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A study to assess the blood glucose level among diagnosed cases of tuberculosis registered at a tuberculosis unit of Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries where tuberculosis (TB) is most prevalent. Nearly one-third of world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diabetes and TB may complicate each other at many levels. Systematic review of screening conducted in multiple settings showed that screening of patients with TB for DM also yielded high prevalence of diabetes ranging from 1.9% to 35%.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the blood glucose level among diagnosed cases of TB registered at a District Tuberculosis Center in Bhopal.

Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study carried out in a TB unit (District Tuberculosis Center), Bhopal, on all registered cases of TB above 18 years. All patients who gave their consent during the study period of October 2013 to March 2014 were included

Results: Out of 260 subjects enrolled for this study, complete details and blood glucose values were available for 220 subjects. Of the 220 subjects, 34 (15.4%) were found to have DM and 25 (11.3%) had previous diagnosis of DM; 9 (4.09%) were newly diagnosed. The prevalence of DM among patients with TB was significantly higher among males aged >50 years and with pulmonary TB.

Conclusion: Results of this study re-echo the need to raise awareness of screening for DM in persons with TB. Study finding shows the high prevalence of DM in patients with TB in Bhopal, and that a significant proportion of patients with DM may not be aware of their glucose status. Screening of patients with TB for DM is feasible, effective, and comprehensive approach that could lead to improved care and better patient outcomes.

KEY WORDS: Tuberculosis, diabetes, tuberculosis unit, pre-diabetes

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a specific infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease primarily affects lungs and causes pulmonary TB (PTB). It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and joints, lymph glands, skin, and other tissues of the body. TB remains a global public health problem despite the fact the causative organism was discovered more than 100 year ago and highly effective drugs and vaccine are available making it preventable and curable disease, but the association of other diseases and emergence of extensively drug-resistant and multiple drug-resistant TB pose additional challenge to effective TB control. [1,2]

The incidence of DM is increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries where TB is most prevalent. [3] Nearly one-third of world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis and approximately 10% of them are at risk of developing active form of the disease in their lifetime depending, on the interaction of the epidemiological triad. [4,5] In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed TB worldwide and 1.3 million died from the disease. [6] India has the largest number of TB cases, estimated to be 2 million per annum. According to annual status report 2013 of RNTCP, in 2012, the prevalence of TB was 236 per lakh and incidence rate was 168 per lakh. [7]

In 2011, the International Diabetes Federation estimated that about 366 million people worldwide have diabetes mellitus (DM) and this number is expected to rise to 522 million by 2030. Available reports suggest that 95% of patients with TB live in the low- and middle-income countries and more than 70% of patients with DM also live in the same countries, especially in South East Asia. [8] Recently publish Indian Council of Medical Research national study reported that there are 62.4 million people with type 2 diabetes and 77 million people with prediabetes in India. These numbers are projected to increase to 101 million by the year 2030. [9,10]

Diabetes accounted for 14.8% (range 7.1%-23.8%) of PTB and 20.2% (8.3%-41.9%) of smear-positive (i.e., infectious) TB as per a study conducted in India in 2000. [11] Systematic review of screening conducted in multiple settings showed that screening of patients with TB for DM also had high prevalence of diabetes ranging from 1.9% to 35% [12]. Diabetes and TB may complicate each other at many levels. Among those with active TB, diabetes may adversely affect TB treatment outcomes by delaying the time for microbiological response, thus reducing the likelihood of favorable outcome and increasing the risk of relapse, death, and drug resistance. Screening for diabetes in patients with TB will not only ensure early case detection but also better management of diabetes. [12-14] It could improve DM case detection and early treatment, and indirectly lead to better TB-specific treatment outcomes. [15] This study was conducted with the primary objective to assess the blood glucose level among diagnosed cases of TB along with the sociodemographic factor associated with DM in diagnosed patients registered at District Tuberculosis Center, Bhopal. The ultimate aim of the study was to assess the correct burden of diabetes and prediabetes among patients with TB for better care of both diseases and to lay foundation for further research and more attention toward these comorbidities.

Materials and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study conducted on the registered cases of TB in a tuberculosis unit (District Tuberculosis Center) of Bhopal above the age of 18 years who gave their consent during the period of October 2013 to March 2014. Overall, 250 patients were contacted for study of which 220 patients consented; the response rate was 88%.

