A scientometric study of journal of bio-chemistry and bio-physics (IJBB).
Biochemistry is a fascinating subject that deals with the chemical language of life, be it human, animal, plant, or microorganism. Biochemistry interfaces with Biology and Chemistry and is concerned with the Chemical
processes that take place within living cells. The Science is the application of the laws of Physics to biological phenomena.
Biophysics is subject that deals with the various aspects of tools, techniques, laws and methods used in Biology and Physics and it is an interdisciplinary Science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems. Biophysics spans all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with Bio-Chemistry, Bioengineering, agro physics, and System Biology. It has been suggested as a bridge between biology and Physics.
Genesis of the source Journal: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics (IJBB) has been selected as the source Journal for the present study. IJBB published by NISCAIR (National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources). The pioneering Journal was started in 1964. The Bimonthly issue of this Journal contains full papers, short notes, and rapid communications and review articles. National Institute of Science Communication & information Resources (NISCAIR) came into existence on 30 September 2002 with the merger of National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC). Both NISCOM and INSDOC, the two premier institutes of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), were devoted to dissemination and documentation of Science & Technology information.
The articles published in this Journal cover all areas of research in Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics. Viz. bimolecular recognition, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions vectors, gene therapy; drug targeting, drug design; molecular basis of genetic diseases; conformational studies, computer simulation, novel DNA structures and their biological implications, protein folding; enzymes structure, catalytic mechanisms, regulation; membrane biochemistry, antigen-antibody binding, neurochemistry, ageing, apoptosis, cell cycle control; hormones; ontogenesis, host-virus interactions, viral assembly and structure; intermediary metabolism, molecular basis of disease processes, vitamins, coenzymes, carrier proteins, toxicology; plant and microbial biochemistry; electrical phenomena in biological systems and so on(3). Solicited peer reviewed articles on contemporary themes and methods in Biochemistry and Biophysics form an important feature of IJBB.
Scope and Objectives of the Study: The study covered the period during the year from 2009-2013. This critically analyses 316 Articles published in the inaugural five volumes of IJBB with 36 issues. In order to achieve this, the following objectives were formulated for the present study:
* To analyse the chronological growth of literature during 2009-2013;
* To examine the authorship pattern of the contribution;
* To identify the geographic distribution of output;
* To study the length of articles;
* To discover the subject distribution of the articles and the main areas of research;
* To identify the citation analysis of the references;
* To identify the distribution of citation by Format;
* To discover the most frequently cited Journals in the field.
Methodology: All articles of this study retrieve from "NISCAIR ONLINE PERIODICALS REPOSITORY (NOPR)". NOPR has been implemented based on the open source digital repository system software. This has enabled NISCAIR to host online its research Journals; IJBB is covered by many national and international abstracting/indexing services, such as: Anal Abstr, Medline/Pub Med, Nutr Abstr, Sci Cit Ind, Rev Appl Entomol, Rev Plant Path, Vet Bull, Trop Dis Bull, etc. Abstracts of papers published in IJBB are also available free online i.e website: http://www.niscair.res.in. All the data were subsequently examined, observed, analysed and tabulated for making observations are used as a source.
Review of Related Literature: Kumar (et.al), (2013) in this Paper analyses the growth and development of Bibliometric and Scientometric research in physics and engineering field as per Inspec Database (1999-2008) during 1999-2008. Authorship and Collaboration Trend was Towards Multi-Authored Papers. Regolini, Janne and Antony (2013), studied a Bibliometric study of first generation citations from formation science. Publication data from scopus were used. This study confirms that it is possible to observe the evolution of a new transdiscipline by analysing the citations to papers from its flagship Journal. Nandi, Amitava, Bandyopadhyay, and Kumar, (2013), Bibliometric Analysis for 160 theses and 739 thesis articles collected from the Botany department at the University of Burdwan in eight subdivisions of botany during 1960-2000 has been carried out to determine year wise productivity, authorship pattern and collaboration. Kalaiappan, Kaliyaperumal and Rajasekar (2010), the study is a Bibliometric analysis of remarkable contributions of Prof. G.N. Ramachandran (Popularly Known As Gnr), An Eminent Biophysicist and Crystallographer. It is necessary to review the contributions made by renowned Indian scientists so as to understand the nature and magnitudes of their contributions to a particular field of study. The paper examines the contributions of GNR in the fields of biophysics and crystallography, magnitude of his collaborations, and year-wise distribution of his productivity. S. Nattar, (2009), Scientometric analysis of 829 Articles Published in the Indian Journal Of Physics During The Year 2004- 2008 are taken up to observe the distribution of contributions, authorship pattern, geographical distribution of contributions and the number of pages used in each volume. Results indicate that highest numbers of papers have been written by co- authors. The growth and popularity of this Journal is found to show an upward trend.
