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A revision of Afrotropical species of Stylogaster Macquart (Diptera: Conopidae), with descriptions of twenty-one new species and an identification key.

Stylogaster kroeberi sp. n.

Figs 151-162,181

Etymology: This species is named in honour of the late Otto Krober (1882-1969). He was a German dipterist, whose contribution to the study of Conopidae, especially the Afrotropical species, was considerable.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster kroeberi sp. n. belongs to a species-group with darkened posterior margins to the tergites (Fig. 153) and a white-setulose area on the distal part of the hind tibia (Fig. 155). It differs from the two other species in this group (S. rinhaii sp. n. and S. malgachensis Camras) in the presence of the small orange-brown ocellar triangle bordered by the orange-brown frons (Fig. 156), and in having only slightly enlarged eye facets (Fig. 181). The [male] terminalia (Figs 157-162) are also diagnostic.

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 7.1 mm.

Head: 1.5 mm high. Eye dark brown, with a few scattered inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli orange-brown. Ocellar tubercle blackish brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 156). Ocellar triangle yellow-brown. Frons orange-brown lateral to ocellar triangle, with 4 fronto-orbital setae. Scapus and pedicellus yellow-brown, basal flagellomere orange-brown. Arista dark brown, base of 3 evident segments orange-brown, situated dorsally at apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 154). Scapus with few black setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 154. One distinct black vertical seta. Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black to brown, distinctly silver pruinose; with row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis pale brown basally, becoming blackish brown distally, except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 2.9 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown, mesoscutum pale brown medially. All discernible setae black, with exception of golden seta on anepimeron. Two notopleural setae (1 damaged at right side), 1 damaged supra-alar seta, 2 damaged postalar setae, 1 damaged praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta, 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 4.9 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of sc, base of [r.sub.1], [r.sub.2 + 3] and [r.sub.4 + 5], part of br, bm, base of dm and cup without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black or brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 152. Haltere uniformly yellow-brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Pale yellow, hind femur brown basally, with brown areas on hind tibia, a conspicuous white distal area on hind tibia and conspicuously black hind tarsi. Legs with white and black setulae and golden setae; only left hind coxa with black setae. Fore and mid coxae without distinct setae, but with strong golden setulae distally. Hind coxa with strong golden setulae distally on anterior surface, laterally with smaller golden setulae, without outstanding lateral seta. Hind trochanter without teeth, but with dense golden setulae. Mid femur with row of regularly-arranged golden setulae along entire length posteriorly. Hind tibia with single short black spines on anterior surface. Claws brown basally, black distally. Pulvilli brown. Empodia short, brown.

Abdomen: Mainly orange-brown, tergites 2-5 with indistinct darker posterior margins, tergite 6 pale brown (Fig. 153). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae. Tergite 1 with long golden setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 5 black lateral setae on either side at anterior margin. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 157-162. Cercus triangular (Fig. 160). Dorsal margin straight. Cercus with lappet ventrally. No conspicuous teeth ventrally. No black setae. Surstylus with 1 black tooth medially on distal margin (Fig. 159). No setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 161. Strong black setulae conspicuous basally.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar, Toliana Prov. / Fiheren, 5.-10. VII.2003, / 23[degrees]13.351'S 43[degrees]52.853'E / elev 65m, coll. Cal. Acad. of Sci. / ex: malaise trap MGF076"; (2) "CASLOT 044926"; (3) "Holotypus / Stylogaster / kroeberi [female] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Some tarsi and setae damaged. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise in good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at low elevation (65 m).

Stylogaster latifrons sp. n.

Figs 163-172

Etymology: From the Latin latus (broad) and frons (forehead), a significant character of the new species being the broad frons with vertical setae close to the eye margin.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster latifrons sp. n. has a broad frons, the distance of the vertical seta to lateral ocellus being greater than the distance between the lateral ocelli (Fig. 166); occiput with only 3 long white setulae ventrally, and mouth opening with 5 or 6 short black setulae. The terminalia are diagnostic, with some long setulae distally on cercus (Fig. 171).

