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A survey of ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Ajoydha hill region, Purulia district, India.

Introduction

Since time immemorial the human society has developed amidst, and in close association, with the plant life (De, 1980a). The relationship between the indigenous people and their plant surroundings forms the subject of Ethnobotany, a science (De, 1968), which includes a study of the plants used by the tribals for food, medicine and clothing (Jain and De, 1966). Purulia is situated in the declivity of Chota Nagpur plateau. Aboriginal elements are strongly represented in the district itself; mostly living isolated lives in remote spurs of hills, covered almost to their summits with heavy forests (De, 1965).

Earlier, investigations were carried out on some ethnobotanical aspects of this district (Dey et al, 2009; Vegetation based tribal economics (De, 1980a), food plants (Jain and De, 1964), minor plant fibres (De, 1965), plants used as lac host (Basu and Mukherjee, 1999) various ethnobotanical practices and ethnomedicines (Jain and De, 1966; De, 1967; De, 1979; De, 1980b; Sur et al, 1992a; Chakraborty et al, 2003; Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006) by the tribals of Purulia district were reported. Food plants used by the 'Paharias' of Purulia were reported by Basu and Mukherjee (1996). Bhakat and Pandit (2004) have reported an inventory of medicinal plants of some sacred groves of Purulia. Sacred groves and taboos in this district were explored by Basu (2000a). Traditional utilization of medicinal plants in intestinal, malarial and sexual diseases by tribals of Purulia was reported by Basu (2005). Exotic American plants employed as ethnomedicine in Purulia were reported by Basu (2000b). Kuiri et al (2002) have reported the use of medicinal plants in rheumatism by the tribals of Baghmundi, Purulia. Some uses of ethnomedicines in Ajodhya hill region of Purulia district were reported by Sur et al, 1992b.

Materials and Methods

Purulia, the one of the tribal inhabited districts of West Bengal, is situated between 22[degrees]51'N and 23[degrees]42'N and 85[degrees]51'E and 86[degrees]54'E, covering an area of 6529 sq km with an altitudinal variation from 250m to 700m above sea level. There are low hills and undulating plateau including the Baghmundi (Avg. altitude 400m above sea level, rises up to 600m) and Ajodhya ranges (several peaks with altitude more than 600m above sea level) in the west (Jain and De, 1966). The temperature range is from 7[degrees]C in winter to 45[degrees]C in summer and the total annual rainfall ranges between 1240 mm to 1400 mm. The major tribal languages are Santhal (S); Bhumija (Bh); Bengali (B); Hindi (H); Munda (M); Oraon (O); Birhor (Bir); Mal Paharya (MP); Kharia (Kh); Kharwar (Kharw); Gond (G) and Ho (Ho) (Jain and De, 1964), where the abbreviations used in this report, are mentioned within parenthesis. The Kurmis add to a great extent to the aboriginals of the district (De, 1965). Different plant species were found to be used to treat various types of ailments. The plants, their use as ethnomedicinal system, plant parts used, mode of preparation, locality of use and the particular group of tribals using the medicines were studied, plant specimens were collected and documented in frequent field visits conducted from 2002-2004. The places of visit were the tribal villages of the Ajodhya hill and adjoining areas. The villages were visited in different seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) to avail most of the plant resources in their flowering condition. In the actual method of field studies, informants from different tribes who are familiar with the plants and their use by the members of their respective communities were selected by carefully taken interviews in previously arranged camps. Questions, problems and suggestions were put to them regarding the use of medicinal plants and their products in folk medicine as described by Jain, (1964); Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). Safety considerations in these ethnobotanical explorations were properly maintained. Mounted herbarium specimens known to grow in this area were placed to them and questions were asked on their usefulness. These were subsequently verified by taking them to field to identify plants on the basis of local tribal names previously noted from them. Local names and the areas were noted. Prior permission was taken from the informants for recoding of the information. Photographs were taken of the plants' habit in flowering condition. Abundant plants were taken to prepare herbarium sheets. Rare and endangered plants were spared and photographed only. Different tribes have provided vast information regarding medicine and healthcare practised by them. Herbarium specimens and photographs were identified by taxonomists and stored for future use.

Results and Discussion

A total number of 56 plant species of 35 plant families were found to be used by the different ethnic groups present in Ajodhya hill and its adjoining villages. The results are summarized in Table 1. The highest number of plants were contributed by the plant family Fabaceae (7) followed by Euphorbiaceae (4) and Rubiaceae (4). The Asclepiadaceae and Combrataceae were having 3 plants each. Menispermaceae, Vitaceae, Verbanaceae, Solanaceae and Acanthaceae contributed 2 plants per family. Root constituted the major plant part used (50%), followed by leaves (15%), stem (13%), whole plant (8%), fruits (6%), seeds (4%) and flowers (3%).The results are depicted in Table 2. Among the different ailments treated by using medicinal plants, gastrointestinal disorders (14) were mostly prevalent and treated by the tribals and local medical practitioners or "kavirajs" in this area, followed by fever, cough and cold (10). Different plant species were found to be used against sexually transmitted diseases (6), skin diseases (6), eye diseases (4) rheumatism (3) urinary infections (2) etc. A few ethnomedicinal plants were found to be used in paediatric care (5) and mother care (2).The numbers within the parenthesis indicates the number of plants used to treat the diseases. 9 plants were found to be used by the tribals as a part of their ethnoveterinary system. Ethnomedicinal uses of these plants reported by other authors aredepicted in Table 3.

