# A study of the relationships between the components of sensation seeking and defense styles with aggressiveness of the high school students of Miyandoab.

INTRODUCTION

There are different forms of sensation: sensation out of anger, out of joy, out of fear.... The degree of sensation is nevertheless different in different people. In other words, people have different degrees of sensation seeking, whereby in certain people there is a significantly higher level of sensation seeking than certain other people. With the growth of science, it was understood that sensation seeking has various components of its own, whereas in the present research there has been used the components of sensation seeking from the viewpoint of Zuckerman, which is immensely approved by many other researchers and, too, these components are the main and most important divisions of sensation seeking components. On the one hand, people have manifold conflicts and frustrations before themselves and in reaching their goals and visions, they must deal with them. On the other hand, these frustrations over whelm their abilities and functions. The most important effect of these factors, however, is the prints they leave on one's self image of him/her. Such negative imaginations lead to destruction of one's "ego". The type of defense style is very much effective on the person's interactions with the society. Immature defense styles thus have immature and imbalanced results, and, mature defense styles have mature and balanced results. Therefore, aggressiveness, as one important part of sensation seeking, has a direct and close relationship with sensation seeking components and, too, the type of defense style. The present study is to answer the following question: "what kind of a relationship is there between the components of sensation seeking/defense style and aggressiveness?'. Because the causes of many crimes, delinquencies, and abnormalities, incompatibilities, illegality, and addiction, risky behaviors ... are correlated with the above variances. Finding an answer to the above question would be very helpful in preventing and decreasing these factors.

Hence, the aims of the present paper are as follows:

--Study of how the components of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, boredom susceptibility and) and defence styles(mature, immature and neurotic) relate to aggression.

--Study of the relationship between the components of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and aggression.

--Study of the relationship between defence styles(mature, immature and neurotic) and aggression. Zuckerman[9] so defines sensation seeking: "a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex , and

intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experience''. He specifies for factors or components for the general trait of sensation seeking: 1) adventure seeking: tendency towards physical activities, like scuba-diving, 2)experience seeking: searching for new experiences through trips, music, lifestyles , 3)escape from inhibition: seeking escape from un-inhibited social activities with tendency towards alcohol or without alcohol, 4) boredom susceptibility: a avoidance from repetitive experiences usual works or predictable people, or being in such situations, they show their lack of satisfaction [4].

The defense mechanisms, which Freud had defined as unconscious strategies of the self in order to control the instincts and the impulses, are of great importance in conceptualizing the psychological disorders and their treatments in psychotherapy [7]. In mental analysis system, any psychological disorder is associated with certain non-adaptive defense mechanisms and defenses play an important role in mental sanity of the people. Based on this approach, people facing tension would use certain defense styles; whereby these styles based on the degree of maturity are put into three categories: immature, neurotic, mature.

Each of these styles owns its own specific defense styles and there has been given that in people with mental disorders, the immature and non-adaptive styles are dominant, and in non-clinical population, the defense style is almost more advanced [7]. Sometimes, there are some paradoxical results in this area, nevertheless.

Relying on these definitions, it can be understood that aggression is an act that consists of physical and mental torture; it has a deliberate aspect; it is not a random notion; and, above all, it is an act itself. Berkowitz, a contemporary prominent social psychologist, too, defining aggressions an intentional harm to another person, adds that this harm can be psychological or physical. The present study, therefore, is to find answers for the following inquiries:

* Do elements of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, and boredom susceptibility) and defence styles(mature, immature, neurotic) have any relations to aggression?

* Are the any relations between elements of sensation seeking (adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, boredom susceptibility) and aggression?

* Are the define styles (mature, immature and neurotic) related to aggression?

Theoretical background:

There have been manifold definitions over the concept of sensation. The following tables give a summary of the most popular theories related to the research discussion.

Methodology:

The present research is a descriptive and correlational study. The sample included all male high school students of Miandoab Township, and the number is 1420 that are students in the academic year of 2013-2014. The sample consisted of 250 male high school students in Miandoab Township that the sample according to the size of each school is: N=250

Gholamreza Forougi High School N = 130 Ahmad Khomeini High School N = 120

Cluster sampling has been used. In other words, firstly, two high schools, Shahid Gholamreza Foroughi and Seyed Ahmad Khomeni, were simple random sampled from among the high schools of Miandoab. It was determined that Foroughi High School has 180 students and Ahmad Khomeini high school has 160 students.

According to Morgan Table and considering the number of variables, there were chosen 130 students from Foroughi school and 120 from Ahmad Khomeni school. After choosing the samples, the researcher beside attracting their attention and gaining their satisfaction and, too, ensuring their information would not be let out, the over the significance of the study, the Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40; Andrews et al) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ) were all spread among them including a manual on how to answer the questions. Data collection was done by Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40; Andrews et al) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ).

To analyze the data, there were used descriptive parameters, such as frequency, mean and variance and for testing the hypotheses, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used, using SPSS software.

