A survey of ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Ajoydha hill region, Purulia district, India.
Since time immemorial the human society has developed amidst, and in close association, with the plant life (De, 1980a). The relationship between the indigenous people and their plant surroundings forms the subject of Ethnobotany, a science (De, 1968), which includes a study of the plants used by the tribals for food, medicine and clothing (Jain and De, 1966). Purulia is situated in the declivity of Chota Nagpur plateau. Aboriginal elements are strongly represented in the district itself; mostly living isolated lives in remote spurs of hills, covered almost to their summits with heavy forests (De, 1965).
Earlier, investigations were carried out on some ethnobotanical aspects of this district (Dey et al, 2009; Vegetation based tribal economics (De, 1980a), food plants (Jain and De, 1964), minor plant fibres (De, 1965), plants used as lac host (Basu and Mukherjee, 1999) various ethnobotanical practices and ethnomedicines (Jain and De, 1966; De, 1967; De, 1979; De, 1980b; Sur et al, 1992a; Chakraborty et al, 2003; Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006) by the tribals of Purulia district were reported. Food plants used by the 'Paharias' of Purulia were reported by Basu and Mukherjee (1996). Bhakat and Pandit (2004) have reported an inventory of medicinal plants of some sacred groves of Purulia. Sacred groves and taboos in this district were explored by Basu (2000a). Traditional utilization of medicinal plants in intestinal, malarial and sexual diseases by tribals of Purulia was reported by Basu (2005). Exotic American plants employed as ethnomedicine in Purulia were reported by Basu (2000b). Kuiri et al (2002) have reported the use of medicinal plants in rheumatism by the tribals of Baghmundi, Purulia. Some uses of ethnomedicines in Ajodhya hill region of Purulia district were reported by Sur et al, 1992b.
Materials and Methods
Purulia, the one of the tribal inhabited districts of West Bengal, is situated between 22[degrees]51'N and 23[degrees]42'N and 85[degrees]51'E and 86[degrees]54'E, covering an area of 6529 sq km with an altitudinal variation from 250m to 700m above sea level. There are low hills and undulating plateau including the Baghmundi (Avg. altitude 400m above sea level, rises up to 600m) and Ajodhya ranges (several peaks with altitude more than 600m above sea level) in the west (Jain and De, 1966). The temperature range is from 7[degrees]C in winter to 45[degrees]C in summer and the total annual rainfall ranges between 1240 mm to 1400 mm. The major tribal languages are Santhal (S); Bhumija (Bh); Bengali (B); Hindi (H); Munda (M); Oraon (O); Birhor (Bir); Mal Paharya (MP); Kharia (Kh); Kharwar (Kharw); Gond (G) and Ho (Ho) (Jain and De, 1964), where the abbreviations used in this report, are mentioned within parenthesis. The Kurmis add to a great extent to the aboriginals of the district (De, 1965). Different plant species were found to be used to treat various types of ailments. The plants, their use as ethnomedicinal system, plant parts used, mode of preparation, locality of use and the particular group of tribals using the medicines were studied, plant specimens were collected and documented in frequent field visits conducted from 2002-2004. The places of visit were the tribal villages of the Ajodhya hill and adjoining areas. The villages were visited in different seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) to avail most of the plant resources in their flowering condition. In the actual method of field studies, informants from different tribes who are familiar with the plants and their use by the members of their respective communities were selected by carefully taken interviews in previously arranged camps. Questions, problems and suggestions were put to them regarding the use of medicinal plants and their products in folk medicine as described by Jain, (1964); Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). Safety considerations in these ethnobotanical explorations were properly maintained. Mounted herbarium specimens known to grow in this area were placed to them and questions were asked on their usefulness. These were subsequently verified by taking them to field to identify plants on the basis of local tribal names previously noted from them. Local names and the areas were noted. Prior permission was taken from the informants for recoding of the information. Photographs were taken of the plants' habit in flowering condition. Abundant plants were taken to prepare herbarium sheets. Rare and endangered plants were spared and photographed only. Different tribes have provided vast information regarding medicine and healthcare practised by them. Herbarium specimens and photographs were identified by taxonomists and stored for future use.
