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A study on athletes' heart rate changing while performing a 21 days training course at an altitude of 2000m.

Introduction

Cardiovascular adaptation to hypoxia Dragan (1977) mentions the most important modifications of the cardiovascular apparatus:

--increased cardiac output;

--increased circulating blood volume;

--increased percentage of haemoglobin and red blood cells;

--increased heart rate (tachycardia) and respiratory rate;

--slow recovery from effort;

--with altitude, the highest heart rate reached is unchanged. In these conditions this is noticed at a slower work rhythm than at sea level. The volume of blood pumped at every heartbeat (stroke volume) is decreased. Even in the case of an optimal adaptation to altitude, the maximal capacity never equals the constant capacity at sea level. This contributes to explaining the phenomenon of maximum VO2 reduced with altitude, compared to sea level. (Martin 1996);

--The blood plasma volume immediately decreases right after the arrival at altutide and it is only recovered after an adaptation period (3-4 weeks);

--if both plasma volume and red cell volume are increased, the total blood volume will therefore increase equally. If the red cell volume increases more than the plasma volume, both haemoglobin and hematocrit will have higher values than at sea level. In both cases, blood transport capacity evolves.

a) Heart rate

Heart rate (HR; bpm) is undoubtedly the physiological parameter whose changes are easiest to observe with altitude. In the first day, after settling in at altitude, at rest and during undermaximal effort HR will be increased compared to sea level. This is called "tachycardia". (Grover et al., 1976; Klausen, 1966; Vogel et al., 1967; Vogel et al., 1974; Welch, 1987). This increase of HR aims to compensate although partially--for the decrease in O2 blood pressure (called arterial hypoxemia) and is proportional to the intensity of the hypovolemic stress (Vogel et al.,1967). This increase of HR with altitude is influenced by a strong stimulation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (Richalet et al., 1992; Richalet et al., 1988). After the acclimatization, the sensitivity of the myocardium decreases, therefore the initial tachycardia also decreases. Thus, although completely acclimatized, an athlete will have a higher HR than at sea level, whether resting or making under maximal effort. (Wolfel et al., 1994).

The other way around, in the case of a maximal exercise, HR will decrease in conditions of hypoxia (Bouissou et al., 1986; Stenberg et al., 1966). This decrease in HR is determined by low density (Favret et al., 2001; Lundby et al., 2001; Richalet et al., 1992) and reduced activity (Kacimi et al., 1992), of betaadrenergic receptors ; but also by the activity of the alpha-adrenergic receptors (Favret et al., 2001; Lundby et al., 2001) with no major modification of the sympathetic system (Richalet et al., 1992; Richalet et al., 1988a). An intensification of the activity of the muscarinic receptors (M2) involved in the regularization of the bradycardic stimuli, was stated as a subjacent mechanism of HR decrease during acclimatization in a hypoxic environment (Favret et al., 2001; Kacimi et al., 1993).

b) End-systolic volume

End-systolic volume (ESV; ml.b-1) is the blood quantity ejected by HR in systemic circulation (through the aorta) at each systole. ESV depends on several elements, like blood volume (plasma volume + red cell volume), back flow of blood, intensity and contractility of SV, pre- and post- loading. Right after the arrival at altitude, the values of ESV in rest or undermaximal or maximal exercise, are either easily decreased or identical to the ones at sea level (Hartley et al., 1973; Wagner et al., 1976; Wolfel et al., 1994). Only after several days at altitude, will the ESV value start to decrease significantly (Grover. et al., 1976; Klausen et al., 1966; Vogel et al., 1967), and this progressive decrease may last quite a long time (Vogel et al., 1967; Wolfel et al., 1994).

The Frank--Starling Law shows that the increase in the ventricular filling streches the ventricle walls, which contract even stronger to eject blood volume; there is a positive inotropic and lusitropic effect when the end-diastolic pressure volume increases. Thus, the other way around, the noticed decrease of ESV is explained by a decrease of the back flow of blood, induced, itself, through hemoconcentration and decrease in blood volume (Grover et al., 1986; Sawka et al., 2000). As a whole, the basic cause of ESV decrease is initial diminish of ventricular filling dependent on tachycardia (which diminishes the duration of the diastole) and diminish of blood volume (Reeves et al., 1987).

c) Cardiac output

Cardiac output (Q, L.min-1) is the product of HR and ESV and represents the blood volume that is ejected in the aorta per minute. As we mentioned above, altitude brings modifications in HR and ESV and, therefore, it logically also brings Q modifications. During the first days at altitude, maximum Q (Q max) is very easily modified (Ekblom et al., 1975; Klausen, 1966; Lundby & Van Hall, 2001; Stenberg, 1966; Vogel et al., 1986).