Findings:

According to the results of the following table, the mean and standard deviation of the components of sensation seeking in high school male students of Miandoab, except the seeking experience variable, were 2/80and 1/90. The mean and standard deviation of adventure seeking subjects were 6/48 and 2/38. The mean and standard deviation of boredom susceptibility subjects 2/78, the mean and standard deviation of inhibition subjects were 3/32 and 1/83.

According to the following table, the mean and standard deviation of defense styles in high school male students of Miandoab, except the immature style, were 40/86 and 130/11, the mean and standard deviation of the mature style of subjects were 44/85 and 14/69, the mean and standard deviation of neurotic style of subjects were 48/08 and 14/94.

According to the following table, the mean and standard deviation of aggression in male students of high schools of Miandoab were 48/68 and 15/76.

Inferential statistical tests results indicate the following outcomes:

Stepwise regression for examining the question (Does the components of sensation seeking and defense style predict the aggression of high school students of Miandoab Township?) showed the following results:

The results showed that among these national components, including experience seeking, adventure seeking, escape from inhibition, and defense styles, including immature, mature and neuroticism, in the first step immature defense styles just were let in the regression equation. Based on the findings of the above table, it can be concluded that immature defense style has significant effects on aggression changes [R.sup.2] =0/392, F= 95/521, P=<0/000). These data show that the students with higher grade in immature defense style have higher aggressive sensations. The [R.sup.2] = 0/392 of the regression coefficient shows that the immature defense style explains 39/2 percent of shared variance between this style (immature defense style) and aggression.

The regression results in the second steps how that immature defense style is associated with components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition([R.sup.2] =0/442, F=13/177, P=<0/000). This data shows that students with high grades in immature defense style with high components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition have more aggression. The added amount of [R.sup.2] is 0/05. Therefore, in the second step, the amount of shared variance to be explained is 44/2 percent.

In assessing the regression, in the third step of its calculation, the adventure seeking variable was added to the components of the sensation seeking equation ([R.sup.2] =0/468, F=6/929, P=<0/009). The amount of the added [R.sup.2], by adding the component of adventure seeking into the equation, is 0/05. That is, the adventure seeking component of sensation seeking could explain 46/8 percent of the shared variance between aggression and immature/mature components of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking. In total, in the third, up to 46/8 percent of shared variance will be explained by mature and immature defense style and components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking.

According to the above table and the significance of F in the analytic table of variance (4-4) and tin the above table, the regression equation for step (model) 1isas follows:

[Y.sub.1] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of aggression prediction of the students from the amount of immature defense style variable will be reached as follows:

(the immature style) 0/242 + (constant number) 17/233 = the prediction of aggression Step (model) 2 is as follows:

[Y.sub.2] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1] + [b.sub.2][x.sub.2]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of prediction of aggression in the students from the amount of immature defense style variable with component of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition (DIS) will be reached as follows:

(the component of escape from inhibition) 2/025 + (immature style) 0/213 + (constant number) 14/273 = prediction of aggression Step (model) 2 is as follows:

[Y.sub.3] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1] + [b.sub.2][x.sub.2] + [b.sub.3][x.sub.3]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of prediction of aggression in the students from the changing amount of immature defense style will be reached as follows: (component of adventure seeking) 1/189 + (component of escape from inhibition) 1/753 + (immature style) 0/186 + (constant number) 10/883= prediction of aggression

Considering the amount of slope, the greater the amount of immature defense style and components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking, the more aggression prediction.

Following are the hypotheses of the test results:

Hypothesis 1: sensation seeking and defense styles are related to aggression.

The results in table6-4showthat sensation seeking and defense style are relate to the students' aggression in a significant way. There is, moreover, a significant relationship between the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, and escape from inhibition) and the aggression of high school male students. These results show that the calculated correlation coefficient between the components of sensation seeking of experience seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/329 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of adventure seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/309 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of escape from inhibition at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/412 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between immature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/626 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between mature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/481 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between defense style of neuroticism at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/469 and p=0/000). Hence, the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and defense style (immature, mature and neurotic) of high school male students relate to the aggression in a significant way. The more the components of sensation seeking and defense styles, the more aggressive the students would become.

Hypothesis 2: there is a relation between sensation seeking and aggression.

The results in Table 4-5 show that there is significant relation between students' sensation seeking and aggression. There is, moreover, a significant relationship between the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, escape from inhibition) and high school male students' aggression. These results show that the calculated correlation coefficient between the component of sensation seeking of experience seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/329 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of adventure seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/450 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of boredom susceptibility at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/309 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of escape from inhibition at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/412 and p=0/000). Hence, there is a signicant relation between the components of students' sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and aggression. The more the components of sensation seeking, the more aggressive the students would become.

Hypothesis 3: there is a relation between the defense styles and aggression.

