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A selected bibliography of the traditional languages of Torres Strait.

In preparation for a paper on Sidney Herbert Ray (1858-1939), the linguist with the 1898 Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, I had occasion to view Ray's archive, deposited in the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) Library of the University of London. The archive was microfilmed for the National Library of Australia as part of the Joint Copying Project and copies made available to the various state libraries. One of the purposes of this bibliography is to bring Ray's archive, a rich resource for Pacific linguists and ethnographers, to the attention of scholars who may be unaware of it.

Ray began his studies in `Oceanic' languages in 1887 and became a world authority on the languages of this region. He largely authored the third report of the Cambridge expedition, entitled `Linguistics' (Ray 1907), which, despite analytical flaws, remains a remarkable work of scholarship. It is still the most comprehensive and arguably the most influential work on the traditional Torres Strait languages and includes contributions from other expedition members: Seligmann and Wilkin on the gesture language of the western Islanders (pp 255-60); Haddon on the gesture language of the eastern Islanders (pp 261-62); Seligmann and Haddon on fire signals (pp 263); and Seligmann and George Pimm (or Pym), a pearl-sheller living at Cape Grenville, on Otati (now Wuthathi), an eastern Cape York language (pp 277-80). A quarter of the volume is devoted to the languages of British New Guinea.

Over many years, Ray collected a vast archive of monographs, manuscripts, wordlists and correspondence on hundreds of languages. Nor was he the narrow academic specialist. His archive includes works on the ethnography, folklore, history, religion, psychology and literature of the world's peoples, on the histories of missions, voyages, exploration, geography and biography.

According to Ray, the first European record of a Torres Strait language was made in 1822 (of the eastern language) but did not survive.(1) The earliest published accounts and brief wordlists of the traditional Torres Strait languages appeared as appendices in ships' logs and diaries of British mariners, who visited the strait from the 1820s. They and the London Missionary Society (LMS) missionaries, who established their Papuan Mission in Torres Strait in 1871, observed that, despite some overlap in vocabulary, the Islanders spoke two separate languages, which corresponded to the east-west ethnological division in the strait. The LMS teachers and missionaries compiled wordlists in both languages(2) and published versions of the Gospels; the Church of England, which accepted spiritual authority over the Islanders in 1915, continued the tradition, adding its own hymns and liturgy.

When Ray joined the expedition, he saw his major tasks as establishing whether a genetic relationship existed between the two Torres Strait languages, the nature of the relationship between them and the languages of their northern and southern mainland neighbours, and whether the Torres Strait languages belonged to the Papuan, Austronesian or Australian language families. A fascinating exercise in itself, it could also be expected to shed light on the relations among the peoples of the region. As a result of his researches, he established that the easterners spoke a Papuan language (today called Meriam Mir) and the westerners, an Australian language (now called Kala Lagaw Ya on Mabuiag and Badu and Kalaw Kawaw Ya on Saibai, Boigu and Dauan).

Nineteenth century wordlists, descriptions and analyses (Ray's archive, SOAS)

Ray's SOAS archive contains additional nineteenth century published and unpublished wordlists, hymns, gospels and parables in Torres Strait, New Guinea and Australian mainland languages.

Brierly, O.W. 1849 Journal on H.M.S. Rattlesnake, 17 Oct - 6 Nov 1849, Evans Bay, Cape York, unpublished ms.

Chalmers, J. and S. McFarlane 1888 British New Guinea Vocabularies, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London.

Codrington, R.H. 1885 The Melanesian Languages, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Curr, E.M. 1886-87 The Australian Race: Its Origin, Languages, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia, and the Routes by which It Spread Itself over That Continent, Government Printer, Melbourne.

D'Albertis, L.M. 1880 New Guinea: What I Did and What I Saw, Sampson Low, London.

Gabelentz, H.C. von der and A.B. Meyer 1883 Die Sprache von Errub und Maer, Abhandlungen der Koniglich Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-historische Klasse 8, 511-36.

Gill, W.W. 1876 Life in the Southern Isles: or Scenes and Incidents in the South Pacific and New Guinea, Nisbet, London.

Hunt, Rev. A.E. nd Vocabulary of English: Murray Island, unpublished ms.