Depending on the disorder, plants were used alone or in combination with other plants. Polygonum plebeium, when crushed with adventitious roots of Ficus benghalensis and bark of Butea superba was found to cure dysentery. The roots of Cissampelos pareira, crushed with the roots of Ocimum basilicum are given in stomach pains, cough and cold, especially in babies. To cure breathing trouble, roots of the same plant are crushed together with the roots of Piper longum and Allium sativum and prescribed. A paste made with the crushed roots of Ampelocissus tomentosa, resin of Shorea robusta and mustard oil is applied as poultice on boils. A medical preparation of three fruits, called "Trifala" made from Terminalia chebula ("Haritaki"), T. bellerica ("Bahera") and T. arjuna ("Arjun") is used to clear intestine. Andrographis paniculata (known as "Chireta" locally) is considered to be a substitute of true "chirata" Swertia sp. Seeds of Argemone mexicana, crushed with fruits of Cleistanthus collinus are used to prepare a paste to treat skin diseases. Buchanania lanzan roots are crushed with Piper nigrum to be administered to cure red urine disease ("rukhi"). The stem bark of Terminalia bellerica crushed with the roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis, bark of Wendlandia exserta and roots of Polygala crotalarioides in a preparation and given to cure cold and high fever. Fresh stem bark and leaves of Syzygium cerasoideum crushed with Scoparia dulcis plants are given to cure pneumonia. A single plant part may be used to treat more than one ailment as was the case with Abrus precatorius, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia etc. Oral and topical modes of administration were found with formulations in terms of whole plant crushed or macerated, pastes, juices, decoctions etc. Topical administrations were noted in infections of eye, ear, skin and cuts, wounds, bruises, boils and body pains. Leprosy, a common skin disease of this area leading to deformity of body parts, is being treated by using Datura metel. The juice of the crushed seeds and the roots, mixed with mustard oil is used to treat this disease. Andrographis paniculata is used against epilepsy. One interesting finding was the use of Desmodium velutinum. This plant is used by the local medical practitioners or "kavirajs" not against any particular disease but to diagnose a disease, if any.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is evident that there is a very well developed ethnomedicinal system present in Ajodhya hill region, Purulia district, West Bengal, India. From table 3, it is also evident that a particular medicinal plant used by one aboriginal group to treat a particular ailment may not be used by another group for the same purpose. These formulations used by the tribals need further clinical trials to test their efficacy and also to develop new drugs based on herbal medicine for effective remedy of different ailments.

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(1) Abhijit Dey and (2) Dr. Jitendra Nath De

(1) Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Presidency College, 86/1, College Street, Calcutta-700073, West Bengal, India.

(2) Retired Head and Reader, Charuchandra College, Calcutta. Flat No.-C-103, Sunrise Estate, 14C, R.N. Chaudhuri Road, Kolkata-700015.

Abhijit Dey and Dr. Jitendra Nath De; A Survey of Ethnomedicinal Plants used by the tribals of Ajoydha Hill Region, Purulia District, India

Corresponding Author: Dr. Jitendra Nath De, Retired Head and Reader, Charuchandra College, Calcutta. Flat No.-C-103, Sunrise Estate, 14C, R.N. Chaudhuri Road, Kolkata-700015. Ph: +919748578977, E-mail: jnde@rocketmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the aboriginals of Ajodhya hill
region, Purulia district, India

Botanical name              Family

Abrus precatorius Linn.     Papilionaceae;
                            Fabaceae

Abutilon indicum            Malvaceae
Linn. Sweet.

Achyranthes aspera Linn.    Amaranthaceae

Alysicarpus vaginalis       Papilionaceae;
(Linn.) DC.                 Fabaceae

Ampelocissus                Vitaceae
tomentosa (Roth)
Planch.

Andrographis panicultata    Acanthaceae
Wall. ex Nees

Ardisia solanacea           Myrsinaceae
Roxb.

Argemone mexicana Linn.     Papaveraceae

Bauhinia purpurea Linn.     Caesalpiniaceae;
                            Fabaceae

Breynia retusa              Euphorbiaceae
(Dennst.) Alston.

Buchanania lanzan           Anacardiaceae
Spreng.

Calotropis gigantea         Asclepiadaceae

Cardiospermum               Sapindaceae
halicacabum Linn.

Cassia fistula Linn.        Caesalpiniaceae;
                            Fabaceae

Cissampelos pareira Linn.   Menispermaceae.

Cissus repanda Vahl.        Vitaceae

Cleistanthus collinus       Euphorbiaceae
(Roxb.) Benth.

Cleome icosandra Linn.      Capparidaceae

Clerodendrum infortunatum   Verbanaceae
auct. non Linn. C.B.
Clarke.

Combretum pilosum Roxb.     Combretaceae

Cryptolepis buchanani       Asclepiadaceae;
Roem. & Schult.

Curculigo orchioides        Amaryllidaceae;
Gaertn.

Cyanotis axillaris Roem.    Commelinaceae
and Sch.

