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A sociolinguistic assessment of the Darwazi speech variety in Afghanistan.

7. Discussion

The following discussion of vitality, attitude, and intelligibility aims to evaluate the findings described in the result section. The discussion relates back to the objective (see '4.2 Objective') and to the research questions (see '4.3 Research Questions'). Again, the objective and the research questions are:

Objective

The objective of this linguistic assessment was to find out whether the Darwazi people can be adequately served with primary school education and literacy programs in Dari, or whether they would benefit from language development in their own speech varieties. If the latter is applies, (a) can the Tangshew people be served with the same material, and (b) might an adaptation of Tajik material be possible?

Research Questions

1. Living conditions: What basic information can we find out about the people groups living in Darwaz (location, population, living conditions, education, infrastructure etc.)?

2. Vitality: What is the long term perspective on the vitality of the Darwaz speech varieties?

3. Attitude: What attitudes do the Darwazi and the Tangshew people have towards their own vernacular, each other's variety, towards Dari, and Tajik?

4. Intelligibility: To what extent are Dari and Tajik intelligible to the Darwazi people? Are the varieties of the different villages mutually intelligible?

Answers to 1 'Living Conditions' are found in '3. Background Information concerning the Darwaz area'.

7.1 Vitality of Darwazi

The objective of this linguistic assessment is linked with the vitality of Darwazi. In case Darwazi is not a speech variety with a high degree of vitality, the development of educational and literacy material might not be needed. The results of the assessment showed that the vitality of Darwazi is complex--in some ways it seems to be strong, but in others vitality is certainly low.

In the article Indicators of Ethnolinguistic Vitality Landweer gives eight factors that indicate the vitality of a language. In a similar way they seem to apply to a speech variety closely related to the lingua franca, as Darwazi (including Tangshew) is to Dari. These factors are: 1. Relative position on the urban-rural continuum; 2. Domains in which the language is used; 3. Frequency and type of code switching; 4. Population and group dynamics; 5. Distribution of speakers within their own social networks; 6. Social outlook regarding and within the speech community; 7. Language prestige; and 8. Access to a stable and acceptable economic base (Landweer 2000). Concerning Darwazi some of these factors give significant clues regarding its vitality.

Concerning factor 1, 'Relative position on the urban-rural continuum', Landweer claims that a language located within urban confines would be more affected by other languages and thus would be weaker than a language remote from an urban community of other-language speakers. The latter applies to Darwazi; the Darwazi people group is secluded from the outside world. Access to Faizabad, the nearest Dari-speaking town, requires long and expensive travel. From some villages it takes more than two weeks to get to Faizabad, especially in winter. Therefore with regard to the urban-rural continuum, at the present time the vitality of Darwazi fares well. Looking into the future, however, the government, with the help of aid organisations, plans to build a motor road through Darwaz, which is eagerly anticipated by the people. This will make access to the Darwazi villages much easier and faster, although it will only be possible to use this road during the summer months. According to this indicator future road access diminishes the vitality of Darwazi.

Factor 2, 'Domains in which the language is used', means that the fewer domains the vernacular occupies, the lower its vitality. Landweer considers the domain of the home to be the foundational domain. The vitality of the vernacular is high if it is used at home, for cultural events, social events, and in other domains. In Darwaz all children in the community learn Darwazi as their first and only language until they start school. Darwazi is the language of the home and community domains. Within the village the Darwazi use Dari only with visitors. Nevertheless, Dari is used in a number of domains where it is spoken frequently (travel and trade, media and administration) or as a formal language (education and religion men especially use Dari in the domain of travel and trade. Even though these are secondary domains this is a threat to the vitality of Darwazi.

Presently, women have less access to the secondary domains than men, they travel less and do not have contact with government officials; nevertheless, most girls attend school now and many listen to the radio. Since regular school education for children has been implemented in most villages almost all children go to school for at least some years. There they acquire Dari as most teachers use it form 3rd grade, using an increasingly higher register in the following grades. Many women regularly listen to the radio, some have also TV. Even though women only have access to the education and media domains, young women do learn Dari to a certain degree. People in Zanif are aware that older illiterate women use more words of the Darwazi speech variety, while young women who went to school use them less. In Zengerya people are aware of the difference of men's and women's speech. Asked about Darwazi words, one man said to another: "Say the words that women use."

Concerning factor 4, 'Population and group dynamics,' Landweer writes that for a language to be vital a critical mass of speakers is crucial. The number of speakers necessary varies according to context. Darwaz has a population of 95 000 people, this is more than the population of some minority languages in Badakhshan with high vitality (e.g. Wakhi, about 12 000 and Sanglechi, about 3000). However, the number is not the main component of this indicator. For a language to be vital a core of fluent speakers is necessary. It is crucial how the group of speakers is impacted by the language characteristics of immigrants who have come to live among them. A few men from aid agencies, like doctors for the clinics, have moved to Darwaz. They are from other parts of the country and speak Dari. The Darwazi men use Dari with them. However, the women, who come from outside and get married to Darwazi speaking men, acquire the Darwazi speech variety and adopt it for themselves. Men and women who come from outside to live in Darwaz are few. The implication here for the vitality of Darwazi is neither positive nor negative, but rather neutral.

Factor 6 'Social outlook regarding and within the speech community' means that strong ethnic identity can influence language choice. The perception a group has of itself can support or undermine the value associated with the language and the use of the language. According to Landweer, the crucial question is: "Is there internal and/or external recognition of the language community as separate and unique within the broader society?" The Darwazi speech variety is neither internally nor externally recognized. In villages adjoining the Darwaz area people say that the Darwazi speak Dari, just a bit differently. The Darwazi people themselves also claim to speak Dari and only after some probing they explain that they speak "the dialect of Darwaz". The many women who have not been outside the Darwaz area are often not aware that their speech variety is different to those spoken in other parts of Badakhshan. There is no pride or sense of identity in being Darwazi; people predominantly perceive themselves as poor and in need of material help. This situation does not indicate high vitality of Darwazi.

Factor 8, 'Access to a stable and acceptable economic base' seems to be crucial for this discussion. People adopt a language because they perceive it as economically beneficial. The statements concerning the perceived benefit of Darwazi and Dari showed that for finding work Dari is perceived as useful or even highly useful, while Darwazi is perceived as 'only a little useful' or even 'not useful'. As harvests are poor, travel has become more and more essential for people to secure their survival. Men frequently travel to Faizabad, where they are exposed to and speak Dari. This has been changing the men's language and is likely to change it even more in the future. Confirming this, in Retow people reported: "Now many travel to Faizabad. Therefore our language has become more like other parts of Badakhshan." In Narghaw people said that men who go to the bazaar in Faizabad on a regular basis modify their language. They added that this would gradually influence the language of the village community back in Darwaz as well. In Zengerya people said concerning the future: "Children speak the local dialect at home, but when they grow older and travel to town their language will change." They also mentioned the frequent travel to Iran: "When men go to Iran to work there they have to adjust their speech. Otherwise they will be recognized as Afghans and sent home."

In summary, it is likely that the use of Darwazi will decline very slowly, over several generations. A man in Retow predicted: "I learned the language of my grandfather, but now the language has changed." The people report that the old generation speaks differently from the middle generation and the young generation again speaks differently. In Narghaw the researchers named some dialect words they had heard in other villages. The people said that these words had been used in the old days but are now not used any more. In Qala-e Kuf (the village where the motor road starts) a man said that their local language is disappearing. He said to the researchers (who spoke Dari): "Now we talk more like you are talking."

7.2 Attitudes towards Darwazi, Dari and Tajik

As the data in the results section indicates, the attitude towards Darwazi (including Tangshew) is indifferent and somehow ambiguous. Dari is viewed very positively. The attitude towards Tajik is between indifferent and negative.

When people were directly asked for their opinion of their language, they said that their vernacular is a good one and they like it very much. A third of all groups that commented on the subject agreed that they would prefer their children to become literate in Darwazi and would like to have books in Darwazi themselves. Almost everyone expects their children and grandchildren to speak Darwazi when they grow up and everyone professed to be happy about that fact.

However, although positive attitudes towards Darwazi were expressed, a number of comments made it obvious that the Darwazi people perceive their speech variety as inferior to Dari. In Darra-e Sher the researchers named Darwazi words they had learned in previous villages and asked whether people understand and use them as well. The people responded by laughing about the words; they seemed to be embarrassed by them. In the same village, while eliciting the word list, the group talked about words used in the local valley compared to words used in the city. Some people commented that the (Dari) words used in the city are better. Likewise in Warw people said that they want their language and culture to improve, therefore they prefer to use Dari. In Ghumay the people commented that Darwazi was an ancient language and that it was from the village. Likewise, in Jarf the people claimed that their speech was an old and simple language. In the school in Maymay, while talking to the male teachers, the head teacher insisted with vehemence that in his village people speak Dari, not speak a dialect (as another teacher had told us). According to his definition, the difference between a dialect and a language is that a language has a written form while a dialect does not. In school the teachers and children use the written form of Dari, as everyone literate does for writing; therefore, according to him, people do not speak a dialect in the village. In Laron when the researchers used Darwazi words they had learned in previous villages, the people responded that these were words used in the villages further up the river, it seemed they wanted to distance themselves from dialect words. But taking the word list it became clear that these words were used in Laron as well. Through these comments people expressed a negative attitude towards their vernacular.

When asked what language is spoken in the village, people usually first answered with Dari or Farsi. Only when further probed they came up with different names, or rather explanations and descriptions for their speech variety, like "local dialect" or "the dialect of Darwaz" (see '2.3 Language classification'). The fact that people do not have a unifying name for their speech variety indicates that there is no special awareness of the vernacular. Many people display an indifferent attitude towards their speech variety, no positive attitude or pride.

The attitude towards Dari is very positive. Two thirds of the groups who commented on the subject like seeing their children literate in Dari, as they are now. Almost everyone would permit their children to marry a Dari-speaking spouse, the only objection being that it is too far for their daughters and they would become homesick. In fact already many parents have married their daughters to Dari-speaking men living in one of the towns of Badakhshan. People perceive Dari as being very useful for finding work, for higher education, and for communication with other villages. Likewise, Dari is seen as more useful than Darwazi for gaining respect in the home village even though it is not needed for communication there. Dari is considered the language of the city and the language of progress and success. The Darwazi people's attitude towards Dari is very positive.

Attitudes towards Tajik range from indifferent to negative. Tajik is perceived as only a little useful in the areas of work, education, and communication with other communities. Surprisingly Tajik is perceived as useful by some people to gain respect in the home community. This might be because people who understand Tajik are those who communicate with the Tajik engineers who occasionally come to some villages to survey the terrain for the eagerly anticipated street building project. Besides this, most people choose to listen to Tajik radio and a few rich households watch Tajik television.

However, many complain that Tajik people do not help them in their daily struggle and therefore they can not be good people. The people in the villages at the bank of the Panj river have the paved road, frequented by cars and trucks, and poles for the electricity lines, constantly before their eyes. This provokes envy in the Darwazi people and enhances a negative attitude towards Tajik. The men in Ubaghn spelled out what other people only suggested cautiously: "The Tajiks are not good people; they are our neighbours but they do not help us." Tajik achieved the lowest result in the 'Perceived Benefit' section. People are of the opinion that Tajik is not useful in Afghanistan, however, it can be understood since it is very close to Dari and to Darwazi.

If there were a choice to be made between using an adaption of Tajik primary school literature and reading material or Dari literacy material in Darwaz, Dari should be chosen. This is because attitudes towards Dari are more positive than those towards Tajik, and for the Darwazi people Dari is easier to understand than Tajik (see '6.3.3 Reported intelligibility between the Darwazi varieties, of Dari, and Tajik'). As an adaptation of Tajik into Darwazi is not a suitable option, it will not be discussed further in the following sections.

