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A study of the relationships between the components of sensation seeking and defense styles with aggressiveness of the high school students of Miyandoab.

INTRODUCTION

There are different forms of sensation: sensation out of anger, out of joy, out of fear.... The degree of sensation is nevertheless different in different people. In other words, people have different degrees of sensation seeking, whereby in certain people there is a significantly higher level of sensation seeking than certain other people. With the growth of science, it was understood that sensation seeking has various components of its own, whereas in the present research there has been used the components of sensation seeking from the viewpoint of Zuckerman, which is immensely approved by many other researchers and, too, these components are the main and most important divisions of sensation seeking components. On the one hand, people have manifold conflicts and frustrations before themselves and in reaching their goals and visions, they must deal with them. On the other hand, these frustrations over whelm their abilities and functions. The most important effect of these factors, however, is the prints they leave on one's self image of him/her. Such negative imaginations lead to destruction of one's "ego". The type of defense style is very much effective on the person's interactions with the society. Immature defense styles thus have immature and imbalanced results, and, mature defense styles have mature and balanced results. Therefore, aggressiveness, as one important part of sensation seeking, has a direct and close relationship with sensation seeking components and, too, the type of defense style. The present study is to answer the following question: "what kind of a relationship is there between the components of sensation seeking/defense style and aggressiveness?'. Because the causes of many crimes, delinquencies, and abnormalities, incompatibilities, illegality, and addiction, risky behaviors ... are correlated with the above variances. Finding an answer to the above question would be very helpful in preventing and decreasing these factors.

Hence, the aims of the present paper are as follows:

--Study of how the components of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, boredom susceptibility and) and defence styles(mature, immature and neurotic) relate to aggression.

--Study of the relationship between the components of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and aggression.

--Study of the relationship between defence styles(mature, immature and neurotic) and aggression. Zuckerman[9] so defines sensation seeking: "a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex , and

intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experience''. He specifies for factors or components for the general trait of sensation seeking: 1) adventure seeking: tendency towards physical activities, like scuba-diving, 2)experience seeking: searching for new experiences through trips, music, lifestyles , 3)escape from inhibition: seeking escape from un-inhibited social activities with tendency towards alcohol or without alcohol, 4) boredom susceptibility: a avoidance from repetitive experiences usual works or predictable people, or being in such situations, they show their lack of satisfaction [4].

The defense mechanisms, which Freud had defined as unconscious strategies of the self in order to control the instincts and the impulses, are of great importance in conceptualizing the psychological disorders and their treatments in psychotherapy [7]. In mental analysis system, any psychological disorder is associated with certain non-adaptive defense mechanisms and defenses play an important role in mental sanity of the people. Based on this approach, people facing tension would use certain defense styles; whereby these styles based on the degree of maturity are put into three categories: immature, neurotic, mature.

Each of these styles owns its own specific defense styles and there has been given that in people with mental disorders, the immature and non-adaptive styles are dominant, and in non-clinical population, the defense style is almost more advanced [7]. Sometimes, there are some paradoxical results in this area, nevertheless.

Relying on these definitions, it can be understood that aggression is an act that consists of physical and mental torture; it has a deliberate aspect; it is not a random notion; and, above all, it is an act itself. Berkowitz, a contemporary prominent social psychologist, too, defining aggressions an intentional harm to another person, adds that this harm can be psychological or physical. The present study, therefore, is to find answers for the following inquiries:

* Do elements of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, and boredom susceptibility) and defence styles(mature, immature, neurotic) have any relations to aggression?

* Are the any relations between elements of sensation seeking (adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, boredom susceptibility) and aggression?

* Are the define styles (mature, immature and neurotic) related to aggression?

Theoretical background:

There have been manifold definitions over the concept of sensation. The following tables give a summary of the most popular theories related to the research discussion.

Methodology:

The present research is a descriptive and correlational study. The sample included all male high school students of Miandoab Township, and the number is 1420 that are students in the academic year of 2013-2014. The sample consisted of 250 male high school students in Miandoab Township that the sample according to the size of each school is: N=250

Gholamreza Forougi High School N = 130 Ahmad Khomeini High School N = 120

Cluster sampling has been used. In other words, firstly, two high schools, Shahid Gholamreza Foroughi and Seyed Ahmad Khomeni, were simple random sampled from among the high schools of Miandoab. It was determined that Foroughi High School has 180 students and Ahmad Khomeini high school has 160 students.