Datura metel Linn.          Solanaceae

Desmodium velutinum         Papilionaceae;
(Willd) DC.                 Fabaceae

Eulophia nuda Lindl.        Orchidaceae

Gardenia latifolia Ait.     Rubiaceae

Glossogyne bidens           Asteraceae
(Retz.) Alston

Holostemma annularis        Asclepiadaceae
(Roxb.) K. Schum.

Ichnocarpus frutescens      Apocynaceae
R. Br.

Ipomoea pestigridis Linn.   Convolvulaceae

Jatropha curcas Linn.       Euphorbiaceae

Leonotis nepetaefolia       Lamiaceae
(L.) R. Br.

Mallotus philippensis       Euphorbiaceae
Muell.-Arg.

Melothria perpusilla        Cucurbitaceae
(Blume) Cogn.

Martynia annua Linn.        Martyniaceae.

Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk.     Mimosaceae;
                            Fabaceae

Pavetta indica Linn.        Rubiaceae

Peucedanum nagpurense       Apiaceae
(C.B.Cl.) Prain

Polygonum plebeium R.Br.    Polygonaceae.

Pterocarpus marsupium       Papilionaceae;
Roxb.                       Fabaceae

Randia dumetorum Poir.      Rubiaceae.

Ruellia suffruticosa        Acanthaceae
Roxb.

Schrebera swietenioides     Oleaceae
Roxb.

Scilla indica Baker         Liliaceae
non-Roxb.

Scoparia dulcis Linn.       Scrophulariaceae

Solanum xanthocarpum        Solanaceae
S. &W

Spermacoce hispida Linn.    Rubiaceae

Syzygium cerasoideum        Myrtaceae
(Roxb.) Chatterjee &
Kanjilal f.

Terminalia bellerica        Combretaceae
Roxb.

Terminalia chebula Retz.    Combretaceae

Thysanolaena agrostis       Poaceae
Nees.

Tinospora cordifolia        Menispermaceae.
(Willd.) Miers ex
Hook. f. &Thoms.

Vitex peduncularis          Verbanaceae
Wall. ex Schauer.

Ziziphus oenoplia Mill.     Rhamnaceae

Zingiber officinale Rosc.   Zingiberaceae.

Botanical name              Local name(s)

Abrus precatorius Linn.     Kanch (B); Gunja, Kawet (S);
                            Karjain (Kh); Ara kead, Karjani
                            Kead (M); Gumchi (H).

Abutilon indicum            Bilaigor, Mirubaha (S); Jhamp,
Linn. Sweet.                K anghi, Petari (Bh); Pusi kata
                            daru (M); Beraxet (O);
                            Kakhi (Kharw).

Achyranthes aspera Linn.    Chip chirit (S); Apang, Chirchiti
                            (Bh); Sitirkad, Sitirkedu,
                            Chirchiti (M); Chirchithi (O)

Alysicarpus vaginalis       Bir but, Nari seta lende,
(Linn.) DC.                 Ote janum ba (M)

Ampelocissus                Dhotto-pako (O); Datrom bili
tomentosa (Roth)            (S); Ghora lat (B); Iotorong
Planch.                     nari, Oteron (M); Kumharlat
                            (Bh).

Andrographis panicultata    Chireta, Mahatita, Kalmeg
Wall. ex Nees               (Bh); Kiryat, Bhuinim (M);

Ardisia solanacea           Gardagulanj, Garha gulainchi
Roxb.                       (S); Rakatphar, Aringudi
                            (Bh); Gulainchi, Lili
                            baha daru (M); Makmeddo,
                            Gara boi (O)

Argemone mexicana Linn.     Bukla kanta (S,O); Sialkanta
                            (Bh); Bakula janum,
                            Rangaini (M); Rangaini (Bir)

Bauhinia purpurea Linn.     Koinar, Kural, Singara, Sinhara
                            (S); Singara (M); Komarxa
                            (O); Koinar (Kharw); Singa
                            (Ho); Kundrau (MP).

Breynia retusa              Jirul (Bh, Kh)
(Dennst.) Alston.

Buchanania lanzan           Tarop (S); Piyal, Chiranji
Spreng.                     (Bh); Tarub, Char (M);
                            Tarub (O); Piyar (Kharw).

Calotropis gigantea         Akanda, Akaona(S); Madar,
                            Akonda(Bh); Palati(M);
                            Akaon(Kh).

Cardiospermum               Sibjhul, Lataphatki (S);
halicacabum Linn.           Kanphuti (Bh); Merom
                            med nari (M).

Cassia fistula Linn.        Sonali, Dhanbahera (B, Bh);
                            Shondal, Bandorlati (B);
                            Bandarlauri, Nurui, Mirju
                            baha nuru (S); Amaltas (H);
                            Bonurlati, Sonarkhi (O);
                            Dauranch (K); Hari (M).