Results and Discussion
A total number of 56 plant species of 35 plant families were found to be used by the different ethnic groups present in Ajodhya hill and its adjoining villages. The results are summarized in Table 1. The highest number of plants were contributed by the plant family Fabaceae (7) followed by Euphorbiaceae (4) and Rubiaceae (4). The Asclepiadaceae and Combrataceae were having 3 plants each. Menispermaceae, Vitaceae, Verbanaceae, Solanaceae and Acanthaceae contributed 2 plants per family. Root constituted the major plant part used (50%), followed by leaves (15%), stem (13%), whole plant (8%), fruits (6%), seeds (4%) and flowers (3%).The results are depicted in Table 2. Among the different ailments treated by using medicinal plants, gastrointestinal disorders (14) were mostly prevalent and treated by the tribals and local medical practitioners or "kavirajs" in this area, followed by fever, cough and cold (10). Different plant species were found to be used against sexually transmitted diseases (6), skin diseases (6), eye diseases (4) rheumatism (3) urinary infections (2) etc. A few ethnomedicinal plants were found to be used in paediatric care (5) and mother care (2).The numbers within the parenthesis indicates the number of plants used to treat the diseases. 9 plants were found to be used by the tribals as a part of their ethnoveterinary system. Ethnomedicinal uses of these plants reported by other authors aredepicted in Table 3.
Depending on the disorder, plants were used alone or in combination with other plants. Polygonum plebeium, when crushed with adventitious roots of Ficus benghalensis and bark of Butea superba was found to cure dysentery. The roots of Cissampelos pareira, crushed with the roots of Ocimum basilicum are given in stomach pains, cough and cold, especially in babies. To cure breathing trouble, roots of the same plant are crushed together with the roots of Piper longum and Allium sativum and prescribed. A paste made with the crushed roots of Ampelocissus tomentosa, resin of Shorea robusta and mustard oil is applied as poultice on boils. A medical preparation of three fruits, called "Trifala" made from Terminalia chebula ("Haritaki"), T. bellerica ("Bahera") and T. arjuna ("Arjun") is used to clear intestine. Andrographis paniculata (known as "Chireta" locally) is considered to be a substitute of true "chirata" Swertia sp. Seeds of Argemone mexicana, crushed with fruits of Cleistanthus collinus are used to prepare a paste to treat skin diseases. Buchanania lanzan roots are crushed with Piper nigrum to be administered to cure red urine disease ("rukhi"). The stem bark of Terminalia bellerica crushed with the roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis, bark of Wendlandia exserta and roots of Polygala crotalarioides in a preparation and given to cure cold and high fever. Fresh stem bark and leaves of Syzygium cerasoideum crushed with Scoparia dulcis plants are given to cure pneumonia. A single plant part may be used to treat more than one ailment as was the case with Abrus precatorius, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia etc. Oral and topical modes of administration were found with formulations in terms of whole plant crushed or macerated, pastes, juices, decoctions etc. Topical administrations were noted in infections of eye, ear, skin and cuts, wounds, bruises, boils and body pains. Leprosy, a common skin disease of this area leading to deformity of body parts, is being treated by using Datura metel. The juice of the crushed seeds and the roots, mixed with mustard oil is used to treat this disease. Andrographis paniculata is used against epilepsy. One interesting finding was the use of Desmodium velutinum. This plant is used by the local medical practitioners or "kavirajs" not against any particular disease but to diagnose a disease, if any.
From the above discussion, it is evident that there is a very well developed ethnomedicinal system present in Ajodhya hill region, Purulia district, West Bengal, India. From table 3, it is also evident that a particular medicinal plant used by one aboriginal group to treat a particular ailment may not be used by another group for the same purpose. These formulations used by the tribals need further clinical trials to test their efficacy and also to develop new drugs based on herbal medicine for effective remedy of different ailments.
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(1) Abhijit Dey and (2) Dr. Jitendra Nath De
(1) Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Presidency College, 86/1, College Street, Calcutta-700073, West Bengal, India.
(2) Retired Head and Reader, Charuchandra College, Calcutta. Flat No.-C-103, Sunrise Estate, 14C, R.N. Chaudhuri Road, Kolkata-700015.