The combination between the various reactions to altitude (e.g. Increased of under maximal HR and slight decrease of ESV) explain why Q is slightlydiminished or slightly modified in the days following the arrival at altitude. It is currently admitted that this answer of an identical or easily diminished Q max. depends on a sympathetic stimulation in the conditions of an acute exposure to hypoxia (Wagner 2000; Wagner et al., 1986). Thus, after acclimatization Q max. is visibly diminished, compared to the values at sea level (Alexander et al., 1967; Sutton et al., 1988). Basically, this is explained by a significant decrease in VES (Vogel 1967; Wolfel et al., 1994). Figure 6 indicates modifications suffered by Q with an acute or chronic exposure in conditions of altitude (Wagner et al., 1986).

More hypotheses were put forward regarding mechanisms adjacent to this decrease of Q max. in conditions of altitude (Wagner, 2000).

Decreased plasma volume

Exposure to altitude leads to a decrease in plasma volume as a consequence of osmolarity modifications and fluid movements towards the outer side of the vascular compartment. Moreover, there is loss caused by increased urinary output (diuretic crisis), greater loss of vapour produced by hyperventilation and heavier sweat in conditions of altitude. (Butterfield et al., 1992; Dempsey et al., 1994; Hogan et al., 1973; Maher et al., 1975). This decrease in plasma volume leads to a diminished preload and therefore a weaker filling of the cardiac cavities, which leads to this decrease of Qmax. (Poulsen et al., 1998; Robach et al., 2000).

The importance of the filling pressure of the myocardium upon Q is debatable. For technical reasons (the need to catheterize the right cardiac segment), only little information is available (Boussuges et al., 2000; Reeves et al., 1987).

Basically, when the plasma volume is increased, this means a very slight increase in Q max. Thus, as previously mentioned, when the plasma volume is increased, which means a decrease in blood viscosity, a slight increase in Q max is noticed. (Grover, 1965; Hartley, 1971; Wolfel et al., 1994), suggesting that variations of blood viscosity and peripheral resistance only have a minor influence on the decrease of Q max, in conditions of altitude.

Hypotheses: Including a 21 day altitude preparatory stage to release physiological and biochemical effects in the organisms of athletes, sustaining effort capacity. HR values are modified during the 21 days at altitude, which is one of the physiological parameters with beneficial potential.

Materials and methods: We mention that the research protocol was done according to the Declaration of Helsinki, Treaty of Amsterdam and Directive 86/609 EEC and approved by the Ethics Commission of the Physical Education and Sports Department of the Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, regarding research upon human subjects. Research procedures have been entirely explained to the participants at the study and their written agreements have been obtained before the beginning of the research.

Period and research location: Studies took place between 01.08.2014 and 22.08.2014 in the Piatra Arsa National Sports Complex from the Bucegi Mountains and the Stadium of the Blaj School Sports Cluj--Blaj, 2 Parc Avram Iancu.

The subjects: 10 endurance athletes specialized in mountain running. For 21 days, the athletes have done the same preparatory stage, had the same food regime and the same effort-sustaining treatment.

The group of 10 athletes did a preparatory stage in Piatra Arsa at an altitude of 2000 m above the sea level.

Tests applied: Heart rate was measured during the 21 days spent at an altitude of 2000 m, twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, with the help of the pulsoxymeter.

Results

Values of the heart rate were registered twice a day, at the same hour: 8 o'clock in the morning and 10 o 'clock in the evening, with the help of the pulsoxymeter, for 21 days.

1. MORNING HEART RATE

Experiment group

The Friedman non-parametric test (Table no. 3) for repeated measuring shows that there are statistically significant differences between the values of the HR, measured for the three intervals for at least one pair out of the 3, p<<0.0001. According to this post hoc Wilcoxon, with the correction of Bonferroni (Table no. 4), ([alpha] = 0.05/3=0.17), the value p=0.005=< 0.017 for all the three interval pairs. This means that the heart rate measured in the morning is significantly different from any other compared intervals. Figure no. 2 illustrates the heart rates averages.