According to Morgan Table and considering the number of variables, there were chosen 130 students from Foroughi school and 120 from Ahmad Khomeni school. After choosing the samples, the researcher beside attracting their attention and gaining their satisfaction and, too, ensuring their information would not be let out, the over the significance of the study, the Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40; Andrews et al) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ) were all spread among them including a manual on how to answer the questions. Data collection was done by Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40; Andrews et al) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ).

To analyze the data, there were used descriptive parameters, such as frequency, mean and variance and for testing the hypotheses, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used, using SPSS software.

Findings:

According to the results of the following table, the mean and standard deviation of the components of sensation seeking in high school male students of Miandoab, except the seeking experience variable, were 2/80and 1/90. The mean and standard deviation of adventure seeking subjects were 6/48 and 2/38. The mean and standard deviation of boredom susceptibility subjects 2/78, the mean and standard deviation of inhibition subjects were 3/32 and 1/83.
Table 4.1: The mean and standard deviation of components of
sensation seeking of the sample.

Variable                 Number   Mean   Standard deviation

Experience seeking        250     2.80          1.90
Adventure seeking         250     6.48          2.38
Boredom susceptibility    250     2.78          1.74
Escape from inhibition    250     3.32          1.83


According to the following table, the mean and standard deviation of defense styles in high school male students of Miandoab, except the immature style, were 40/86 and 130/11, the mean and standard deviation of the mature style of subjects were 44/85 and 14/69, the mean and standard deviation of neurotic style of subjects were 48/08 and 14/94.
Table 4-2: Defense styles of the statistical sample.

Defense styles   Quantity    Mean    Standard deviation

Immature           250      130.11         40.86
Mature             250      44.85          14.69
Neurotic           250      48.08          14.94


According to the following table, the mean and standard deviation of aggression in male students of high schools of Miandoab were 48/68 and 15/76.
Table 4-3: Aggression of statistical sample.

Variable     Quantity   Mean    Standard deviation

Aggression     250      48.68         15.76


Inferential statistical tests results indicate the following outcomes:

Stepwise regression for examining the question (Does the components of sensation seeking and defense style predict the aggression of high school students of Miandoab Township?) showed the following results:
Table 4-4: Summary of regression.

Step            Forecast Variable         R Multiple     R squared
(model)                                   correlation    Multiple
                                          coefficient   correlation
                                                        coefficient
1                Immature style              0/626         0/392

2          Immature style Escape from        0/665         0/442
           inhibition component (DIS)
3          Immature style Escape from        0/684         0/468
           inhibition component (DIS)
          Component of adventure (TAS)

Step       Adjusted R-squared    F Factor   Significance
(model)   multiple correlation                 level
              coefficient

1                0/388            95/521       0/000

2                0/435            13/177       0/000

3                0/457            6/929        0/009


The results showed that among these national components, including experience seeking, adventure seeking, escape from inhibition, and defense styles, including immature, mature and neuroticism, in the first step immature defense styles just were let in the regression equation. Based on the findings of the above table, it can be concluded that immature defense style has significant effects on aggression changes [R.sup.2] =0/392, F= 95/521, P=<0/000). These data show that the students with higher grade in immature defense style have higher aggressive sensations. The [R.sup.2] = 0/392 of the regression coefficient shows that the immature defense style explains 39/2 percent of shared variance between this style (immature defense style) and aggression.

The regression results in the second steps how that immature defense style is associated with components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition([R.sup.2] =0/442, F=13/177, P=<0/000). This data shows that students with high grades in immature defense style with high components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition have more aggression. The added amount of [R.sup.2] is 0/05. Therefore, in the second step, the amount of shared variance to be explained is 44/2 percent.