The results in Table 4-6 show that the calculated correlated coefficient between the immature defense style atp<0/01 level is significant (r=0/626 and p=0/000). The calculated correlated coefficient between the mature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/481 and p=0/000). The calculated correlated coefficient between the neurotic defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/469 and p=0/000). Therefore, there is a significant relation between high school male students' defense styles (immature, mature, and neurotic). The greater the defense styles, the more aggressive the students would become.

Discussion and Conclusion:

The findings suggest that the elements of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and defense styles (immature, mature, neurotic) are related in a significant and positive way to the aggression of the high school male students of Miandoab Township. There is, moreover, significant and positive relation between all seven variables mentioned above and aggression. In other words, the more we have components of sensation seeking and defense styles, the more aggression would be resulted. There is, furthermore, significant and positive relation between the components of sensation seeking and Miandoab high school students' aggression. There is, too, positive and significant relation between defense styles (immature, mature, neurotic) and students' aggression.

Hajkhodadadi and Rezaei [2], in their research, "the relations between family functions, sensation seeking and aggression in adolescents", concluded that family is the most important and primary center for the health and evolvement of the children. This research, too, concludes that a huge part of adolescents' life and characteristic is formed in the family atmosphere. Poor family functioning can lead to high sensation seeking as a negative and traumatic consequence. Hence, there form of the running relationships in the family and among family members through counseling, education, and individual can put sensation seeking under control [2].

The results of the present research, consistent with the given results by Amirkhani and Kazemi and Afrazeh, focus on the importance of aggression in implementing the sensation seeking and defense styles in organization. They maintained that aggression is highly correlated with the measures of sensation seeking and defense styles.

Sensation seeking is one of the main biological needs in human and it can affect one's life in all stages and thus to have social risks (appearing as a drunk driver), physical hazards(hurting themselves and others), legal risks (imprisonment) and financial risks (getting fired from one's job) as consequences. A sensation seeker prefers constant stimulation of the mind, and, to this end, easily gets tired of monotonous work. He looks forward to getting involved in exciting experiments and thus to be stimulated [8].

According to John Dollard et al. aggression is always a consequence of frustration and frustration will always lead to aggression. Nothing can be done without the other. Whatever hinders one in reaching his goals, would lead to frustration. Frustration, thus to say, originates from a person's characteristic or the outer environment. The intensity of frustration, together with the inner inclination intensity, both are changing.

The results of this research show that increase in the degree of sensation seeking would increase the amount of aggression. The reason is that it is not possible to satisfy all human needs, and this causes frustration and frustration, therefore, brings about aggression in people. By considering the role of aggression over the sensation seeking processes, the organizations must create appropriate stimulating systems in implementing real components of sensation seeking. Researches by Dehaghani and Fatemi and Rahnavard, too, showed that components of sensation seeking could make effective and appropriate link between an organization's main parts if appropriate measures and procedures to be adopted. They also maintained that that appropriate sensation making would lead to organizational success through strengthening organizational capabilities.

Freud analyzes all human actions into two instincts: life and death. He says that even death instinct must be discharged, either from outside, in the form of aggression and violence, or within inside in the form of self- destructive acts or suicide. That is why violence cannot be eradicated totally and the upmost solution for it is to sublimate it; that is, to direct energy of this instinct in an acceptable rout and for the benefit of the community; such as exercise, professional competitions and political activities.

According to the above notions, the relation between defense styles and aggression is based on frustration and stress. The "self', in order to prevent frustration and stress, tend towards defense styles. Aggression is also an act a person adopts against stress and frustration. In other word, lack of stress and frustration cancels the need of defense styles. Therefore, the better and more appropriate sensation seeking among an organization's staff, the more optimal the degree of aggression would be. Noting the research findings, the general result thus can be stated:

Applying optimal components of sensation seeking and defense styles among students would lessen the degree of aggression. The degree of aggression among students has been moderate. Moreover, sensation seeking and defense style measures have been applied among high school students in great quantity.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 November 2014

Accepted 29 December 2014

Available online 15 January 2015

REFERENCES

[1] Beirami, Mansour, Tooraj Hashemi, Ali Farhadi, Yazdan Movahedi, 2014. "The role of prediction of sensation seeking, anger and aggression, meaning and purpose in life and motivation in predictin greadiness". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[2] Hajkhodadi, Davood, Zeinab Rezaei, 2014. "The relations between family functions, sensation seeking and aggression in adolescents". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[3] Rezaei, Zeinab, Davoud Hajkhodadi, 2014. "Prediction of addiction to video games correlating to the family functions, sensation seeking and aggression". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[4] Schultz, Duane P. Sydney Ellen Schultz, 2005. Theories of Personality. Yahya Seyed Mohammad. (Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.

[5] Marshall Rio, John, 2001. Understanding Motivation and Emotion. Yahya Seyed Mohammad. (Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.

[6] Bond, M., Perry J.C. Lony-Tern, 2004. Changes in Defenese Styles With Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Depressive, AnXiety, and Personality Disorder. AM J Psychiatry, 161-71.