Jukes, J.B. 1847 Narrative of the Surveying Voyage of H.M.S. `Fly', Commanded by Captain F.P. Blackwood, R.N. in Torres Strait, New Guinea, and Other Islands of the Eastern Archipelago, during the Years 1842-1846 ..., Boone, London.

Latham, R.G. 1860 Opuscula: Essays Chiefly Philological and Ethnographical, Williams & Norgate, London.

McFarlane, S. 1877-87, Murray Island Language: [wordlist], unpublished ms.

MacGillivray, J. 1852 Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded by the late Captain Owen Stanley, RN ... during the Years 1846-1850, Boone, London.

MacGregor, W. 1889-90 Aboriginal Vocabulary of Saibai, Annual Report on British New Guinea, Government Printer, Queensland, 121-24.

Murray, A.W. 1876 Comparison of Languages Spoken on the Islands of Torres Straits, and on the Mainland of New Guinea, with Some of the Dialects of Polynesia and the Australian Continent, chart in Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia and New Guinea, Nisbet, London.

Ray, S.H. 1899 Linguistic Results of the Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits and New Guinea, Royal Anthropological Institute Journal 29, 218-19.

Ray, S.H. and A.C. Haddon 1893 A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits, with Vocabularies and Grammatical Notes, Part 1, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, ser.3(2), 463-616.

-- 1897 A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits, with Vocabularies and Grammatical Notes, Part 2, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, ser. 3(4), 119-373.

Savage, Rev. E.B. nd Vocabulary of Daudai [i.e., Kiwai], Mabuiag and Mer, unpublished ms.

Schulenburg, A. von der 1892 Grammatik, Vocabularium und Sprachproben der Sprache von Murray Island, Friedrich, Leipzig.

Scott, Rev. H. nd Murray Island Language: about 1000 Words Selected from the English Dictionary Such As Are Generally Used, unpublished ms.

Stone, O.C. 1880 A Few Months in New Guinea, Sampson Low, London.

Sweatman, J. 1847 Journal of a Surveying Voyage to the N.E. Coast of Australia and Torres Strait, in H.M. Schooner `Bramble', Lieut. C.B. Yule, Commander, 1842-7, unpublished ms.

Unpublished manuscripts and recordings of traditional Torres Strait languages held at AIATSIS, Canberra

The Institute holds the largest collection of unpublished Torres Strait language material: in addition to copies of many items in Ray's archive, there are theses, manuscripts, fieldnotes, field recordings, language hymns and liturgy, linguistic analyses and educational material used in cultural programs in Torres Strait schools. Some of this material is restricted. Rodney Mitchell and Nicola Piper, who wrote their recent MA theses on Kala Lagaw Ya and Meriam Mir, respectively, are currently researching the languages further for their PhDs.

Alpher, B. 1967 Western Islands Language from Boigu [transcription of tape recording], 2pp.

Aragu, W. 1966 Hymns in Mabuiag Language from Dauan Island, 18pp.

Bani, E. 1970 Notes on Mabuiag, 20pp.

-- 1970 A Proposal for a New Spelling System for the Western Island Language, 6pp.

-- 1975 Conversational Mabuiyag, 11pp.

-- c 1975 Mabuyag I: Word Order, Case Marking and Grammatical Categories, 1p.

-- 1976 List of Long Vowel words of Yagar Yagar, 15pp.

-- 1976 Island Trade: Obtained from Interview with Informant from Mabuyag, 1p.

-- 1979 The Presupposition in Western Torres Strait Language, 7pp.

-- 1979 Kala Lagaw Ya (the Western Torres Strait Language) and the New Spelling System, 34pp.

-- c 1986 Kalaw Kawaw Ya/English Dictionary, 437pp.

-- nd Some Legends from Mabuiag Island ..., 3pp.

Bani, E. and T.J. Klokeid 1971 Preliminary Version of: Papers on the Western Island Language of Torres Strait.

-- 1972 Kala Lagaw Langgus: Yagar Yagar, the Western Torres Strait Language, 212pp.

-- 1975 Kala Lagaw Langgus: Grammatical Terminology, 4pp.

-- 1975, 1976 Mabuygiw Yangu Zagethaw Thusi Kasakay (A Workbook in Mabuyag Syntax): Kala Lagaw Langgus, the Western Torres Strait Language, 94pp.

Black, P.D. 1979 The Shape of Lexical Diffusion, 18pp.

-- 1979-80 Papers on Lexical Change in Australia, 1979-80 [including Mabuiag and Miriam], 6pts.