Abhijit Dey and Dr. Jitendra Nath De; A Survey of Ethnomedicinal Plants used by the tribals of Ajoydha Hill Region, Purulia District, India
Corresponding Author: Dr. Jitendra Nath De, Retired Head and Reader, Charuchandra College, Calcutta. Flat No.-C-103, Sunrise Estate, 14C, R.N. Chaudhuri Road, Kolkata-700015. Ph: +919748578977, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the aboriginals of Ajodhya hill region, Purulia district, India Botanical name Family Abrus precatorius Linn. Papilionaceae; Fabaceae Abutilon indicum Malvaceae Linn. Sweet. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Amaranthaceae Alysicarpus vaginalis Papilionaceae; (Linn.) DC. Fabaceae Ampelocissus Vitaceae tomentosa (Roth) Planch. Andrographis panicultata Acanthaceae Wall. ex Nees Ardisia solanacea Myrsinaceae Roxb. Argemone mexicana Linn. Papaveraceae Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Caesalpiniaceae; Fabaceae Breynia retusa Euphorbiaceae (Dennst.) Alston. Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaceae Spreng. Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae Cardiospermum Sapindaceae halicacabum Linn. Cassia fistula Linn. Caesalpiniaceae; Fabaceae Cissampelos pareira Linn. Menispermaceae. Cissus repanda Vahl. Vitaceae Cleistanthus collinus Euphorbiaceae (Roxb.) Benth. Cleome icosandra Linn. Capparidaceae Clerodendrum infortunatum Verbanaceae auct. non Linn. C.B. Clarke. Combretum pilosum Roxb. Combretaceae Cryptolepis buchanani Asclepiadaceae; Roem. & Schult. Curculigo orchioides Amaryllidaceae; Gaertn. Cyanotis axillaris Roem. Commelinaceae and Sch. Datura metel Linn. Solanaceae Desmodium velutinum Papilionaceae; (Willd) DC. Fabaceae Eulophia nuda Lindl. Orchidaceae Gardenia latifolia Ait. Rubiaceae Glossogyne bidens Asteraceae (Retz.) Alston Holostemma annularis Asclepiadaceae (Roxb.) K. Schum. Ichnocarpus frutescens Apocynaceae R. Br. Ipomoea pestigridis Linn. Convolvulaceae Jatropha curcas Linn. Euphorbiaceae Leonotis nepetaefolia Lamiaceae (L.) R. Br. Mallotus philippensis Euphorbiaceae Muell.-Arg. Melothria perpusilla Cucurbitaceae (Blume) Cogn. Martynia annua Linn. Martyniaceae. Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk. Mimosaceae; Fabaceae Pavetta indica Linn. Rubiaceae Peucedanum nagpurense Apiaceae (C.B.Cl.) Prain Polygonum plebeium R.Br. Polygonaceae. Pterocarpus marsupium Papilionaceae; Roxb. Fabaceae Randia dumetorum Poir. Rubiaceae. Ruellia suffruticosa Acanthaceae Roxb. Schrebera swietenioides Oleaceae Roxb. Scilla indica Baker Liliaceae non-Roxb. Scoparia dulcis Linn. Scrophulariaceae Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae S. &W Spermacoce hispida Linn. Rubiaceae Syzygium cerasoideum Myrtaceae (Roxb.) Chatterjee & Kanjilal f. Terminalia bellerica Combretaceae Roxb. Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae Thysanolaena agrostis Poaceae Nees. Tinospora cordifolia Menispermaceae. (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. &Thoms. Vitex peduncularis Verbanaceae Wall. ex Schauer. Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. Rhamnaceae Zingiber officinale Rosc. Zingiberaceae. Botanical name Local name(s) Abrus precatorius Linn. Kanch (B); Gunja, Kawet (S); Karjain (Kh); Ara kead, Karjani Kead (M); Gumchi (H). Abutilon indicum Bilaigor, Mirubaha (S); Jhamp, Linn. Sweet. K anghi, Petari (Bh); Pusi kata daru (M); Beraxet (O); Kakhi (Kharw). Achyranthes aspera Linn. Chip chirit (S); Apang, Chirchiti (Bh); Sitirkad, Sitirkedu, Chirchiti (M); Chirchithi (O) Alysicarpus vaginalis Bir but, Nari seta lende, (Linn.) DC. Ote janum ba (M) Ampelocissus Dhotto-pako (O); Datrom bili tomentosa (Roth) (S); Ghora lat (B); Iotorong Planch. nari, Oteron (M); Kumharlat (Bh). Andrographis panicultata Chireta, Mahatita, Kalmeg Wall. ex Nees (Bh); Kiryat, Bhuinim (M); Ardisia solanacea Gardagulanj, Garha gulainchi Roxb. (S); Rakatphar, Aringudi (Bh); Gulainchi, Lili baha daru (M); Makmeddo, Gara boi (O) Argemone mexicana Linn. Bukla kanta (S,O); Sialkanta (Bh); Bakula janum, Rangaini (M); Rangaini (Bir) Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Koinar, Kural, Singara, Sinhara (S); Singara (M); Komarxa (O); Koinar (Kharw); Singa (Ho); Kundrau (MP). Breynia retusa Jirul (Bh, Kh) (Dennst.) Alston. Buchanania lanzan Tarop (S); Piyal, Chiranji Spreng. (Bh); Tarub, Char (M); Tarub (O); Piyar (Kharw). Calotropis gigantea Akanda, Akaona(S); Madar, Akonda(Bh); Palati(M); Akaon(Kh). Cardiospermum Sibjhul, Lataphatki (S); halicacabum Linn. Kanphuti (Bh); Merom med nari (M). Cassia fistula Linn. Sonali, Dhanbahera (B, Bh); Shondal, Bandorlati (B); Bandarlauri, Nurui, Mirju baha nuru (S); Amaltas (H); Bonurlati, Sonarkhi (O); Dauranch (K); Hari (M). Cissampelos pareira Linn. Poa, Tejomala, Tijumala (S); Ekladi, Chotkipar, Bantulpat (Bh); Chutu lutur, Huring pitusingh (M); Pitu sing (O) Cissus repanda Vahl. Bod nari, Bod lar nari(S); Panialata(Bh);Hatikana(M); Harjarwa(Kh) Cleistanthus collinus Karlajun, Kargali (S); Parasu, (Roxb.) Benth. Kargelo daru (M); Parasi (Kh); Kargeli (Kharw); Pasu (Ho) Cleome icosandra Linn. Hurhuria (S); Marang churamani (M); Sirio,, Nal sirio (O) Clerodendrum infortunatum Barni, Ghato (S); Bhant, auct. non Linn. C.B. Ghentu (Bh); Bichamgar Clarke. (M); Bakaspati (O); Chamgar, Kulamarshal (Ho); Gokhola (Kharw) Combretum pilosum Roxb. Sikarbans (S); Burilat (Bh) Cryptolepis buchanani Dudhi, Utri dudhi, Bhains Roem. & Schult. lakhan (S); Baradudhi, Karanta (Bh); Tonang utu, Merong diring, Bhains jamburu nanri (M); Dudhla lar (Kharw) Curculigo orchioides Jamru Tipoi, Dinda Kita Gaertn. (O); Sareng jadu (M); Turam, Dhakira Kinda (O) Cyanotis axillaris Roem. Simchiru ara (M); Tena ara (O) and Sch. Datura metel Linn. Dhatra, Dhatura (S); Dhatura (Bh); Tuntura ba (M); Dhatra (O) Desmodium velutinum Latlati (Bh); Bir jatang (M) (Willd) DC. Eulophia nuda Lindl. Tipoi, Tipui (S); Ote ludum ba (M); Tipui (O) Gardenia latifolia Ait. Papra, Popra (S); Barabhutru (Bh); Papara, Papra (M); Papar (Kharw); Papa (Ho); Pempri (MP) Glossogyne bidens Tej raj, Nakdana (S); (Retz.) Alston Mainthorib(Bh), Pakhal ret (O); Ringud ranu (M); Nakdana (B). Holostemma annularis Moron ara (S); Titpungi (Roxb.) K. Schum. (Bh); Apang, Apung (M); Charki dudhi (Bir) Ichnocarpus frutescens Dudhilata (S); Koe lata, R. Br. Chotodudhi (Bh); Piri hore, Huring onon sing, Onol sing (M); Saon lar (Kharw) Ipomoea pestigridis Linn. Gaj bherwa, Ishlanguli (S); Languli lata, Bilaiguri (Bh); Pushikata nanri, Chutulutur, Kat koena nanri (M) Jatropha curcas Linn. Bherenda, Bagrendi (S); Sada bherenda, Bhedra (Bh); Kulajara, Kulabindi, Totkabindi (M); Erendi (O) Leonotis nepetaefolia Bonga taini, Dare dhompo, (L.) R. Br. Janum dhompo (S); Bhut bhairab, Hejur chei (Bh); Agia janum (M); Koha tonka agia (O) Mallotus philippensis Rora (S); Kamila, Ban sinduar Muell.-Arg. (Bh); Gara sinduri (M); Rori (Kharw); Dao sindra (MP) Melothria perpusilla Birkudri (S); Ban kundri (Bh); (Blume) Cogn. Chengor (M) Martynia annua Linn. Bagnakh, Gaymukhi (S); Baghnakh, Shernui (Bh); Bana sarsar, Bilai sarsar (M); Gaymukhi (O) Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk. Sega janum (S); Kundru (Bh); Kundaru janum, Aria janum (M); Airi (O) Pavetta indica Linn. Hundra, Budhi ghasse (S); Hund baha (Bh); Marang sikiriba daru (M); Sikiri ba, Sikiba (O); Burhi (Kharw) Peucedanum nagpurense Banjira (Bh); Tejraj, Oponum (C.B.Cl.) Prain (S); Oponom, Ependom (O); Bir samraj, Baghia rutu, Ependung, Turi, Epelom (M). Polygonum plebeium R.Br. Mui ara, Munia, Muni ara (S); Muni ara (M); Pok ara, Pushitoa, Munjara (O) Pterocarpus marsupium Murga, Pesar (S); Piasal, Roxb. Murga (Bh); Hid (M); Bija sal (O); Bia (Kharw) Randia dumetorum Poir. Boi bindi, Loto, Barka mahia (S); Gurman, Madan (Bh); Potab, Portoho, Marang mari ba (M); Mauna (O); Mowan (Kharw); Potu (Ho); Kantal ara (Bir); Saro (MP) Ruellia suffruticosa Chaulia (S); Charpatu, Roxb. Brunaia (M) Schrebera swietenioides Eksira (S), Ghanto (Bh, B, O), Roxb. Chapsing (Kh), Jargo, Sandapsing, Chabsing (M), Gae ka lundi (H). Scilla indica Baker Piri kulai ba (M); non-Roxb. Lakrapiyaj (O) Scoparia dulcis