[7] Cramer, P., 2000. Detense mechanisms in Psychology Today. J Am Psychology, 55(6): 637-676.

[8] Zuckerman, M., 1978. Exprence and sensation seeking scale, Jo of Bahavioral assessment, 6(2).

[9] Zuckerman, M., 2000. Sensation seeking trait as a factor in marital adjustment, Journal of sex and marital adjustment, 40: 367-393.

(1) Ali Khalilzadeh, (2) Mortaza Tarkhan, (3) Vahid Khoshravesh

(1) MA, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology

(2) MA Associate Professor at, department of psychology, payamenoor University, Iran.

(3) Faculty member, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology.

Corresponding Author: Ali Khalilzadeh, MA, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology.

There are different forms of sensation: sensation out of anger, out of joy, out of fear.... The degree of sensation is nevertheless different in different people. In other words, people have different degrees of sensation seeking, whereby in certain people there is a significantly higher level of sensation seeking than certain other people. With the growth of science, it was understood that sensation seeking has various components of its own, whereas in the present research there has been used the components of sensation seeking from the viewpoint of Zuckerman, which is immensely approved by many other researchers and, too, these components are the main and most important divisions of sensation seeking components. On the one hand, people have manifold conflicts and frustrations before themselves and in reaching their goals and visions, they must deal with them. On the other hand, these frustrations over whelm their abilities and functions. The most important effect of these factors, however, is the prints they leave on one's self image of him/her. Such negative imaginations lead to destruction of one's "ego". The type of defense style is very much effective on the person's interactions with the society. Immature defense styles thus have immature and imbalanced results, and, mature defense styles have mature and balanced results. Therefore, aggressiveness, as one important part of sensation seeking, has a direct and close relationship with sensation seeking components and, too, the type of defense style. The present study is to answer the following question: "what kind of a relationship is there between the components of sensation seeking/defense style and aggressiveness?'. Because the causes of many crimes, delinquencies, and abnormalities, incompatibilities, illegality, and addiction, risky behaviors ... are correlated with the above variances. Finding an answer to the above question would be very helpful in preventing and decreasing these factors.

Hence, the aims of the present paper are as follows:

--Study of how the components of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, boredom susceptibility and) and defence styles(mature, immature and neurotic) relate to aggression.

--Study of the relationship between the components of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and aggression.

--Study of the relationship between defence styles(mature, immature and neurotic) and aggression. Zuckerman[9] so defines sensation seeking: "a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex , and

intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experience''. He specifies for factors or components for the general trait of sensation seeking: 1) adventure seeking: tendency towards physical activities, like scuba-diving, 2)experience seeking: searching for new experiences through trips, music, lifestyles , 3)escape from inhibition: seeking escape from un-inhibited social activities with tendency towards alcohol or without alcohol, 4) boredom susceptibility: a avoidance from repetitive experiences usual works or predictable people, or being in such situations, they show their lack of satisfaction [4].

The defense mechanisms, which Freud had defined as unconscious strategies of the self in order to control the instincts and the impulses, are of great importance in conceptualizing the psychological disorders and their treatments in psychotherapy [7]. In mental analysis system, any psychological disorder is associated with certain non-adaptive defense mechanisms and defenses play an important role in mental sanity of the people. Based on this approach, people facing tension would use certain defense styles; whereby these styles based on the degree of maturity are put into three categories: immature, neurotic, mature.

Each of these styles owns its own specific defense styles and there has been given that in people with mental disorders, the immature and non-adaptive styles are dominant, and in non-clinical population, the defense style is almost more advanced [7]. Sometimes, there are some paradoxical results in this area, nevertheless.

Relying on these definitions, it can be understood that aggression is an act that consists of physical and mental torture; it has a deliberate aspect; it is not a random notion; and, above all, it is an act itself. Berkowitz, a contemporary prominent social psychologist, too, defining aggressions an intentional harm to another person, adds that this harm can be psychological or physical. The present study, therefore, is to find answers for the following inquiries:

* Do elements of sensation seeking(adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, and boredom susceptibility) and defence styles(mature, immature, neurotic) have any relations to aggression?

* Are the any relations between elements of sensation seeking (adventure, experience seeking, escape from inhibition, boredom susceptibility) and aggression?

* Are the define styles (mature, immature and neurotic) related to aggression?

Theoretical background:

There have been manifold definitions over the concept of sensation. The following tables give a summary of the most popular theories related to the research discussion.

Methodology:

The present research is a descriptive and correlational study. The sample included all male high school students of Miandoab Township, and the number is 1420 that are students in the academic year of 2013-2014. The sample consisted of 250 male high school students in Miandoab Township that the sample according to the size of each school is: N=250

Gholamreza Forougi High School N = 130 Ahmad Khomeini High School N = 120

Cluster sampling has been used. In other words, firstly, two high schools, Shahid Gholamreza Foroughi and Seyed Ahmad Khomeni, were simple random sampled from among the high schools of Miandoab. It was determined that Foroughi High School has 180 students and Ahmad Khomeini high school has 160 students.