MORNING HEART RATE

Control group

The heart rate decreased with an average of 5.50 b/ min (-8.9%), from 61.50 b/ min before the preparatory stage to 56.00 b/ min after the stage. The morning heart rate varies between 59 and 69 b/ min before the preparatory stage and between 54 and 60 b/ min at the end of the stage. At both tests, the dispersion of data around the average is homogeneous. (Table no. 5, 6).

According to the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, (Table no. 7) the difference attained a level of statistic significance, z = -2.831, p = 0.005 < 0.05. The effect magnitude (0.63) shows a great difference between the two tests. The null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis of the research is accepted, according to which the average decrease of heart rate is significant. The graphical representation of the two test of the control group is presented in graphic no. 1.

Experiment vs control

After preparatory stage

In the morning, the heart rate is lower, with an average of 5.10 b/min (-9.1%) at the control group, and averages of 50.90 b/min at the experiment group and 56.00 b/min at the control. In the morning, the heart rate varies between 54 and 60 b/min at the control group and between 47 and 53 b/min at the experiment group. For both tests, the dispersion of data around the average is homogeneous. (Table no.8)

According to the Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test (Table no. 9) between the two groups, at the end of the preparatory stage, significant statistic differences could be noticed, z = -3.830, p<0.001<0.05. The effect magnitude (0.86) shows a great difference between the two groups. The null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is accepted, according to which the morning heart rate is significantly different for the two groups. The graphical representation of the results corresponding to the two groups are presented in figure no. 3

Evening heart rate

Experiment group

The heart rates measured in the three intervals were compared with the Friedman nonparametric test for repeated measures, which shows that there are significant statistical differences for at least one pair of the 3, p=0.0002. According to the post hoc Wilcoxon test, with the Bonferroni correction, ([alpha] = 0.05/3=0.17), the p value is p<0.017 for any of the three intervals. Therefore, the heart rate measured in the morning differs significantly for any pair compared (Table no. 10,11)

Heart rates measured for the three intervals were compared to the Friedman non-parametric test for repeated measures which shows that there are significant differences for at least one of the three pairs, p=0.0002. According to the post hoc Wilcoxon test, with the Bonferroni correction (Table no. 13), ([alpha]= 0.05/3=0.17), value p is p<0.017 for any of the three intervals. Therefore, the heart rate measured in the morning is significantly different for any compared pair. Figure no. 4 presents the averages of the heart rates for the three intervals.

Evening heart rate--control group

A decrease in heart rate is noticed, by an average of 4 b/ min (-5.8%), from 69.30 b/ min before the preparatory stage to 65.30 b/ min after the programme. The evening heart rate varies between 65 and 80 b/ min before the preparatory stage and between 61 and 68 b/ min at the end of the programme. Both tests showed that the dispersion of data around the average is homogeneous (Table no.14,15)

The difference attained a statistically significant level, z = -2.371, p = 0.018 < 0.05, according to the non-parametric Wilcoxon test (Table no. 16).

The effect magnitude (0.53) shows a great difference between the two tests. The null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is accepted, according to which the average decrease in heart rate is significant. The graphical representation corresponding to the two tests on the control group is presented in graphic no.2

In the end of the preparatory stage, the results of the two groups compared with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test (Table no. 18) showed that between the two groups there are statistically significant differences, z = -3.361, p = 0.001 < 0.05. The effect magnitude (0.75) shows a great difference between the two groups. A null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is accepted, which states that evening heart rate is significantly different for the two groups. The graphical representation of the results corresponding to the two groups is presented in figure no.5

Discussions

It has been suggested that after settling in at altitude, because of the decrease in the available O2, it is possible that the myocardium selflimit its contractile function (Alexander et al., 1967; Noakes, 2000). Thus, this theory has no experimental support yet. Moreover, subjects acclimatized to very high altitudes (Operation Everest Operatiunea Evrest) did not present any EMG sign of a possible ischemia or reduction of myocardium contractility (Boussuges et al., 2000; Reeves et al., 1987; Suarez et al., 1987). According to Noakes' team, during the maximal exercise in acute or chronic hypoxia, for protecting the myocardium from ischemia, the diminish of Q would basically be a consequence of the diminish of the muscular mass mobilized during the exercise, under the influence of a central neuronal control (central governor) (Noakes, 1998, 2000; Noakes et al., 2001). Otherwise, muscular mobilization would be diminished in hypoxia, joining a decrease in Q max for maintaining the oxygenation of the myocardium.

