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A scientometric study of journal of bio-chemistry and bio-physics (IJBB).

Introduction: Science and scientific research have been growing at a faster rate during recent years. Indian Journal of Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics is highly helpful in the field of Biology and Chemistry and other Science related branches. They develop benchmark to evaluate the quality of information resources and package of information for decision making in Science. It provides key opportunities to researcher to publish their article with new straggles, innovation, new ideas, and new methods. Scientometric is one of the most common areas of study among the Researchers and research activity.

Biochemistry is a fascinating subject that deals with the chemical language of life, be it human, animal, plant, or microorganism. Biochemistry interfaces with Biology and Chemistry and is concerned with the Chemical

processes that take place within living cells. The Science is the application of the laws of Physics to biological phenomena.

Biophysics is subject that deals with the various aspects of tools, techniques, laws and methods used in Biology and Physics and it is an interdisciplinary Science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems. Biophysics spans all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with Bio-Chemistry, Bioengineering, agro physics, and System Biology. It has been suggested as a bridge between biology and Physics.

Genesis of the source Journal: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics (IJBB) has been selected as the source Journal for the present study. IJBB published by NISCAIR (National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources). The pioneering Journal was started in 1964. The Bimonthly issue of this Journal contains full papers, short notes, and rapid communications and review articles. National Institute of Science Communication & information Resources (NISCAIR) came into existence on 30 September 2002 with the merger of National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC). Both NISCOM and INSDOC, the two premier institutes of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), were devoted to dissemination and documentation of Science & Technology information.

The articles published in this Journal cover all areas of research in Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics. Viz. bimolecular recognition, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions vectors, gene therapy; drug targeting, drug design; molecular basis of genetic diseases; conformational studies, computer simulation, novel DNA structures and their biological implications, protein folding; enzymes structure, catalytic mechanisms, regulation; membrane biochemistry, antigen-antibody binding, neurochemistry, ageing, apoptosis, cell cycle control; hormones; ontogenesis, host-virus interactions, viral assembly and structure; intermediary metabolism, molecular basis of disease processes, vitamins, coenzymes, carrier proteins, toxicology; plant and microbial biochemistry; electrical phenomena in biological systems and so on(3). Solicited peer reviewed articles on contemporary themes and methods in Biochemistry and Biophysics form an important feature of IJBB.

Scope and Objectives of the Study: The study covered the period during the year from 2009-2013. This critically analyses 316 Articles published in the inaugural five volumes of IJBB with 36 issues. In order to achieve this, the following objectives were formulated for the present study:

* To analyse the chronological growth of literature during 2009-2013;

* To examine the authorship pattern of the contribution;

* To identify the geographic distribution of output;

* To study the length of articles;

* To discover the subject distribution of the articles and the main areas of research;

* To identify the citation analysis of the references;

* To identify the distribution of citation by Format;

* To discover the most frequently cited Journals in the field.

Methodology: All articles of this study retrieve from "NISCAIR ONLINE PERIODICALS REPOSITORY (NOPR)". NOPR has been implemented based on the open source digital repository system software. This has enabled NISCAIR to host online its research Journals; IJBB is covered by many national and international abstracting/indexing services, such as: Anal Abstr, Medline/Pub Med, Nutr Abstr, Sci Cit Ind, Rev Appl Entomol, Rev Plant Path, Vet Bull, Trop Dis Bull, etc. Abstracts of papers published in IJBB are also available free online i.e website: http://www.niscair.res.in. All the data were subsequently examined, observed, analysed and tabulated for making observations are used as a source.

Review of Related Literature: Kumar (et.al), (2013) in this Paper analyses the growth and development of Bibliometric and Scientometric research in physics and engineering field as per Inspec Database (1999-2008) during 1999-2008. Authorship and Collaboration Trend was Towards Multi-Authored Papers. Regolini, Janne and Antony (2013), studied a Bibliometric study of first generation citations from formation science. Publication data from scopus were used. This study confirms that it is possible to observe the evolution of a new transdiscipline by analysing the citations to papers from its flagship Journal. Nandi, Amitava, Bandyopadhyay, and Kumar, (2013), Bibliometric Analysis for 160 theses and 739 thesis articles collected from the Botany department at the University of Burdwan in eight subdivisions of botany during 1960-2000 has been carried out to determine year wise productivity, authorship pattern and collaboration. Kalaiappan, Kaliyaperumal and Rajasekar (2010), the study is a Bibliometric analysis of remarkable contributions of Prof. G.N. Ramachandran (Popularly Known As Gnr), An Eminent Biophysicist and Crystallographer. It is necessary to review the contributions made by renowned Indian scientists so as to understand the nature and magnitudes of their contributions to a particular field of study. The paper examines the contributions of GNR in the fields of biophysics and crystallography, magnitude of his collaborations, and year-wise distribution of his productivity. S. Nattar, (2009), Scientometric analysis of 829 Articles Published in the Indian Journal Of Physics During The Year 2004- 2008 are taken up to observe the distribution of contributions, authorship pattern, geographical distribution of contributions and the number of pages used in each volume. Results indicate that highest numbers of papers have been written by co- authors. The growth and popularity of this Journal is found to show an upward trend.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data: The data analysis and discussion of the study are given below:
Table-1 Chronological Growth of Articles