According to Morgan Table and considering the number of variables, there were chosen 130 students from Foroughi school and 120 from Ahmad Khomeni school. After choosing the samples, the researcher beside attracting their attention and gaining their satisfaction and, too, ensuring their information would not be let out, the over the significance of the study, the Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40; Andrews et al) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ) were all spread among them including a manual on how to answer the questions. Data collection was done by Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40; Andrews et al) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ).

To analyze the data, there were used descriptive parameters, such as frequency, mean and variance and for testing the hypotheses, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used, using SPSS software.

Findings:

According to the results of the following table, the mean and standard deviation of the components of sensation seeking in high school male students of Miandoab, except the seeking experience variable, were 2/80and 1/90. The mean and standard deviation of adventure seeking subjects were 6/48 and 2/38. The mean and standard deviation of boredom susceptibility subjects 2/78, the mean and standard deviation of inhibition subjects were 3/32 and 1/83.

Table 4.1: The mean and standard deviation of components of sensation seeking of the sample. Variable Number Mean Standard deviation Experience seeking 250 2.80 1.90 Adventure seeking 250 6.48 2.38 Boredom susceptibility 250 2.78 1.74 Escape from inhibition 250 3.32 1.83

According to the following table, the mean and standard deviation of defense styles in high school male students of Miandoab, except the immature style, were 40/86 and 130/11, the mean and standard deviation of the mature style of subjects were 44/85 and 14/69, the mean and standard deviation of neurotic style of subjects were 48/08 and 14/94.

Table 4-2: Defense styles of the statistical sample. Defense styles Quantity Mean Standard deviation Immature 250 130.11 40.86 Mature 250 44.85 14.69 Neurotic 250 48.08 14.94

According to the following table, the mean and standard deviation of aggression in male students of high schools of Miandoab were 48/68 and 15/76.

Table 4-3: Aggression of statistical sample. Variable Quantity Mean Standard deviation Aggression 250 48.68 15.76

Inferential statistical tests results indicate the following outcomes:

Stepwise regression for examining the question (Does the components of sensation seeking and defense style predict the aggression of high school students of Miandoab Township?) showed the following results:

Table 4-4: Summary of regression. Step Forecast Variable R Multiple R squared (model) correlation Multiple coefficient correlation coefficient 1 Immature style 0/626 0/392 2 Immature style Escape from 0/665 0/442 inhibition component (DIS) 3 Immature style Escape from 0/684 0/468 inhibition component (DIS) Component of adventure (TAS) Step Adjusted R-squared F Factor Significance (model) multiple correlation level coefficient 1 0/388 95/521 0/000 2 0/435 13/177 0/000 3 0/457 6/929 0/009

The results showed that among these national components, including experience seeking, adventure seeking, escape from inhibition, and defense styles, including immature, mature and neuroticism, in the first step immature defense styles just were let in the regression equation. Based on the findings of the above table, it can be concluded that immature defense style has significant effects on aggression changes [R.sup.2] =0/392, F= 95/521, P=<0/000). These data show that the students with higher grade in immature defense style have higher aggressive sensations. The [R.sup.2] = 0/392 of the regression coefficient shows that the immature defense style explains 39/2 percent of shared variance between this style (immature defense style) and aggression.

The regression results in the second steps how that immature defense style is associated with components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition([R.sup.2] =0/442, F=13/177, P=<0/000). This data shows that students with high grades in immature defense style with high components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition have more aggression. The added amount of [R.sup.2] is 0/05. Therefore, in the second step, the amount of shared variance to be explained is 44/2 percent.

In assessing the regression, in the third step of its calculation, the adventure seeking variable was added to the components of the sensation seeking equation ([R.sup.2] =0/468, F=6/929, P=<0/009). The amount of the added [R.sup.2], by adding the component of adventure seeking into the equation, is 0/05. That is, the adventure seeking component of sensation seeking could explain 46/8 percent of the shared variance between aggression and immature/mature components of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking. In total, in the third, up to 46/8 percent of shared variance will be explained by mature and immature defense style and components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking.