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length ca 4.7 mm.

Head: 1.3 mm high. Eye red-brown, with a few scattered inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli pale yellow. Ocellar tubercle brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 166). Ocellar triangle brown. Frons brown lateral to ocellar triangle, with 2 discernible small fronto-orbital setae. Antenna yellow, basal flagellomere brown distally and dorsally. Arista brown, 3 segments evident. Arista situated dorsally at apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 165). Scapus with few black setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 165. One vertical seta positioned close to eye (Fig. 166). Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput blackish brown, distinctly silver pruinose; with row of regularly-arranged small white setulae, and three long white setulae ventrally. Five or six short, black setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis pale yellow basally, becoming black distally, except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 1.9 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-white; mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum and postalar calli), scutellum and triangular area of mediotergite brown. All setae black. Two notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta (1 damaged), 2 postalar setae (1 damaged), 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta (1 damaged), 1 apical scutellar seta (2 damaged), 1 seta on anepimeron (2 damaged) and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron (1 damaged). A few black setulae on anepimeron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum partly arranged in rows and forming medial row of denser setulae.

Wing: Length 4.6 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but bm and partly cup without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black or brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 167. Haltere uniformly pale yellow, with areas of sensillae at base. Fore and mid leg pale yellow-white. Hind leg brown with pale area medially on hind femur and hind tibia with yellow-white subapical area.

Legs: Mainly with black or brown setulae, only fore and mid tibiae with pale yellow setulae. All setae black. Fore coxa with 2 distinct setae and several black setulae. Mid coxa with 1 black seta and additional black setulae. Hind coxa with 1 lateral black seta and with strong black setulae distally on anterior surface. Hind trochanter without teeth or dense setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged, black setulae posteriorly in basal half. Hind tibia with 4 short, black spines on anterior surface. Claws dark brown basally, distally black. Pulvilli brown. Empodia short, brown.

Abdomen: Mainly pale brown, tergite 1 dark brown, tergites 2-4 with dark brown hind margin, tergite 6 dark brown laterally (Fig. 164). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae. Tergite 1 with long black setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 3 black lateral setae on either side of anterior margin. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 168-172. Cercus triangular (Fig. 171). Dorsal margin concave. Some conspicuous long setulae distally (Fig. 171). Cercus with small inconspicuous lappet ventrally. No black setae. Surstylus without black teeth. No setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 170. Black setae basally and slightly darkened apex conspicuous.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar: Province / Fianarantsoa, Parc National / Ranomafana, radio tower / at forest edge, elev. 1130 m / 8. Aug.-23. Sept.2004 / 21[degrees]15.05'S 47[degrees]24.43'E"; (2) "coll: M. Irwin, R. Harin'Hala / California Acad of Sciences / malaise, mixed tropical / forest MA-02-09B-98"; (3) "Holotypus / Stylogaster / latifrons [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Right hind leg and left arista damaged. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype is otherwise in good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1130 m).

Stylogaster malgachensis Camras, 1962

Figs 173-180

Stylogaster malgachensis Camras, 1962b: 185 (Type locality: Madagascar: "Ankarafantsika Forest, Tsaramandroso").

Literature: Camras (1962b), Smith (1967).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo: 1[female] Province, 46 km NE of Ankazobe, Ambohitantely, 18[degrees]11.88'S 47[degrees]16.89'E, 700 m, 15.x-1.xi.2004, sclerophyl forest, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[male] same data, except 1-14.xi.2004. d'Antsiranana: 1[female] Parc National Montagne d'Ambre, 12[degrees]30.87'S 49[degrees]10.88'E, 960 m, 7-27.i.2007, M. Irwin, F. Parker & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap (all CAS & J-HS).

Remarks: The females identified here as S. malgachensis match the original description as well as to the description of Smith (1967). The male is identified as S. malgachensis due to diagnostically enlarged facets (Fig. 180).

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Found in sclerophyl forest at low to moderately high elevation (700-960 m).