Year    Vol. No.   No. of Articles   Percentage

2013    50         72                22.78
2012    49         59                18.67
2011    48         58                18.35
2010    47         58                18.35
2009    46         69                21.83
Total              316               100

Fig: 1
Chronological growth of Articles

              2013    2012    2011    2010    2009

Volume No.    50      49      48      47      46
No. of        72      59      58      58      69
  Articles
Percentages   22.78   18.67   18.35   18.35   21.83

Total no. of Articles = 316

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Table 1 portrays that the Journal published 46-50 volume no and 36 issues published during the period of study i.e. from 2013 to 2009. The above table shows that the maximum numbers of Articles 72 (22.78%) were published in the year 2013 and minimum in the year 2011 and 2010 is 58 (18.35%).
Table-2 Authorship Pattern

Year            2013   2012   2011   2010

Single Author    5      5      4      1
Two Author       12     06     11     13
Three Author     13     15     16     14
Multi Author     42     33     27     30
Total

Year            2009   Total   Percentage

Single Author    3      18        5.7
Two Author       15     57         18
Three Author     21     79         25
Multi Author     30     162       51.3
Total                   316       100

Fig: 2
Authorship Pattern

No. of author

               2009   2010   2011   2012   2013

Single
Author, 5.7%   3      1      4      5      5

Two            15     13     11     6      12
Author, 18%

Three          21     14     16     15     13
Author, 25%

Multi          30     30     27     33     42
Author, 51.3%

Total = 316

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Table 2 depicts that the authorship pattern of contributions by a multi author, with nearly half having three. Anyhow it may be concluded that the Multi-author contributions has the maximum percentage.
Table-3 Geographical Distribution of Contributors at
International Level

Rank no.   Name of       Total no of     Percentage
           the Country   contributions

1          India         768             68.9
2          China         170             14.9
3          Turkey        42              3.7
4          USA           35              3.06
5          Korea         35              3.06
6          Iran          19              1.7
7          Poland        15              1.31
8          Pakistan      14              1.22
9          Malaysia      13              1.1
10         Australia     12              1.05
                         1141            100


Table 3 shows that 68.9% that contributions come from India; 14.9% of contributions came from China; 3.7% of contribution came from Turkey; 3.06% of contributions came from U.S.A and Korea; 1.7% of contributions came from Iran; countries last lowest 1.05% contribution from Australia. A significant observation of the study is that India dominates the number of contributors at international level.
Table-4 Page Wise Distribution of Articles

Pages      2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   Total   Percentage

1-3        4      04     --     01     --     09      2.84
3-6        37     33     29     19     36     154     48.7
7-10       24     21     25     31     29     130     41.1
10-15      03     --     04     08     07     22      00.7
>15 Page   01     --     --     --     --     01      0.36
Total      69     58     58     59     72     316     100

Fig: 4
Page wise Distribution of Articles

               2009   2010   2011   2012   2013

1 to 3,        4      4      0      1      0
2.84%

3 to 6,        37     33     29     19     36
48.7%

7 to 10,       24     21     25     31     29
41.1%

10 to 15,      3      0      4      8      7
0.7%

>15 Page,      1      0      0      0      0
0.36%

Total = 316

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Fig.4 reveals that the majority of articles 154 (48.7%) have the length of 3-6 pages followed by 130 (41.1%) articles with 7-10 pages, 22 (00.7%) articles with 10-15 pages (2.84%) with 09 pages and the remaining (0.36%) with 01 page.
Table-5 Subject Wise Distribution of Articles

Sl. No.   Subject              No. of    Percentage   Cumulative
                              articles                Percentage