Table 5-4: Coefficients of standard and non-standard regression analysis for prediction of the aggressiveness. Criterion Step Statistical Non- Standard variables (model) Indicators standardized error Forecasting beta variable coefficients aggression 1 Constant figure 17/233 3/372 Immature style 0/242 0/025 2 Constant figure 14/273 3/342 Immature style 0/213 0/025 Escape from 2/025 0/558 inhibition component (DIS) 3 Constant figure 10/882 3/521 Immature style 0/186 0/027 Escape from 1/753 0/556 inhibition component (DIS) component of 1/189 0/452 adventure (TAS) Criterion Step Statistical Standardized T variables (model) Indicators beta Forecasting coefficient variable aggression 1 Constant figure -- 5/111 Immature style 0/626 9/773 2 Constant figure -- 4/271 Immature style 0/551 8/480 Escape from 0/236 3/630 inhibition component (DIS) 3 Constant figure -- 3/091 Immature style 0/483 7/029 Escape from 0/204 3/150 inhibition component (DIS) component of 0/180 2/632 adventure (TAS) Criterion Step Statistical Significance variables (model) Indicators level Forecasting variable aggression 1 Constant figure 0/000 Immature style 0/000 2 Constant figure 0/000 Immature style 0/000 Escape from 0/000 inhibition component (DIS) 3 Constant figure 0/002 Immature style 0/000 Escape from 0/002 inhibition component (DIS) component of 0/009 adventure (TAS)

According to the above table and the significance of F in the analytic table of variance (4-4) and tin the above table, the regression equation for step (model) 1isas follows:

[Y.sub.1] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of aggression prediction of the students from the amount of immature defense style variable will be reached as follows:

(the immature style) 0/242 + (constant number) 17/233 = the prediction of aggression Step (model) 2 is as follows:

[Y.sub.2] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1] + [b.sub.2][x.sub.2]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of prediction of aggression in the students from the amount of immature defense style variable with component of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition (DIS) will be reached as follows:

(the component of escape from inhibition) 2/025 + (immature style) 0/213 + (constant number) 14/273 = prediction of aggression Step (model) 2 is as follows:

[Y.sub.3] = a + [b.sub.1][x.sub.1] + [b.sub.2][x.sub.2] + [b.sub.3][x.sub.3]

Therefore, by replacing the coefficients in the above formula, the equation of prediction of aggression in the students from the changing amount of immature defense style will be reached as follows: (component of adventure seeking) 1/189 + (component of escape from inhibition) 1/753 + (immature style) 0/186 + (constant number) 10/883= prediction of aggression

Considering the amount of slope, the greater the amount of immature defense style and components of sensation seeking of escape from inhibition and adventure seeking, the more aggression prediction.

Following are the hypotheses of the test results:

Hypothesis 1: sensation seeking and defense styles are related to aggression.

The results in table6-4showthat sensation seeking and defense style are relate to the students' aggression in a significant way. There is, moreover, a significant relationship between the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, and escape from inhibition) and the aggression of high school male students. These results show that the calculated correlation coefficient between the components of sensation seeking of experience seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/329 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of adventure seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/309 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of escape from inhibition at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/412 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between immature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/626 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between mature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/481 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between defense style of neuroticism at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/469 and p=0/000). Hence, the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and defense style (immature, mature and neurotic) of high school male students relate to the aggression in a significant way. The more the components of sensation seeking and defense styles, the more aggressive the students would become.

Hypothesis 2: there is a relation between sensation seeking and aggression.

The results in Table 4-5 show that there is significant relation between students' sensation seeking and aggression. There is, moreover, a significant relationship between the components of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, escape from inhibition) and high school male students' aggression. These results show that the calculated correlation coefficient between the component of sensation seeking of experience seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/329 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of adventure seeking at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/450 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of boredom susceptibility at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/309 and p=0/000). The calculated correlation coefficient between sensation seeking of escape from inhibition at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/412 and p=0/000). Hence, there is a signicant relation between the components of students' sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and aggression. The more the components of sensation seeking, the more aggressive the students would become.

Hypothesis 3: there is a relation between the defense styles and aggression.

The results in Table 4-6 show that the calculated correlated coefficient between the immature defense style atp<0/01 level is significant (r=0/626 and p=0/000). The calculated correlated coefficient between the mature defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/481 and p=0/000). The calculated correlated coefficient between the neurotic defense style at p<0/01 level is significant (r=0/469 and p=0/000). Therefore, there is a significant relation between high school male students' defense styles (immature, mature, and neurotic). The greater the defense styles, the more aggressive the students would become.

Discussion and Conclusion:

The findings suggest that the elements of sensation seeking (experience seeking, adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility and escape from inhibition) and defense styles (immature, mature, neurotic) are related in a significant and positive way to the aggression of the high school male students of Miandoab Township. There is, moreover, significant and positive relation between all seven variables mentioned above and aggression. In other words, the more we have components of sensation seeking and defense styles, the more aggression would be resulted. There is, furthermore, significant and positive relation between the components of sensation seeking and Miandoab high school students' aggression. There is, too, positive and significant relation between defense styles (immature, mature, neurotic) and students' aggression.

Hajkhodadadi and Rezaei [2], in their research, "the relations between family functions, sensation seeking and aggression in adolescents", concluded that family is the most important and primary center for the health and evolvement of the children. This research, too, concludes that a huge part of adolescents' life and characteristic is formed in the family atmosphere. Poor family functioning can lead to high sensation seeking as a negative and traumatic consequence. Hence, there form of the running relationships in the family and among family members through counseling, education, and individual can put sensation seeking under control [2].