Linn. Ban dhoney (B); Tand dhaniya (Bh); Jastimadhu (S); Bichimandar (O); Madu kom, Ko ara, Ote kantara, Guru ara, Merom med, Chinibuta, Chinisakam (M). Solanum xanthocarpum Rengni, Rangaini janum, S. &W Gotbengan (S); Ringli, Kateli, Kantikari (Bh); Tokkod janum, Rangaini (M); Toko bhijri (O) Spermacoce hispida Linn. Satgithea (S,O); Madanghanti (Bh); Hada pota (M) Syzygium cerasoideum Totnopak, Katijamun (S); (Roxb.) Chatterjee & Raijam (Bh); Pundi Kanjilal f. kunda, Dara kunda (M); Katjambu, Tipajam (Kh) Terminalia bellerica Lopong (S); Bahera Roxb. (Bh, Kharw); Lupung (M); Bahra (O) Terminalia chebula Retz. Rol (S); Haritaki, Hara (Bh); Rola (M); Hadra (O) Thysanolaena agrostis Phuljharu (Bh) Nees. Tinospora cordifolia Latgulanj, Gurchi (Bh) (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. &Thoms. Vitex peduncularis Chagriamba, Charigorwa, Wall. ex Schauer. Murgigorwa, Bhadu (S); Simjanga,, Simkata, Ore ij ata daru (M); Era tatja (O) Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. Jangal kul, Jhur kul, Sia kul (Bh); Bir janum, Bagri ba, Janum bili (M) Zingiber officinale Rosc. Adi (S, M,O); Ade (M) Botanical name Parts used Abrus precatorius Linn. Root Abutilon indicum Root Linn. Sweet. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Root Alysicarpus vaginalis Root (Linn.) DC. Ampelocissus Root tomentosa (Roth) Planch. Andrographis panicultata Whole plant Wall. ex Nees Ardisia solanacea Stem-bark Roxb. Argemone mexicana Linn. Stem, seed Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Stem Breynia retusa Leaves, Root (Dennst.) Alston. Buchanania lanzan Root Spreng. Calotropis gigantea Root, Leaves Cardiospermum Root halicacabum Linn. Cassia fistula Linn. Fruits, Leaves Cissampelos pareira Linn. Root Cissus repanda Vahl. Whole plant/ root Cleistanthus collinus Stem-bark (Roxb.) Benth. Cleome icosandra Linn. Leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum Root, Leaves auct. non Linn. C.B. Clarke. Combretum pilosum Roxb. Leaves Cryptolepis buchanani Root, Whole Roem. & Schult. plant Curculigo orchioides Tuberous roots Gaertn. Cyanotis axillaris Roem. Root, tuber and Sch. Datura metel Linn. Seeds, Root Desmodium velutinum Root (Willd) DC. Eulophia nuda Lindl. Tubers Gardenia latifolia Ait. Leaves, stem Glossogyne bidens Whole plant (Retz.) Alston Holostemma annularis Root (Roxb.) K. Schum. Ichnocarpus frutescens Root R. Br. Ipomoea pestigridis Linn. Leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. Leaves, seed Leonotis nepetaefolia Root, Flower (L.) R. Br. Mallotus philippensis Root Muell.-Arg. Melothria perpusilla Root (Blume) Cogn. Martynia annua Linn. Seed Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk. Root Pavetta indica Linn. Root Peucedanum nagpurense Root (C.B.Cl.) Prain Polygonum plebeium R.Br. Whole plant Pterocarpus marsupium Stem-bark Roxb. Randia dumetorum Poir. Bark Ruellia suffruticosa Root Roxb. Schrebera swietenioides Root Roxb. Scilla indica Baker Bulb non-Roxb. Scoparia dulcis Linn. Whole plant Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit,Seed, S. &W Staminal column (anthers) Spermacoce hispida Linn. Leaves Syzygium cerasoideum Fruits, Leaves, (Roxb.) Chatterjee & Stem-bark, Root Kanjilal f. Terminalia bellerica Stem-bark Roxb. Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruits Thysanolaena agrostis Root Nees. Tinospora cordifolia Stem (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. &Thoms. Vitex peduncularis Leaves, Wall. ex Schauer. stem-bark Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. Root Zingiber officinale Rosc. Rhizome Botanical name Ailments treated Abrus precatorius Linn. Fever, skin diseases, nervous disorders; Eye disease (cattle) Abutilon indicum "Tanni" (a paralytic Linn. Sweet. disease) Achyranthes aspera Linn. Wound Alysicarpus vaginalis Urine troubles (Linn.) DC. Ampelocissus Boil; pain (cattle) tomentosa (Roth) Planch. Andrographis panicultata Fever, liver problems, Wall. ex Nees diarrhoea, convulsions, epilepsy Ardisia solanacea Headache Roxb. Argemone mexicana Linn. Sore