Stylogaster nitens Brunetti, 1925

Stylogaster nitens Brunetti, 1925: 111, 112 (Type locality: Ghana: "Obuasi Ashanti").

Stylogaster parva Camras, 1955: 121, 122 (Type locality: "Uganda: Kawanda").

Stylogaster nitidula Krober, 1936: 262, 263 (Type locality: Democratic Republic of the Congo: "Elisabethville").

Material examined: ANGOLA: 1[male] 7 miles W Gabela, 16-18.iii.1972 (BMNH). DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: 1[male] Miss H. De Saeger, II/gd/11, 23.vi.1951, Rec. J. Verschuren. 1969; 1[male] Miss H. De Saeger, II/ed/9, 22.vi.1951, Rec. J. Verschuren. 1968; 1[male] Miss H. De Saeger, II/le/8, 9.ix.1952, H. De Saeger. 4040; 1[male] Miss H. De Saeger, II/fd/18, 26.vi.1951, Rec. H. De Saeger. 1981 (all MRAC). SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1[male] Ngoye forest between Eshowe & Empangeni, ii.1957, B.R. Stuckenberg (NMSA).

Distribution: Widely distributed in the Afrotropical Region. Records from Madagascar (as S. parva) cannot be confirmed and may represent the very similar S. camrasi. Recently confirmed records of males are from Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, South Africa and Uganda. Records based on egg records from hosts, on females, or on males without investigation of the male terminalia, remain of uncertain validity because of the presence of several similiar species not recognised previously.

Stylogaster parkeri sp. n.

Figs 182-185

Etymology: The species is named in honour of Frank D. Parker (Logan, Utah), who spent considerable time working on "An Arthropod Survey of Madagascar's Protected Areas (1998-2009)", which yielded numerous conopids used in this study.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster parkeri sp. n. belongs to a group of similar Stylogaster spp. occurring on Madagascar, that are only separable by reference to the male terminalia. The surstylus of S. parkeri sp. n. has conspicuous strong, black setulae on the inner surface (Fig. 188), no black teeth and strong black setae on the base of the phallus sheath of the hypandrium (Fig. 189). The only other species with this combination of characters is S. rinhaii sp. n., which has a white setulose area on the hind tibia.

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 7.7 mm.

Head: 1.9 mm high. Eye brown, with a few scattered, inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli orange-brown. Ocellar tubercle blackish brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae (1 damaged). Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 184). Ocellar triangle brown. Frons black lateral to ocellar triangle with 2 or 3 defined fronto-orbital setae. Scapus and pedicellus yellow-brown, basal flagellomere pale brown. Arista brown basally, becoming black distally, 2 segments evident, situated dorsally at apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 183). Scapus dorsally with few black setulae. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 183. One distinct black vertical seta. Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput pale brown, distinctly silver pruinose; with a row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis yellow-brown basally, becoming dark brown distally, except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 3.7 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-white; mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum and postalar calli), scutellum, mediotergite and small macula on posterior margin of anepisternum brown. All setae black with exception of golden seta on propleuron. Two notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta, 2 postalar setae (1 damaged), 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta, 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. A few black setulae on anepimeron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 5.8 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, except for base of [r.sub.1] and [r.sub.2 + 3], part of br, bm, base of dm, cup, base of [cua.sub.1] and base of anal lobe without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black or brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 185. Haltere uniformly pale yellow, knob brown, with areas of sensillae at base. Fore and mid leg pale yellow-white. Hind leg brown, hind tibia white distally, contrasting with black hind tarsi.

Legs: Mainly with black or brown setulae, only fore and mid tibiae with pale yellow setulae. Setae on fore and mid coxae white, setae on hind coxa black. Fore and mid coxae without distinct setae, but with strong white setulae distally. Hind coxa with 1 lateral black seta and also distally on anterior surface with strong black setulae. Hind trochanter without teeth or dense setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged black setulae posteriorly on basal half. Hind tibia with 4-7 short black spines on anterior surface. Claws dark brown basally, distally black. Pulvilli orange-brown. Empodia short, orange-brown.