The results of the present research, consistent with the given results by Amirkhani and Kazemi and Afrazeh, focus on the importance of aggression in implementing the sensation seeking and defense styles in organization. They maintained that aggression is highly correlated with the measures of sensation seeking and defense styles.

Sensation seeking is one of the main biological needs in human and it can affect one's life in all stages and thus to have social risks (appearing as a drunk driver), physical hazards(hurting themselves and others), legal risks (imprisonment) and financial risks (getting fired from one's job) as consequences. A sensation seeker prefers constant stimulation of the mind, and, to this end, easily gets tired of monotonous work. He looks forward to getting involved in exciting experiments and thus to be stimulated [8].

According to John Dollard et al. aggression is always a consequence of frustration and frustration will always lead to aggression. Nothing can be done without the other. Whatever hinders one in reaching his goals, would lead to frustration. Frustration, thus to say, originates from a person's characteristic or the outer environment. The intensity of frustration, together with the inner inclination intensity, both are changing.

The results of this research show that increase in the degree of sensation seeking would increase the amount of aggression. The reason is that it is not possible to satisfy all human needs, and this causes frustration and frustration, therefore, brings about aggression in people. By considering the role of aggression over the sensation seeking processes, the organizations must create appropriate stimulating systems in implementing real components of sensation seeking. Researches by Dehaghani and Fatemi and Rahnavard, too, showed that components of sensation seeking could make effective and appropriate link between an organization's main parts if appropriate measures and procedures to be adopted. They also maintained that that appropriate sensation making would lead to organizational success through strengthening organizational capabilities.

Freud analyzes all human actions into two instincts: life and death. He says that even death instinct must be discharged, either from outside, in the form of aggression and violence, or within inside in the form of self- destructive acts or suicide. That is why violence cannot be eradicated totally and the upmost solution for it is to sublimate it; that is, to direct energy of this instinct in an acceptable rout and for the benefit of the community; such as exercise, professional competitions and political activities.

According to the above notions, the relation between defense styles and aggression is based on frustration and stress. The "self', in order to prevent frustration and stress, tend towards defense styles. Aggression is also an act a person adopts against stress and frustration. In other word, lack of stress and frustration cancels the need of defense styles. Therefore, the better and more appropriate sensation seeking among an organization's staff, the more optimal the degree of aggression would be. Noting the research findings, the general result thus can be stated:

Applying optimal components of sensation seeking and defense styles among students would lessen the degree of aggression. The degree of aggression among students has been moderate. Moreover, sensation seeking and defense style measures have been applied among high school students in great quantity.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 November 2014

Accepted 29 December 2014

Available online 15 January 2015

REFERENCES

[1] Beirami, Mansour, Tooraj Hashemi, Ali Farhadi, Yazdan Movahedi, 2014. "The role of prediction of sensation seeking, anger and aggression, meaning and purpose in life and motivation in predictin greadiness". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[2] Hajkhodadi, Davood, Zeinab Rezaei, 2014. "The relations between family functions, sensation seeking and aggression in adolescents". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[3] Rezaei, Zeinab, Davoud Hajkhodadi, 2014. "Prediction of addiction to video games correlating to the family functions, sensation seeking and aggression". Sixth International Conference on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association of Iran. University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz.

[4] Schultz, Duane P. Sydney Ellen Schultz, 2005. Theories of Personality. Yahya Seyed Mohammad. (Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.

[5] Marshall Rio, John, 2001. Understanding Motivation and Emotion. Yahya Seyed Mohammad. (Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.

[6] Bond, M., Perry J.C. Lony-Tern, 2004. Changes in Defenese Styles With Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Depressive, AnXiety, and Personality Disorder. AM J Psychiatry, 161-71.

[7] Cramer, P., 2000. Detense mechanisms in Psychology Today. J Am Psychology, 55(6): 637-676.

[8] Zuckerman, M., 1978. Exprence and sensation seeking scale, Jo of Bahavioral assessment, 6(2).

[9] Zuckerman, M., 2000. Sensation seeking trait as a factor in marital adjustment, Journal of sex and marital adjustment, 40: 367-393.

(1) Ali Khalilzadeh, (2) Mortaza Tarkhan, (3) Vahid Khoshravesh

(1) MA, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology

(2) MA Associate Professor at, department of psychology, payamenoor University, Iran.

(3) Faculty member, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology.

Corresponding Author: Ali Khalilzadeh, MA, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon branch, department of psychology.