eyes, red eyes, opthalmia, skin diseases, body sores Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Sores (of small-pox) Breynia retusa Cough, Pneumonia (Dennst.) Alston. Buchanania lanzan Red urine disease Spreng. ("rukhi") Calotropis gigantea Contraction and trembling in high fever (babies); Body swelling of cattle Cardiospermum Rheumatism halicacabum Linn. Cassia fistula Linn. Constipation Cissampelos pareira Linn. Stomach pains, cough and cold (babies); Breathing problems Cissus repanda Vahl. Cuts and bruises; "sannipat" disease (cattle) Cleistanthus collinus Skin diseases (Roxb.) Benth. Cleome icosandra Linn. Haematuria Clerodendrum infortunatum Rheumatism, Headache auct. non Linn. C.B. Clarke. Combretum pilosum Roxb. Water sores ("haja") Cryptolepis buchanani Venereal diseases (syphilis), Roem. & Schult. lactation; Malnutrition (babies), Curculigo orchioides Helminthic infestation Gaertn. fever (Babies); Filarial, venereal diseases Cyanotis axillaris Roem. Fever, worms and Sch. Datura metel Linn. Leprosy Desmodium velutinum Disease diagnosis (Willd) DC. Eulophia nuda Lindl. Belly-ache Gardenia latifolia Ait. Water sore ("haja") Glossogyne bidens Headache, vomiting, (Retz.) Alston bilary or gastric trouble; bone fracture (cattle) Holostemma annularis Cough (Roxb.) K. Schum. Ichnocarpus frutescens Syphilis R. Br. Ipomoea pestigridis Linn. Redding of eyes Jatropha curcas Linn. Red-eye, bowl problem Leonotis nepetaefolia Breast inflamation, burns (L.) R. Br. Mallotus philippensis Women patients after Muell.-Arg. childbirth ("sutika") Melothria perpusilla Syphilis (Blume) Cogn. Martynia annua Linn. Body sores, ringworm Mimosa rubicaulis Lamk. Vomiting, weakness Pavetta indica Linn. Headache Peucedanum nagpurense Stomach complaints; (C.B.Cl.) Prain diarrhoea and dysentery (cattle) Polygonum plebeium R.Br. Diarrhoea, dysentry Pterocarpus marsupium Diarrhoea, dysentery, Roxb. red urine disease, tongue disease Randia dumetorum Poir. Fever Ruellia suffruticosa Venereal diseases Roxb. Schrebera swietenioides Body wounds and sores Roxb. (Cattle) Scilla indica Baker Headache non-Roxb. Scoparia dulcis Linn. Gout, Indigestion; Gout (cattle) Solanum xanthocarpum Cough, toothache, S. &W Spermacoce hispida Linn. wounds Syzygium cerasoideum (Roxb.) Chatterjee & Rheumatism, pneumonia Kanjilal f. Terminalia bellerica Cold, fever Roxb. Terminalia chebula Retz. Intestinal problem Thysanolaena agrostis Fever; Nees. Wormy sores (cattle) Tinospora cordifolia Venereal diseases, fever (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thoms. Vitex peduncularis Opthalmia, Chest pain Wall. ex Schauer. Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. Anthelmintic Zingiber officinale Rosc. Cough (babies) Table 2: Percentage use of plant parts or whole plant by the aboriginals of Ajodhya hill region Plant part used % of use Root 50 Leaves 15 Stem 13 Whole plant 8 Fruits 6 Seeds 4 Flowers 3 Table 3: Other ethnomedicinal reports on the plants used by the tribals of Ajodhya hill region Other Reports on Folk use, Botanical name ethnomedicine and action Abrus precatorius Tuberculosis, throat pain (Shahidullah et al, 2009); Diuresis, the relief of fever, sore throat, bronchitis, hepatitis (Sankaranarayanan et al, 2010) Abutilon indicum Wounds (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Boils and abscess (Dey et al, 2009); Bronchitis, diabetes, urinary tract problems, frequent or infrequent urination, kidney disorders (Hanif et al, 2009). Achyranthes aspera Menstrual pain, lower abdominal pain, Leucorrhoea, menstrual problems, Edema (Hossan et al, 2009); Leucorrhoea (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Pruritus, oedema, haemorrhoids, pneumonia (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006); Abortifacient (Mitra and Mukherjee, 2009); Scorpion bite (Rai and Nath, 2005). Alysicarpus vaginalis Weak eyesight, earache (Tirkey, 2006); Cough (Jain et al, 2009). Ampelocissus tomentosa Bone fracture (Prusti and Behera, 2007a). Andrographis paniculata Fever, headache, vertigo (Mia et