Cissampelos pareira Linn.   Poa, Tejomala, Tijumala (S);
                            Ekladi, Chotkipar, Bantulpat
                            (Bh); Chutu lutur,
                            Huring pitusingh (M);
                            Pitu sing (O)

Cissus repanda Vahl.        Bod nari, Bod lar nari(S);
                            Panialata(Bh);Hatikana(M);
                            Harjarwa(Kh)

Cleistanthus collinus       Karlajun, Kargali (S); Parasu,
(Roxb.) Benth.              Kargelo daru (M); Parasi
                            (Kh); Kargeli (Kharw); Pasu
                            (Ho)
Cleome icosandra Linn.      Hurhuria (S); Marang
                            churamani (M); Sirio,,
                            Nal sirio (O)

Clerodendrum infortunatum   Barni, Ghato (S); Bhant,
auct. non Linn. C.B.        Ghentu (Bh); Bichamgar
Clarke.                     (M); Bakaspati (O);
                            Chamgar, Kulamarshal
                            (Ho); Gokhola (Kharw)

Combretum pilosum Roxb.     Sikarbans (S); Burilat (Bh)

Cryptolepis buchanani       Dudhi, Utri dudhi, Bhains
Roem. & Schult.             lakhan (S); Baradudhi,
                            Karanta (Bh); Tonang utu,
                            Merong diring, Bhains
                            jamburu nanri (M);
                            Dudhla lar (Kharw)

Curculigo orchioides        Jamru Tipoi, Dinda Kita
Gaertn.                     (O); Sareng jadu (M);
                            Turam, Dhakira Kinda (O)
Cyanotis axillaris Roem.    Simchiru ara (M); Tena ara (O)
and Sch.

Datura metel Linn.          Dhatra, Dhatura (S);
                            Dhatura (Bh); Tuntura
                            ba (M); Dhatra (O)
Desmodium velutinum         Latlati (Bh); Bir jatang (M)
(Willd) DC.

Eulophia nuda Lindl.        Tipoi, Tipui (S); Ote ludum
                            ba (M); Tipui (O)

Gardenia latifolia Ait.     Papra, Popra (S); Barabhutru
                            (Bh); Papara, Papra (M);
                            Papar (Kharw); Papa (Ho);
                            Pempri (MP)

Glossogyne bidens           Tej raj, Nakdana (S);
(Retz.) Alston              Mainthorib(Bh), Pakhal
                            ret (O); Ringud ranu
                            (M); Nakdana (B).

Holostemma annularis        Moron ara (S); Titpungi
(Roxb.) K. Schum.           (Bh); Apang, Apung
                            (M); Charki dudhi (Bir)

Ichnocarpus frutescens      Dudhilata (S); Koe lata,
R. Br.                      Chotodudhi (Bh); Piri hore,
                            Huring onon sing, Onol
                            sing (M); Saon lar (Kharw)

Ipomoea pestigridis Linn.   Gaj bherwa, Ishlanguli (S);
                            Languli lata, Bilaiguri (Bh);
                            Pushikata nanri, Chutulutur,
                            Kat koena nanri (M)

Jatropha curcas Linn.       Bherenda, Bagrendi (S);
                            Sada bherenda, Bhedra (Bh);
                            Kulajara, Kulabindi,
                            Totkabindi (M); Erendi (O)

Leonotis nepetaefolia       Bonga taini, Dare dhompo,
(L.) R. Br.                 Janum dhompo (S); Bhut
                            bhairab, Hejur chei (Bh);
                            Agia janum (M); Koha
                            tonka agia (O)

Mallotus philippensis       Rora (S); Kamila, Ban sinduar
Muell.-Arg.                 (Bh); Gara sinduri (M);
                            Rori (Kharw); Dao sindra (MP)

Melothria perpusilla        Birkudri (S); Ban kundri (Bh);
(Blume) Cogn.               Chengor (M)

Martynia annua Linn.        Bagnakh, Gaymukhi (S);
                            Baghnakh, Shernui (Bh);
                            Bana sarsar, Bilai sarsar
                            (M); Gaymukhi (O)

Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk.     Sega janum (S); Kundru
                            (Bh); Kundaru janum,
                            Aria janum (M); Airi (O)

Pavetta indica Linn.        Hundra, Budhi ghasse
                            (S); Hund baha (Bh);
                            Marang sikiriba daru (M);
                            Sikiri ba, Sikiba (O);
                            Burhi (Kharw)

Peucedanum nagpurense       Banjira (Bh); Tejraj, Oponum
(C.B.Cl.) Prain             (S); Oponom, Ependom (O);
                            Bir samraj, Baghia rutu,
                            Ependung, Turi, Epelom (M).

Polygonum plebeium R.Br.    Mui ara, Munia, Muni ara
                            (S); Muni ara (M); Pok ara,
                            Pushitoa, Munjara (O)

Pterocarpus marsupium       Murga, Pesar (S); Piasal,
Roxb.                       Murga (Bh); Hid (M);
                            Bija sal (O); Bia (Kharw)

Randia dumetorum Poir.      Boi bindi, Loto, Barka
                            mahia (S); Gurman,
                            Madan (Bh); Potab, Portoho,
                            Marang mari ba (M);
                            Mauna (O); Mowan
                            (Kharw); Potu (Ho);
                            Kantal ara (Bir); Saro (MP)

Ruellia suffruticosa        Chaulia (S); Charpatu,
Roxb.                       Brunaia (M)

Schrebera swietenioides     Eksira (S), Ghanto (Bh, B, O),
Roxb.                       Chapsing (Kh), Jargo,
                            Sandapsing, Chabsing
                            (M), Gae ka lundi (H).