Alteration of the sympatho-vagal balance

It is well known that hypoxia stimulates autonomous nervous system (ANS), the secretion of adrenaline and non-adrenaline, which changes the peripheral muscular tonus and the cardiac function. The desensitization of the beta-adrenergic cardiac receptors (Kacimi et al., 1993) contributes to the diminish of max. HR with altitude.

Experiments on the modification of autonomous regulation show that max. HR increases with the atropine or Glycopyrrolate injection (parasympathetic tone diminishing substances), only in conditions of altitude and not at sea level (Hartley et alii, 1974). It is notable that no direct influence has been signaled upon Q.

For knowing if the decrease of HR is responsible for the decrease of Qmax. Or if it is compensated by an increase in ESV, Bogaart et alii (2002) showed, using specific blockers for the sympathetic tone (propranolol) or parasympathetic (Glycopyrrolate), that the autonomous nervous system has no significant effect upon Qmax with altitude, although changes in HR have been noticed.

Conclusions

Modifications of the cardiac physiology are noticed through monitoring of the heart activity, morning and evening pulse measurement and the following are found: In the first 5 days the average of the heart rate is 65,02 beats/min, decreasing by the end of the programme to an average of 52,22 beats/min due to acclimatization.

Heart rate is lower in the morning, with an average of 5.10 b/min (-9.1%) at the experiment group, averages equal 50.90 b/min at the experiment group, and 56.00 b/min at the control group. Heart rates vary in the morning between 54 and 60 b/min at the control group and between 47 and 53 b/min at the experiment group. At both tests, data dispersion around the average is homogeneous.

The experiment group has a generally lower evening heart rate than the control group--4 b/min (6.1%), averaged equal 61.30 b/min at the experiment group and 65.30 b/min at control. Evening heart rate varies between 61 and 68 b/min at the control group and between 54 and 64 b/min at the experiment group. At both tests, data dispersion around the average is homogeneous. In conclusion, influences of ANS activity modification upon HR does not contribute to the decrease of Q max. with altitude.

Following our theoretical and experimental research, we recommend:

1. Using altitude training as a means of improving aerobic performance capacity;

2. For a good planning and development of altitude trainings, we propose the following control parameters

Aknowledgements

We thanks to all our participants and subjects in this study.

References

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Hargreaves M, Spriet L, 2006, Exercise metabolism, Human Kinetics, Champaign, U.S.A.

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www.ats-altitude.com

www.altitudecentre.com

www.altimaxtraining.com

www.b-cat.nl

MAN Maria Cristina (1), GANERA Catalin (2)

(1) "1 Decembrie 1918" University of Alba Iulia,

(2) "Nicolae Rotaru" Sports Program High School of Constanta

Email: cristinaman20@hotmail.com

Received 09.05.2016 / Accepted 24.08.2016 the abstract was published in the 16th I.S.C. "Perspectives in Physical Education and Sport"-Ovidius University of Constanta, May 20-21, 2016, Romania

Caption: Figure no. 1 (a)--Cardiac output Q during exercise (oxygen consumption), at sea level and in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber of 430 mm Hg corresponding to an altitude of 4572 m during acute exposure applied on 8 subjects (Wagner et al., 1986)

Caption: Figure nr.1 (b)--Cardiac output Q during exercise (oxygen consumption), at sea level and in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber of 430 mm Hg corresponding to an altitude of 6100 m during acute exposure applied on 8 subjects (Wagner et al., 1986)

Caption: Figure no. 3--The graphical representation of the results corresponding to the two groups--morning HR

Caption: Figure no. 5--Graphical representation of the results corresponding to the two groups--HR in the evening.
Table no. 1--HR values in the morning at subjects from experiment
group during altitude preparatory stage

Days  D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.
Name  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12

B.N   69   69   69   69   69   68   67   64   64   62   62   62
B.G.  64   64   63   59   51   55   54   52   50   53   51   54
C.D.  58   56   55   56   56   54   52   52   54   51   51   52
G.N.  65   65   64   62   61   56   55   56   55   55   54   55
M.V.  62   61   61   61   59   57   55   54   54   53   53   53
P.A.  70   70   69   69   69   68   67   65   64   61   64   64
P.R.  66   66   67   66   65   65   65   65   62   61   61   63
Z.I.  70   71   69   69   68   66   62   61   62   60   59   56
G.S.  71   71   70   69   69   69   68   65   64   65   64   64
T.D.  69   67   66   66   61   60   59   58   55   55   55   55