All participants were assessed, and information was recorded in a predesigned and pretested proforma composed of three basic sections: the first section consisted of socio-demographic profile including age, sex, weight, height, education, occupation, economic status, dietary habits, housing, physical activity, history of any addiction; the second section consisted of assessment of TB status of patients including type of TB, category, and duration of treatment; and the third section consisted of blood glucose level including both fasting and random blood glucose levels, history of diabetes, and family history of diabetes and treatment history of diabetes.

Diagnosis of TB and diabetes was based on the following criteria:

1. Diagnosis of TB was based on standard diagnostic criteria of RNTCP. [7]

2. Diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes was based on the standard diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association. [16]

Data analysis and statistics

Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed using Epi Info 7. Continuous variable were summarized as frequency, mean and standard error, and categorical variable were analyzed using [chi square]-analysis; p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Ethics approval

Ethical approval was received from the institutional ethical committee of Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal.

Results

Out of 260 subjects enrolled for this study, complete details and blood glucose values were available for 220 subjects of which 118 were men (age, 42.8 [+ or -] 2x2.03 years) and 102 were women (age, 36.2 [+ or -] 2x2.3 years). Out of 220 subjects, 34 (15.4%) were found to have DM. Out of 34 DM patients, 25 (73.5%) had history of previous diagnosis of DM and 9 (26.5%) were newly diagnosed. The prevalence was found to be more in men (11.3%) as compared to women (4.1%). Prediabetes was observed in 18.2% of patients with TB. Table 1 gives the gender-wise distribution of the certain characteristics of the study population.

The profile of the patients screened and the overall prevalence of DM among TB patients, desegregated by age, sex, smoking status, type of TB, and category of treatment are shown in Table 2. Factors associated with higher prevalence of DM among the TB patients are age >50 years, male gander, and PTB. Further analysis showed that prevalence of DM among TB patients aged >50 years was significantly higher than that among patients aged <50 years (p < 0.01). There was also a significantly higher prevalence of DM among patients with PTB as compare to those with extrapulmonary TB (p = 0.01), and among men as compare to women (p = 0.01). And there were no significant differences observed with respect to smoking status, alcohol consumption, and category II patients (defaulter relapse and failure cases).

Discussion

In this study, we found a high prevalence of DM among the patients with TB treated in Bhopal, and it was significantly higher among those with age >50 years, male gender, and those with TB as compared to those with age <50 years, female gender, and with extrapulmonary TB. The prevalence of DM in TB patients was found to be 15.4%, among which 73.5% had previous diagnosis of DM and 26.5% were newly diagnosed; 18.2% patients were diagnosed as prediabetes. Similar results were reported in earlier studies by Singla et al., [17] Raghuraman et al., [18] Khanna et al., [19] and Balakrishnan et al., [20] with 25%, 29%, 14.5%, and 44% prevalence of diabetes among TB patients.

This study found a significantly higher prevalence of DM in older TB patients. Similar finding have been reported by studies from other parts of India (Puducherry and Kerela) and other countries such as Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, and Mexico. [21-24] This study also reported the higher association of DM and PTB, which is also reported in many studies including those by Zhang et al. [14] and Guptan and Shah. [23] This study has reported significant association between male gender and diabetes in TB, which is supported by that reported in the study conducted in south India. [25]

This study shows feasibility and importance of screening of TB patients for diabetes as we implemented screening within the routine system with existing staff. The present study shows that screening for DM in TB patients at health facility level results in a higher proportion of previously undiagnosed DM patients being detected, which shows the importance of early screening of patients with TB. Routine screening of TB patients for DM will help in early detection of DM. This will enable us to manage these patients in the early phase and also detect prediabetes early so that primary prevention methods may be initiated early and effectively. The WHO and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lungs Disease in collaboration with other partners developed Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes, which emphasizes the routine implementation of bidirectional screening of the two diseases. It strongly recommends the surveillance of diabetes among TB in all countries in primary health-care settings. [21] We continue to face a high burden of both TB and DM in our country. We need better information and monitoring system to guide us in managing for this "dual" burden, and we need to strengthen the care of these patients in our health services.

