                                     nerve depressant, jaundice,
                                     stomach pain, dizziness, mental
                                     disorders, respiratory
                                     disorders, eczema, acne,
                                     leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery,
                                     blood dysentery, increased
                                     temperature of hands or head,
                                     bloating, blood disorders,
                                     dermatitis, myopathic spasm,
                                     baldness, scars, leukoderma,
                                     lesions of the tongue, burning
                                     sensations in hands or feet,
                                     insanity, bed wetting in
                                     children.

Dillenia indica       Fruit          Cholera, purgative, antidote to
                                     poison, anti-hemorrhagic,
                                     anorexia, dysentery, appetizer,
                                     abortifacient, stomach pain,
                                     astringent, fever, coughs,
                                     appetite stimulant, acidity,
                                     rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic
                                     pain, epilepsy, to increase
                                     lactation, low sperm count,
                                     boils, sprains, debility,
                                     headache, hypertension, food
                                     toxicity.

Ferula asafoetida     Seed           Asthma.

Manilkara zapota      Fruit          Hepatic disorders, dysentery,
                                     tonic, appetizer, hypertension,
                                     diseases arising out of
                                     malnutrition, astringent, fever.

Mentha arvensis       Leaf, stem     Dysentery, indigestion, stomach
                                     pain.

Moringa oleifera      Leaf, fruit    Colds, fever, joint pain, gout,
                                     hypertension, constipation,
                                     acidity, epilepsy, skin
                                     eruptions, leukoderma, tonic,
                                     helminthiasis, body pain,
                                     chicken pox, stimulant,
                                     vomiting-induced stomach pain,
                                     emetic, carminative, toothache,
                                     cracked foot, sterility, cancer,
                                     skin lesions, constipation,
                                     indigestion, edema, wounds,
                                     eczema, boils, myopathic spasms,
                                     night blindness, dermatitis,
                                     hernia, cardiovascular
                                     disorders, snake bite,
                                     paralysis, tetanus, rheumatoid
                                     arthritis, waist pain, spleen
                                     enlargement, sedative,
                                     cathartic, diabetes, leprosy,
                                     conjunctivitis, pain.

Nymphaea nouchali     Leaf, stem     Indigestion, cardiovascular
                                     disorders, anti-hemorrhagic,
                                     stomach pain, cancer,
                                     menstruation control,
                                     astringent, diarrhea,
                                     indigestion, diabetes.

Phyllanthus emblica   Fruit          Appetizer, gonorrhea, toothache,
                                     itches, leucorrhea,
                                     arteriosclerosis, diabetes,
                                     jaundice, eye diseases,
                                     heatstroke, edema,
                                     gastrointestinal disorders
                                     (stomach pain, acidity,
                                     constipation, diarrhea,
                                     dysentery, indigestion), body
                                     ache, appetite stimulant,
                                     impotency, debility, anemia,
                                     fever, sudden unconsciousness,
                                     alopecia, skin diseases, to
                                     maintain healthy hair, hair loss
                                     and graying of hair, to maintain
                                     strong teeth, fistula, sore
                                     throat, pain, sex stimulant,
                                     jaundice, to strengthen body
                                     organs (heart, stomach, liver,
                                     muscle, nerves), hepatitis,
                                     cold, loss of taste, anorexia,
                                     burning sensations during
                                     urination, acne, marks on face,
                                     to increase facial complexion.

Spilanthes acmella    Leaf           To stop bleeding from gums,
                                     dysentery, anemia, toothache,
                                     oral lesions, stomach pain,
                                     gastrointestinal problems,
                                     insect repellent, erectile
                                     dysfunction, to increase sperm
                                     count, head infections.

Syzygium aromaticum   Flower bud     Coughs, debility, to increase
                                     mental alertness.

Terminalia belerica   Fruit          Constipation, sexual diseases,
                                     leprosy, piles, diarrhea,
                                     dysentery, blood dysentery,
                                     tonic, fever, erectile
                                     dysfunction, coughs,
                                     indigestion, impotency, sex
                                     stimulant, edema, respiratory
                                     problems, hair tonic, appetite
                                     stimulant, acidity, nerve
                                     stimulant, edema, inflammation,
                                     to increase sensitivity of the
                                     senses, anorexia, headache,
                                     nerve stimulant, hernia, typhus,
                                     stimulant, intestinal infection,
                                     skin diseases, constipation,
                                     asthma, allergy, to maintain
                                     healthy body organs (heart,
                                     lungs, liver), lung problems,
                                     liver dysfunctions, bloating,
                                     untimely graying of hair.

Terminalia chebula    Fruit          Cancer, jaundice, bronchitis,
                                     indigestion, piles, syphilis,
                                     leucorrhea, conjunctivitis,
                                     tumor, itches, cardiovascular
                                     disorders, tuberculosis,
                                     heatstroke, ulcer, energy
                                     stimulant, burns, low sperm
                                     count, debility, inflammation,
                                     purgative, coughs, urinary
                                     troubles, carminative, asthma,
                                     biliary problems, jaundice,
                                     stimulation of appetite,
                                     digestive aid, acidity,
                                     bloating, constipation, hair
                                     loss, leprosy, edema, malaria,
                                     hepatitis, hoarseness, sore
                                     throat, leucorrhea,
                                     helminthiasis, pain, hepatic
                                     disorders, respiratory problems,
                                     acne, marks on face, to improve
                                     facial complexion.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Noman, Abu; Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Rahman, Taufiq; Chowd
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Dec 1, 2009
Words:10209
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