7.3 Intelligibility of Dari

The lexical similarity between the varieties of Darwazi spoken in the different villages is 86% on average and people uniformly report that they understand each other's variety without any difficulty (see '6.3.1 Lexical similarity of Darwazi varieties, and of Darwazi and Dari' and '6.3.3 Reported intelligibility between the Darwazi varieties, of Dari, and Tajik). This includes the villages in the Tangshew valley. However, the question of the intelligibility of Dari remains, as does that of whether Dari is suitable for literacy and school education in primary schools.

According to self-reported information, most people understand Dari well. Adult men understand the most Dari: they understand nearly everything. Older women and children understand the least: about half of what is said to them. Older men and adult women are somewhere in between: they understand most of what is said in Dari but not everything.

The reported information roughly matches up with the results of the RTTs. The average result of people with contact level 1 is 54%, this segment predominantly consists of women who have not been travelling and have not had the chance to benefit from school education. The average result of people with contact level 4 is 92%; these are mainly men who have had regular contact with Dari speaking people through travel or an extended stay in a Dari-speaking area. The average result of all subjects is 74%. According to Blair, generally test results over 80% are considered high and under 60% low (Blair 1997). Grimes writes that test results lower than 70% indicate the presence of different languages. Results higher than 85% indicate good communication between the speech varieties and the presence of one language (Grimes 1997). He continues that a result between these two numbers indicates marginal intelligibility. A noteworthy result of the RTT tests is that people who have had very little contact with Dari speakers achieved a much higher result if they attended school for several years. Presently, children of both genders attend at least primary school. They seem to acquire Dari within a relatively short time as teachers usually start using Dari in grade 3 and gradually use it more in higher grades; also the school books are written in Dari. When the present student generation grows up they (both boys and girls) will be able to understand Dari well. The multiple regular sound changes between Dari and Darwazi (see '6.3.1 Lexical Similarity of Darwazi varieties, and of Darwazi and Dari') also indicate that it is possible to acquire Dari quite rapidly after a brief time of getting used to it. For these reasons the Darwazi people will probably acquire understanding of Dari in the future generations.

It is also likely that lexical similarity of Dari and Darwazi will increase as people tend to use more Dari and less Darwazi words. Presently, men use more Dari words than women do, as they are more exposed to Dari. It is to be expected that in future when more women have the chance to benefit from education, they will increasingly use Dari vocabulary as well. Therefore, inherent intelligibility is likely to grow as well as acquired intelligibility, as the Darwazi increasingly include more Dari words and forms in their speech. A reflection of this will be a higher lexical similarity between the two speech forms.

Even though presently the degree of intelligibility of Dari to the Darwazi people varies greatly among the different segments of population, for example men understanding much more Dari than women, there seems to be a clear tendency that in the years to come the number of people who understand Dari well will increase gradually. Taking these factors into consideration, it is apparent that the potential for gradual language shift, away from Darwazi, to Dari, should not be ignored.

8. Recommendation

Considering the data outlined in this report, we recommend that a language development programme in the speech variety of Darwazi not be started, but rather that Dari continue to be used for school books and for adult literacy classes.

This recommendation is primarily based on two factors: the Darwazi people's language attitudes, and language vitality. First many of the Darwazi people would not want and appreciate such a programme. In general the Darwazi people hold a neutral attitude towards their vernacular, while in some villages they even expressed a negative attitude. The Darwazi people do not view their speech variety as a separate language; this is indicated by the fact that they do not have a separate name for it but call it a lahja-e dari 'dialect of Dari'. Second, in the future the comprehension of Dari is likely to increase in a major way while the use of Darwazi is likely to decline. Contact with Dari speakers in the cities is increasing as there are hardly any opportunities for work in Darwaz; besides this, road access to Faizabad is feasible in a few years' time. Already now, men are getting used to Dari and are speaking it in their village. Elderly women are the ones who speak most Darwazi. It is likely that the use of Darwazi will decline in the future.

The number of children attending school has been growing in significant numbers over the previous ten years. Therefore the majority of the future adult generation will be literate. Teachers use Darwazi in school in lower grades and change to Dari (first the variety spoken in cities, like Faizabad or Kabul, then higher, written Dari) in higher grades. Children acquire Dari in school through a process of slowly getting accustomed to it, without having major disadvantages compared to children of parents who speak the variety of Dari used in Faizabad or Kabul. People do not depend on the development of their vernacular into a written form for school education, they are able to benefit from the teaching already offered in Darwazi and Dari, and from the written educational material in Dari
Appendix A: Word List Results (5)

      Engl.        Dari   Dari (6)        Retow          Khizaw
                          IPA

1.    I-1s         [??]   ma              mun            mun
2.    you-2s       [??]   tu              tu             tu
3.    he/she-3s    [??]   u               u              u
4.    we-1p        [??]   mc              mc             mc
5.    you-2p       [??]   fu'mc           fu'mc          fu'mc
6.    they-3p      [??]   u'nc            u'nc           u'nc
7.    who          [??]   ki:             ki:            ki:
8.    what         [??]   tfi:            tfi:           tfi:
9.    where        [??]   ku'dzc          kc             kc
10.   when         [??]   tfi waxt        tfi waxt       tfi waxt
11.   how many     [??]   tfant           tfant          tfant
12.   this         [??]   i:              i:n            i:
13.   that         [??]   u:              u:             u:
14.   these        [??]   i'nc            i'nc           i'nc
15.   those        [??]   u'nc            u'nc           u'nc
16.   far          [??]   du:r            dY:r           dY:r
17.   near         [??]   naz'di:k        qa'ri:b        naz'di:k
18.   down/below   [??]   pc'jin          baj'tak        baj'tak
19.   up/above     [??]   bc'lc           baj'tc:r       baj'tc:r
20.   come NP      [??]   'mjcja          'mjcja         'bYuma
      come P       [??]   'cmat           'cmat          'uma
21.   sit NP       [??]   'mifina         'mifina        'mifina
      sit P        [??]   fift            fist           fist
22.   stand NP     [??]   est'cd          wud3           wud3
                   [??]   'mefa           fist ast       fist ast
      stand P      [??]   est'ct          wudz           wudz
                   [??]   fut             fi:            fi:
23.   lie down     [??]   dar'cz          dar'cz         dar'cz
      NP           [??]   'mekafa         'mekafa       'meku na
      lie down     [??]   dar'cs          dar'cs         dar'cs
      P            [??]   ka'fit          ka'fit         ka'fit
24.   give NP      [??]   'meta           'meta          'meta
      give P       [??]   dct             dct            dct
25.   walk NP      [??]   'mera           'merawa        'merawa
      walk P       [??]   raft            raft           raft
      fly (bird)   [??]   'mepara         'mepara        'mepara
26.   NP
      fly (bird)   [??]   pa'rit          pa'rit         pa'rit
      P
27.   wash NP      [??]   'mefcja         'mefcja        'mefcja
      wash P       [??]   fuft            fust           fust
      split NP     [??]   maj'da          re'za          re'za
28.                [??]   'mekuna         'mekuna        'mekuna
      split P      [??]   maj'da          re'za          re'za kat
                   [??]   kat             kat
      dig NP       [??]   bel             pc'bel         pc'bel
29.                [??]   'mezana         'mekuna        'mekuna
      dig P        [??]   bel zat         pc'bel         pc'bel
                                          kat            kat
      squeeze      [??]   pu'tfuq         lc'yat         'me-
30.   NP           [??]   'mekuna         'mekuna        yawza
      squeeze      [??]   pu'tfuq         lc'yat         'be-
      P            [??]   kat             kat            yawzid
31.   night        [??]   faw             faw            faw
32.   day          [??]   ru:s            ru:s           ro:s
33.   one          [??]   jak             jak            jak
34.   two          [??]   du:             du:            du:
35.   three        [??]   se:             se:            se:
36.   four         [??]   tfc:r           tfc:r          tfc:r
37.   five         [??]   pandz           pandz          pandz
38.   six          [??]   faf             faf            faf
39.   seven        [??]   aft             aft            aft
40.   eight        [??]   aft             aft            aft
41.   nine         [??]   no:             no:            no:
42.   ten          [??]   da              da             da
43.   eleven       [??]   jcz'da          jcz'da         jcz'da
44.   twelve       [??]   dwcz'da         dwcz'da        dwcz'da
45.   twenty       [??]   bist            bist           bist
46.   hundred      [??]   sat             sat            sat
47.   all          [??]   ta'mcm          'ama           'ama
48.   many         [??]   zjct            pur            pur
49.   few          [??]   kam             kam            kam
50.   big          [??]   ka'lcn          ka'ta          ka'ta
51.   small        [??]   xurt            maj'da         maj'da
52.   long         [??]   da'rcs          de'rc:s        de'rc:s
53.   short        [??]   ko'tc           ko'ta          ko'ta
54.   sun          [??]   af'taw          af'taw         ef'tcw
55.   moon         [??]   ma'taw          ma'taw         ma'taw
56.   star         [??]   setc'ra         setc'ra        setc'ra
57.   water        [??]   cw              cw             cw
58.   rain         [??]   bc'rcn          bc'rcn         bc'run
59.   stone        [??]   sank            sank           sank
60.   sand         [??]   re:k            re:k           re:k
61.   earth        [??]   ze'mi:n         ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n
62.   cloud        [??]   abr             abr            awr
63.   smoke        [??]   dut             dYx            dYx
64.   fire         [??]   c'tef           a'lcw          a'lcw
65.   ash          [??]   xckes'tar       xckes'tar      xckes'tar
66.   mountain     [??]   ko:             ko:            ko:
67.   tree         [??]   de'raxt         de'raxt        de'raxt
68.   seed         [??]   'tuxem          'tuxem         'tuxem
69.   leaf         [??]   bark            bark           bark
70.   root         [??]   ri'[??]a        ri'fa          ri'fa
71    bark         [??]   'puste          'puste         'puste
                   [??]   de'raxt         de'raxt        de'raxt
72.   fish         [??]   mc'i:           mc'i:          mc'i:
73.   bird         [??]   paren'da        paren'da       paren'da
74.   dog          [??]   sa:k            sa:k           sa:k
75.   goat         [??]   bus             bus            bus
76.   sheep        [??]   gos'fant        me:f           me:f
77.   chicken      [??]   murx            murx           murx
78.   cow          [??]   gaw             gcw            gcw
79.   ant          [??]   mur'tfa         mur'tfYk       mur'tfYk
80.   woman        [??]   zan             zan            zan
81.   man          [??]   mart            ma'rak         mardi'na
82.   person       [??]   na'far          na'far         na'far
83.   skin         [??]   pust            pust           pust
84.   flesh/meat   [??]   go:f]t          go:ft          go:ft
85.   bone         [??]   ustu'xcn        Yste'ycn       ax'sun
86.   grease/fat   [??]   dum'ba          dum'ba         dum'ba
87.   egg          [??]   'tuxem          'tuxem         'tuxem
88.   horn         [??]   fcx             fcx            fcx
89.   tail         [??]   dum             dum            dum
90.   feather      [??]   pa:r            pa:r           pa:r
91.   hair (on     [??]   mu:j            mu:            mu:
      head)
92.   head         [??]   sa:r            sa:r           sa:r
93.   ear          [??]   go:f            go:f           go:f
94.   nose         [??]   bi:'ni:         bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:
95.   eye          [??]   tfafm           tfafm          tfafm
96.   mouth        [??]   da:n            da:n           da:n
97.   tooth        [??]   dan'dcn         dan'dcn        dan'dcn
98.   tongue       [??]   za'bcn          zu:n           zu:n
99.   foot         [??]   pcj             pc:'tfYk       pc:'tfYk
100   knee         [??]   zc'nu           zc'nu          zc'ni
101   hand         [??]   dest            dest           dest
102   finger       [??]   an'guft         pan'dza        pan'dza
103   belly        [??]   fe'kam          fe'kam         fe'kam
104   neck         [??]   gar'dan         gar'an         gar'an
105   heart        [??]   Qalp            del            del
106   liver        [??]   dzi'gar         dzi'gar        dzi'gar
107   back         [??]   puft            ar'qa          ar'qa
108   drink NP     [??]   'mexcra         'mexcra        'mexcra
      drink P      [??]   xurt            xurt           xurt
109   eat NP       [??]   'mexcra         'mexcra        'mexcra
      eat P        [??]   xurt            xurt           xurt
      bite NP      [??]   qab             'megira        'megira
110                [??]   'mezana
      bite P       [??]   qab zat         'begirift      'begirift
111   see NP       [??]   'mibina         'mibina        'mibina
      see P        [??]   di:t            di:t           di:t
112   hear NP      [??]   'mifnawa        'mifnawa       'mifnawa
      hear P       [??]   fu'nit          'fenawit       'fenawit
113   know NP      [??]   'mefcma         'meduna        'meduna
      know P       [??]   fc'mit          'dunist        'dunist
114   sleep NP     [??]   xaw             xaw            xaw
                   [??]   'mekuna         'mekuna        kuna'mi
      sleep P      [??]   xaw kat         xaw kat        xaw kat
115   die NP       [??]   'memura         'bemYr         'bemYr
      die P        [??]   murt            'bemYr         'bemYr
116   think NP     [??]   fekr            tfurd          tfurd
                   [??]   'mekuna         'mezana        'zaname
      think P      [??]   fekr kat        tfurd          tfurd zc
                                          mezanat
117   say/speak    [??]   gap             gap            gap
      NP           [??]   'mezana         'mezana        'zaname
      say/speak    [??]   gap zat         gap zat        gap zc
      P
118   kill         [??]   'mekufa         'mekfa         'mekfa
      kill         [??]   kuft            kuft           kuft
119   red          [??]   surx            surx           surx
120   green        [??]   Sabs            sabs           sabs
121   yellow       [??]   zart            zart           zart
122   white        [??]   sa'fet          sa'fet         sa'fet
123   black        [??]   sjc             sjc            sjc
124   warm         [??]   garm            garm           garm
125   cold         [??]   sart            xu'nuk         xu'nuk
126   full         [??]   pur             pur            pur
127   empty        [??]   xc'li           xc'li          xc'li
128   new          [??]   Naw             naw            naw
129   old          [??]   ko:'na          ku:'na         ku:'na
130   round        [??]   gurt            gurt           gurt
131   dry          [??]   xufk            xufk           qcq
132   wet          [??]   ta:r            ta:r           ta:r
133   good         [??]   xup             xup            xup
134   bad          [??]   ba:t            ba:t           ba:t
135   mother       [??]   mc'da:r         mc'da:r        na'nik
136   father       [??]   pa'da:r         pa'da:r        bc'ba
137   husband      [??]   faw'har         fu:            fu:
138   wife         [??]   xc'nim          zan            zan
139   child        [??]   tefl            tfe-           ko'dak
                   [??]                   'ye:rYk
140   son          [??]   ba'tfa          ba'tfa         ba'tfa
141   daughter     [??]   dux'ta:r        dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r
142   village      [??]   qar'ja          qar'ja         qar'ja
143   house        [??]   xc'na           xc'na          xu'na
144   hammer       [??]   tfa'kuf         bcli'qa        bcli'qa
145   knife        [??]   tfc'qu          kcr'tfa        kcr'tfa
146   path/        [??]   pjcda'raw       ra             ra
      road
147   name         [??]   nc:m            nc:m           nu:m