Conclusion

Results of this study re-echo the need to raise awareness of screening for DM in persons with TB. Study finding shows high prevalence of DM in patients with TB in Bhopal, and that a significant proportion of DM patients may not be aware of their status. It can be concluded that screening of TB patients for DM is feasible, effective, and comprehensive approach that could lead to improved care and better patient outcomes.

References

[1.] Park K. Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 20th edn. Jabalpur, India: Banarsidas Bhanot, 2009. p. 159.

[2.] Govt. of India. TB India 2008, RNTCP Status Report. New Delhi: DGHS, Govt. of India, 2008.

[3.] Nijland HMJ, Ruslami R, Stalenhoef JE, Nelwan EJ, Alisjahbana B, Nelwan RHH et al. Exposure to rifampicin is strongly reduced in patients with tuberculosis and type 2 diabetes. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(7):848-54.

[4.] World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Control--Epidemiology, Strategy, Financing. WHO Report 2009. Geneva: WHO, 2009. WHO/HTM/TB/2009.411. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2009/pdf/full_report.pdf (last accessed on May 12, 2014).

[5.] World Health Organization. Tuberculosis: WHO Factsheets 2010. Geneva: WHO, 2010.

[6.] WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report 2013. Geneva: WHO, 1-306; Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/91355/1/9789241564656_eng.pdf?ua=1 (last accessed on May 22, 2014).

[7.] Govt. of India. TB India 2013, RNTCP Status Report. New Delhi: DGHS, Govt. of India, 2013.

[8.] International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas: A Summary of the Figures and Key Findings. [5.sup.th] edn. Belgium: International Diabetes Federation.

[9.] Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, Datta M, Sudha V, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: Phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research--INdiaDIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Diabetologia 2011;54:3022-7.

[10.] Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, Shaw J. IDF Diabetes atlas: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;94:311-21.

[11.] Stevenson CR, Forouhi NG, Roglic G, Williams BG, Lauer JA, Dye C. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence 2007. BMC Public Health 2007;7:234.

[12.] Jeon CY, Murray MB. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: a systematic review of 13 observational studies. PLoS Med 2008;5:e152.

[13.] Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes: Report by WHO and IUATLD. Geneva: WHO. Available at: whqlibdoc.who.int/ publications/2011/9789241502252_eng.pdf (last accessed on September 15, 2013).

[14.] Zhang Q, Xiao H, Sugawara I. Tuberculosis complicated by diabetes mellitus at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital in China. Jpn J Infect Dis 2009;62:390-1.

[15.] Ruslami R, Aarnoutse RE, Alisjahbana B, van der Ven AJ, van Crevel R. Implications of the global increase of diabetes for tuberculosis control and patient care. Trop Med Int Health 2010;15:1289-99.

[16.] American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diab Care 2013;36(1):S67-S74.

[17.] Singla R, Khan N, Al-Sharif N, Al-Sayegh MO, Shaikh MA, Osman MM. Influence of diabetes on manifestations and treatment outcome of pulmonary TB patients. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006;10:74-9.

[18.] Raghuraman S, Vasudevan KP, Govindarajan S, Chinnakali P, Panigrahi KC. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in urban Puducherry. N Am J Med Sci 2014;6 (1):30-4.

[19.] Khanna A, Lohya S, Sharath BN, Harries AD. Characteristics and treatment response in patients with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in New Delhi, India. PHA 2013;3(1):48-50.

[20.] Balakrishnan S, Vijayan S, Nair S, Subramoniapillai J, Mrithyunjayan S, Wilson N, et al. High Diabetes Prevalence among Tuberculosis Cases in Kerala, India. PLoS One 2012; 7(10):e46502.

[21.] Stop TB Department, World Health Organization, International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes. WHO/HTM/TB/2011.15. Geneva: WHO, 2012. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241502252_eng (last accessed on June 17, 2014).

[22.] Chang JT, Dou HY, Yen CL, Wu YH, Huang RM, Lin HJ, et al. Effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on clinical severity and treatment outcome in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: A potential role in the emergence of multi-drug resistance. J Formos Med Assoc 2011;110:372-81.

[23.] Guptan A, Shah A. Tuberculosis and diabetes: an appraisal. Ind J Tub 2000;47(3):2-8.

[24.] Restrepo BI, Camerlin AJ, Rahbar MH, Wang W, Restrepo MA, Zarate I, et al. Cross-sectional assessment reveals high diabetes prevalence among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis cases. 2011;89 (5):352-9.