In assessing the regression, in the third step of its calculation, the adventure seeking variable was added to the components of the sensation seeking equation ([R.sup.2] =0/468, F=6/929, P=<0/009). The amount of the added [R.sup.2], by adding the component of adventure seeking into the equation, is 0/05. That is, the adventure seeking component of sensation seeking could explain 46/8 percent of the shared variance between aggression and immature/mature components of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking. In total, in the third, up to 46/8 percent of shared variance will be explained by mature and immature defense style and components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking.
Table 5-4: Coefficients of standard and non-standard regression
analysis for prediction of the aggressiveness.

Criterion     Step       Statistical         Non-       Standard
variables    (model)     Indicators      standardized    error
                         Forecasting         beta
                          variable       coefficients

aggression      1      Constant figure      17/233       3/372
                       Immature style       0/242        0/025

                2      Constant figure      14/273       3/342
                       Immature style       0/213        0/025
                         Escape from        2/025        0/558
                         inhibition
                       component (DIS)

                3      Constant figure      10/882       3/521
                       Immature style       0/186        0/027
                         Escape from        1/753        0/556
                         inhibition
                       component (DIS)
                        component of        1/189        0/452
                       adventure (TAS)

Criterion     Step       Statistical     Standardized      T
variables    (model)     Indicators          beta
                         Forecasting     coefficient
                          variable

aggression      1      Constant figure        --         5/111
                       Immature style       0/626        9/773

                2      Constant figure        --         4/271
                       Immature style       0/551        8/480
                         Escape from        0/236        3/630
                         inhibition
                       component (DIS)

                3      Constant figure        --         3/091
                       Immature style       0/483        7/029
                         Escape from        0/204        3/150
                         inhibition
                       component (DIS)
                        component of        0/180        2/632
                       adventure (TAS)

Criterion     Step       Statistical     Significance
variables    (model)     Indicators         level
                         Forecasting
                          variable

aggression      1      Constant figure      0/000
                       Immature style       0/000

                2      Constant figure      0/000
                       Immature style       0/000
                         Escape from        0/000
                         inhibition
                       component (DIS)

                3      Constant figure      0/002
                       Immature style       0/000
                         Escape from        0/002
                         inhibition
                       component (DIS)
                        component of        0/009
                       adventure (TAS)


According to the above table and the significance of F in the analytic table of variance (4-4) and tin the above table, the regression equation for step (model) 1isas follows:

[Y.sub.1] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of aggression prediction of the students from the amount of immature defense style variable will be reached as follows:

(the immature style) 0/242 + (constant number) 17/233 = the prediction of aggression Step (model) 2 is as follows:

[Y.sub.2] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1] + [b.sub.2][x.sub.2]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of prediction of aggression in the students from the amount of immature defense style variable with component of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition (DIS) will be reached as follows:

(the component of escape from inhibition) 2/025 + (immature style) 0/213 + (constant number) 14/273 = prediction of aggression Step (model) 2 is as follows:

[Y.sub.3] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1] + [b.sub.2][x.sub.2] + [b.sub.3][x.sub.3]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of prediction of aggression in the students from the changing amount of immature defense style will be reached as follows: (component of adventure seeking) 1/189 + (component of escape from inhibition) 1/753 + (immature style) 0/186 + (constant number) 10/883= prediction of aggression

Considering the amount of slope, the greater the amount of immature defense style and components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking, the more aggression prediction.

Following are the hypotheses of the test results:

Hypothesis 1: sensation seeking and defense styles are related to aggression.

The results in table6-4showthat sensation seeking and defense style are relate to the students' aggression in a significant way. There is, moreover, a significant relationship between the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, and escape from inhibition) and the aggression of high school male students. These results show that the calculated correlation coefficient between the components of sensation seeking of experience seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/329 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of adventure seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/309 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of escape from inhibition at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/412 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between immature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/626 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between mature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/481 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between defense style of neuroticism at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/469 and p=0/000). Hence, the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and defense style (immature, mature and neurotic) of high school male students relate to the aggression in a significant way. The more the components of sensation seeking and defense styles, the more aggressive the students would become.

Hypothesis 2: there is a relation between sensation seeking and aggression.

The results in Table 4-5 show that there is significant relation between students' sensation seeking and aggression. There is, moreover, a significant relationship between the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, escape from inhibition) and high school male students' aggression. These results show that the calculated correlation coefficient between the component of sensation seeking of experience seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/329 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of adventure seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/450 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of boredom susceptibility at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/309 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of escape from inhibition at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/412 and p=0/000). Hence, there is a signicant relation between the components of students' sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and aggression. The more the components of sensation seeking, the more aggressive the students would become.