Days  D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.
Name  13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20    21

B.N   63    59    55    56    54    54    54    53    53
B.G.  55    56    54    54    54    49    47    47    47
C.D.  53    52    52    52    51    51    51    50    50
G.N.  56    55    54    54    54    53    54    54    53
M.V.  53    53    52    52    51    49    47    47    47
P.A.  63    59    55    56    56    55    54    54    53
P.R.  59    59    55    56    56    54    53    53    51
Z.I.  56    55    56    54    54    53    53    52    51
G.S.  63    59    57    56    55    55    54    52    51
T.D.  56    55    55    54    54    53    54    54    53

Table no. 2--Statistic analysis of HR in the morning days 1-5, 6-16,
17-21 experiment group

Heart rate       Average   Median    Deviation      Minimum   Maximum
during:                             from standard

day 1--day 5      65.02    65.90        4.74         56.20     70.00
day 6--day 16     57.77    57.45        4.16         52.27     63.09
day 17--day 21    52.22    53.40        2.21         48.20     54.40

Heart rate       Amplitude   Variatioan
during:                      coefficient

day 1--day 5       13.80        7.29%
day 6--day 16      10.82        7.20%
day 17--day 21     6.20         4.23%

Table no3--Analysis Friedman Test morning HR experiment group

Heart rate during:   Medium ranks   Test parameters   Results

A) day 1--day 5              3.00    N                      10
B) day 6--day 16             2.00    Chi-square          20.00
C) day 17--day 21            1.00    Df                      2
                                     p (Sig.)         <<0.0001

Table no. 4--Analysis Post Hoc Wilcoxon Test, morning HR experiment
group

Test parameters   A vs B   A vs C   B vs C

Z                 -2.803   -2.805   -2.803
p                 0.005    0.005    0.005

Table no. 5--Hr values in the morning, for subjects from control group
during

Days  D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.
Name  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12

B.A.  59   59   59   59   59   59   59   59   61   65   64   59
D.S.  62   62   63   63   63   63   60   60   59   57   57   56
D.R.  59   59   59   59   58   58   58   58   58   57   57   56
R.A.  59   59   55   56   55   55   56   56   61   65   64   56
S.M.  61   62   61   62   61   60   59   56   56   57   56   54
S.R.  65   63   65   62   62   61   60   60   61   61   61   61
V.A.  69   70   68   68   67   68   67   66   66   65   65   65
B.M.  59   59   59   59   59   59   59   59   61   65   64   59
S.I.  62   63   61   62   60   60   59   59   58   58   58   58
L.D.  60   60   60   59   59   59   59   59   61   60   60   59

Days  D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.
Name  13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20    21

B.A.  59    59    58    58    56    56    55    55    55
D.S.  56    56    56    56    55    55    55    55    55
D.R.  56    56    56    56    56    55    55    55    55
R.A.  56    57    57    56    56    55    55    55    55
S.M.  55    56    54    54    54    54    54    54    54
S.R.  60    59    58    58    58    58    58    58    58
V.A.  66    66    65    63    63    61    60    60    60
B.M.  59    59    58    58    56    56    54    55    56
S.I.  57    56    56    56    56    55    55    55    55
L.D.  59    59    59    58    58    58    57    57    57

Table no. 6--Statistic analysis of HR in the morning before and after
preparatory stage

PREPARATORY   Average    Average     Median    Deviation      Minimum
STAGE                   difference            from standard

Before         61.50      -5.50      60.50        3.27         59.00
After          56.00      -8.9%      55.00        1.83         54.00

PREPARATORY   Maximum   Amplitude   Variation
STAGE                               coefficient

Before         69.00      10.00        5.3%
After          60.00      6.00         3.3%

Table no. 7--Analysis Wilcoxon test morning HR, Control group

Ranks        N    Average   Sum of   Test parameters   Result
difference         ranks    ranks
tests

Negative     10    5.50     55.00    Z                  -2.831
Pozitive     0     0.00      0.00    P (2-tailed)       0.005
Equals       0     0.00      0.00    Effect magnitude   0.63