Ford, K.C. and D. Ober 1979 Accent and Rhythm in Linguistic Description, mimeoed conference paper, Australian Linguistic Society Conference, Newcastle University, May, 20pp.

Glasgow, D.I. 1971 Torres Strait Languages, 2pts.

Kennedy, R.J. 1981 Kala Lagaw Ya (Western Torres Strait Language) in Written Form, 8pp.

Klokeid, T.J. c 1975 Mabuyag Ergative Switching, 1p.

Laade, W. 1966 Sign Language of Saibai Island, Torres Strait, 4pp.

-- 1967 String Figures of Saibai Island, Torres Strait, 4pp.

-- 1990 Catalogue of Field Tape Recordings, 1963-65, 5v.

Laughren, M.N. 1989 Secondary Predication as a Diagnostic of Underlying Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Some Pama-Nyungan Languages, handout, Australian Linguistic Society Conference workshop on comparative non-Pama-Nyungan, Monash University, September, 6pp.

McConvell, P. 1983 Ergativity and Verb Agreement in Meriam Mir, 64pp.

Mitchell, R.J.A. 1991 Traditional Torres Strait Poetry and Singing, 1 box.

-- 1993 Linguistic Archaeology in the Torres Strait Area, MA thesis, Department of Modern Languages, James Cook University

Passi, D. 1966 Hymns in Mabuiag Language, 100pp.

Peter, E. nd The Genealogy of a Village [notebook in Kala Lagaw Ya].

Piper, N. 1989 A Sketch of Meryam Mir, MA thesis, Department of Linguistics, Australian National University.

Rechnitz, W. nd Murray Island Dance, 1p.

-- nd Murray Island Prayers for Use at Home, 2pp.

Sagigi, S. 1966 Hymns in Mabuiag Language from Saibai Island, 28pp.

Simpson, B., A. Simpson and V. Leeding 1971 The Phonology of the Western Torres Strait Language (Mabuiag Dialect), draft paper from Summer Institute of Linguistics, 51pp.

Walters, N. nd Eastern Island Language Hymns, 1 box.

Published traditional Torres Strait language texts

The first published Torres Strait language texts were late nineteenth century translations of biblical and educational material and hymns, the results of collaborations between Torres Strait Islanders and their Pacific Islander and European missionaries. The Rev. A.E. Hunt set up the first printing press on Mer (Murray Island) in the late 1880s. There was a hiatus until the early 1970s, when Islander students at educational and religious institutions began to produce their own language texts. Although these again were often translations from English, Islanders also began to tell their own stories. Queensland state high schools with significant Islander student populations have also published language material as part of traditional language and culture programs. The most comprehensive collections are held in the libraries of AIATSIS in Canberra, TAFE College in Cairns, Batchelor College at Batchelor in the Northern Territory, and Thursday Island State High School. These libraries supply bibliographies on request.

Vernacular material with translation also appears in general publications about Torres Strait, such as Margaret Lawrie's Myths and Legends of Torres Strait (University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1970), George Ohshima's Torres Kaigyo No Hitobito: People of the Torres Strait (Kokon Shoin, Tokyo, 1983) and Rod and Judy Kennedy's Adha Gar Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait (Summer Institute of Linguistics, Darwin, 1990), and in autobiographies and stories written by Islanders. Glossaries appear in theses and academic publications dealing with particular aspects of Islander history and custom.

Abele Iauali Kerkar Gelar Meriba Opole Iesu Keriso Depegeli Miriam Mer (Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John in Murray Island language) 1902 British and Foreign Bible Society, London.

Akiba, S. nd [c 1971] Moegina Koezu Adhiw Thusi: Little Children's Story Book, School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

Anau, R. 1984 Wakaythoemamoey Yangu Thusi: Nabi Thusi Rabah Anau Aymadhin, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College, Batchelor, NT.

Aragu, B. 1980 Moegina Pawlaw Ya: Little Hen Story in Kala Lagaw Ya, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin.

Babia, M. 1984 Ina Nabi Thusi Moeginakoezipa Poelayzinga. Gimiya Nguzu Kalaw Kawaw Yangukudu Poelayzinga A Apiya Markaydh Poelayzinga, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College, Batchelor, NT.

Babia, M. 1984 Midh Mura?, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College, Batchelor, NT.