Analysis and Interpretation of Data: The data analysis and discussion of the study are given below:
Table-1 Chronological Growth of Articles Year Vol. No. No. of Articles Percentage 2013 50 72 22.78 2012 49 59 18.67 2011 48 58 18.35 2010 47 58 18.35 2009 46 69 21.83 Total 316 100 Fig: 1 Chronological growth of Articles 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Volume No. 50 49 48 47 46 No. of 72 59 58 58 69 Articles Percentages 22.78 18.67 18.35 18.35 21.83 Total no. of Articles = 316 Note: Table made from bar graph.
Table 1 portrays that the Journal published 46-50 volume no and 36 issues published during the period of study i.e. from 2013 to 2009. The above table shows that the maximum numbers of Articles 72 (22.78%) were published in the year 2013 and minimum in the year 2011 and 2010 is 58 (18.35%).
Table-2 Authorship Pattern Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 Single Author 5 5 4 1 Two Author 12 06 11 13 Three Author 13 15 16 14 Multi Author 42 33 27 30 Total Year 2009 Total Percentage Single Author 3 18 5.7 Two Author 15 57 18 Three Author 21 79 25 Multi Author 30 162 51.3 Total 316 100 Fig: 2 Authorship Pattern No. of author 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Single Author, 5.7% 3 1 4 5 5 Two 15 13 11 6 12 Author, 18% Three 21 14 16 15 13 Author, 25% Multi 30 30 27 33 42 Author, 51.3% Total = 316 Note: Table made from bar graph.
Table 2 depicts that the authorship pattern of contributions by a multi author, with nearly half having three. Anyhow it may be concluded that the Multi-author contributions has the maximum percentage.
Table-3 Geographical Distribution of Contributors at International Level Rank no. Name of Total no of Percentage the Country contributions 1 India 768 68.9 2 China 170 14.9 3 Turkey 42 3.7 4 USA 35 3.06 5 Korea 35 3.06 6 Iran 19 1.7 7 Poland 15 1.31 8 Pakistan 14 1.22 9 Malaysia 13 1.1 10 Australia 12 1.05 1141 100
Table 3 shows that 68.9% that contributions come from India; 14.9% of contributions came from China; 3.7% of contribution came from Turkey; 3.06% of contributions came from U.S.A and Korea; 1.7% of contributions came from Iran; countries last lowest 1.05% contribution from Australia. A significant observation of the study is that India dominates the number of contributors at international level.
Table-4 Page Wise Distribution of Articles Pages 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total Percentage 1-3 4 04 -- 01 -- 09 2.84 3-6 37 33 29 19 36 154 48.7 7-10 24 21 25 31 29 130 41.1 10-15 03 -- 04 08 07 22 00.7 >15 Page 01 -- -- -- -- 01 0.36 Total 69 58 58 59 72 316 100 Fig: 4 Page wise Distribution of Articles 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1 to 3, 4 4 0 1 0 2.84% 3 to 6, 37 33 29 19 36 48.7% 7 to 10, 24 21 25 31 29 41.1% 10 to 15, 3 0 4 8 7 0.7% >15 Page, 1 0 0 0 0 0.36% Total = 316 Note: Table made from bar graph.
Fig.4 reveals that the majority of articles 154 (48.7%) have the length of 3-6 pages followed by 130 (41.1%) articles with 7-10 pages, 22 (00.7%) articles with 10-15 pages (2.84%) with 09 pages and the remaining (0.36%) with 01 page.
Table-5 Subject Wise Distribution of Articles Sl. No. Subject No. of Percentage Cumulative articles Percentage 1 Pharmacology 97 30.7 30.7 2 Bio-Chemistry 61 19.3 50 3 Bio-Technology 48 15.2 65.2 4 Bio-Physics 26 8.22 73.42 5 Applied Chemistry 25 7.91 81.33 6 Genetics 22 6.96 88.29 7 Micro-Biology 15 4.74 93.03 8 Applied Physics 13 4.11 97.14 9 Physiology 05 1.6 98.74 10 Plant Biology 04 1.26 100 Total 316 100 100
Shown in table 05 the subject classification gives some idea of newly- developed specialised branches of Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics during 2013 to 2009. The table 07 above showed that majority of the contributions appeared under Pharmacology 97 (30.7%) followed by Bio-Chemistry 61 (19.3%), and Bio-Technology 48 (15.2%), Bio-Physics 26 (8.22%) and Applied Chemistry 25 (7.91%), Genetics 22 (6.96%), Micro-Biology 15 (4.74%), and Applied Physics 13 (4.11%), Physiology 05 (1.6%), and Plant Biology is 04 (1.26%).
Table: 6 distributions of Citations in Journal Sl. No. Year Number of citations 1 2013 2669 2 2012 2308 3 2011 2146 4 2010 1885 5 2009 2548 Total 11556 Fig: 6 Distribution of Citations in Journal Year 2009 2548 Year 2010 1885 Year 2013 2669 Year 2012 2308 Note: Table made from bar graph. Table-7 Distribution of Citations by Format Sl. No. Forms of documents No of Percentage citations 1 Journals 5220 45.2 2 Books 3110 26.9 3 Conference proceedings 2102 18.18 4 Others (Thesis, Reports, 1124 9.72 Dissertation, etc) Total 11556 100
The citation was classified into various bibliographic forms such as Journals, books, conference proceedings, and other sources. Based on analysis it was found that contributors make use of Journals articles the most that is 5220 (45.2%) citations. This is followed by books 3110 (26.9%) and Conference proceedings 2102 (18.18%) citation. The remaining 1124 (9.72%) citations are from other sources.