Abdomen: Mainly pale yellow, tergites 2-4 with brown hind margin, tergite 6 and epandrium mainly brown. Only macerated abdomen available, so colouration difficult to describe. Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae. Tergite 1 with long black and white setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 6 black lateral setae on either side of anterior margin.

Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 186-194. Cercus triangular (Fig. 192). Dorsal margin concave. Cercus with long lappet ventrally. No conspicuous teeth ventrally. No black setae. Surstylus without black teeth. Strong black setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Figs 189, 190. Strong black setulae basally conspicuous.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar, Fianarantsoa Prov., / 12 km W Ranomafana Natl Pk / entrance. radio tower, malaise in / montane tropical forest / 3.15.IV.2003 / R.H.'Hala, M.E. Irwin, 1215m / 21[degrees]15.05'S. 47[degrees]24.43'E. MG 9B-57"; (2) "Holotypus / Stylogaster /parkeri [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise in good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1215 m).

Stylogasterpauliana Camras, 1962

Figs 195-199

Stylogasterpauliana Camras, 1962b: 186 (Type locality: "Madagacar: Analavelona Mt.").

Literature: Camras (1962b), Smith (1967).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo: 1[female] 46 km NE of Ankazobe, Ambohitantely, 18[degrees]11.88'S 47[degrees]16.89'E, 700 m, 16-17.xii.2002, sclerophyl forest, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap. Tulear: 1[male] 4 km NW Manombo, Mikea forest, dry deciduous forest, 22[degrees]54.22'S 43[degrees]28.53'E, 30 m, 20-27.xi.2001, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[female] same, except 6-16.xii.2001; 1[female] same, except 13-23.vii.2002; 1[male] same, except 3-14.ix.2002; 1[male] same, except 14-23.ix.2002; 1[female] same, except 3-13.x.2002; 1S same, except 7-18.iv.2003; 1[male] same, except 3-10.viii.2003; 1[male] same, except 31.viii-11.ix.2003; 1[female] NW Manombo, Mikea forest, spiny forest, 22[degrees]54.80'S 43[degrees]28.93'E, 37 m, 12.x-12.xi.2001, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[male] same, except 23.vii-6.viii.2002; 1[female] same, except 23-30.xi.2003; 2[male] Andohaela National Park, Parcel II, Tsimela, transitional forest, 24[degrees]56.21'S 46[degrees]37.60'E, 175 m, 16-17.xii.2002, M. Irwin, F.D. Parker & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[male] same, except 27.xii.2002-6.i.2003; 1[male] same, except 6-16.i.2003; 1[male] same, except 16-26.i.2003; 1[male] same, except 18-28.iii.2003; 2[male] same, except 29.vi-10.vii.2003; 1[male] same, except 10-21.ix.2003; 1[male] same, except 1-11.x.2003; 2[male] same, except 21-23.xii.2003; 1[female] same, except 28.i-12. ii.2004; 1[male] Andohaela National Park, Ihazofotsy, Parcelle III, dry spiny forest, 22[degrees]49.85'S 46[degrees]32.17'E, 80 m, 12-16.xii.2002, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[male] same, except 15-26.i.2003; 1[female] same, except 3-13.ii.2003; 1[male] same, except 18-29.iii.2003; 3[male] same, except 11-22.vi.2003; 2[male] 1[female] same, except 3-13.ix.2003; 1[female] same, except 3-14.i.2004; 1[female] Zombitse National Park, near national road, deciduous spiny forest, 20[degrees]50.43'S 44[degrees]43.87'E, 825 m, 14-16.xii.2001, R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap. Fianarantsoa: 1[male] 40 km S Ambositra, low altitude rainforest, 20[degrees]47.56'S 47[degrees]10.54'E, 825 m, 23.vii-6.viii.2002, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[male] Majunga, Ambovomamy, Belambo, 20 km NW Port Berger, secondary growth on white sand, 15[degrees]27.07'S 47[degrees]36.80'E, 33 m, 25.ii-3.iii.2007, M. Irwin, F. Parker & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap; 1[male] same, except 10-18.iii.2007 (all CAS & J-HS).