-- 1984 Kalaw Kawaw Yangukudu Dhadhpoelamoeypa, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College, Batchelor, NT.

Bani, E. 1976 Mabuigiu Naul: Songs from Mabuiag, School of Australian Linguistics, Casuarina, NT.

-- 1988 Ngalpun Mabaygaw Nelai: Torres Strait Traditional Personal Names, Torres News 12 February, 4-5.

Beckett, J.R. 1972 Traditional Music of Torres Strait, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

Elia nd Ina Evangelia Mareko Minarpalan (Gospel according to Mark in Mabuiag Island Language), Cunninghame, Sydney.

Evangelia Iesu Keriso Mataion Minarpalaizinga (Gospel according to Matthew in Mabuiag Island language) 1900 British and Foreign Bible Society, London.

Evangelia Mareko Detali (Gospel according to Mark in Murray Island language) 1879 Foster and Fairfax, Sydney.

Evangelia Mareko Detarer (Gospel according to Mark in Murray Island language) 1885 Sydney.

Glasgow, D.I. 1971 Torres Strait Islands Word List, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Darwin.

Hata, M. 1979 Some Samples of Song Texts from Yam Island, in Torres Strait Island Kenkyu-kai: Interim Report of Field Research on the Torres Strait Islands, Kwansei Gakuin University, Osaka, 37-40.

Hunt, A.E. 1888 Kikiam Ereuerem Jauali, Miriam Mer (First School Book in Murray Island language), London Missionary Society Press, Murray Island.

-- 1888 Gaire Ued. Mei (Hymns in Meriam Mir and English), London Missionary Society Press, Murray Island.

Laitim--B'long--Antap: Written and Illustrated by Year 11 and Year 12 Students (Aboriginal and Islander Studies) Cairns State High School 1987 Cairns State High School.

Let the Sun Shine! Derum Gair Kaurge. Goiga Buia Nagi Mura Lagia: A Plan for the Torres Islands People, c 1954 Smith, Yule Entrance, Torres Strait.

Mabuiag Apostololau Aimaizapul (Acts in Mabuiag [trs by W.L. Rechnitz]) 1972 Bible Society in Australia, Canberra.

The Mass in Western Torres Strait Language nd [wording of the mass in Kala Lagaw Ya].

McDonald, G.M. 1980 Thoeythupoegay Mabaygaw Ngurpay Thusi (Sunday School Teachers' Handbook, trs by A. Kabai and R. Kennedy), Wycliffe Bible Translators, Darwin.

Myers, C.S. 1912 The Study of Primitive Music, Musical Antiquary 3, 121-41.

Nabi Arkath Nanga Kuykaymaydhin (Genesis I-IX in Kalaw Kawaw Ya [trs by N. Akiba, I. and E. Waigana]) 1980 Wycliffe Bible Translators, Darwin.

Ngali December 1980 [contains lists of anatomical, kinship, legal and medicinal plant vocabulary in Kalaw Kawaw Ya].

Nubi Arkathaw Sama Awgadhaw Zageth (Genesis in Kala Lagaw Ya [trs by E. Waigana]) 1980 Wycliffe Bible Translators, Darwin.

Ober, D. and I. Akiba 1980 Moeleria Kikiriw Ya: Malaria, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Darwin.

Petta, S. 1982 Yoewdhaylgaw Mabaygaw Igililmay Thusi: A Book about the Jewish People's Life, Wycliffe Bible Translators, Darwin.

Pilot, B. 1975 Eastern and Western Hymn Book and Liturgy, Torres Strait Island Ministry, Townsville.

Rechnitz, W., N. Mosby, J. Rice and G. Passi 1956-60 Music to the Torres Strait Island Masses, Church of England in Australia, Masig, Mer.

Rechnitz, W., S. Passi and A. Baruna 1956-57 Opolera Wetpur (The Holy Eucharist), Church of England in Australia, Mer.

Scott, J.T. 1883 Jesu Ra Giz Mer Abkoreb Erub Mer (Jesus' words according to Erub speech), Balfour, Montrose.

Solomon, S. 1992 Dabu: The Baby Dugong, Kazi Dhangal, Magabala Books, Broome.

Thursday Island State High School 1988 Music of the Eastern Islands of the Torres Strait, Thursday Island State High School.