Hypothesis 3: there is a relation between the defense styles and aggression.

The results in Table 4-6 show that the calculated correlated coefficient between the immature defense style atp<0/01 level is significant (r=0/626 and p=0/000). The calculated correlated coefficient between the mature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/481 and p=0/000). The calculated correlated coefficient between the neurotic defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/469 and p=0/000). Therefore, there is a significant relation between high school male students' defense styles (immature, mature, and neurotic). The greater the defense styles, the more aggressive the students would become.

Discussion and Conclusion:

The findings suggest that the elements of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and defense styles (immature, mature, neurotic) are related in a significant and positive way to the aggression of the high school male students of Miandoab Township. There is, moreover, significant and positive relation between all seven variables mentioned above and aggression. In other words, the more we have components of sensation seeking and defense styles, the more aggression would be resulted. There is, furthermore, significant and positive relation between the components of sensation seeking and Miandoab high school students' aggression. There is, too, positive and significant relation between defense styles (immature, mature, neurotic) and students' aggression.

Hajkhodadadi and Rezaei [2], in their research, "the relations between family functions, sensation seeking and aggression in adolescents", concluded that family is the most important and primary center for the health and evolvement of the children. This research, too, concludes that a huge part of adolescents' life and characteristic is formed in the family atmosphere. Poor family functioning can lead to high sensation seeking as a negative and traumatic consequence. Hence, there form of the running relationships in the family and among family members through counseling, education, and individual can put sensation seeking under control [2].

The results of the present research, consistent with the given results by Amirkhani and Kazemi and Afrazeh, focus on the importance of aggression in implementing the sensation seeking and defense styles in organization. They maintained that aggression is highly correlated with the measures of sensation seeking and defense styles.

Sensation seeking is one of the main biological needs in human and it can affect one's life in all stages and thus to have social risks (appearing as a drunk driver), physical hazards(hurting themselves and others), legal risks (imprisonment) and financial risks (getting fired from one's job) as consequences. A sensation seeker prefers constant stimulation of the mind, and, to this end, easily gets tired of monotonous work. He looks forward to getting involved in exciting experiments and thus to be stimulated [8].

According to John Dollard et al. aggression is always a consequence of frustration and frustration will always lead to aggression. Nothing can be done without the other. Whatever hinders one in reaching his goals, would lead to frustration. Frustration, thus to say, originates from a person's characteristic or the outer environment. The intensity of frustration, together with the inner inclination intensity, both are changing.

The results of this research show that increase in the degree of sensation seeking would increase the amount of aggression. The reason is that it is not possible to satisfy all human needs, and this causes frustration and frustration, therefore, brings about aggression in people. By considering the role of aggression over the sensation seeking processes, the organizations must create appropriate stimulating systems in implementing real components of sensation seeking. Researches by Dehaghani and Fatemi and Rahnavard, too, showed that components of sensation seeking could make effective and appropriate link between an organization's main parts if appropriate measures and procedures to be adopted. They also maintained that that appropriate sensation making would lead to organizational success through strengthening organizational capabilities.

Freud analyzes all human actions into two instincts: life and death. He says that even death instinct must be discharged, either from outside, in the form of aggression and violence, or within inside in the form of self- destructive acts or suicide. That is why violence cannot be eradicated totally and the upmost solution for it is to sublimate it; that is, to direct energy of this instinct in an acceptable rout and for the benefit of the community; such as exercise, professional competitions and political activities.