1         Pharmacology           97         30.7         30.7
2         Bio-Chemistry          61         19.3          50
3         Bio-Technology         48         15.2         65.2
4         Bio-Physics            26         8.22        73.42
5         Applied Chemistry      25         7.91        81.33
6         Genetics               22         6.96        88.29
7         Micro-Biology          15         4.74        93.03
8         Applied Physics        13         4.11        97.14
9         Physiology             05         1.6         98.74
10        Plant Biology          04         1.26         100
Total                           316         100          100


Shown in table 05 the subject classification gives some idea of newly- developed specialised branches of Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics during 2013 to 2009. The table 07 above showed that majority of the contributions appeared under Pharmacology 97 (30.7%) followed by Bio-Chemistry 61 (19.3%), and Bio-Technology 48 (15.2%), Bio-Physics 26 (8.22%) and Applied Chemistry 25 (7.91%), Genetics 22 (6.96%), Micro-Biology 15 (4.74%), and Applied Physics 13 (4.11%), Physiology 05 (1.6%), and Plant Biology is 04 (1.26%).
Table: 6 distributions of Citations in Journal

Sl. No.   Year    Number of
                  citations

1         2013    2669
2         2012    2308
3         2011    2146
4         2010    1885
5         2009    2548
          Total   11556

Fig: 6
Distribution of Citations in Journal

Year 2009   2548
Year 2010   1885
Year 2013   2669
Year 2012   2308

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Table-7 Distribution of Citations by Format

Sl. No.  Forms of documents         No of       Percentage
                                    citations

1        Journals                   5220        45.2
2        Books                      3110        26.9
3        Conference proceedings     2102        18.18
4        Others (Thesis, Reports,   1124        9.72
           Dissertation, etc)
         Total                      11556       100


The citation was classified into various bibliographic forms such as Journals, books, conference proceedings, and other sources. Based on analysis it was found that contributors make use of Journals articles the most that is 5220 (45.2%) citations. This is followed by books 3110 (26.9%) and Conference proceedings 2102 (18.18%) citation. The remaining 1124 (9.72%) citations are from other sources.
Table-8 Ranking of Top 10 Journals by Impact Factor

Sl. No.   Name of Journals                   Publishing   Impact
                                             Country      Factor

1         Journal of Bio- Chemistry          USA          3.905
2         The Journal of Bio- Chemistry      Japan        2.719
3         Indian Journal of Bio-Chemistry    India        1.026
            and Bio-Physics
4         Journal of Agriculture and food    Washington   2.906
            Chemistry
5         Journal of Enthopharmacology       USA          3.322
6         Clinical Chimica Acta              USA          2.669
7         Indian Journal of Pharmacology     India        0.583
7         Journal of Molecular Biology       UK           3.888
8         Nature                             London       37.162
9         Journal of Clinical                USA          12.812
            investigation
9         Journal of Acquired Immune         USA          4.653
            deficiency Syndrome
10        Journal of Nutrition               USA          4.2

* Source: Google, Journal's site

Fig: 7
Ranking of Top 10 Journals by Impact Factor

Impact Factor

Journal of                 3.905
  Bio-Chemistry
The Journal of             2.719
  Bio-Chemistry
Indian Journal of          1.026
  Bio-Chemistry
  and Bio- ...
Journal of Agriculture     2.905
  and food Chemistry
Journal of                 3.322
  Enthopharmacology
Clinical Chimica Acta      2.669
Indian Journal of          0.583
  Pharmacology
Journal of Molecular       3.888
  Biology
Nature                     38.597
Journal of Clinical
  investigation
Journal of Acquired        4.653
  Immune deficiency ...
Journal of Nutrition       4.2

Note: Table made from line graph.


Impact factor is one of the quantitative tools for ranking, evaluating, categorizing, and comparing Journals. It is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a Journal has been cited in a particular year or period.

Findings: From the observation made in this study, the following points may be inferred: Findings revels that 316 articles were published during the period of study (2009-2013). The maximum number of articles 72 was published in 2013 and minimum number of articles 58 was published in 2011.The maximum number of contributions is multi authored collaborations

with 51.3%, most of contributions 68.9% from India. Scholarly nature of source Journal has been further ascertained from increasing citations and reference usage trend. The study revealed that majority of the authors preferred Journals as the source of information providing the highest number of citations and Journals are most cited form of communication amongst the scientists and Research Scholars. The maximum number of articles 48.7% has the length of 3-6 pages and minimum no of articles 0.36% has the length of 15 pages. Maximum number of special issues 5 was published during 2013-2009 on topic biomedical Science, physiology, molecular mechanism etc. Maximum number of contributor is from the Universities at the International level 62.6%. 11556 references and 1855 keywords used by the contributors out of 316 article. A highly cited Journal in IJBB by contributors is Journal of Bio-Chemistry.

Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that Scientometric study is reliable and practical method to provide reasonably accurate information on the use of Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics literature by any researcher. Publishing research in high quality Journals is an integral part of academic life. The Scientometric study of the Journal "IJBB" during 2013-2009 shows trend of growth in contributions and average number of contributions more comparison to other Journals. All the studies point towards the merits and weakness of the Journal which will be helpful for its further development. This study helps to improve scientific documentation, information and communication activities by quantitative analysis of library collection and services. It can also serve as a feedback to librarians in the selection and acquisition of documents most useful to researchers in Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics. Today we conclude that in present scenario research is done in almost all the branches of knowledge, especially in Science and Technology.

Acknowledgment

I am extremely thankful to Dr. M.P. Singh for his valuable suggestions and corporation. In this regard I am also thankful to my family who provided me these opportunities, supported, and strengthen me at every face of this study.

References:

Kumar, A., Mohan, L., & Kumar, V. (2009). Bibliometric and Scientometric Studies in Physics and Engineering: Recent Ten Years Analysis. National Conference On "Putting Knowledge to Work: Best Practices in Librarianship, Retrieved May 2, 2009 from www.ilaindia.net

Kalaiappan, V., Kaliyaperumal, K., & Rajasekar, V. (2010). Scientometric Analysis of Literature Output of Prof. G.N. Ramachandran in the Subjects of Biophysics and Crystallography. Desidoc Journal of Library & Information Technology, 30(11), 3-11. Retrieved May 16, 2014 from Desidoc www.desidoc.org

Nandi, Amitava., & Bandyopadhyay, A. K. (2013). Scientometric Dimensions Of Research Productivity Of The Botany Department, During 1960-2000. Library Philosophy and Practice, 58 (2) 11-15 Retrieved 15 March 2014 from http://Digitalcommons.Unl.Edu/Libphilprac/931. DOI: 10.1080/10723030802181711

Nattar, S. (2009) Indian Journal of Physics: A Scientometric Analysis. International Journal of Library and information Science, 5(9) 55-61 Retrieved 15 March 2014 from Http://www.acadmicjournals.org/Ijlis. DOI No: 105897/IJLIS

Pillai S.K.G., & Kumar, V.D. (2010). Scientometric Study of Doctoral Dissertations in Biochemistry in the University of Kerala, India. Library Philosophy and Practice , 58 (2) 398-390 Retrieved 15 March 2014 from http://Digitalcommons.Unl.Edu/Libphilprac/398. DOI: 10.1080/10723030802181711 Retrievd April 10 2014. from www.niscair.res.in Web: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/sci.asp?a=topframe.htm&b=leftcon.asp&c=Resear chJournals/rej our/ij bb/ij bb0.asp&d=test 1.

Regolini, A., Emmanuelle, J.O.I., & Antony (2013). A Bibliometric Study of Informing Science. The International Journal of an Emerging transdiscipline informing Science, 16 116-130 Retrieved April 15 2014 from http://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?q=The+International+Journal+of+an+Emerging+Transdiscipline +informing+Science,&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ei=7BuAUqwGM2HuAT5l4LoBA&ved=0CCUQgQMwAA DOI No.10.1007/s00005

Yoichironambu, M.S., & Keshava (2012) Research Trends in Physics: A Scientometric Study of Publication Productivity, Authorship Patterns and Channels of Communications of Physics Nobel Laureate. Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science, 2(4) 202-208 Retrieved April 2014 from http://jalis.in/pdf/Pdf2-4/Mariraj.pdf.

Madhu Bala

Research Scholar

Department of Library and Information Science

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University)

Lucknow, 226025, (Uttar Pradesh), India

Email--madhubala.lib@gmail.com

Dr. Mahender Pratap Singh

Associate Professor

Department of Library and Information Science

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University)

Lucknow, 226025, (Uttar Pradesh), India

Email--mpsinghdlis@gmail.com Contact no: 91+9415951864
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Author:Bala, Madhu; Singh, Mahender Pratap
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Aug 1, 2014
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