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Stylogaster pseudofanjae sp. n.

Figs 200-210

Etymology: The species name refers to the similarity between S. fanjae sp. n.; both species were collected in the same locality on the same date.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster pseudofanjae sp. n. belongs to a group of similar species occurring on Madagascar, having a black mesoscutum (Fig. 200), a dark brown abdomen (Fig. 201) and no additional setulae on the mid femur. The three species in this group (S. camrasi, S. fanjae sp. n. and S. pseudofanjae sp. n.) can be easily distinguished by characters of the male terminalia. Stylogaster pseudofanjae sp. n. has two black teeth on the distal margin of the surstylus (Figs 205, 207), no black setae at the base of the phallus sheath (Fig. 208), strong black setulae on the cercus, and a diagnostic shape of the surstylus. It is very similar to S. fanjae sp. n., but the surstylus is differently shaped, especially in the ventral view (Fig. 68). Also, S. pseudofanjae sp. n. has no dense black setulae on the ventral surface of the mid tibia as does S. fanjae sp. n. (Fig. 65).

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 4.6 mm.

Head: 1.0 mm high. Eye dark brown, with a few scattered inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli orange-brown. Ocellar tubercle blackish brown, with 1 pair of damaged ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 204). Ocellar triangle brown. Frons black lateral to the ocellar triangle, with only 2 small, defined, fronto-orbital setae. Antenna dark brown. Arista dark brown, 3 segments evident. Arista situated dorsally at apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 202). Scapus with a few orange-brown setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 202. One distinct black vertical seta. Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black to brown, distinctly silver pruinose; with a row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis pale yellow basally, becoming dark brown distally, except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 2.0 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown; mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum), scutellum, mediotergite and laterotergite dark brown, anepisternum and katepisternum pale brown. All undamaged setae on holotype black (dorsocentral seta and seta on anepimeron missing, all other setae intact on one side of specimen), with exception of golden seta on propleuron. Two notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta, 2 postalar setae, 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta, 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 3.7 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of [r.sub.1] and very narrowly at base of [r.sub.2 + 3], most of br, bm, base of dm, base of anal lobe, base of cup and [cua.sub.1] without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black or brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 203. Haltere uniformly pale brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Fore and mid legs yellow-brown. Hind leg darker with paler ventral surface and medial part of hind femur. Legs mainly with black or brown setulae and black setae, only fore and mid tibiae additionally with pale yellow setulae. Fore and mid coxae without distinct setae, but with strong black setulae distally. Hind coxa without lateral black setulae, but with strong black setulae distally on anterior surface. Hind trochanter without teeth or dense setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged black setulae on basal half posteriorly. Hind tibia with 1 short black spine on anterior surface. Claws dark brown basally, black distally. Pulvilli pale yellow. Empodia short, brown.

Abdomen: Mainly dark brown, tergites 2-4 paler brown laterally in basal two-thirds. Epandrium narrowly yellow laterally at base (Fig. 201). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae. Tergite 1 with long white setulae laterally, tergite 2 on anterior margin with 4-6 black lateral setae on either side. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 205-210. Cercus elongated (Fig. 209). Dorsal margin slightly concave. Cercus without lappet ventrally. No conspicuous teeth ventrally. Some dorsal setulae stronger than surrounding setulae. Surstylus with 2 black teeth on distal margin. No setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 208.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar / Province Fianarantsoa / Parc National Ranomafana / radio tower at forest edge / elev 1130 m / 27. June-12. July 2005"; (2) "21[degrees]15.05'S 47[degrees]24.43'E / coll. M. Irwin, R. Harin'Hala / coll. California Acad. of Science / malaise, mixed tropical forest / MA-02-09B-118"; (3) "Holotypus / Stylogaster/pseudofanjae [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Left wing, right hind tarsi and several setae damaged. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise in good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1130 m).