      Engl.        Darra-e        Warw           Ghumay
                   Sher

1.    I-1s         mun            ma             ma
2.    you-2s       tu             tu             tu
3.    he/she-3s    u              u              u
4.    we-1p        mc             mc             mc
5.    you-2p       fu'mc          fu'mc          fu'mc
6.    they-3p      u'nc           u'nc           u'nc
7.    who          ki:            ki:            ki:
8.    what         tfi:           tfi:           tfi:
9.    where        kc             ku'dzc         ku'dzc
10.   when         tfi waxt       tfi waxt       tfi waxt
11.   how many     tfant          tfant          tfant
12.   this         nain           i:             i:
13.   that         jow            u:             u:
14.   these        nain           i'nc           i'nc
15.   those        najow          u'nc           u'nc
16.   far          du:r           du:r           dY:r
17.   near         naz'di:k       naz'di:k       naz'di:k
18.   down/below   baj'tak        baj'tak        baj'tak
19.   up/above     baj'tc:r       baj'tc:r       baj'tc:r
20.   come NP      'bYuma         'mjcja         'mjcja
      come P       'uma           'cmat          'cmat
21.   sit NP       'mifina        'mifina        'mifina
      sit P        fist           fift           fist
22.   stand NP     wudz ast       est'cd         tfixt
                                  mefa
      stand P      wudz ast       est'ct         tfix
                                  fut            fift
23.   lie down     dar'cz         dar'cz         dar'cz
      NP            'mekafa       mekafa         'mekafa
      lie down     dar'cs         dar'cs         dar'cs
      P            ka'fit         ka'fit         ka'fit
24.   give NP      'meta          'meta          'meta
      give P       dct            dct            dct
25.   walk NP      'merawa        'merawa        'mera
      walk P       raft           raft           raft
      fly (bird)   'mepara        'mepara        'mepara
26.   NP
      fly (bird)   pa'rit         pa'rit         pa'rit
      P
27.   wash NP      'mefcja        'mefcja        'mefcja
      wash P       fust           fust           fust
      split NP     xYr            maj'da         xYr
28.                'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      split P      xYr kat        maj'da         xYr kat
                                  kat
      dig NP       pc'bel         bel            bel
29.                'mekuna        'mezana        'mezana
      dig P        pc'bel         bel zat        bel zat
                   kat
      squeeze      lc'yat         pu'tfuq        pu'tfuq
30.   NP           'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      squeeze      pyt fi:        pu'tfuq        pu'tfuq
      P                           kat            kat
31.   night        faw            fap            faw
32.   day          ru:s           ru:s           ru:s
33.   one          jak            jak            jak
34.   two          du:            du:            du:
35.   three        se:            se:            se:
36.   four         tfc:r          tfc:r          tfc:r
37.   five         pandz          pandz          pandz
38.   six          faf            faf            faf
39.   seven        aft            aft            aft
40.   eight        aft            aft            aft
41.   nine         no:            no:            no:
42.   ten          da             da             da
43.   eleven       jcz'da         jcz'da         jcz'da
44.   twelve       dwcz'da        dwcz'da        dwcz'da
45.   twenty       bist           bist           bist
46.   hundred      sat            sat            sat
47.   all          'ama           ta'mcm         'ama
48.   many         zjct           pur            pur
49.   few          kam            kam            kam
50.   big          ka'ta          ka'ta          ka'ta
51.   small        maj'da         maj'da         maj'da
52.   long         de'rc:s        da'rcs         da'rcs
53.   short        ko'ta          ko'tc          ko'tc
54.   sun          af'tcw         af'taw         af'taw
55.   moon         ma'taw         ma'taw         ma'taw
56.   star         setc'ra        setc'ra        setc'ra
57.   water        cw             cw             cw
58.   rain         bc'ron         bc'rcn         bc'rcn
59.   stone        sank           sank           sank
60.   sand         re:k           re:k           re:k
61.   earth        ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n
62.   cloud        abr            abr            abr
63.   smoke        dYt            dut            dut
64.   fire         c'taf          c'taf          a'lcw
65.   ash          xckes'tar      xckes'tar      xckes'tar
66.   mountain     ko:            ko:            ko:
67.   tree         de'raxt        de'raxt        de'raxt
68.   seed         'tuxem         'tuxem         'tuxem
69.   leaf         bark           bark           bark
70.   root         ri'fa          ri'fa          ri'fa
71    bark         'puste         'puste         'puste
                   de'raxt        de'raxt        de'raxt
72.   fish         mc'i:          mc'i:          mc'i:
73.   bird         paren'da       paren'da       paren'da
74.   dog          sa:k           sa:k           sa:k
75.   goat         bus            bus            bus
76.   sheep        me:f           gos'fant       me:f
77.   chicken      murx           murx           murx
78.   cow          gcw            gcw            gaw
79.   ant          murtfa'xa      mur'tfYk       mur'tfYk
80.   woman        zan            zan            zan
81.   man          mart           mart           mart
82.   person       na'far         na'far         na'far
83.   skin         pust           pust           pust
84.   flesh/meat   go:ft          go:ft          go:ft
85.   bone         Yste'ycn       aste'yun       aste'yun
86.   grease/fat   dum'ba         dum'ba         dum'ba
87.   egg          'tuxem         'tuxem         'tuxem
88.   horn         fcx            fcx            fcx
89.   tail         dum            dum            dum
90.   feather      pa:r           pa:r           pa:r
91.   hair (on     mu:            mu:j           mu:
      head)
92.   head         sa:r           sa:r           sa:r
93.   ear          go:f           go:f           go:f
94.   nose         bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:
95.   eye          tfafm          tfafm          tfafm
96.   mouth        da:n           da:n           da'han
97.   tooth        dan'dcn        dan'dcn        dan'dcn
98.   tongue       za'bcn         za'bcn         za'bcn
99.   foot         pc:            pcj            pc
100   knee         zc'nu          zc'nu          zc'nu
101   hand         dast           dast           dest
102   finger       pan'dza        an'guft        an'guft
103   belly        fe'kam         fe'kam         fe'kam
104   neck         gar'dan        gar'dan        gar'dan
105   heart        qalp           del            del
106   liver        dzi'gar        dzi'gar        dzi'gar
107   back         ar'qa          puft           puft
108   drink NP     'mexcra        'mexcra        'mexcra
      drink P      xurt           xurt           xurt
109   eat NP       'mexcra        'mexcra        'mexcra
      eat P        xurt           xurt           xurt
      bite NP      qap            qab            'megira
110                'mezana        'mezana
      bite P       qap zat        qab zat        gi'rift
111   see NP       'mibina        'mibina        'mibina
      see P        di:t           di:t           di:t
112   hear NP      'mifnawa       'mifnawa       'mifnawa

      hear P       'fenawit       'fenawit       fu'nit
113   know NP      'meduna        'mefcma        'mefcma
      know P       'dunist        fc'mit         fc'mit
114   sleep NP     xaw            xaw            xaw
                   'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      sleep P      xaw kat        xaw kat        xaw kat
115   die NP       'memura        'memura        'memura
      die P        murt           murt           murt
116   think NP     fakr           fakr           fakr
                   'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      think P      fekr kat       fekr kat       fekr kat

117   say/speak    gap            gap            gap
      NP           'mezana        'mezana        'mezana
      say/speak    gap zat        gap zat        gap zat
      P
118   kill         'mekfa         'mekfa         'mekufa
      kill         kuft           kuft           kuft
119   red          surx           surx           surx
120   green        sabs           sabs           sabs
121   yellow       zart           zart           zart
122   white        sa'fet         sa'fet         sa'fet
123   black        sjc            sjc            sjc
124   warm         garm           garm           garm
125   cold         xu'nuk         xu'nuk         xu'nuk
126   full         pur            pur            pur
127   empty        xc'li          xc'li          xc'li
128   new          naw            naw            naw
129   old          ku:'na         ko:'na         ko:'na
130   round        gurt           gurt           gurt
131   dry          xufk           xufk           xufk
132   wet          ta:r           ta:r           ta:r
133   good         xup            xup            xup
134   bad          ba:t           ba:t           ba:t
135   mother       na'nik         mc'da:r        u'ma
136   father       bc'ba          pa'da:r        bc'ba
137   husband      fu:            fu:            fu:
138   wife         zan            zan            za'nak
139   child        tfe-           tfe-           ko'dak
                   'yerYk         'yerYk
140   son          ba'tfa         ba'tfa         ba'tfa
141   daughter     dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r
142   village      qar'ja         qar'ja         qar'ja
143   house        xc'na          xc'na          xc'na
144   hammer       bcli'qa        bcli'qa        bcli'qa
145   knife        kcr'tfa        kcr'tfa        kcr'tfa
146   path/        rc             rc             ra
      road
147   name         nc:m           nc:m           nc:m