al, 2009); Scabies, malaria (with other plants) (Mohanta et al, 2006). Fever, intestinal and hepatic disorders (Rahmatullah et al, 2010b). Emetic, anthelmentic, sexual disorders (Rahmatullah et al, 2010f). Ardisia solanacea Removal of blood clot and internal haemorrhage (Sharief and Rao, 2007); Fits, eye pain (Franco and Narasimhan, 2009); Blood dysentery (Prusti and Behera, 2007a). Argemone mexicana Anticancer, viral fever (Venkataswamy et al, 2010); Teeth problem, eczema (Prusti and Behera, 2007b). Bauhinia purpurea Poisonous bites, female disorders (Khumbongmayum et al, 2005). Breynia retusa Dysentery, toothache, fits (Franco and Narasimhan, 2009); Conjunctivities (Jothi et al, 2008). Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Chest pain (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008); Heal wounds (Prusti and Behera, 2007a). Calotropis gigantea Gingivitis, to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds (Rahmatullah et al, 2010a); Earache, fever (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008); Eczema (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Leocorrhoea, rheumatism (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006). Cardiospermum halicacabum Bleeding due to cut (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Bloating in cattle (Rahmatullah et al, 2010e); Tonic, impotency, weakness (Rahmatullah et al, 2010f). Cassia fistula Purgative (Chowdhury et al, 2010); Lowering of blood pressure (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Herpes, Dobi's itch (Parinitha et al, 2004) Cissampelos pareira Wound healing, antidote, fistula, pruritis, skin disorders, snake poison, anorexia, indigestion, abdominal pain, gastric disorders, diarrhea, dysentery, blood purification and anti-inflammatory properties (Sankaranarayanan et al, 2010). Cissus repanda Bone fracture (Jain et al, 2005). Cleistanthus collinus Antiseptic, hoof sores of cattle (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006); Piscicidal (Murthy et al, 2010). Cleome icosandra Vermifuge (Senthilkumar et al, 2006); Anthelmintic (Mali and Mehta, 2008). Clerodendrum infortunatum Mother care (Rajith et al, 2010); Gonorrhoea (Laloo et al, 2006); Gastrointestinal disorders (Rahmatullah et al, 2010d). Combretum pilosum Boils (Pattanaik et al, 2006); To produce sterility in females (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Snakebite, chest pain (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006). Cryptolepis buchanani Bleeding from cuts (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Eczema, stomach pain (Mairh et al, 2010). Curculigo orchioides Leocorrhoea, nasal bleeding (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006). Datura metel Head lice infestation (Rahmatullah et al, 2010a); Alopecia (Ghosh, 2008); Body pain, pain or lesion within the ear (Nawaz et al, 2009); Toothache, asthma (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006); To prevent rabies in cattle (Saikia and Borthakur, 2010); Skin disease and insect bite in cattle (Avinash Bharati and Sharma et al, 2010). Desmodium velutinum Stomatitis (Jagtap et al, 2009); Diarrhoea (Dash and Padhy, 2006). Eulophia nuda Snakebite (Sikarwar et al, 2008); Rheumatoid arthritis (Mali and Bhadane, 2008). Gardenia latifolia Piles (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008); Piscicidal (Murthy et al, 2010); Ephemeral fever of cattle (Reddy et al, 2006). Glossogyne bidens Aphrodisiac (with other plants) (Kumar et al, 2004); Toothache (Ganesan, 2008). Holostemma annularis Diabetes (Jayakumar et al, 2010); Urinary troubles (Punjani, 2010). Ichnocarpus frutescens To stop bleeding (Sikarwar et al, 2008); Diabetes (Parinitha et al, 2004); Bone fracture, scabies (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006). Ipomoea pestigridis Cut, wound (Biswas et al, 2010); Bronchial spasm (Pawar and Patil, 2004); Snakebite (Shukla et al, 2010). Jatropha curcas Malaria (Asase et al, 2005); Diabetes (Kofi et al, 2009); WWhite dysentery (Rahmatullah et al, 2009). Leonotis