Scilla indica Baker         Piri kulai ba (M);
non-Roxb.                   Lakrapiyaj (O)

Scoparia dulcis Linn.       Ban dhoney (B); Tand
                            dhaniya (Bh); Jastimadhu
                            (S); Bichimandar (O);
                            Madu kom, Ko ara, Ote
                            kantara, Guru ara,
                            Merom med, Chinibuta,
                            Chinisakam (M).

Solanum xanthocarpum        Rengni, Rangaini janum,
S. &W                       Gotbengan (S); Ringli, Kateli,
                            Kantikari (Bh); Tokkod
                            janum, Rangaini (M); Toko
                            bhijri (O)

Spermacoce hispida Linn.    Satgithea (S,O); Madanghanti
                            (Bh); Hada pota (M)

Syzygium cerasoideum        Totnopak, Katijamun (S);
(Roxb.) Chatterjee &        Raijam (Bh); Pundi
Kanjilal f.                 kunda, Dara kunda (M);
                            Katjambu, Tipajam (Kh)

Terminalia bellerica        Lopong (S); Bahera
Roxb.                       (Bh, Kharw); Lupung
                            (M); Bahra (O)

Terminalia chebula Retz.    Rol (S); Haritaki, Hara
                            (Bh); Rola (M); Hadra (O)
Thysanolaena agrostis       Phuljharu (Bh)
Nees.

Tinospora cordifolia        Latgulanj, Gurchi (Bh)
(Willd.) Miers ex
Hook. f. &Thoms.

Vitex peduncularis          Chagriamba, Charigorwa,
Wall. ex Schauer.           Murgigorwa, Bhadu (S);
                            Simjanga,, Simkata,
                            Ore ij ata daru (M);
                            Era tatja (O)

Ziziphus oenoplia Mill.     Jangal kul, Jhur kul,
                            Sia kul (Bh); Bir janum,
                            Bagri ba, Janum bili (M)
Zingiber officinale Rosc.   Adi (S, M,O); Ade (M)

Botanical name              Parts used

Abrus precatorius Linn.     Root

Abutilon indicum            Root
Linn. Sweet.

Achyranthes aspera Linn.    Root

Alysicarpus vaginalis       Root
(Linn.) DC.

Ampelocissus                Root
tomentosa (Roth)
Planch.

Andrographis panicultata    Whole plant
Wall. ex Nees

Ardisia solanacea           Stem-bark
Roxb.

Argemone mexicana Linn.     Stem, seed

Bauhinia purpurea Linn.     Stem

Breynia retusa              Leaves, Root
(Dennst.) Alston.

Buchanania lanzan           Root
Spreng.

Calotropis gigantea         Root, Leaves

Cardiospermum               Root
halicacabum Linn.

Cassia fistula Linn.        Fruits, Leaves

Cissampelos pareira Linn.   Root

Cissus repanda Vahl.        Whole plant/
                            root

Cleistanthus collinus       Stem-bark
(Roxb.) Benth.

Cleome icosandra Linn.      Leaves

Clerodendrum infortunatum   Root, Leaves
auct. non Linn. C.B.
Clarke.

Combretum pilosum Roxb.     Leaves

Cryptolepis buchanani       Root, Whole
Roem. & Schult.             plant

Curculigo orchioides        Tuberous roots
Gaertn.

Cyanotis axillaris Roem.    Root, tuber
and Sch.

Datura metel Linn.          Seeds, Root

Desmodium velutinum         Root
(Willd) DC.

Eulophia nuda Lindl.        Tubers

Gardenia latifolia Ait.     Leaves, stem

Glossogyne bidens           Whole plant
(Retz.) Alston

Holostemma annularis        Root
(Roxb.) K. Schum.

Ichnocarpus frutescens      Root
R. Br.

Ipomoea pestigridis Linn.   Leaves

Jatropha curcas Linn.       Leaves, seed

Leonotis nepetaefolia       Root, Flower
(L.) R. Br.

Mallotus philippensis       Root
Muell.-Arg.

Melothria perpusilla        Root
(Blume) Cogn.

Martynia annua Linn.        Seed

Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk.     Root

Pavetta indica Linn.        Root

Peucedanum nagpurense       Root
 (C.B.Cl.) Prain

Polygonum plebeium R.Br.    Whole plant

Pterocarpus marsupium       Stem-bark
Roxb.

Randia dumetorum Poir.      Bark

Ruellia suffruticosa        Root
Roxb.

Schrebera swietenioides     Root
Roxb.

Scilla indica Baker         Bulb
non-Roxb.

Scoparia dulcis Linn.       Whole plant

Solanum xanthocarpum        Fruit,Seed,
S. &W                       Staminal
                            column (anthers)

Spermacoce hispida Linn.    Leaves

Syzygium cerasoideum        Fruits, Leaves,
(Roxb.) Chatterjee &        Stem-bark, Root
Kanjilal f.

Terminalia bellerica        Stem-bark
Roxb.

Terminalia chebula Retz.    Fruits

Thysanolaena agrostis       Root
Nees.

Tinospora cordifolia        Stem
(Willd.) Miers ex
Hook. f. &Thoms.

Vitex peduncularis          Leaves,
Wall. ex Schauer.           stem-bark

Ziziphus oenoplia Mill.     Root

Zingiber officinale Rosc.   Rhizome

Botanical name              Ailments treated

Abrus precatorius Linn.     Fever, skin diseases,
                            nervous disorders; Eye
                            disease (cattle)

Abutilon indicum            "Tanni" (a paralytic
Linn. Sweet.                disease)

Achyranthes aspera Linn.    Wound

Alysicarpus vaginalis       Urine troubles
(Linn.) DC.