Stylogaster ranomafanensis sp. n.

Figs 211-222

Etymology: The species is named after the locus typicus, Ranomafana National Park in Madagascar.

Diagnosis: The conspicuous black margin on the dorsal inner surface of the cercus and the long tooth with two pairs of black spines (Figs 219, 220) distinguish S. ranomafanensis sp. n. from all other known Afrotropical Stylogaster spp. Stylogaster spinicercus sp. n. has an additional black spine on the cercus that is not present on the cercus of S. ranomafanensis sp. n. Without dissection of the terminalia S. ranomafanensis sp. n. may be confused with S. clementsi sp. n. Both species belong to a group of Stylogaster spp. with dark markings on the abdomen and long setulae on the mid femur, but no long setulae on the hind femur; both share the light orange-brown mesoscutum.

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 7.0 mm.

Head: 1.4 mm high. Eye brown, with a few scattered inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli pale yellow-brown. Ocellar tubercle brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 215). Ocellar triangle brown. Frons brown lateral to ocellar triangle, with 2-4 proclinate, fronto-orbital setae. Scapus and pedicellus yellow-brown, basal flagellomere brown. Arista dark brown, 3 segments evident, situated dorsally on basal flagellomere (Fig. 214). Scapus with a few brown setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 214. One distinct black vertical seta (1 damaged). Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black, distinctly silver pruinose; with row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis mainly brown, except for white distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 3.0 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown, mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum and postalar calli), scutellum and mediotergite pale brown. All setae black with exception of golden seta on the propleuron. Two notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta (both damaged), 2 postalar setae (3 damaged), 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta (1 damaged), 1 apical scutellar seta (both damaged), 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. A few black setulae on anepimeron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 5.4 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but bc, most of c, bases of [r.sub.1] and [r.sub.2 + 3], most of br, bm, base of dm, cup and base of anal lobe virtually without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with pale brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 216. Haltere uniformly pale yellow, knob brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Whitish yellow, hind femur brown dorsally at apex and dorsally at base, with lighter area in-between. Legs with black and white setulae, setae on coxae white with exception of few black setae on hind coxa. Fore and mid coxae with 2 long yellow seta and some shorter setulae. Hind coxa on inner surface with group of black distal setae and no strong seta on outer surface. Hind trochanter without teeth or conspicuous setulae. Mid femur posteriorly with a row of regularly-arranged black setulae in basal half and black and white setulae ventrally longer than diameter of mid tibia. Hind tibia with 3 short black spines on anterior surface. Claws brown basally, black distally. Pulvilli brown. Empodia short, brown.

Abdomen: Yellow-brown, with tergite 1 mainly brown, tergites 2-5 with brown posterior margin (barely visible in macerated abdomen), tergite 6 with broad brown median fascia, epandrium without brown markings (Fig. 212). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae, and longer setulae laterally on tergite 5. Tergite 1 with long white setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 0-4 lateral black setae on anterior margin and 3-5 long white setae on either side. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 217-222. Cercus broadened distally (Figs 217, 219). Dorsal margin concave. Cercus with long tooth, 2 black spines distally and conspicuous black margin on dorsal inner surface of cercus (Fig. 219). Surstylus with two pale brown teeth distally. A few setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 221. Few long brown setulae on inner surface.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar, Fianarantsoa Prov., 17 km / W Ranomafana Vohiparara, / Ranomafana Natl Park, malaise in / rainforest, 22.-29. IV.2002, / 1110m, R Harin'Hala, ME Irwin, / 21[degrees]13. 57'S. 47[degrees]22. 19'E. MG 9A-26"; (2) "Holotypus / Stylogaster / ranomafanensis [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Right hind tarsi and several setae damaged. Left wing damaged placed in glycerine. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise in good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled from moderately high elevation (1110 m) in primary rainforest.

Stylogaster rinhaii sp. n.