      Engl.        Jumarj-        Zanif          Mayma y
                   e Bala

1.    I-1s         mun            man            mun
2.    you-2s       tu             tu             tu
3.    he/she-3s    u              u              u
4.    we - 1p      mc             mc             mc
5.    you-2p       fu'mc          fu'mc          fu'mc
6.    they-3p      u'nc           u'nc           u'nc
7.    who          ki:            ki:            ki:
8.    what         tfi:            tfi:          tfi:
9.    where        ku'dzc         kc             kc
10.   when         kaj waxt       tfi waxt       kaj waxt
11.   how many     tfant          tfant          tfant
12.   this         i:             i:             i:
13.   that         u:             u:             u:
14.   these        i'nc           i'nc           i'nc
15.   those        u'nc           u'nc           u'nc
16.   far          dY:r           dY:r           dY:r
17.   near         qa'rip         naz'di:k       qa'rip
18.   down/below   baj'tak        baj'tak        kala'pc
19.   up/above     baj'tc:r       baj'tcr        lebc'lc
20.   come NP      'mjcja         'mjcja         'mecja
      come P       'uma           'cmat          'umat
21.   sit NP       'mifina        'mifina        'mifina
      sit P        fist           fist           fist
22.   stand NP     'mexeza        est'cd         est'cd
                                  'mefa          'mefa
      stand P      xest           est'ct         tfixt
                                  fi:            kat
23.   lie down     fer'cz         dar'cz         dar'cz
      NP           mekafa         mekafa         mekafa
      lie down     dar'cs         dar'cs         dar'cs
      P            ka'fit         ka'fit         ka'fit
24.   give NP      'meda          'meda          'meda
      give P       dc             dct            dct
25.   walk NP      'merawa        'merawa        'merawa
      walk P       raft           raft           raft
      fly (bird)   'mepara        'mepara        'mepara
26.   NP
      fly (bird)   pa'rit         pa'rit         pa'rit
      P
27.   wash NP      'mefcja        'mefcja        'mefcja
      wash P       fust           fuft           fust
      split NP     xYr            xYr            xYr
28.                'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      split P      xYr kat        xYr kat        xYr kat

      dig NP       bel            bel            bel
29.                'mezana        'mezana        'mezana
      dig P        bel zat        bel zat        bel zat

      squeeze      lc'yat         lc'yat         lc'yat
30.   NP           'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      squeeze      lc'yat kat     lc'yat kat     lc'yat
      P                                          kat
31.   night        fap            fap            fap
32.   day          ru:s           ru:s           ru:s
33.   one          jak            jak            jak
34.   two          du:            du:            du:
35.   three        se:            se:            se:
36.   four         tfc:r          tfc:r          tfc:r
37.   five         pandz          pandz          pandz
38.   six          faf            faf            faf
39.   seven        aft            aft            aft
40.   eight        aft            aft            aft
41.   nine         no:            no:            no:
42.   ten          da             da             da
43.   eleven       jcz'da         jcz'da         jcz'da
44.   twelve       dwcz'da        dwcz'da        dwcz'da
45.   twenty       bist           bist           bist
46.   hundred      sat            sat            sat
47.   all          'ama           'ama           'ama
48.   many         pur            pur            pur
49.   few          an'dak         kam            kam
50.   big          ka'ta          ka'ta          ka'ta
51.   small        rez'gak        maj'da         maj'dak
52.   long         da'rcs         da'rcs         da'rcs
53.   short        kot'kak        pas'tak        kote'kak
54.   sun          af'taw         af'taw         af'tcw
55.   moon         ma'taw         ma'taw         ma'taw
56.   star         setc'ra        setc'ra        setc'ra
57.   water        cw             cw             cw
58.   rain         bc'rYf         bc'run         bc'run
59.   stone        sank           sank           sank
60.   sand         re:k           re:k           re:k
61.   earth        ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n
62.   cloud        awr            awr            awr
63.   smoke        dYx            dYx            dux
64.   fire         a'lcw          a'lcw          a'lcw
65.   ash          xckes'tar      xckes'tar      xckes'tar
66.   mountain     ko:            ko:            ko:
67.   tree         de'raxt        de'raxt        de'raxt
68.   seed         'tuxem         'tuxem         'tuxem
69.   leaf         bark           bark           bark
70.   root         ri'fa          ri'fa          ri'fa
71    bark         'pYste         'puste         'po:ste
                   de'raxt        de'raxt        de'raxt
72.   fish         mc'i:          mc'i:          mc'i:
73.   bird         paren'da       paren'da       paren'da
74.   dog          sa:k           sa:k           sa:k
75.   goat         bus            bus            bus
76.   sheep        me:f           me:f           me:f
77.   chicken      murx           murx           murx
78.   cow          gcw            gcw            gcw
79.   ant          mur'tfYk       mur'tfYk       mur'tfYk
80.   woman        za'nak         za'nak         za'nak
81.   man          ma'rak         ma'rak         mart
82.   person       na'far         na'far         na'far
83.   skin         pust           pust           pust
84.   flesh/meat   go:ft          go:ft          go:ft
85.   bone         aste'yun       Yste'ycn       aste'yun
86.   grease/fat   dum'ba         dum'ba         dum'ba
87.   egg          'tuxem         'tuxem         'tuxem
88.   horn         fcx            fcx            fcx
89.   tail         dum            dum            dum
90.   feather      pa:r           pa:r           pa:r
91.   hair (on     mu:            mu             mu:
      head)
92.   head         ka'la          ka'la          sa:r
93.   ear          go:f           go:f           go:f
94.   nose         bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:
95.   eye          tfafm          tfafm          tfafm
96.   mouth        da'han         da'han         da'han
97.   tooth        dan'dun        dan'dcn        dan'dun
98.   tongue       zu:n           zu:n           zu:n
99.   foot         pc:'tfYk       pc             pc:'tfYk
100   knee         zc'ni          zc'ni          zc'nu
101   hand         dest           dast           dest
102   finger       kelk           kelk           tfe'lik
103   belly        fe'kam         fe'kam         fe'kam
104   neck         mak            gar'dan        gar'dan
105   heart        del            qalp           del
106   liver        dzi'gar        dzi'gar        dzi'gar
107   back         puft           pYft           ar'qa
108   drink NP     ' xurma        'xurmej        xur
      drink P      xYr            xurt           'baxur
109   eat NP       'xurma         'xurmej        xur
      eat P        xYr            xurt           'baxur
      bite NP      'megira        'megira        qab
110                                              'mezana
      bite P       gi'rift        gi'rift        qab zat
111   see NP       'mibina        'mibina        'mibina
      see P        di:t           di:t           di:t
112   hear NP      'mifnawa       'mifnawa       'mifnawa
      hear P       'fenawit       fu'nit         'fenawit
113   know NP      'meduna        'meduna        'meduna
      know P       'dunist        'donist        badunist
114   sleep NP     xaw            xaw            xaw
                   'mekuna        'mekuna        'mekuna
      sleep P      xaw kat        xaw kat        xaw kat
115   die NP       'bemYrama      'memura        'memura
      die P        'bemYr         'bemYr         'bemYr
116   think NP     tfurd          tfurd          tfurd
                   'mezana        'mezana        'mezana
      think P      tfurd zat      tfurd zat      tfurd zc

117   say/speak    gap            gap            gap
      NP           'mezana        'mezana        'mezana
      say/speak    gap zcw        gap zc         gap zc
      P
118   kill         'mekfa         'mekufa        'mekufa
      kill         kuft           kuft           kuft
119   red          surx           surx           surx
120   green        saws           sabs           sabs
121   yellow       zart           zart           zart
122   white        sfet           sa'fet         sa'fet
123   black        sja            sja            sjc
124   warm         garm           garm           garm
125   cold         xu'nuk         xu'nuk         xu'nuk
126   full         pur            pur            pur
127   empty        be'kcr         xc'li          xc'li
128   new          naw            naw            naw
129   old          ko:'na         ko:'na         ko:'na
130   round        gurt           gurt           gurt
131   dry          xufk           xufk           qcq
132   wet          ta:r           ta:r           ta:r
133   good         xup            xup            xup
134   bad          zYft           zYft          ba:t
135   mother       u'ma           mc'da:r        mu'ma
136   father       bc'ba          pa'da:r        a'ka
137   husband      fu:            fu:            fu:
138   wife         zan            xc'num         zan
139   child        tfe-           tfe-          tfe-
                   ye:'rYk        ye:'rYk        ye:'rYk
140   son          ba'tfa         ba'tfa         ba'tfa
141   daughter     dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r
142   village      qar'ja         qar'ja         qar'ja
143   house        xu'na          xc'na          xu'na
144   hammer       bcli'qa        bcli'qa        bcli'qa
145   knife        kcr'tfa        kcr'tfa        kcr'tfa
146   path/        rae pjc-       pjcda'raw      pjcda'ra
      road         da'raw
147   name         nu:m           nc:m           nu:m

      Engl.        Rezway         Ubagh n         Nusay

1.    I-1s         mun            ma              mun
2.    you-2s       tu             tu              tu
3.    he/she-3s    u              u               u
4.    we - 1p      mc             mc              mc
5.    you-2p       fu'mc          fu'mc           fu'mc
6.    they-3p      u'nc           u'nc            u'nc
7.    who          ki:            ki:             ki:
8.    what         tfi:           tfi:            tfi:
9.    where        kc             ku'dzc          kc
10.   when         tfi waxt       tfi waxt        tfi waxt
11.   how many     tfant          tfant           tfant
12.   this         i:             i:              i:
13.   that         u:             u:              u:
14.   these        i'nc           i'nc            i'nc
15.   those        u'nc           u'nc            u'nc
16.   far          dY:r           du:r            dY:r
17.   near         qa'rip         naz'di:k        naz'di:k
18.   down/below   kala'pc        pc'jin          kala'pc
19.   up/above     rubc'lc        bc'lc           lebc'lc
20.   come NP      'mecja         'mecja          'mecja
      come P       'cmat          'cmat           'bYuma
21.   sit NP       'mifina        'mifina         'mifina
      sit P        fift           fift            bafist
22.   stand NP     est'cd         est'cd          est'cd
                   'mefa          'mefa           'mefa
      stand P      est'ct         est'ct          tfixt kat
                   fud            fut
23.   lie down     dar'cz         dar'cz          dar'cz
      NP           mekafa         mekafa          mekafa
      lie down     dar'cs         dar'cs          'ye:li
      P            ka'fit         ka'fit
24.   give NP      'meta          'meta           'meda
      give P       dcd            dct             dct
25.   walk NP      'merawa        'mera           'merawa
      walk P       raft           raft            raft
      fly (bird)   'mepara        'mepara         'mepara
26.   NP
      fly (bird)   pa'rit         pa'rit          par'wcs
      P                                           fi:
27.   wash NP       'mefcja       'mefcja         'mefcja
      wash P       fuft           fuft            'befift
      split NP     xYr            maj'da          re'za
28.                'mekuna        'mekuna         'mekuna
      split P      xYr kat        maj'da          re'za
                                  kat             kat
      dig NP       bel            bel             bel
29.                'mezana        'mezana         'zaname
      dig P        bel zat        bel zat         bel zc