Table-8 Ranking of Top 10 Journals by Impact Factor Sl. No. Name of Journals Publishing Impact Country Factor 1 Journal of Bio- Chemistry USA 3.905 2 The Journal of Bio- Chemistry Japan 2.719 3 Indian Journal of Bio-Chemistry India 1.026 and Bio-Physics 4 Journal of Agriculture and food Washington 2.906 Chemistry 5 Journal of Enthopharmacology USA 3.322 6 Clinical Chimica Acta USA 2.669 7 Indian Journal of Pharmacology India 0.583 7 Journal of Molecular Biology UK 3.888 8 Nature London 37.162 9 Journal of Clinical USA 12.812 investigation 9 Journal of Acquired Immune USA 4.653 deficiency Syndrome 10 Journal of Nutrition USA 4.2 * Source: Google, Journal's site Fig: 7 Ranking of Top 10 Journals by Impact Factor Impact Factor Journal of 3.905 Bio-Chemistry The Journal of 2.719 Bio-Chemistry Indian Journal of 1.026 Bio-Chemistry and Bio- ... Journal of Agriculture 2.905 and food Chemistry Journal of 3.322 Enthopharmacology Clinical Chimica Acta 2.669 Indian Journal of 0.583 Pharmacology Journal of Molecular 3.888 Biology Nature 38.597 Journal of Clinical investigation Journal of Acquired 4.653 Immune deficiency ... Journal of Nutrition 4.2 Note: Table made from line graph.
Impact factor is one of the quantitative tools for ranking, evaluating, categorizing, and comparing Journals. It is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a Journal has been cited in a particular year or period.
Findings: From the observation made in this study, the following points may be inferred: Findings revels that 316 articles were published during the period of study (2009-2013). The maximum number of articles 72 was published in 2013 and minimum number of articles 58 was published in 2011.The maximum number of contributions is multi authored collaborations
with 51.3%, most of contributions 68.9% from India. Scholarly nature of source Journal has been further ascertained from increasing citations and reference usage trend. The study revealed that majority of the authors preferred Journals as the source of information providing the highest number of citations and Journals are most cited form of communication amongst the scientists and Research Scholars. The maximum number of articles 48.7% has the length of 3-6 pages and minimum no of articles 0.36% has the length of 15 pages. Maximum number of special issues 5 was published during 2013-2009 on topic biomedical Science, physiology, molecular mechanism etc. Maximum number of contributor is from the Universities at the International level 62.6%. 11556 references and 1855 keywords used by the contributors out of 316 article. A highly cited Journal in IJBB by contributors is Journal of Bio-Chemistry.
Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that Scientometric study is reliable and practical method to provide reasonably accurate information on the use of Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics literature by any researcher. Publishing research in high quality Journals is an integral part of academic life. The Scientometric study of the Journal "IJBB" during 2013-2009 shows trend of growth in contributions and average number of contributions more comparison to other Journals. All the studies point towards the merits and weakness of the Journal which will be helpful for its further development. This study helps to improve scientific documentation, information and communication activities by quantitative analysis of library collection and services. It can also serve as a feedback to librarians in the selection and acquisition of documents most useful to researchers in Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics. Today we conclude that in present scenario research is done in almost all the branches of knowledge, especially in Science and Technology.
I am extremely thankful to Dr. M.P. Singh for his valuable suggestions and corporation. In this regard I am also thankful to my family who provided me these opportunities, supported, and strengthen me at every face of this study.
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Kalaiappan, V., Kaliyaperumal, K., & Rajasekar, V. (2010). Scientometric Analysis of Literature Output of Prof. G.N. Ramachandran in the Subjects of Biophysics and Crystallography. Desidoc Journal of Library & Information Technology, 30(11), 3-11. Retrieved May 16, 2014 from Desidoc www.desidoc.org
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Yoichironambu, M.S., & Keshava (2012) Research Trends in Physics: A Scientometric Study of Publication Productivity, Authorship Patterns and Channels of Communications of Physics Nobel Laureate. Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science, 2(4) 202-208 Retrieved April 2014 from http://jalis.in/pdf/Pdf2-4/Mariraj.pdf.
Department of Library and Information Science
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University)
Lucknow, 226025, (Uttar Pradesh), India
Dr. Mahender Pratap Singh
Department of Library and Information Science
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University)
Lucknow, 226025, (Uttar Pradesh), India
Emailfirstname.lastname@example.org Contact no: 91+9415951864
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|Author:||Bala, Madhu; Singh, Mahender Pratap|
|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2014|
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