Ampelocissus                Boil; pain (cattle)
tomentosa (Roth)
Planch.

Andrographis panicultata    Fever, liver problems,
Wall. ex Nees               diarrhoea, convulsions, epilepsy

Ardisia solanacea           Headache
Roxb.

Argemone mexicana Linn.     Sore eyes, red eyes,
                            opthalmia, skin diseases,
                            body sores

Bauhinia purpurea Linn.     Sores (of small-pox)

Breynia retusa              Cough, Pneumonia
(Dennst.) Alston.

Buchanania lanzan           Red urine disease
Spreng.                     ("rukhi")

Calotropis gigantea         Contraction and trembling
                            in high fever (babies); Body
                            swelling of cattle

Cardiospermum               Rheumatism
halicacabum Linn.

Cassia fistula Linn.        Constipation

Cissampelos pareira Linn.   Stomach pains, cough and
                            cold (babies); Breathing
                            problems

Cissus repanda Vahl.        Cuts and bruises; "sannipat"
                            disease (cattle)

Cleistanthus collinus       Skin diseases
(Roxb.) Benth.

Cleome icosandra Linn.      Haematuria

Clerodendrum infortunatum   Rheumatism, Headache
auct. non Linn. C.B.
Clarke.

Combretum pilosum Roxb.     Water sores ("haja")

Cryptolepis buchanani       Venereal diseases (syphilis),
Roem. & Schult.             lactation; Malnutrition
                            (babies),

Curculigo orchioides        Helminthic infestation
Gaertn.                     fever (Babies); Filarial,
                            venereal diseases
Cyanotis axillaris Roem.    Fever, worms
and Sch.

Datura metel Linn.          Leprosy

Desmodium velutinum         Disease diagnosis
(Willd) DC.

Eulophia nuda Lindl.        Belly-ache

Gardenia latifolia Ait.     Water sore ("haja")

Glossogyne bidens           Headache, vomiting,
(Retz.) Alston              bilary or gastric
                            trouble; bone fracture
                            (cattle)

Holostemma annularis        Cough
(Roxb.) K. Schum.

Ichnocarpus frutescens      Syphilis
R. Br.

Ipomoea pestigridis Linn.   Redding of eyes

Jatropha curcas Linn.       Red-eye, bowl problem

Leonotis nepetaefolia       Breast inflamation, burns
(L.) R. Br.

Mallotus philippensis       Women patients after
Muell.-Arg.                 childbirth ("sutika")

Melothria perpusilla        Syphilis
(Blume) Cogn.

Martynia annua Linn.        Body sores, ringworm

Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk.     Vomiting, weakness

Pavetta indica Linn.        Headache

Peucedanum nagpurense       Stomach complaints;
(C.B.Cl.) Prain             diarrhoea and dysentery
                            (cattle)

Polygonum plebeium R.Br.    Diarrhoea, dysentry

Pterocarpus marsupium       Diarrhoea, dysentery,
Roxb.                       red urine disease, tongue
                            disease

Randia dumetorum Poir.      Fever

Ruellia suffruticosa        Venereal diseases
Roxb.

Schrebera swietenioides     Body wounds and sores
Roxb.                       (Cattle)

Scilla indica Baker         Headache
non-Roxb.

Scoparia dulcis Linn.       Gout, Indigestion; Gout
                            (cattle)

Solanum xanthocarpum        Cough, toothache,
S. &W

Spermacoce hispida Linn.    wounds

Syzygium cerasoideum
(Roxb.) Chatterjee &        Rheumatism, pneumonia
Kanjilal f.

Terminalia bellerica        Cold, fever
Roxb.

Terminalia chebula Retz.    Intestinal problem

Thysanolaena agrostis       Fever;
Nees.                       Wormy sores (cattle)

Tinospora cordifolia        Venereal diseases, fever
(Willd.) Miers ex
Hook. f. & Thoms.

Vitex peduncularis          Opthalmia, Chest pain
Wall. ex Schauer.

Ziziphus oenoplia Mill.     Anthelmintic

Zingiber officinale Rosc.   Cough (babies)

Table 2: Percentage use of plant parts or whole plant by the
aboriginals of Ajodhya hill region

Plant part used   % of use

Root                 50
Leaves               15
Stem                 13
Whole plant          8
Fruits               6
Seeds                4
Flowers              3

Table 3: Other ethnomedicinal reports on the plants used by the
tribals of Ajodhya hill region

                            Other Reports on Folk use,
Botanical name              ethnomedicine and action

Abrus precatorius           Tuberculosis, throat pain (Shahidullah et
                            al, 2009); Diuresis, the relief of fever,
                            sore throat, bronchitis, hepatitis
                            (Sankaranarayanan et al, 2010)

Abutilon indicum            Wounds (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Boils
                            and abscess (Dey et al, 2009); Bronchitis,
                            diabetes, urinary tract problems, frequent
                            or infrequent urination, kidney disorders
                            (Hanif et al, 2009).