      squeeze      pu'tfuq        pu'tfuq         lc'yat
30.   NP           'mekuna        'mekuna         'mekuna
      squeeze      pu'tfuq        pu'tfuq         lc'yat
      P            kat            kat             kat
31.   night        fap            faw             faw
32.   day          ru:s           ru:s            ru:s
33.   one          jak            jak             jak
34.   two          du:            du:             du:
35.   three        se:            se:             se:
36.   four         tfc:r          tfc:r           tfc:r
37.   five         pandz          pandz           pandz
38.   six          faf            faf             faf
39.   seven        aft            aft             aft
40.   eight        aft            aft             aft
41.   nine         no:            no:             no:
42.   ten          da             da              da
43.   eleven       jcz'da         jcz'da          jcz'da
44.   twelve       dwcz'da        dwcz'da         dwcz'da
45.   twenty       bist           bist            bist
46.   hundred      sat            sat             sat
47.   all          'ama           ta'mcm          'ama
48.   many         pur            zjct            pur
49.   few          kam            kam             kam
50.   big          ka'ta          ka'lcn          ka'ta
51.   small        maj'da         xurt            majte'kjak
52.   long         da'rcs         da'rcs          da'rcs
53.   short        ko'ta          ko'ta           kote'kjak
54.   sun          af'taw         af'taw          af'taw
55.   moon         ma'taw         ma'taw          ma'taw
56.   star         setc'ra        setc'ra         setc'ra
57.   water        cw             cw              cw
58.   rain         bc'rYf         bc'rcn          bc'rYf
59.   stone        sank           sank            sank
60.   sand         re:k           re:k            re:k
61.   earth        ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n         ze'mi:n
62.   cloud        awr            abr             awr
63.   smoke        dYx            dut             dYt
64.   fire         a'lcw          c'tef        a'lcw
65.   ash          xckes'tar      xckes'tar       xckes'tar
66.   mountain     ko:            ko:             ko:
67.   tree         de'raxt        de'raxt         de'raxt
68.   seed         'tuxem         'tuxem          'tuxem
69.   leaf         bark           bark            bark
70.   root         ri'fa          ri'fa           ri'fa
71    bark         'puste         'puste          'pYste
                   de'raxt        de'raxt         de'raxt
72.   fish         mc'i:          mc'i:           mc'i:
73.   bird         paren'da       paren'da        paren'da
74.   dog          sa:k           sa:k            sa:k
75.   goat         bus            bus             bus
76.   sheep        me:f           gos'fant        me:f
77.   chicken      murx           murx            murx
78.   cow          gcw            gaw             gcw
79.   ant          mur'tfYk       mur'tfa         mur'tfYk
80.   woman        za'nak         zan             za'nak
81.   man          ma'rak         mart            ma'rak
82.   person       na'far         na'far          na'far
83.   skin         Pust           pust            pYst
84.   flesh/meat   go:ft          go:ft           go:ft
85.   bone         aste'yun       ustu'xcn        aste'yun
86.   grease/fat   dum'ba         dum'ba          dum'ba
87.   egg          'tuxem         'tuxem          'tuxem
88.   horn         fcx            fcx             fcx
89.   tail         dum            dum             dum
90.   feather      pa:r           pa:r            pa:r
91.   hair (on     mu:            mu:j            mY:
      head)
92.   head         sa:r           sa:r            sa:r
93.   ear          go:f           go:f            go:f
94.   nose         bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:         bi:'ni:
95.   eye          tfafm          tfafm           tfafm
96.   mouth        da:n           da:n            da:n
97.   tooth        dan'dcn        dan'dcn         dan'dun
98.   tongue       zu:n           za'bcn          zu:n
99.   foot         pc             pcj             pc
100   knee         zc'nu          zc'nu           zc'nY
101   hand         dest           dest            dest
102   finger       tfe'lek        an'guft         pan'dza
103   belly        fe'kam         fe'kam          fe'kam
104   neck         ga'ran         gar'dan         ga'ran
105   heart        del            qalp            del
106   liver        dzi'gar        dzi'gar         dzi'gar
107   back         ar'qa          puft            ar'qa
108   drink NP     'mexcra        'mexcra         xYr
      drink P      xurt           xurt            xYr
109   eat NP       'mexcra        'mexcra         xYr
      eat P        xurt           xurt            xYr
      bite NP      'megira        qab             'megira
110                               'mezana
      bite P       gi'rift        qab zat         'begirift
111   see NP       'mibina        'mibina         'bedi
      see P        di:t           di:t            'bedi
112   hear NP      'mifnawa       'mifnawa        'befnawi
      hear P       'fenawit       fu'nit          'fenawit
113   know NP      'meduna        'mefcma         'bedunist
      know P       'donist        fo'mit          badunist
114   sleep NP     xaw            xaw             xcw kar
                   'mekuna        'mekuna
      sleep P      xaw kat        xaw kat         xcw kar
115   die NP       'bemYr         'memura         'bemYr
      die P        'bemYr         murt            'bemYr
116   think NP     tfurd          fakr            fakr
                   'mezana        'mekuna         'mekuna
      think P      tfurd zat      fekr kat        fekr kat
117   say/speak    naqal          naqal           naqal
      NP           'mekuna        'mekuna         'mekuna
      say/speak    'naqel         'naqel          'naqel
      P            kat            kat             kat
118   kill         'mekufa        'mekufa         'bekuft
      kill         kuft           kuft            kuft
119   red          surx           surx            surx
120   green        sabs           sabs            saws
121   yellow       zart           zart            zart
122   white        sa'fet         sa'fet          sa'fet
123   black        sjc            sjc             sja
124   warm         garm           garm            garm
125   cold         xu'nuk         sart            xu'nuk
126   full         pur            pur             luq
127   empty        xc'li          xc'li           be'kcr
128   new          naw            naw             naw
129   old          ko:'na         ko:'na          ku:'na
130   round        gurt           gurt            gurt
131   dry          xufk           qcq             xufk
132   wet          ta:r           ta:r            ta:r
133   good         xup            xup             xup
134   bad          zYft           ba:t            ba:t
135   mother       mu'ma          mc'da:r         mu'ma
136   father       bc'ba          pa'da:r         bc'ba
137   husband      fu:            faw'har         fy:
138   wife         za'nak         xc'nim          zan
139   child        tfe-           tefl            go'lak
                   ye'rYk
140   son          ba'tfa         ba'tfa          ba'tfa
141   daughter     dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r        dux'ta:r
142   village      qar'ja         qar'ja          qar'ja
143   house        xu'na          xc'na           xc'na
144   hammer       bcli'qa        tfa'kuf         bcli'qa
145   knife        kcr'tfa        tfc'qu          kcr'tfa
146   path/        pjcda'ra       pjcda'raw       pjcda'raw
      road
147   name         nu:m           nc:m            nu:m

      Engl.        Narghaw         Zengerya       Jarf

1.    I-1s         ma              mun            mun
2.    you-2s       tu              tu             tu
3.    he/she-3s    u               u              u
4.    we-1p        mc              mc             mc
5.    you-2p       fu'mc           fu'mc          fu'mc
6.    they-3p      u'nc            u'nc           u'nc
7.    who          ki:             ki:            ki:
8.    what         tfi:            tfi:           tfi:
9.    where        ku'dzc          kc             kc
10.   when         tfi waxt        kaj waxt       tfi waxt
11.   how many     tfant           tfant          tfI qa'dar
12.   this         i:              i:             i:
13.   that         u:              u:             u:
14.   these        i'nc            'ina           i'nc
15.   those        u'nc            u:             u'nc
16.   far          dY:r            dY:r           dY:r
17.   near         naz'di:k        qa'rip         qa'rip
18.   down/below   kala'pc         ne'fep         sarne'fep
19.   up/above     lebc'lc         rubc'lc        sarbc'lc
20.   come NP      'mecja          'uma           'uma
      come P       'bYuma          'bYuma         'bYuma
21.   sit NP       'mifina         mefina         mefina
      sit P        fift            bafist         fist
22.   stand NP     est'cd          tfYxt          'mexeza
                   'mefa           'mekuna
      stand P      est'ct          tfYxt kat      tfYxt
                   fut                            kat
23.   lie down     dar'cz          bayeli         meyela
      NP           mekafa
      lie down     dar'cs          'bayeli        dar'cs
      P            ka'fit                         ka'fit
24.   give NP      'meta           'meta          'meda
      give P       dct             do             do
25.   walk NP      'rawame         'merawa        'merawa
      walk P       raft            'beraft        raft
      fly (bird)   'mepara         par'wcz        par'wcz
26.   NP                           'mekuna        'mekuna
      fly (bird)   pa'rit          'beparit       pa'rit
      P
27.   wash NP      'mefcja         'mefcja        'mefcja
      wash P       fust            'befist        fist
      split NP     maj'da          xYr            xYr
28.                'mekuna         'mekuna        'mekuna
      split P      maj'da          xYr kat        xYr kat
                   kat
      dig NP       bel             pc'bel         pc'bel
29.                'mezana         'mekuna        'mekuna
      dig P        bel zat         pc'bel         pc'bel
                                   kat            kat
      squeeze      lc'yat          lc'yat         lc'yat
30.   NP           'mekuna         'mekuna        'mekuna
      squeeze      lc'yat          lc'yat kat     lc'yat
      P            kat                            kat
31.   night        faw             faw            faw
32.   day          ru:s            rY:s           ru:s
33.   one          jak             jak            jak
34.   two          du:             du:            du:
35.   three        se:             se:            se:
36.   four         tfc:r           tfc:r          tfc:r
37.   five         pandz           pandz          pandz
38.   six          faf             faf            faf
39.   seven        aft             aft            aft
40.   eight        aft             aft            aft
41.   nine         no:             no:            no:
42.   ten          da              da             da
43.   eleven       jcz'da          jcz'da         jcz'da
44.   twelve       dwcz'da         dwcz'da        dwcz'da
45.   twenty       bist            bist           bist
46.   hundred      sat             sat            sat
47.   all          'ama            'ama           'ama
48.   many         pur             pur            pur
49.   few          kam             kam            an ' dak
50.   big          ka'ta           ka'ta          ka'ta
51.   small        maj'da          maj'dak        majdi'kak
52.   long         da'rcs          da'rcs         da'rcs
53.   short        ko'ta           kot'kak        ko'ta
54.   sun          af'taw          af'taw         af'taw
55.   moon         ma'taw          ma'taw         ma'taw
56.   star         setc'ra         setc'ra        setc'ra
57.   water        cw              cw             cw
58.   rain         bc'rYf          bc'rYf         bc'ru:
59.   stone        sank            sank           sank
60.   sand         re:k            re:k           re:k
61.   earth        ze'mi:n         ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n
62.   cloud        abr             awr            hawr
63.   smoke        dut             dYx            dYx
64.   fire         a'lcw           a'lcw          a'lcw
65.   ash          xckes'tar       xckes'tar      xckes'tar
66.   mountain     ko:             ko:            ko:
67.   tree         de'raxt         de'raxt        de'raxt
68.   seed         'tuxem          'tuxem         'tuxem
69.   leaf         bark            bark           bark
70.   root         ri'fa           ri'fa          ri'fa
71    bark         'puste          'poste         'puste
                   de'raxt         de'raxt        de'raxt
72.   fish         mc'i:           mc'i:          mc'i:
73.   bird         paren'da        paren'da       parwc'zYk
74.   dog          sa:k            sa:k           sa:k
75.   goat         bus             bus            bus
76.   sheep        gos'fant        me:f           me:f
77.   chicken      murx            murx           mo:'ki
78.   cow          gaw             gcw            gcw
79.   ant          mur'tfYk        mur'tfYk       mur'tfYk
80.   woman        za'nak          za'nak         za'nak
81.   man          ma'rak          ma'rak         ma'rak
82.   person       na'far          na'far         na'far
83.   skin         pust            pust           pust
84.   flesh/meat   go:ft           go:ft          go:ft
85.   bone         aste'yun        asta'yu:       aste'yu:
86.   grease/fat   dum'ba          dum'ba         dum'ba
87.   egg          'tuxem          'tuxem         'tuxem
88.   horn         fcx             fcx            fcx
89.   tail         dum             dum            dum
90.   feather      pa:r            pa:r           pa:r
91.   hair (on     mu:j            mY:            mu:
      head)
92.   head         sa:r            sa:r           sa:r
93.   ear          go:f            go:f           go:f
94.   nose         bi:'ni:         be'ni:         be'ni:
95.   eye          tfafm           tfafm          tfafm
96.   mouth        da:n            da:n           da:n
97.   tooth        dan'dcn         dan'du         dan'dcn
98.   tongue       za'bcn          zu:            zu:
99.   foot         pc              pc             pc
100   knee         zc'nu           ze'nu          ze'nu
101   hand         dest            dest           dest
102   finger       tfe'lek         lik            lik
103   belly        fe'kam          fe'kam         fe'kam
104   neck         gar'dan         ga'ra          ga'ra
105   heart        del             del            del
106   liver        dzi'gar         dzi'gar        dzi'gar
107   back         ar'qa           ar'qan         a'qip
108   drink NP     xYr             'xY:rema       'mexcra
      drink P      xYrt            xY:r           xYr
109   eat NP       xYr             'xY:rema       'mexcra
      eat P        xYrt            xY:r           xYr
      bite NP      'bekant         'megira        'megaza
110
      bite P       'bekant         'gerift        ga'zit
111   see NP       'mibina         'medi:         'mibina
      see P        di:t            'bedi          'bedi
112   hear NP      'mifnawa        'befnaw        'fenawi
                                   uma
      hear P       fu'nit          'fenawit       'fenawi
113   know NP      'meduna         'bedunama      'meduna
      know P       'dunist         'badunist      badunist
114   sleep NP     xaw             xaw kar        xaw
                   'mekuna                        'mekuna
      sleep P      xaw kat         xaw fi:        xaw kat
115   die NP       'memura         'bemYr         'memura
      die P        'bemYr          'bemYr         'bemYr
116   think NP     tfurd           tfurd          tfurd
                   'mezana         'mezana        'mezana
      think P      tfurd zat       tfurd zc       tfurd zc
117   say/speak    naqal           naqal          naqal
      NP           'mekuna         'mekuna        'mekuna
      say/speak    'naqel          'naqel         'naqel
      P            kat             kat            kat
118   kill         'mekufa         'bekfeme       'bekfeme
      kill         kuft            'bekuft        'bekuft
119   red          surx            surx           surx
120   green        sabs            saws           sabs
121   yellow       zart            zart           zart
122   white        sa'fet          sa'fet         sa'fet
123   black        sjc             sja            sjc
124   warm         garm            garm           garm
125   cold         xu'nuk          xu'nuk         xu'nuk
126   full         pur             luq            luq
127   empty        xc'li           be:'kcr        xc'li
128   new          naw             naw            naw
129   old          ko:'na          ku:'na         ko:'na
130   round        gurt            gurt           gurt
131   dry          qcq             qcq            qcq
132   wet          ta:r            ta:r           ta:r
133   good         xup             xup            xup
134   bad          ba:t            ta'wa          ta'wa
135   mother       mu'ma           u'ma           u'ma
136   father       bc'ba           bc'ba          bc'ba
137   husband      fu:             fo:            fo:
138   wife         zan             za'nak         zan
139   child        tfe-            tfe-           tfe-
                   ye:'rYk         ye:'rYk        ye:'rYk
140   son          ba'tfa          ba'tfa         ba'tfa
141   daughter     dux'ta:r        dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r
142   village      qar'ja          qar'ja         qar'ja
143   house        xc'na           xu'na          xc'na
144   hammer       tfa'kuf         bcli'qa        bcli'qa
145   knife        kcr'tfa         tfc'qu         kcr'tfa
146   path/        pjcda'raw       pjcda'ra       roe
      road                                        pjc'da
147   name         nc:m            nu:m           nu:m