nepetaefolia Wound (Kuvar and Bapat, 2010); Abortifacient and emmenagogue (Elisabetsky and Posey, 1989); Depurative and febrifuge, diarrhoea, jaundice, anthelmintic, abdominal problems, vomit, carminative, menstrual disease (Jain and Srivastava, 2005). Mallotus philippensis Enlarged spleen, anthelmintic (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006); Wound in cattle (Avinash Bharati and Sharma, 2010). Melothria perpusilla Diarrhoea (Dahanukar et al, 2000). Martynia annua Rheumatic swelling, scabies, ringworm (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006); Epilepsy, tuberculosis, sore throat (Senthikumar et al, 2006). Mimosa rubicaulis Boils (Joshi and Joshi, 2007); Piles, vomiting due to weakness (Mahato and Chaudhary, 2005); Piles, burns, vomiting (Jabeen et al, 2009). Pavetta indica Red eye (Sudhakar Reddy et al, 2008); Snakebite (with other plants) (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2005). Peucedanum nagpurense To increase semen (Kumar and Jain, 1998); Promotes sexual desire (Shukla et al, 2008). Polygonum plebeium Heat stress (Kumar et al, 2008), Swelling (Jagtap et al, 2006). Pterocarpus marsupium Diabetes, skin disease, leprosy (Singh et al, 2010); Wounds (with other plants) (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2009); Blood dysentery (Sen and Behera, 2008). Randia dumetorum Dandruff (Reddy, 2008); Cancer, tumour, Gastrointestinal disorders, urinary tract infections, genital disorders, pains, respiratory tract disorders, sex stimulant, impotency, spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, aphrodisiac (Mollik et al, 2010). Ruellia suffruticosa Renal affections, gonorrhoea, syphilis and other venereal diseases (Khare, 2007). Schrebera swietenioides Boils (Pawar and Patil, 2007); Joint and body pains, headache, itching (Patil and Patil, 2007). Scilla indica Felon (wound on nail; with other plants) (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2009); Anthelmentic, cardiac stimulant, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and expectorant, asthma, cough and bronchitis, paralytic attacks, ailments of the heart, calculous affections, rheumatism and skin diseases (Rao and Rangaswami, 1967; Tripathi et al, 2001). Scoparia dulcis Spermatorrhoea (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Respiratory, gastric, hepatic disturbances diabetes, hypertension. (Sankaranarayanan et al, 2010); Gastric ulcer (Rahmatullah et al, 2010b). Solanum xanthocarpum Breast cancer (tumour)(Parinitha et al, 2004); Pox, teeth caries (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006). Spermacoce hispida Stomach worms, lactation in cattle (Ganesan et al, 2006). Syzygium cerasoideum Antirheumatic, hypoglycaemic, rubefacient, dysentery, biliousness, bronchitis, joint pain (Khare, 2007). Terminalia bellerica Cough (Pattanaik et al, 2006); Diarrhoea and dysentery in cattle (Avinash Bharati and Sharma, 2009). Terminalia chebula Asthma (Pattanaik et al, 2006); Diarrhoea and dysentery in cattle (Avinash Bharati and Sharma, 2009); Cough, asthma, black dye (Kumar and Jain, 1998); Wound (Rai and Nath, 2005). Thysanolaena agrostis Mouthwash during fever, also after parturition (Khare, 2007). Tinospora cordifolia Cold (Prusti and Behera, 2007a); Jaundice (Prakasha et al, 2010); Emollient for cracked bone and vitality after child delivery (Chakraborty and Bhattacharjee, 2006). Vitex peduncularis Malaria, black water fever (Khare, 2007); fever (Jaiswal, 2010); Typhoid fever (Lalfakzuala, 2007). Zingiber officinale Breathing problem, coughs (Rahamatullah et al, 2010a); Rabies, pneumonia, stomach ache, chicken pox, dyspepsia (Rahamatullah et al, 2010c); Arthritis, gout (Rahamatullah et al, 2010g) Ziziphus oenoplia Wound (Kuvar and Bapat, 2010); Urological problem (Rai, 2004); Fungal infections of the skin (Rahmatullah et al, 2010b)
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Dey, Abhijit; De, Jitendra Nath|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2010|
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