[25.] S. Nair, Kumari AK, Subramonianpillai J, Shabna DS, Kumar SM, Balakrishnan S, et al. High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among tuberculosis patients in peripheral health facilities in Kerala. PHA 2013;3(s1):s38-s42.

How to cite this article: Nagar V, Gour D, Arutagi V, Dave L, Bhatia P, Joshi A, Pal DK. A study to assess the blood glucose level among diagnosed cases of tuberculosis registered at a tuberculosis unit of Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015;4:245-249

Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Vivek Nagar (1), Devendra Gour (1), Vishwanath Arutagi (1), Lokendra Dave (2), Padma Bhatia (1), Ankur Joshi (1), DK Pal (1)

(1) Department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

(2) Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Correspondence to: Vivek Nagar, E-mail: drviveknagar01@gmail.com

Received October 22, 2014. Accepted October 30, 2014

Access this article online

Website: http://www.ijmsph.com

Table 1: Prevalence of DM among TB patients according to different
variables (DTO Bhopal, India, October-December 2013)

Characteristics            TB patients        TB patients       P-value
                           with DM, N (%)   without DM, N (%)

Total                      34 (15.4)         186 (84.5)
Sex
Male                       25 (73.5)          93 (50.0)           0.01
Female                      9 (26.4)          93 (50.0)
Age group
<50                        20 (58.8)          161 (86.5)         <0.01
>50                        14 (41.2)           25 (13.4)
Disease classification
Pulmonary                  30 (88.2)          127 (68.2)          0.01
Extrapulmonary              4 (11.8)           59 (31.8)
Treatment category of TB
I                          25 (73.5)          153 (82.2)          0.23
II                         09 (26.5)           33 (17.8)
Smoking status
Yes                        15 (44.1)           66 (35.4)          0.33
No                         19 (55.9)          120 (64.5)
Alcohol consumption
Yes                         8 (23.5)           34 (18.2)          0.47
No                         26 (76.5)          152 (81.8)

TB, tuberculosis; DM, diabetes mellitus.

Table 2: Gender-wise distribution of the certain characteristics
of the study population

Variable                       Category           Males, N = 118

Age (years)                      <30                 37 (31.3)
                                31-50                57 (48.3)
                                51-70                23 (19.4)
                                 >70                  1 (0.8)
Status of blood glucose       No diabetes            70 (59.3)
                              Prediabetes            25 (21.1)
                               Diabetes              23 (19.4)
Treatment
category                           I                 93 (78.8)
                                  II                 25 (21.1)
Type of tuberculosis           Pulmonary             90 (76.2)
                             Extrapulmonary          28 (23.7)
Education status               No school             12 (10.1)
                         Primary/High/Higher Sec     87 (73.7)
                         Graduate/Postgraduate       18 (15.2)
                         Professional degree          1 (0.8)
Occupation                    Unemployed             51 (43.2)
                               Unskilled             26 (22.0)
                                Skilled              29 (24.5)
                                 Others              12 (10.1)

Variable                  Females, N = 102        Total, N = 220

Age (years)                   51 (50.0)              88 (40 0)
                              36 (35.2)              93 (42.2)
                              12 (8.9)               35 (15.9)
                               3 (2.9)                4 (1.8)
Status of blood glucose       76 (74.5)             146 (66.3)
Prediabetes                   15 (14.7)              40 (18.1)
Diabetes                      11 (10.7)              34 (15.4)
Treatment category            85 (83.3)             178 (80.9)
                              17 (16.6)              42 (19.09)
Type of tuberculosis          67 (65.6)             157 (71.3)
                              35 (34.3)              63 (28.6)
Education status              13 (12.7)              25 (11.3)
                              85 (83.3)             172 (78.1)
                               4 (3.9)               22 (10.0)
                               0 (0.0)                1 (0.4)
Occupation                    66 (64.7)             117 (53.1)
                              21 (20.5)              47 (21.3)
                              12 (11.7)              41 (18.6)
                               3 (2.9)               15 (6.8)
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Nagar, Vivek; Gour, Devendra; Arutagi, Vishwanath; Dave, Lokendra; Bhatia, Padma; Joshi, Ankur; Pal,
Publication:International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Feb 1, 2015
Words:3109
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