Table no. 8--Statistic comparative analysis experiment vs control
groups-morning HR

Group        Average    Average     Median    Deviation      Minimum
                       difference            from standard

Control       56.00      -5.10        55         1.83          54
Experiment    50.90      -9.11%       51         2.33          47

Group        Maximum   Amplitude   Variation
                                   coefficient

Control        60          6          3.3%
Experiment     53          6          4.6%

Table no. 9--Comparative analysis Mann-Whitney U test-morning HR

MORNING    GROUP       N     Average      Sum           Test
HEART                         ranks     of ranks      parameters
RATE
         Control       20     15.50      155.00    Mann-Whitney U
         Experiment    20      5.50      55.00     Z
         Total         40                          P (2-tailed)
                                                   Effect magnitude

MORNING    GROUP       Result
HEART
RATE
         Control        0.00
         Experiment    -3.830
         Total        <<0.001
                        0.86

Table no. 10--HR values in the evening, for subjects in the experiment
group, during altitude preparatory stage

Days  D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.
Name  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12

B.N   85   70   79   78   71   69   71   74   70   70   71   71
B.G.  74   74   70   66   69   69   65   68   66   70   70   67
C.D.  93   65   70   66   69   69   65   68   66   70   70   67
G.N.  65   65   65   66   66   61   61   61   62   57   54   57
M.V.  74   65   70   66   69   69   65   68   66   70   70   67
P.A.  95   70   80   68   71   69   75   74   82   70   71   71
P.R.  95   80   80   78   75   75   75   74   72   75   73   71
Z.I.  72   74   70   68   67   66   67   61   62   59   58   57
G.S.  91   88   81   68   76   75   75   74   73   70   71   71
T.D.  71   70   69   68   66   56   57   61   62   57   54   57

Days  D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.
Name  13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20    21

B.N   70    71    69    69    67    61    65    64    64
B.G.  70    68    70    70    61    68    69    67    64
C.D.  70    68    70    70    61    67    67    67    64
G.N.  60    58    57    58    58    61    62    61    61
M.V.  70    68    70    70    67    67    67    65    64
P.A.  70    71    69    69    67    58    65    67    64
P.R.  72    71    69    69    67    58    65    65    64
Z.I.  58    58    57    59    57    57    57    56    56
G.S.  70    71    69    69    67    58    56    56    54
T.D.  60    58    57    61    61    61    60    58    58

Table no. 11--Statistic analysis of evening HR, days 1-5, 6-16,
17-21 experiment

Heat rate       Average   Median       Dev         Minimum   Maximum
during:                            from standard

day 1-day 5      73.22    71.60        5.46         65.40     81.60
day 6-day 16     66.88    68.45        5.63         58.18     72.36
day 17-day 21    62.42    64.00        3.39         56.60     66.00

Heat rate       Amplitude    Variety
during:                     Coefficient

day 1-day 5       16.20        7.46%
day 6-day 16      14.18        8.42%
day 17-day 21     9.40         5.42%

Table no. 12--Friedman test analysis evening HR, experiment group

Heat rate during:   Average ranks   Test parameters   Rezult

A) day 1--day 5             3.00    N                 10
B) day 6--day 16            1.80    Chi-square        16.80
C) day 17--day 21           1.20    df                2
                                    p (Sig.)          0.0002

Table no. 13--Post Hoc Wilcoxon test analysis-evening HR, experiment
group

Test parameters  A vs B   A vs C   B vs C

Z                -2.803   -2.805   -2.497
p                0.005    0.005    0.013

Table no. 14--HR values in the evening, for subjects in the control
group, during preparatory stage

Days  D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.   D.
Name  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12

B.A.  65   65   65   66   66   68   68   65   65   67   64   67
D.S.  71   71   70   70   69   70   68   68   66   69   69   68
D.R.  74   65   70   68   69   69   67   68   66   70   70   69
R.A.  65   65   55   56   58   58   61   62   57   54   57   60
S.M.  69   67   69   69   69   69   68   68   66   69   67   68
S.R.  69   69   70   69   69   69   68   68   67   69   67   68
V.A.  80   79   80   79   72   70   75   74   74   70   71   71
B.M.  65   65   65   66   66   68   68   62   63   67   64   67
S.I.  70   68   70   69   69   69   65   68   66   70   70   68
L.D.  65   65   65   66   66   68   68   68   62   63   67   64