Achyranthes aspera          Menstrual pain, lower abdominal pain,
                            Leucorrhoea, menstrual problems, Edema
                            (Hossan et al, 2009); Leucorrhoea (Prusti
                            and Behera, 2007a); Pruritus, oedema,
                            haemorrhoids, pneumonia (Chakraborty and
                            Bhattacharjee, 2006); Abortifacient (Mitra
                            and Mukherjee, 2009); Scorpion bite (Rai
                            and Nath, 2005).

Alysicarpus vaginalis       Weak eyesight, earache (Tirkey, 2006);
                            Cough (Jain et al, 2009).

Ampelocissus tomentosa      Bone fracture (Prusti and Behera, 2007a).

Andrographis paniculata     Fever, headache, vertigo (Mia et al,
                            2009); Scabies, malaria (with other
                            plants) (Mohanta et al, 2006).
                            Fever, intestinal and hepatic disorders
                            (Rahmatullah et al, 2010b). Emetic,
                            anthelmentic, sexual disorders
                            (Rahmatullah et al, 2010f).

Ardisia solanacea           Removal of blood clot and internal
                            haemorrhage (Sharief and Rao, 2007);
                            Fits, eye pain (Franco and Narasimhan,
                            2009); Blood dysentery (Prusti and Behera,
                            2007a).

Argemone mexicana           Anticancer, viral fever (Venkataswamy et
                            al, 2010); Teeth problem, eczema (Prusti
                            and Behera, 2007b).

Bauhinia purpurea           Poisonous bites, female disorders
                            (Khumbongmayum et al, 2005).

Breynia retusa              Dysentery, toothache, fits (Franco and
                            Narasimhan, 2009); Conjunctivities (Jothi
                            et al, 2008).

Buchanania lanzan Spreng.   Chest pain (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008);
                            Heal wounds (Prusti and Behera, 2007a).

Calotropis gigantea         Gingivitis, to stop bleeding from cuts
                            and wounds (Rahmatullah et al, 2010a);
                            Earache, fever (Sudhakar Reddy et al,
                            2008); Eczema (Prusti and Behera, 2007a);
                            Leocorrhoea, rheumatism (Chakraborty and
                            Bhattacharjee, 2006).

Cardiospermum halicacabum   Bleeding due to cut (Prusti and Behera,
                            2007a); Bloating in cattle (Rahmatullah
                            et al, 2010e); Tonic, impotency, weakness
                            (Rahmatullah et al, 2010f).

Cassia fistula              Purgative (Chowdhury et al, 2010);
                            Lowering of blood pressure (Prusti and
                            Behera, 2007a); Herpes, Dobi's itch
                            (Parinitha et al, 2004)

Cissampelos pareira         Wound healing, antidote, fistula,
                            pruritis, skin disorders, snake poison,
                            anorexia, indigestion, abdominal pain,
                            gastric disorders, diarrhea, dysentery,
                            blood purification and anti-inflammatory
                            properties (Sankaranarayanan et al, 2010).

Cissus repanda              Bone fracture (Jain et al, 2005).

Cleistanthus collinus       Antiseptic, hoof sores of cattle
                            (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006);
                            Piscicidal (Murthy et al, 2010).

Cleome icosandra            Vermifuge (Senthilkumar et al, 2006);
                            Anthelmintic (Mali and Mehta, 2008).

Clerodendrum infortunatum   Mother care (Rajith et al, 2010);
                            Gonorrhoea (Laloo et al, 2006);
                            Gastrointestinal disorders (Rahmatullah
                            et al, 2010d).

Combretum pilosum           Boils (Pattanaik et al, 2006); To produce
                            sterility in females (Prusti and Behera,
                            2007a); Snakebite, chest pain
                            (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006).

Cryptolepis buchanani       Bleeding from cuts (Prusti and Behera,
                            2007a); Eczema, stomach pain (Mairh et
                            al, 2010).

Curculigo orchioides        Leocorrhoea, nasal bleeding (Chakraborty
                            and Bhattacharjee, 2006).

Datura metel                Head lice infestation (Rahmatullah et al,
                            2010a); Alopecia (Ghosh, 2008); Body pain,
                            pain or lesion within the ear (Nawaz et
                            al, 2009); Toothache, asthma (Chakraborty
                            and Bhattacharjee, 2006); To prevent
                            rabies in cattle (Saikia and Borthakur,
                            2010); Skin disease and insect bite in
                            cattle (Avinash Bharati and Sharma et al,
                            2010).

Desmodium velutinum         Stomatitis (Jagtap et al, 2009);
                            Diarrhoea (Dash and Padhy, 2006).

Eulophia nuda               Snakebite (Sikarwar et al, 2008);
                            Rheumatoid arthritis (Mali and Bhadane,
                            2008).

Gardenia latifolia          Piles (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008);
                            Piscicidal (Murthy et al, 2010);
                            Ephemeral fever of cattle (Reddy
                            et al, 2006).

Glossogyne bidens           Aphrodisiac (with other plants) (Kumar
                            et al, 2004); Toothache (Ganesan, 2008).

Holostemma annularis        Diabetes (Jayakumar et al, 2010); Urinary
                            troubles (Punjani, 2010).

Ichnocarpus frutescens      To stop bleeding (Sikarwar et al, 2008);
                            Diabetes (Parinitha et al, 2004); Bone
                            fracture, scabies (Chakraborty and
                            Bhattacharjee, 2006).