      Engl.        Laron          Qala-e Kuf

1.    I-1s         mun            mun
2.    you-2s       tu             tu
3.    he/she-3s    u              u
4.    we - 1p      mc             mc
5.    you-2p       fu'mc          fu'mc
6.    they-3p      u'nc           u'nc
7.    who          ki:            ki:
8.    what         tfi:           tfi:
9.    where        kc             kc
10.   when         tfi waxt       kaj
11.   how many     tfiqa          tfant
12.   this         i:             i:
13.   that         on             u:
14.   these        i'nc           i'nc
15.   those        u'nc           u'nc
16.   far          dY:r           du:r
17.   near         qa'rip         naz'di:k
18.   down/below   ne'fep         pc'jin
19.   up/above     sarbc'lc       sarbc'lc
20.   come NP      'cma           'mjcja
      come P       'bYuma         'cmat
21.   sit NP       mefina         mefina
      sit P        bafift         fist
22.   stand NP     qa'rcr         est'cd
                   'mekuna        'mefa
      stand P      qa'rcr         est'ct fi
                   kat
23.   lie down     dar'cz         dar'cz
      NP           mekafa         mekafa
      lie down     dar'cs         dar'cs
      P            ka'fit         ka'fit
24.   give NP      'meta          'meta
      give P       dct            dct
25.   walk NP      'merawa        'merawa
      walk P       'beraft        raft
      fly (bird)   par'wcs        'mepara
26.   NP           'mekuna
      fly (bird)   par'wcs        pa'rit
      P            fi:
27.   wash NP       'mefcja       'mefcja
      wash P       fift           fist
      split NP     maj'da         xYr
28.                'mekuna        'mekuna
      split P      maj'da         xYr kat
                   kat
      dig NP       pc'bel         bel
29.                'mekuna        'mezana
      dig P        po'bel         bel zat
                   zat
      squeeze      lc'yat         lc'yat
30.   NP           'mekuna        'mekuna
      squeeze      lc'yat         lc'yat
      P            kat            kat
31.   night        fap            fap
32.   day          ru:s           ru:s
33.   one          jak            jak
34.   two          du:            du:
35.   three        se:            se:
36.   four         tfc:r          tfc:r
37.   five         pandz          pandz
38.   six          faf            faf
39.   seven        aft            aft
40.   eight        aft            aft
41.   nine         no:            no:
42.   ten          da             da
43.   eleven       jcz'da         jcz'da
44.   twelve       dwcz'da        dwcz'da
45.   twenty       bist           bist
46.   hundred      sat            sat
47.   all          'ama           'ama
48.   many         pur            pur
49.   few          an' dak        kam
50.   big          ka'ta          ka'ta
51.   small        majda'kak      maj'da
52.   long         da'rcs         da'rcs
53.   short        ko'ta          ko'ta
54.   sun          af'taw         af'taw
55.   moon         ma'taw         ma'taw
56.   star         setc'ra        setc'ra
57.   water        cw             cw
58.   rain         bc'rYf         bc'rYf
59.   stone        sank           sank
60.   sand         re:k           re:k
61.   earth        ze'mi:n        ze'mi:n
62.   cloud        hawr           awr
63.   smoke        dYt            dut
64.   fire         a'lcw          a'lcw
65.   ash          xckes'tar      xckes'tar
66.   mountain     ko:            ko:
67.   tree         de'raxt        de'raxt
68.   seed         'tuxem         'tuxem
69.   leaf         bark           bark
70.   root         ri'fa          ri'fa
71    bark         'puste         'puste
                   de'raxt        de'raxt
72.   fish         mc'i:          mc'i:
73.   bird         paren'da       paren'da
74.   dog          sa:k           sa:k
75.   goat         bus            bus
76.   sheep        gos'fant       me:f
77.   chicken      murx           murx
78.   cow          gaw            gcw
79.   ant          mur'tfYk       mur'tfYk
80.   woman        za'nak         za'nak
81.   man          ma'rak         ma'rak
82.   person       na'far         na'far
83.   skin         pust           pust
84.   flesh/meat   go:ft          go:ft
85.   bone         asta'yun       ste'yun
86.   grease/fat   dum'ba         dum'ba
87.   egg          'tuxem         'tuxem
88.   horn         fcx            fcx
89.   tail         dum            dum
90.   feather      pa:r           pa:r
91.   hair (on     mu:            mu:
      head)
92.   head         sa:r           sa:r
93.   ear          go:f           go:f
94.   nose         bi:'ni:        bi:'ni:
95.   eye          tfafm          tfafm
96.   mouth        da:n           da:n
97.   tooth        dan'dun        dan'dcn
98.   tongue       zun            za'bcn
99.   foot         pc:'tfYk       pc
100   knee         zc'nu          zc'nu
101   hand         dast           dast
102   finger       pan'dza        pan'dza
103   belly        fe'kam         fe'kam
104   neck         ga'ra          gar'dan
105   heart        del            del
106   liver        dzi'gar        dzi'gar
107   back         puft           a'qip
108   drink NP     'mexcra        'mexcra
      drink P      xYr            xurt
109   eat NP       'mexcra        'mexcra
      eat P        xYr            xurt
      bite NP      qab            'megira
110                'mezana
      bite P       qab zat        gi'rift
111   see NP       'mebina        'mebina
      see P        di:t           di:t
112   hear NP      'mifnawa       'mefnawa

      hear P       'fenawit       'fenawit
113   know NP      'meduna        'meduna
      know P       badunist       'dunist
114   sleep NP     xcw kar        xcw kar

      sleep P      xcw kar        xcw kar
115   die NP       mur            'memura
      die P        'bemur         murt
116   think NP     tfurd          tfurd
                   'mezana        'mezana
      think P      tfurd zc       tfurd zc
117   say/speak    naqal          naqal
      NP           'mekuna        'mekuna
      say/speak    'naqel         'naqel
      P            kat            kat
118   kill         'mekufa        'mekufa
      kill         kuft           'bekufta
119   red          surx           surx
120   green        saws           sabs
121   yellow       zart           zart
122   white        sfe:t          sa'fet
123   black        sja            sja
124   warm         garm           garm
125   cold         xu'nuk         xu'nuk
126   full         pur            be:'kcr
127   empty        be:'kcr        xc'li
128   new          naw            naw
129   old          ku:'na         ko:'na
130   round        gurt           gurt
131   dry          qcq            qcq
132   wet          ta:r           ta:r
133   good         xup            xum
134   bad          gan'da         ta'wa
135   mother       mu'ma          mu'ma
136   father       be'ba          da'da
137   husband      fu:            fu:
138   wife         zan            zan
139   child        tfe-           tfa-
                   ye:'rYk        ye: rYk
140   son          ba'tfa         ba'tfa
141   daughter     dux'ta:r       dux'ta:r
142   village      qar'ja         qar'ja
143   house        xu'na          xu'na
144   hammer       bcli'qa        bcli'qa
145   knife        tfaw'qu        kcr'tfa
146   path/        pjcda'ra       rc
      road
147   name         nu:m           nc:m


Appendix B: Village Elder Questionnaire

I. Interview Data

1. Researcher

2. Date

3. Location

4. Language of Interview

II. Personal Data of Informant

1. ID

2. Name of Informant

3. Gender of Informant

4. Place of Birth

5. Residence (now/others)

6. Mother Tongue

7. Father's Mother Tongue

8. Mother's Mother Tongue

9. Spouse's Mother Tongue

10. Education Level

11. Profession, where

III. Village Data

1. How many houses are in the village?

2. How many people do usually live in a house?

3. How many people do live in the village?

4. How is the village organized? Who is the head?

5. What language do the elders in your community use with each other? With the people?

6. Which language(s) do you speak with gov't officials?

IV. School Data

1. Where do children go to school?

2. How many children of your village go to school? Do boys and girls go?

3. How big is this school? Up to which grade does it go?

4. What people do the teachers belong to? What is their mother tongue?

5. What is the language of instruction in the school?

6. In what language are the school books?

7. Where do children go for further education?

8. How many go for further education? Do boys and girls go?

9. How many of the adults are literate in your village?

V. Health

1. Where do people go when they are sick?

2. Where is the nearest hospital, clinic and pharmacy?

3. How do people go?

4. How long does it take?

5. What are the common sicknesses people suffer from?

VI. Basic Licing Conditions

1. What do people produce themselves for their living?

2. Where do people get things from they can't produce themselves?

3. How do people make money?

4. What do people eat?

5. If there is electricity, where does it come from?

6. Where does the water come from?

7. Are any organizations working here? Which ones?

8. What kind of work are they doing?

Appendix C: Sociolinguistic Group Questionnaire (7)

I. Interview Data

1. Researcher

2. Date

3. Location

4. Language of Interview

II. Language Area

1. What language do you speak in this village?

2. What do you call your dialect?

3. Are there any people in your village who don't speak Darwazi?

4. In which other villages do people speak Darwazi? How many people speak Darwazi in those villages?

5. Where do people speak Darwazi differently?

6. Do you always understand it well?

7. Where do people speak Darwazi most sweet/beautiful? Least sweet/beautiful?

III. Language and Family

1. Does anybody speak other languages except Darwazi in any home? Who? With Whom? Why?

2. When your children grow up, what language will they use the most? Why? Are you happy with that?

3. When your grand children grow up, what language will they use the most? Why? Are you happy with that?

4. Are there any wives in the village who are not Darwazi? If yes: What language do husband and wife speak together? Their children?