According to the above notions, the relation between defense styles and aggression is based on frustration and stress. The "self', in order to prevent frustration and stress, tend towards defense styles. Aggression is also an act a person adopts against stress and frustration. In other word, lack of stress and frustration cancels the need of defense styles. Therefore, the better and more appropriate sensation seeking among an organization's staff, the more optimal the degree of aggression would be. Noting the research findings, the general result thus can be stated:

Applying optimal components of sensation seeking and defense styles among students would lessen the degree of aggression. The degree of aggression among students has been moderate. Moreover, sensation seeking and defense style measures have been applied among high school students in great quantity.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 November 2014

Accepted 29 December 2014

Available online 15 January 2015

REFERENCES

[1] Beirami, Mansour, Tooraj Hashemi, Ali Farhadi, Yazdan Movahedi, 2014. "The role of prediction of sensation seeking, anger and aggression, meaning and purpose in life and motivation in predictin greadiness". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[2] Hajkhodadi, Davood, Zeinab Rezaei, 2014. "The relations between family functions, sensation seeking and aggression in adolescents". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[3] Rezaei, Zeinab, Davoud Hajkhodadi, 2014. "Prediction of addiction to video games correlating to the family functions, sensation seeking and aggression". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[4] Schultz, Duane P. Sydney Ellen Schultz, 2005. Theories of Personality. Yahya Seyed Mohammad. (Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.

[5] Marshall Rio, John, 2001. Understanding Motivation and Emotion. Yahya Seyed Mohammad. (Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.

[6] Bond, M., Perry J.C. Lony-Tern, 2004. Changes in Defenese Styles With Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Depressive, AnXiety, and Personality Disorder. AM J Psychiatry, 161-71.

[7] Cramer, P., 2000. Detense mechanisms in Psychology Today. J Am Psychology, 55(6): 637-676.

[8] Zuckerman, M., 1978. Exprence and sensation seeking scale, Jo of Bahavioral assessment, 6(2).

[9] Zuckerman, M., 2000. Sensation seeking trait as a factor in marital adjustment, Journal of sex and marital adjustment, 40: 367-393.

(1) Ali Khalilzadeh, (2) Mortaza Tarkhan, (3) Vahid Khoshravesh

(1) MA, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology

(2) MA Associate Professor at, department of psychology, payamenoor University, Iran.

(3) Faculty member, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology.

Corresponding Author: Ali Khalilzadeh, MA, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology.
Table 1: Summary of theories on sensation.

Theory                  Date of   Summary
                        theory

James-Lange             1884      The oldest theory was proposed by
                                  James Lange in 1884. According to
                                  this theory, the excitation and
                                  action create sensation and we tag
                                  sensation to different types of
                                  acts and excitement.

Cannon-Bard             1920th    According to this theory, emotion
                                  and autonomic change soccer
                                  simultaneously but independently of
                                  each other.

Psychoanalytic theory   1930      It is perhaps the most
                                  comprehensive and influential
                                  theory of personality. It aims to
                                  emphasize the unconscious motional
                                  processes, so it cannot be studied
                                  alone and only through
                                  introspection.

Activation theory       1954      Activation theory of sensation has
                                  been raised mainly by Sternberg.
                                  This theory does not consider
                                  sensation as a special case and in
                                  a qualitative viewpoint, it is not
                                  different from other states, but it
                                  determines the place of sensational
                                  behavioron a continuum that
                                  encompasses all actions. In this
                                  theory, the purpose is to include
                                  different aspects of sensation into
                                  a single plan.

Theory of opposites     1980      In this theory that was presented
                                  by Solomon, it is assumed that the
                                  brain is organized to suppress the
                                  sensational responses and
                                  oppositions, whether they are
                                  pleasant run pleasant sensations.
                                  If an event bring about certain
                                  sensational state, the opposite
                                  state (which is the desire to
                                  eliminate the primary state) will
                                  be working shortly after.

Zuckerman's theory      1970      Zuckerman defines sensation as "a
                                  trait defined by the seeking of
                                  varied, novel, complex, and intense
                                  sensations and experiences, and the
                                  willingness to take physical,
                                  social, legal, and financial risks
                                  for the sake of such experience".

Table 2: Summary of different theories and categories of defense
mechanism.

Theory              Description              Category

Anna Freud        she stated that         1- Repression
                 signal anxiety was
                  "not directly a           2- retreat
                     conflicted
                instinctual tension      3. The reaction
                    but a signal            formation
                occurring in the ego
                 of an anticipated        4. Discretized
                instinctual tension"
                                          5. Elimination

                                            6. Astral

                                         7- Introjection

                                        8- Return against
                                             oneself

                                         9. Switch to the
                                          opposite side

                                          10 Greatness-
                                             oriented

Melanie Klein     Children, since        1. Introjection
                 infantry, in order
                     to protect             2. Sharing
                 themselves against
                 the stresses that        3. Projective
                   provoke their          identification
                    destructive
                imaginations, choose
                  certain defense
                 mechanisms: these
                immense destructive
                feelings are caused
                out of the sadistic
                fear of the breast.