Ipomoea pestigridis         Cut, wound (Biswas et al, 2010);
                            Bronchial spasm (Pawar and Patil, 2004);
                            Snakebite (Shukla et al, 2010).

Jatropha curcas             Malaria (Asase et al, 2005); Diabetes
                            (Kofi et al, 2009); WWhite dysentery
                            (Rahmatullah et al, 2009).

Leonotis nepetaefolia       Wound (Kuvar and Bapat, 2010);
                            Abortifacient and emmenagogue
                            (Elisabetsky and Posey, 1989);
                            Depurative and febrifuge, diarrhoea,
                            jaundice, anthelmintic, abdominal
                            problems, vomit, carminative, menstrual
                            disease (Jain and Srivastava, 2005).

Mallotus philippensis       Enlarged spleen, anthelmintic
                            (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006);
                            Wound in cattle (Avinash Bharati and
                            Sharma, 2010).

Melothria perpusilla        Diarrhoea (Dahanukar et al, 2000).

Martynia annua              Rheumatic swelling, scabies, ringworm
                            (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006);
                            Epilepsy, tuberculosis, sore throat
                            (Senthikumar et al, 2006).

Mimosa rubicaulis           Boils (Joshi and Joshi, 2007); Piles,
                            vomiting due to weakness (Mahato and
                            Chaudhary, 2005); Piles, burns, vomiting
                            (Jabeen et al, 2009).

Pavetta indica              Red eye (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008);
                            Snakebite (with other plants) (Ayyanar
                            and Ignacimuthu, 2005).

Peucedanum nagpurense       To increase semen (Kumar and Jain, 1998);
                            Promotes sexual desire (Shukla et al,
                            2008).

Polygonum plebeium          Heat stress (Kumar et al, 2008), Swelling
                            (Jagtap et al, 2006).

Pterocarpus marsupium       Diabetes, skin disease, leprosy (Singh et
                            al, 2010); Wounds (with other plants)
                            (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2009); Blood
                            dysentery (Sen and Behera, 2008).

Randia dumetorum            Dandruff (Reddy, 2008); Cancer, tumour,
                            Gastrointestinal disorders, urinary tract
                            infections, genital disorders, pains,
                            respiratory tract disorders, sex
                            stimulant, impotency, spermatorrhea,
                            premature ejaculation, aphrodisiac
                            (Mollik et al, 2010).

Ruellia suffruticosa        Renal affections, gonorrhoea, syphilis
                            and other venereal diseases (Khare, 2007).

Schrebera swietenioides     Boils (Pawar and Patil, 2007); Joint and
                            body pains, headache, itching (Patil and
                            Patil, 2007).

Scilla indica               Felon (wound on nail; with other plants)
                            (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2009);
                            Anthelmentic, cardiac stimulant,
                            digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and
                            expectorant, asthma, cough and bronchitis,
                            paralytic attacks, ailments of the heart,
                            calculous affections, rheumatism and skin
                            diseases (Rao and Rangaswami, 1967;
                            Tripathi et al, 2001).

Scoparia dulcis             Spermatorrhoea (Prusti and Behera, 2007a);
                            Respiratory, gastric, hepatic disturbances
                            diabetes, hypertension. (Sankaranarayanan
                            et al, 2010); Gastric ulcer (Rahmatullah
                            et al, 2010b).

Solanum xanthocarpum        Breast cancer (tumour)(Parinitha et al,
                            2004); Pox, teeth caries (Chakraborty and
                            Bhattacharjee, 2006).

Spermacoce hispida          Stomach worms, lactation in cattle
                            (Ganesan et al, 2006).
Syzygium cerasoideum        Antirheumatic, hypoglycaemic, rubefacient,
                            dysentery, biliousness, bronchitis, joint
                            pain (Khare, 2007).

Terminalia bellerica        Cough (Pattanaik et al, 2006); Diarrhoea
                            and dysentery in cattle (Avinash Bharati
                            and Sharma, 2009).

Terminalia chebula          Asthma (Pattanaik et al, 2006); Diarrhoea
                            and dysentery in cattle (Avinash Bharati
                            and Sharma, 2009); Cough, asthma, black
                            dye (Kumar and Jain, 1998); Wound (Rai and
                            Nath, 2005).

Thysanolaena agrostis       Mouthwash during fever, also after
                            parturition (Khare, 2007).

Tinospora cordifolia        Cold (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Jaundice
                            (Prakasha et al, 2010); Emollient for
                            cracked bone and vitality after child
                            delivery (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee,
                            2006).

Vitex peduncularis          Malaria, black water fever (Khare, 2007);
                            fever (Jaiswal, 2010); Typhoid fever
                            (Lalfakzuala, 2007).

Zingiber officinale         Breathing problem, coughs (Rahamatullah
                            et al, 2010a); Rabies, pneumonia, stomach
                            ache, chicken pox, dyspepsia (Rahamatullah
                            et al, 2010c); Arthritis, gout
                            (Rahamatullah et al, 2010g)

Ziziphus oenoplia           Wound (Kuvar and Bapat, 2010); Urological
                            problem (Rai, 2004); Fungal infections of
                            the skin (Rahmatullah et al, 2010b)
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Dey, Abhijit; De, Jitendra Nath
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Survey
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Sep 1, 2010
Words:7643
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