Toby, G. 1981 Aloep A Dhoeri Palamun Gidha Sey Wasinu: The Story of Alf and the Cockatoo, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin.

Waianga, D. 1986 Kiway Owera Bukaye No Sobosobo Merebabigo Gido: Kiway Yangukudu Thusi Moeginakoezipa (Kiwai Language Book for Children in Kalaw Kaway Ya), School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

Waigana, B. 1984a Koewdhaban Adhi: The Story of Koewdhab, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College, Batchelor, NT.

-- 1984b Western Torres Strait Language Book: Kalaw Kawaw Woerdhayzi Yangukudu Thusi, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College, Batchelor, NT.

-- 1986a Kalaw Kawaw Yangukudu Thusi Moegina Koezipa (Western Islands Language Book for Little Children), School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

-- 1986b Yangukudu Ngurpay Thusi: Georeyd 5, A 6, A 7 Koey Moeginakoezipa (Language Study Book: Grade 5, 6 and 7 for big children), School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

Warusam, W. and N. Warusam 1980 Moegina Kazipa Adhil: Stories for Little Children, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin.

Whop, P. 1986a Mabuygiw Kulay Danalayg A Gidhal, School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

-- 1986b Moegi Kaziw Thusi (Little Children's Book), School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

-- 1986c Puy Urab A Apu A Kaazi, School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

Yesu Kerison Kapu Yangu Wakay Mathayun Poelayzinga (Gospel of Matthew in Kalaw Kawaw Ya) 1985 Wycliffe Bible Translators, Kangaroo Ground, Vic.

York, F. 1990 Children's Songs of the Torres Strait Islands, Owen Martin, Bateman's Bay, NSW.

Published twentieth century Torres Strait traditional language description and analysis

As a minority within a minority, Torres Strait Islanders have been little studied by comparison with Aboriginal Australia. Their traditional languages also remain under-researched, although Australianists find Kala Lagaw Ya, a Pama-Nyngan language, useful as a source of theoretical examples. The most fruitful descriptions to date are the result of collaborations between Islander and European linguists.

Alpher, B.J. 1987 Feminine as the Unmarked Grammatical Gender: Buffalo Girls Are No Fools [includes Kala Lagaw Ya examples], Australian Journal of Linguistics 7(2), 185-87.

Austin, P. 1988 Phonological Voicing Contrasts in Australian Aboriginal Languages, La Trobe Working Papers in Linguistics 1, 17-42.

Bani, E. 1975 Ina Aadhi (The legend of Ii), School of Australian Linguistics, Casuarina, NT.

-- 1987 Garka A Ipika: Masculine and Feminine Grammatical Gender in Kala Lagaw Ya, Australian Journal of Linguistics 7(2), 189-201.

Bani, E. and T.J. Klokeid 1976 Ergative Switching in Kala Lagau Langgus. In P.J. Sutton (ed), Languages of Cape York, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, 269-83.

Bartos, G.E 1977 Miriam Phonemes, Te Reo 20, 29-69.

Black, P.D. and P. Whop 1986 Growing in Language: A Collection of Writings by Students at Batchelor College and the School of Australian Linguistics, School of Australian Linguistics, Batchelor, NT.

Capell, A. 1937 The Structure of Australian Languages, Oceania 8(1), 27-61.

-- 1967 Pronominalisation in Australian Languages, Papers in Australian Linguistics 2, Pacific Linguistics Series A-10, Canberra, 21-41.

Comrie, B. 1978 Ergativity. In W.P. Lehmann (ed), Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Languages, Harvester, Hassocks, Sussex, 329-94.

-- 1981 Ergativity and Grammatical Relations in Kalaw Lagaw Ya (Saibai dialect), Australian Journal of Linguistics 1(1), 1-42.

Ford, K.C. and D. Ober 1986 Pragmatic Conditioning of Word-order in Kalaw Kawaw Ya (Western Torres Strait), Language in Aboriginal Australia 2, 29-33.

-- 1991 A sketch of Kalaw Kawaw Ya. In S. Romaine (ed), Language in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 118-42.

Hickerson, N.P. 1972 Murray Island Color Terms: W.H.R. Rivers, 1901. In D.G. Hays and D.M. Lance (eds), From Soundstream to Discourse: Papers from the

1971 Mid-America Linguistics Conference, Linguistics Area Program, University of Missouri, Columbia, 206-13.

Holmer, N.M. 1988 Notes on Some Queensland Languages, Pacific Linguistics Series D-79, Canberra.