Table 1: Summary of theories on sensation. Theory Date of Summary theory James-Lange 1884 The oldest theory was proposed by James Lange in 1884. According to this theory, the excitation and action create sensation and we tag sensation to different types of acts and excitement. Cannon-Bard 1920th According to this theory, emotion and autonomic change soccer simultaneously but independently of each other. Psychoanalytic theory 1930 It is perhaps the most comprehensive and influential theory of personality. It aims to emphasize the unconscious motional processes, so it cannot be studied alone and only through introspection. Activation theory 1954 Activation theory of sensation has been raised mainly by Sternberg. This theory does not consider sensation as a special case and in a qualitative viewpoint, it is not different from other states, but it determines the place of sensational behavioron a continuum that encompasses all actions. In this theory, the purpose is to include different aspects of sensation into a single plan. Theory of opposites 1980 In this theory that was presented by Solomon, it is assumed that the brain is organized to suppress the sensational responses and oppositions, whether they are pleasant run pleasant sensations. If an event bring about certain sensational state, the opposite state (which is the desire to eliminate the primary state) will be working shortly after. Zuckerman's theory 1970 Zuckerman defines sensation as "a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experience". Table 2: Summary of different theories and categories of defense mechanism. Theory Description Category Anna Freud she stated that 1- Repression signal anxiety was "not directly a 2- retreat conflicted instinctual tension 3. The reaction but a signal formation occurring in the ego of an anticipated 4. Discretized instinctual tension" 5. Elimination 6. Astral 7- Introjection 8- Return against oneself 9. Switch to the opposite side 10 Greatness- oriented Melanie Klein Children, since 1. Introjection infantry, in order to protect 2. Sharing themselves against the stresses that 3. Projective provoke their identification destructive imaginations, choose certain defense mechanisms: these immense destructive feelings are caused out of the sadistic fear of the breast. Vaillant' George Vaillant 1. pathological viewpoint (2000), one of the defenses (psychotic most famous denial, delusional scientists of projection) Defense and the classification and 2. immature defenses description of it. (fantasy, He divides defense projection, passive into four levels. aggression, acting out) 3 .neurotic defenses (intellectualization, reaction formation, dissociation, displacement, repression) 4.mature defenses (humor, sublimation, suppression, altruism, anticipation) Table 3: Brief summary of theories of Aggression. Biological Theory of The oldest known cause for aggression is more Aggression based on the idea that humans are planned for the biological nature of aggression. The first and most popular theory about this goes back to Sigmund Freud(1933). Frustration and John Dollard et al. believe that aggression is aggression theory always a consequence of frustration and frustration will always lead to aggression. Nothing can be done without the other. Social Learning Aggressive behavior is learned like other Theory social behaviors. Aggression is a social behavior, which is resulted from reward and punishment, and it also can be learned through imitation of models. Table 4-6: The mean, standard deviation and correlation matrix of the elements of sensation seeking and aggressive style of defense. Variable The mean and standard deviation Experience seeking 1/90 [+ or -] 2/80 Adventure seeking (TAS) 2/38 [+ or -] 6/48 Boredom suscuptibilty 1/74 [+ or -] 2/78 Escape from Inhibition 1/83 [+ or -] 3/32 (DIS) Immature 40/86 [+ or -] 130/11 Mature 14/69 [+ or -] 44/85 Neurotic 14/94 [+ or -] 48/08 Variable Aggression(mean and standard r deviation) Experience seeking 15/76 [+ or -] 48/68 0/329 Adventure seeking (TAS) 0/450 Boredom suscuptibilty 0/309 Escape from Inhibition 0/412 (DIS) Immature 0/626 Mature 0/481 Neurotic 0/469 Variable p Experience seeking * 0/000 Adventure seeking (TAS) 0/000 Boredom suscuptibilty 0/000 Escape from Inhibition 0/000 (DIS) Immature 0/000 Mature 0/000 Neurotic 0/000 p [less than or equal to] =0/05 * Table 4-7: The mean, standard deviation and correlation matrix of the components of sensation seeking and aggression. Variable The mean and standard deviation Experience seeking 1/90 [+ or -] 2/80 Adventure seeking 2/38 [+ or -] 6/48 Boredom of susceptibility 1/74 [+ or -] 2/78 Escape from Inhibition 1/83 [+ or -] 3/32 Variable Aggression(mean r p and standard deviation) Experience seeking 15/76 [+ or -] 48/68 0/329 * 0/000 Adventure seeking 0/450 0/000 Boredom of susceptibility 0/309 0/000 Escape from Inhibition 0/412 0/000 Table 4-8: The mean, standard deviation and correlation matrix associated with aggressive defensive style. Variable The mean and standard Aggression(mean and r deviation standard deviation) Immature 40/86 [+ or -] 130/11 15/76 [+ or -] 48/68 0/626 Mature 14/69 [+ or -] 44/85 0/481 Neurotic 14/94 [+ or -] 48/08 0/469 Variable P Immature 0/000 Mature 0/000 Neurotic 0/000

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Author: | Khalilzadeh, Ali; Tarkhan, Mortaza; Khoshravesh, Vahid |
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Publication: | Advances in Environmental Biology |

Article Type: | Report |

Geographic Code: | 7IRAN |

Date: | Nov 1, 2014 |

Words: | 4765 |

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