Vaillant'         George Vaillant        1. pathological
viewpoint        (2000), one of the    defenses (psychotic
                    most famous         denial, delusional
                   scientists of           projection)
                  Defense and the
                 classification and    2. immature defenses
                 description of it.         (fantasy,
                 He divides defense    projection, passive
                 into four levels.      aggression, acting
                                               out)

                                       3 .neurotic defenses
                                       (intellectualization,
                                       reaction formation,
                                          dissociation,
                                          displacement,
                                       repression) 4.mature
                                         defenses (humor,
                                           sublimation,
                                           suppression,
                                            altruism,
                                          anticipation)

Table 3: Brief summary of theories of Aggression.

Biological Theory of   The oldest known cause for aggression is more
Aggression             based on the idea that humans are planned for
                       the biological nature of aggression. The first
                       and most popular theory about this goes back
                       to Sigmund Freud(1933).

Frustration and        John Dollard et al. believe that aggression is
aggression theory      always a consequence of frustration and
                       frustration will always lead to aggression.
                       Nothing can be done without the other.

Social Learning        Aggressive behavior is learned like other
Theory                 social behaviors. Aggression is a social
                       behavior, which is resulted from reward and
                       punishment, and it also can be learned through
                       imitation of models.

Table 4-6: The mean, standard deviation and correlation matrix of
the elements of sensation seeking and aggressive style of defense.

Variable                      The mean and
                           standard deviation

Experience seeking         1/90 [+ or -] 2/80
Adventure seeking (TAS)    2/38 [+ or -] 6/48
Boredom suscuptibilty      1/74 [+ or -] 2/78
Escape from Inhibition     1/83 [+ or -] 3/32
  (DIS)
Immature                  40/86 [+ or -] 130/11
Mature                    14/69 [+ or -] 44/85
Neurotic                  14/94 [+ or -] 48/08

Variable                  Aggression(mean and standard      r
                                   deviation)

Experience seeking            15/76 [+ or -] 48/68        0/329
Adventure seeking (TAS)                                   0/450
Boredom suscuptibilty                                     0/309
Escape from Inhibition                                    0/412
  (DIS)
Immature                                                  0/626
Mature                                                    0/481
Neurotic                                                  0/469

Variable                     p

Experience seeking        * 0/000
Adventure seeking (TAS)    0/000
Boredom suscuptibilty      0/000
Escape from Inhibition     0/000
  (DIS)
Immature                   0/000
Mature                     0/000
Neurotic                   0/000

p [less than or equal to] =0/05 *

Table 4-7: The mean, standard deviation and correlation matrix of
the components of sensation seeking and aggression.

Variable                    The mean and standard
                                  deviation

Experience seeking           1/90 [+ or -] 2/80
Adventure seeking            2/38 [+ or -] 6/48
Boredom of susceptibility    1/74 [+ or -] 2/78
Escape from Inhibition       1/83 [+ or -] 3/32

Variable                      Aggression(mean        r        p
                                and standard
                                 deviation)

Experience seeking          15/76 [+ or -] 48/68   0/329   * 0/000
Adventure seeking                                  0/450    0/000
Boredom of susceptibility                          0/309    0/000
Escape from Inhibition                             0/412    0/000

Table 4-8: The mean, standard deviation and correlation matrix
associated with aggressive defensive style.

Variable   The mean and standard   Aggression(mean and      r
                 deviation         standard deviation)

Immature   40/86 [+ or -] 130/11   15/76 [+ or -] 48/68   0/626
Mature     14/69 [+ or -] 44/85                           0/481
Neurotic   14/94 [+ or -] 48/08                           0/469

Variable     P

Immature   0/000
Mature     0/000
Neurotic   0/000
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Author:Khalilzadeh, Ali; Tarkhan, Mortaza; Khoshravesh, Vahid
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Nov 1, 2014
Words:4765
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