Days  D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.    D.
Name  13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20    21

B.A.  65    67    65    66    66    68    64    65    65
D.S.  70    68    70    70    69    68    68    67    66
D.R.  70    68    70    70    69    68    69    67    66
R.A.  68    57    61    63    62    65    62    61    61
S.M.  68    68    70    70    69    68    69    68    65
S.R.  68    68    70    70    69    68    69    67    68
V.A.  70    71    70    70    69    69    65    67    65
B.M.  65    67    62    66    66    68    64    65    65
S.I.  70    68    70    70    69    68    69    67    67
L.D.  67    65    67    62    66    66    64    65    65

Table no. 15--Statistic analysis of HR in the evening, before and
after the training programe-control group

PREPARATORY STAGE   Average    Average     Median    Deviation
                              difference            from standard

Before               69.30      -4.00      69.00        4.88
After                65.30      -5.8%      65.00        1.83

PREPARATORY STAGE   Minimum   Maximum   Amplitude   Variation
                                                    coefficient

Before               65.00     80.00      15.00        7.0%
After                61.00     68.00      7.00         2.8%

Table no. 16--Wilcoxon test analysis evening, control group

Ranks        N   Average    Sum of       Parametri       Rezultat
difference        ranks      ranks          test
tests

Negative     7     4.00      28.00    Z                   -2.371
Pozitive     0     0.00      0.00     P (2-tailed)         0.018
Equals       3     0.00      0.00     Effect magnitude     0.53

Table no. 17--Statistic comparative analysis-experiment vs control
groups HR evening

Group        Average    Average     Median    Deviation      Minimum
                       difference            from standard

Control       65.30      -4.00      65.00        1.83         61.00
Experiment    61.30      -6.13%     64.00        3.89         54.00

Group        Maximum   Amplitude   Variation
                                   coefficient

Control       68.00      7.00         2.8%
Experiment    64.00      10.00        6.3%

Table no. 18--Comparative analysis Mann-Whitney U test-HR evening

EVENING     GROUP      N    Average    Suma        Parametri
HEART                        ranks    ranguri         test
RATE
          Control      20   14.85     148.50    Mann-Whitney U
          Experiment   20   6.15      61.50     Z
          Total        40                       P (2-tailed)
                                                Effect magnitude

EVENING     GROUP      Rezultat
HEART
RATE
          Control      6.50
          Experiment   -3.361
          Total        0.001
                       0.75

Table no. 19--Control parameters of training with hypoxia

Physiological                  Sanguine        Performance
parameters                    parametera        associated
                                                parameters

Before the   --HR in rest   --Numerous        --Test for
programme    --Body mass    sanguine values   determining
             --Oxygen       (haemoglobine,    VMA and VO2 max
             saturation      hematocrit,
                            lymphocytes,
                            leukocytes etc)
                            EPO

During the   --HR in rest                     --Test for
programme    --Oxygen                         determining
             saturation                       VMA and VO2 max
             --Cardiac
             variability

After the    --Body mass    --Numerous        --Test for
programme    --HR in rest   sanguine values   determining
             --Oxygen       (haemoglobine,    VMA and VO2 max
             saturation     hematocrit,
             --Cardiac      lymphocytes,
             variability    leukocytes etc)
                            EPO

Figure no. 2--HR values in the morning, for the three test stages,
experiment group

day 1-5     65,02

day 6-16    57,77

day 17-21   52,22

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Graphic no. 1--HR values in the morning, before and after preparatory
stage, control group

     Inainte de stagiu   Dupa stagiu

1    59                    55
2    62                    55
3    59                    55
4    59                    55
5    61                    54
6    65                    58
7    69                    60
8    59                    56
9    61                    55
10   60                    57

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure no. 4--HR values in the evening, for the three testing stages,
experiment group

Average values

day 1-5     73,22

day 6-16    66,88

day 17-21   62,42

Note: Table made from bar graph

Graphic no. 2--HR values in the evening,
before and after the preparatory satage--control group

   Inainte de stagio   Dupa stagiu

1    65                 65
2    71                 66
3    74                 66
4    65                 61
5    69                 65
6    69                 68
7    80                 68
8    65                 65
9    70                 67
10   65                 65

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original article
Author:Man, Maria Cristina; Ganera, Catalin
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 15, 2016
Words:5682
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