Kennedy, R.J. 1981 Phonology of Kala Lagaw Ya in Saibai Dialect. In B. Waters (ed), Australian Phonologies: Collected Papers, Work Papers of SIL-AAB Series A-5, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin, 103-37.

-- 1984 Semantic Roles: The Language Speaker's Categories (in Kala Lagaw Ya). In K. Glasgow, A. Capell, G.R. McKay, R.J. Kennedy and D. Trefry, Papers in Australian Linguistics 16, Pacific Linguistics Series A-68, Canberra, 153-69.

-- 1985a Clauses in Kala Lagaw Ya. In S. Ray, Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers, Work Papers of SIL-AAB Series A-9, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin, 59-79.

-- 1985b, Kalaw Kawaw Verbs. In S. Ray, Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers, Work Papers of SIL-AAB Series A-9, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin, 81-103.

-- 1985c Kalaw Kawaw Verbs: Speaker Perspective and Tense, Mood, and Aspect. In S. Ray, Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers, Work Papers of SIL-AAB Series A-9, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Darwin, 105-18.

Klokeid, T.J. 1977 Some Generalizations about Antipassives in Inuktitut [includes Kala Lagaw Ya examples], Etudes Inuit Studies 1(2), 85-95; 1(3), 167-68.

Laade, W. 1970 Examples of the Language of Saibai Island, Torres Straits, Anthropos 65(1/2), 271-77.

McConvell, P., R. Day and P. Black 1983 Making a Meriam Mir Dictionary. In P. Austin (ed), Papers in Australian Linguistics 15: Australian Aboriginal Lexicography, Pacific Linguistics Series A-66, Canberra, 19-30.

O'Grady, G.N. 1987 The Origin of Monosyllabic Roots in Eastern Pama-Nyungan. In D.C. Laycock and W. Winter (eds), A World of Language:

Papers presented to Professor S.A. Wurm on His 65th Birthday, Pacific Linguistics Series C-100, Canberra, 517-29.

Passi, G.K. and N. Piper 1994 Meryam Mir: Description and Word List. In N. Thieberger and W. McGregor (eds), Macquarie Aboriginal Words, Macquarie, Sydney, 320-51.

Ray, S.H. 1907 Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits 3: Linguistics, Cambridge University Press.

Rechnitz, W. 1961 Language and the Languages in the Torres Strait Islands, Milla wa-Milla: The Australian Bulletin of Comparative Religion 1, 45-54.

-- 1969 Translations Sacred and Secular, Milla waMilla: The Australian Bulletin of Comparative Religion 9, 39-45.

Shnukal, A. 1993 Torres Strait Island Languages Past and Present. In N. Loos and T. Osanai (eds), Indigenous Minorities and Education: Australian and Japanese Perspectives of Their Indigenous People, the Ainu, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, Sanyusha, Tokyo, 152-64.

Wurm, S.A. 1972 Torres Strait: A Linguistic Barrier? In D. Walker (ed), Bridge and Barrier: The Natural and Cultural History of Torres Strait, Department of Biogeography and Geomorphology, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, 345-66.

-- 1975 Possible Wider Connections of Papuan Languages: Torres Strait and North Australia. In S.A. Wurm (ed), Papuan Languages and the New Guinea Linguistic Scene, Pacific Linguistics Series C-38, Canberra, 915-24.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to Geraldine Triffitt, linguistic bibliographer at AIATSIS, for her help in compiling this bibliography, and to Rod Mitchell for help with western island language titles.

NOTES

(1.) On 12 July 1822, Royal Navy surgeon Thomas Braidwood Wilson, while visiting Mer (Murray Island), recorded `a pretty large vocabulary, comprehending the various parts of the body, and also all other objects within sight'. He presented his two helpers with one copy, `with their own language in one column, and the English in the other, which I told them to show to any other strangers who might hereafter pay them a visit', but both copies were subsequently lost.

(2.) Among the earliest was the lesson sheet `prepared with the assistance of the teachers and the Erub [Darnley Island] people, printed in Sydney', which `greatly amused and interested' the Darnley Islanders when it was produced at the opening of the first school on 24 August 1873.

Anna Shnukal

Australian Research Council Research Fellow, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit, University of Queensland
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