5. Is there any women from the village given for marriage outside Darwaz? If yes: What language do they speak with their husbands? Their children?

6. Would you let your son marry someone who speaks only Shughni/Dari/ Pashto/Tangshew?

7. Would you let your daughter marry someone who speaks only Shughni/Dari/ Pashto/Tangshew?

8. Which language do you use for prayer? What language does the Mullah use for preaching?

IV. Language, Travel and Trade

1. Which languages do you speak at the bazaar in Darwaz (in case there is one)? Which languages do you speak with merchants who come to the village (in case there are any)?

2. Where do people from here travel to? How often? How long? For what occasions? What language do you use there?

3. Did people from here go to other places for work or military service? Where? How long? What language did you use there?

4. Do people come from other places to visit you? How often? How long? For what occasions? What language do they use?

5. Did people travel to the Tangshew area? Or did you meet them here? How is their language different?

6. Did people travel to the Darwazi in Tajikistan? Or did you meet them here? How is their language different?

7. Where does Darwazi come from? Where was it spoken first?

8. Has ever anyone made fun of you because of your language? Who?

V. Language, Children and Education

1. When children start school do they already know Dari?

2. What language do children use among each other? E.g. on the way to school?

3. Does the teacher help your children in Darwazi in class?

4. What language do teachers speak with the students outside of class?

5. At what grade do your children understand Dari well?

6. Would you prefer your children to learn reading and writing in Dari first, or in Darwazi first and later in Dari? Why?

VI. Literacy and Media

1. In what language do people read books?

2. Would you like books in Darwazi? What kind of books would you like: stories, poetry, songs, history, health education, other?

3. Would you spend money to buy books in Darwazi?

4. What would be the best Darwazi dialect to produce literature in? Why?

5. Do you listen to the radio? In what language?

VII. Intelligibility

1. How well do older men in the village understand Dari? Older women?

2. How well do adult men in the village understand Dari? Adult women?

3. How well do children in the village understand Dari?

4. How well do older men in the village understand Tajik? Older women?

5. How well do adult men in the village understand Tajik? Adult women?

6. How well do children in the village understand Tajik?

7. What is easier to understand, Dari or Tajik?

VIII. Perceived Benefit

1. How useful is Darwazi for you in respect of --

* getting jobs

* higher education

* communication with other communities

* gaining respect in your community?

2. How useful is Dari for you in respect of --

* getting jobs

* higher education

* communication with other communities

* gaining respect in your community?

3. How useful is Tajik for you in respect of --

* getting jobs

* higher education

* communication with other communities

* gaining respect in your community?

4. How important is the Darwazi language to you?

Appendix D: Stories for RTTs (with Breaks) and Questionnaire

RTT Questionnaire

Pre-Testing Data

1. ID

2. Researcher

3. Date

4. Location

5. Name of Informant

6. Gender of Informant

7. Age

8. Place of Birth

9. Residence (now/other)

10. Mother Tongue

11. Parents' Mother Tongue

12. Education Level

13. Spouse's Mother Tongue

14. Education Level

15. Profession

16. Travel Patterns, general (destination/frequency/duration/language)

Post-Testing Questions

1. Where does the storyteller come from?

2. Was it good Ishkashimi/Sanglechi?

3. How much did you understand?

4. How different is the language from yours?

5. Contact with the people from that area? (travel/extended time/living)

RTT Story: The Well of Everlasting Life

Section 1

da zamon'hoe qa'dim jak po'dzo bud ?u ar'zu dojt ke da dun'jo bes'jor zenda'gi da'roz 'bakana

In the old times there was a king. He had the wish to live very long in this world.

wa ?u da xo'retf ?az kef'ware 'xudef ?az wa'tane 'xudef da mowa'roe zes'ton jak 'tfoa 'oba 'funida bud ke ?az ?u ?ob ?ar 'kase ke buxora to hame'fa zen'da 'memona

He had heard that outside of his own country in a place called Zestan there is a well and everyone who drinks its water will live forever.

Section 2

wa 'waxte ke 'batfe ?az ?i ka'lon fud wa ?or'zue pa'darefa 'famid ke pa'dare ma tfi ?or'zu dora

And when his son became grown he understood his father's wish and what his father wanted.

wa pa'daraf 'bare batfef da'ud guft ke tu 'buro ?az tfoe ob ha'jot ba ma 'kame ob bjor ke mo wa tu ?az ?u ?ob 'buxorem wa to 'hamefa zen'da 'bemonem

The father said to his son, David: Go and bring me some water from the well of everlasting live so that you and I will drink from this water and live forever.

Section 3

'waxte ke ?i gapa bare ba'tfef guft ba'tfef '?azme sa'far kad wa ba ta'rafe 'tfoe ?ob ara'kat kad

When he had said this to his son, the son departed and left for the well of everlasting life.

bes'jor sa'fare dur wa da'roz kat

He went on a very far and long journey.

?az har 'kase ke ?u par'son 'mekad 'bare ?az ?u du'rust ne'fon 'namedoda

He asked everyone but no one showed him the right way.

Section 4

ba jak kes'mate ?az ro ?o'mad ke jak ?o'dame 'pire ya'riba did

At one point of the journey he saw an old and poor man.

wa ?az ?u ?awal sa'lom dod boz par'son kad ke 'tfoa 'oba ba ma ne'fon 'bete

He greeted him first and then asked him to show him the place of the well.

'waxte ke ?u 'gape 'batJe po'dzora fu'nid 'baref guft

When he heard what the king's son said he told him:

tfoe ?ob '?uqadar dur 'namonda taq'riban jak kilo'metar ro dur'tar 'monda

The well of everlasting life is not far away, you have about one kilometer road left.

Section 5

'waxte ke ?i ?o'dame ya'rib ba ba'tfe po'dzo ?i 'tfora ne'Jon dod 'batfe po'dzo ?ara'kat kat wa ?az ?u bes'jor tafako'ri 'kad

When the poor man had shown the place to the king's son, the king's son continued on his way und he thanked him very much.

'waxte ke ba'tfae po'dzo ?ara'kat kat pas ?a'mi 'marde pir sa'do kad

When the king's son continued on his way the old man cal-led him back.

wa 'baref guft 'waxte ke tu ba naz'dike a'mu yoy 'rasidi da 'undzo jak 'murye ?oq'el ?as ba ga'poe ?az ?u xub du'rust gof 'kuni

And said to him: When you have arrived near the cave, there is a wise bird. Listen very well to his talk.

Section 6

'waxte ke ?i ba'tfae po'dzoe ?i ga'poe fu'nid ?ai'ron fud ke da ?u yoy ?i mury tfe'tur zenda'gi 'mekuna wa tfe'tur ?u ba ma gap 'mezana

When the king's son heard this he became very surprised and wondered how this bird would live in the cave and how it would talk to him.

'waxte ke ?i nez'dike yoy fud bo '?undzo 'rasid do'xele yoy raft did ke jak 'tfoe rofa'ni ?ast da '?undzo wa jak 'tfoe ?ob bes'jor tfa'qur ba ta'rafe za'min ?ast

When he came near to the cave and arrived there he went inside the cave and he saw that there was a shining place and a very deep well in the ground.

Section 7

?u nez'dike satl Jud wa 'mexost ke ?az tfo ?ob 'bigira

He went close to the bucket and wanted to take water from the well.

'waxte satl da tfo '?andoxt '?oba ka'fid '?obe bes'jor fe'fo wa 'obe jax bud

When he dropped the bucket into the well and pulled water up, the water was very healthy and cool.

wa 'mexost ke ?ami buJ'qae ga'refta bud ba xo'tere pa'daref ke ob pur 'bukuna jak sa'do '?omad wa jak sa'dora 'funid

And he wanted to fill the container he had taken for his father when a sound came and he heard a voice.

Section 8

guft 'sabr kun to 'waxte ke ga'poe 'mara 'mefnawi tu '?oba pur 'nakun

It said: Wait, do not fill it with water until you have heard what I have to say.

wa I ba'tfae po'dzo da'ud ?ai'ron fud wa ga'poe '?ura gof 'mekad

David, the king's son was surprised and he listened to him.

ba ta'rafe bo'lo sail kad jak 'murye bes'jor pir da bo'loe jak tJob da jak so'ja 'fifta

And he looked up and there was a very old bird sitting on a branch in the shade.

Section 9

wa ?u guft ma jak 'murye bes'jor dza'won wa sehat'mand 'budum da ha'wo par'woz 'mekadum

And it said: I once was a very young and healthy bird.

'waxte ka ma ?az ?i '?obe tfo 'xurdum de'ga ma par ?o 'bore ma 'rexta bes'jor pir as'tum wa za'if fu'dum tfef'moe ma 'namibina

I flew in the air. But when I drank water from this well my feathers and wings fell out. I am very old now and I became weak and my eyes can't see any more.

Section 10

boz ?i ba'tfa 'waxte 'gapoe ?ira 'funid hai'ron fud

When the boy heard this talk he became surprised again.

guft hamqato'roe ma ?andewo'loe ma da ha'wo par'woz 'mekunan wa uno 'waxte ke 'mara 'mibinan 'pufte ma hetf na'megardan ?az xo'tereke ma ham zen ?o 'sole ?uno nestum

It said: My peers and my friends fly in the air and when they see me they don't turn to me because they are not of my age any more.

Section 11

'waxte ke ?i ga'pora ba'tJa 'funid ba'tfae po'dzo pas a'mi 'satle '?oba 'gareft ?o da tfo '?andoxt

When the boy heard this talk, the king's son took the bucket with the water again and poured it into the well.

wa guft ke ma 'merum ba pa'darem 'megojum ke zenda'gi da ?i dun'jo ba '?umre da'roz ba dard 'namexora

And he said: I will go and tell my father that it is useless to live long in this world.

wa ba'tfae po'dzo pas '?oba 'rezond wa ?ara'kat kad ba ta'rafe xo'na

The king's son poured the water back and left for home.

Section 12

'waxte ke ?ara'kat kat wa da ro ba 'gape ?a'mi mury 'fekr 'mekad wa tfurt 'mezad

When he left he pondered and thought about what the bird had said.

har 'kase ke da 'fekre dza'nat wa zenda'gi ka'dan da dza'nat 'boJa wa ?u da 'fekre ?i 'bofa ke da dun'jo zenda'gi 'bekuna wa 'umre da'roz 'dofta 'bofa ?en'son '?ura 'bojad 'bufamona ke ?i zenda'gi ?i dun'jo ba dard 'namexura

Everyone who does not have the paradise and life in paradise in his mind, and who thinks about life in this world and who wants a long life, this person should know that life in this world is useless.

RTT Scoring

Section 1

Section 2

1. son

2. go and bring water

3. live forever

Section 3

1. boy went to get water

2. asked people for the way

3. no one could tell him

Section 4

1. old man

2. boy greeted him

3. asked for the well

4. it's not far

Section 5

1. thanked

2. bird

3. listen to it

Section 6

1. boy surprised

2. how will the bird talk?

3. cave

4. bright place and deep well

Section 7

1. took bucket

2. fetch water

3. cool and good/healthy

4. heard a voice

Section 8

1. don't take water/wait

2. surprised/listened

3. looked up

4. bird on branch

Section 9

1. once was a young bird

2. drank from the water

3. I'm old now

4. feathers fell out

Section 10

1. my friends/peers fly

2. don't look at me

Section 11

1. poured water back

2. went back home/tell my father

3. long life is not useful

Section 12

1. pondered

2. life in this world is useless

3. paradise

Appendix E: Poems recorded in Jumarj-e Bala and Nusay
   Jumarj-e Bala (8)

   da 'rce 'tange 'rcreme
   da 'rce bo'rYk 'tfekeme
   dar in tfe'nin talx cwa'ra
   aq'lu: fa'ra aj 'kckeme
   u'ma a'rab 'kche a'dzam
   zarc'wa gaf'ta del ze'yam
   dar in tfe'nin talx cwla'ra
   aq'lu: fa'ra aj 'kckeme

   I walk a narrow road
   I go a tight way
   What do I do on this bitter road?
   Where do I get strength from?
   I get stuck everywhere I walk.
   Everywhere I go with a heart is bitter.
   How did I get on this bitter road?
   Where do I get strength from?


Nusay (9)

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In the dialect of the dwellers of Darwaz

Your face is shining like the moon; my heart burns like kebab for you. I wish to embrace you and to kiss you; my hair is like strings on a harp that play for you. Not only I am in love with you; a thousand other men love you also. I am suffering whenever we are separated; I hope you mount a horse so I can kiss your feet. However often you kiss me, it is never too much; you cannot kiss me often enough.

My heart burns for you like fire; I cry when you are far from me. Come close to me in the middle of the night; your useless husband will not wake up. Come quickly, don't tell you husband; come quickly, it's urgent. My body always suffers for you until you calm it; Maghmum has always sorrow in his heart.

Acknowledgements

We sincerely thank the provincial and district representatives of the government who supported our research effort. Thank you also to Barbel and Martin Beck who helped to gather the linguistic data during a research trip to the Darwaz area.

References

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(1) The Great Game is a British term for what was seen by the British to be a strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 a second, less intensive phase followed.

The term "The Great Game" is usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, an intelligence officer of the British East India Company's Sixth Bengal Light Cavalry. It was introduced into mainstream consciousness by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901). (Wikipedia 2008)

(2) In linguistic publication Pamiri is not considered as one language, rather the Pamir languages as a group of related languages; they are spoken in some parts of Badakhshan.

(3) The district border does not apply any more; currently there is no map available which shows the correct district borders and the names of the villages (see '3.2Administration' for correct district borders).

(4) The spelling of the village names follows the spelling used in the AIMS maps, except in cases where the AIMS spelling misleads the pronunciation of the village name.

(5) The stops [p], [t] and [k] are always aspirated when a vowel follows, the aspiration is not transcribed.

When words end with a voiced consonant the final sound is usually devoiced. This is transcribed in the 'Dari IPA' column, while in the Dari script a voiced consonant appears.

(6) Dari variety as spoken in Faizabad

(7) This is the questionnaire used in the Darwazi villages. In the Tangshewi speaking villages a slightly different one was used: 'Darwazi' is replaced by 'Tangshewi' and vice versa.

(8) A man cited the poem by heart. It was well known to everyone around. He verbally translated it into Dari.

(9) A man had a collection of poetry, one of them was written in Darwazi using arabo-persion script. He read it out for the researchers and then translated it verbally into Dari.

Author's Contact Information:

Simone Beck

Simbeck07@aol.com
Table 1: GPS coordinates, altitude and distance to next village

Village         GPS coordinates

Retow           N: 37[degrees] 59' 11"; E: 71[degrees] 14' 04"
Khizaw          N: 37[degrees] 55' 30"; E: 71[degrees] 11' 41"
Darra-e Sher    N: 37[degrees] 57' 16"; E: 71[degrees] 12' 02"
Warw            N: 38[degrees] 03' 21"; E: 71[degrees] 12' 55"
Ghumay          N: 38[degrees] 09' 08"; E: 71[degrees] 17' 21"
Jumarj-e Bala   N: 38[degrees] 16' 37"; E: 71[degrees] 19' 40"
Zanif           N: 38[degrees] 18' 55"; E: 71[degrees] 14' 32"
Maymay          N: 38[degrees] 24' 13"; E: 71[degrees] 02' 60"
Rezway          N: 38[degrees] 26' 35"; E: 71[degrees] 02' 02"
Ubaghn          N: 38[degrees] 26' 36"; E: 70[degrees] 54' 14"
Nusay           N: 38[degrees] 26' 35"; E: 70[degrees] 48' 20"
Narghaw         N: 38[degrees] 24' 52"; E: 70[degrees] 41' 16"
Zengerya        N: 38[degrees] 18' 49"; E: 70[degrees] 36' 35"
Jarf            N: 38[degrees] 14' 41"; E: 70[degrees] 32' 55"
Laron           N: 38[degrees] 06' 05"; E: 70[degrees] 28' 01"
Qala-e Kuf      N: 38[degrees] 02' 13"; E: 70[degrees] 28' 40"

Village         Altitude   Distance

Retow           1792m      3,5h
Khizaw          2150m      4,5h (via Retow)
Darra-e Sher    1901m      7,5h (via pass, altitude: 3512m)
Warw            2714m      7,5h (via pass, altitude: 3851m)
Ghumay          2136m      7,5h (via pass; altitude: 3280m)
Jumarj-e Bala   1608m      3,5h
Zanif           1621m      8,5h
Maymay          1420m      1h
Rezway          1439m      5,5h
Ubaghn          1339m      4h
Nusay           1281m      4h
Narghaw         1208m      6h
Zengerya        1149m      2,5h
Jarf            1134m      4,5h
Laron           1093m      4,5h
Qala-e Kuf      1401m      --

Table 2: Completed questionnaires

Village         Village   Word   Sociolinguistic
                Elder     List   Group Interview
                I'view
                                 male   female

Retow           1         1      1      1
Khizaw          1         1      1      1
Darra-e Sher    1         1      1      1
Warw            1         1      1      1
Ghumay          1         1      1      1
Jumarj-e Bala   1         1      1      1
Zanif           1         1      1      1
Maymay          1         1      1      1
Rezway          1         1      1      1
Ubaghn          1         1      1      1
Nusay           1         1      1      1
Narghaw         1         1      1      1
Zengerya        1         1      1      1
Jarf            1         1      1      1
Laron           1         1      1      1
Qala-e Kuf      1         1      1      1

Total           16        16     16     16

Village         Recorded Text Testing       Total

                male          female

                <30    >30    <30    >30

Retow           2      2      3      2      13
Khizaw          2      2      2      2      12
Darra-e Sher    2      3      2      3      14
Warw            2      3      2      2      13
Ghumay          2      3      2      2      13
Jumarj-e Bala   3      2      3      2      14
Zanif           2      2      2      3      13
Maymay          2      3      3      2      14
Rezway          2      2      2      3      13
Ubaghn          2      3      2      3      14
Nusay           3      2      2      2      13
Narghaw         2      2      2      3      13
Zengerya        3      2      3      2      14
Jarf            2      3      2      2      13
Laron           2      3      2      2      13
Qala-e Kuf      2      3      3      2      14

Total           35     40     37     37     213

Table 3: Division of language domains in primary
and secondary domains

Primary Domains     Secondary Domains

Private Domain      Education Domain
Community Domain    Religious Domain
                    Travel and Trade
                    Media
                    Administration

Table 4: Overview of domains of language in Darwaz

            Domain         Darwazi      Dari

Primary     Private        exclusive    none
Domains     Community      dominant     occasional

Secondary   Education      informal     formal
Domains     Religion       informal     formal
            Travel/Trade   occasional   frequent
            Media          none         frequent
            Administr.     frequent     frequent

            Tajik        Iranian Farsi

Primary     none         none
Domains     none         occasional

Secondary   none         none
Domains     none         none
            occasional   frequent
            frequent     none
            none         none

Table 5: Lexical Similarity, selecting Darwazi-words when
multiple words were given

Jarf
93%    Zengerya
85%    87%        Jumarj
                  -e Bala
89%    89%        86%       Laron
87%    90%        84%       86%     Nusay
84%    85%        87%       85%     88%     Khizaw
89%    92%        88%       86%     91%     88%

90%    91%        89%       88%     91%     89%
88%    89%        91%       87%     88%     88%
85%    86%        91%       86%     89%     95%

84%    85%        91%       83%     85%     88%
81%    81%        83%       81%     83%     88%
86%    86%        86%       88%     89%     86%
82%    84%        88%       81%     87%     89%
99%    79%        84%       83%     83%     85%
78%    79%        81%       80%     83%     79%
73%    75%        78%       79%     79%     79%

Qala-e
Kuf
94%       Retow
91%       92%     Maymay
90%       91%     92%      Darra-e
                           Sher
90%       91%     90%      92%       Zanif
85%       85%     86%      88%       86%     Rezway
92%       92%     91%      89%       88%     85%
88%       89%     88%      89%       89%     88%
85%       86%     86%      88%       88%     88%
83%       82%     85%      82%       84%     85%
80%       81%     81%      81%       83%     83%

Narghaw
88%       Ghumay
89%       93%      Warw
86%       89%      87%    Ubaghn
85%       87%      93%    95%      Dari

Table 6: Lexical Similarity, selecting Dari-words when
multiple words were given

Khizaw     Nusay     Retow    Zengerya   Jarf

82%        83%       85%      85%        86%

Darra-e    Maymay    Laron    Jumarj-e   Rezway
Sher                          Bala

86%        88%       89%      89%        91%

Zanif      Qala-e    Ghumay   Narghaw    Ubaghn
           Kuf

93%        93%       96%      98%        99%

Warw

99%        Dari

Table 7: RTT results according to gender

Criterion            lowest   highest   average
                     score    score     score

Gender      male     49%      97%       78%
            female   41%      100%      69%

Table 8: RTT result according to gender and age

Criterion                       lowest    highest    average
                                score     score      score

Gender      male     under 30   49%       92%        77%
& Age                over 30    51%       97%        79%

            female   under 30   41%       100%       68%
                     over 30    42%       100%       67%

Table 9: RTT results according to gender and home village

Criterion                                lowest    highest   average
                                         score     score     score

Gender      male     Tangshew valley     49%       92%       72%
&                    East (to Nusay)     49%       97%       76%
Village              West (from Nusay)   59%       97%       81%

            female   Tangshew valley     50%       97%       72%
                     East (to Nusay)     41%       100%      73%
                     West (from Nusay)   43%       100%      63%

Table 10: RTT results according to gender and school education

Criterion                                  lowest   highest   average
                                           score    score     score

Gender &    male     less than 5th grade   49%      95%       73%
School               5th grade or higher   62%      97%       82%
Education   female   less than 5th grade   41%      97%       64%
                     5th grade or higher   59%      100%      81%

Table 11: Language easier to understand

                Dari   Tajik   the same

L easier
to understand   20     5       7

Figure 1: Desired language of literacy in primary school

Darwaz

Darwazi    7
Dari      11
N/A        8

Tangshew

Tangshewi   0
Dari        2
N/A         4

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 2: Acceptable marriage partner for daughters *

Darwaz

Tangshewi   21
Dari        23
Shughni     18
Pashto      19
none         1
N/A          1

Tangshew

Darwazi      3
Dari         3
Shughni      4
Pashto       3
none         1
N/A          2

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 3: Acceptable marriage partner for son *

Darwaz

Tangshewi   15
Dari        19
Shughni     11
Pashto      14
none         2
N/A          2

Tangshew

Darwazi      3
Dari         3
Shughni      3
Pashto       3
none         1
N/A          2

* Some respondents gave multiple answers.

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 4: Estimated language of children in the future *

Darwaz

Darwazi    23
Dari        3

Tangshew

Tangshewi   5
Dari        1

* Some respondents gave multiple answers.

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 5 Estimated language of grandchildren in the future *

Darwaz

Darwazi          23
Dari              3
very different    1

Tangshew

Tangshewi         5
Dari              1

* Some respondents gave multiple answers.

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:p. 58-82
Author:Beck, Simone; Beyer, Daniela
Publication:Linguistic Discovery
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9AFGH
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:14341
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