Figs 223-235

Etymology: The species is named in honour of Harin'Hala (Rin'ha) Rasolondalao (Antananarivo), who coordinated collecting efforts in Madagascar and who made this project such a success.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster rinhaii sp. n. belongs to a species-group with darkened posterior margins on some tergites (Fig. 225) and a white setulose distal area on the hind tibia (Fig. 227). It differs from the other two species of this group (S. kroeberi sp. n. and S. malgachensis Camras) in having a broad orange-brown ocellar triangle, bordered a the black frons (Fig. 228) and only slightly enlarged facets. The [male] terminalia (Figs 229-235) are diagnostic, especially in respect of the long black setulae on the inner surface of the surstylus, which are unique (Fig. 231).

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Length: ca 7.5 mm.

Head: 1.8 mm high. Eye dark brown, with a few scattered, inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli yellow-brown. Ocellar tubercle blackish brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 228). Ocellar triangle brown. Frons lateral to ocellar triangle black, with 4 fronto-orbital setae. Scapus and pedicellus orange-brown, basal flagellomere brown. Arista dark brown, 3 segments evident. Arista situated dorsally at apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 226). Scapus with few black setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 226. One distinct vertical seta is damaged. Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black to brown, distinctly silver pruinose; with row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis pale brown basally, becoming blackish brown distally except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 3.2 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown, mesoscutum medially pale brown. All discernible setae black with exception of golden seta on anepimeron. Two notopleural setae (only one remains), 1 damaged supra-alar seta, 2 damaged postalar setae, 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta (left damaged), 1 damaged seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 5.7 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of sc, base of radial cells [r.sub.1] and [r.sub.2 + 3], partly br, bm, base of dm and cup without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black or brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 224. Haltere uniformly yellow-brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Yellow-brown with a brown patch at base of hind femur, brown areas on hind tibia, conspicuous white distal area on hind tibia and conspicuous black hind tarsi. Legs with black and white setulae and golden setae, only left hind coxa with 1 black seta. Fore and mid coxa without distinct setae, but with strong golden setulae distally. Hind coxa with strong golden setulae distally on anterior surface, with smaller golden setulae laterally, and 1 outstanding lateral seta. Hind trochanter without teeth, but with dense golden setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged golden setulae posteriorly in distal half. Hind tibia with single short black spines on anterior surface. Claws only narrowly brown basally, distally black. Pulvilli brown. Empodia short, pale brown.

Abdomen: Mainly orange-brown, tergite 1 brownish, tergites 3-5 with indistinctly darker posterior margins, tergite 6 dark brown (Fig. 225). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae. Tergite 1 with long golden setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 5 black lateral setae on either side of anterior margin. Abdomen of holotype not dissected, but appears to match terminalia of a paratype. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 229-235. Cercus slightly elongated (Fig. 233). Dorsal margin concave. Cercus with only a small lappet ventrally. No conspicuous teeth ventrally. No black setae. Surstylus with several black short setae medially on distal margin (Fig. 230). Several long, conspicuous, erect black setulae on inner surface (Fig. 231). Also 1 lappet on inner side. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 234. Strong black setulae conspicuous basally.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar, Fianarantsoa Prov., 12km / W Ranomafana Natl Pk entrance, / radio tower, malaise in montane / tropical forest, 6.-17.VII.2003 / R H'Hala, ME Irwin, 1215m, / 21[degrees]15.05'S. 47[degrees]24.43'E. MA 9B-66"; (2) "Holotypus / Stylogaster / rinhaii [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Holotype complete and in good condition.

Paratypes: MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa: 1[male] radio tower at forest edge, 1130 m, 21[degrees]15.05'S 47[degrees]24.43'E, 9-25.ix.2005, R. Harin'Hala & M.E. Irwin (J-HS).

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1215 m).

Stylogaster schachti sp. n.

Figs 236-247

Etymology: The species is named in honour of late Wolfgang Schacht (1939-2011), a prominent German dipterist, who spent considerable time building the Diptera collection in Munich and made a major contribution to faunistic research on the Diptera.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster schachti sp. n. belongs to the Stylogaster species-group having long setulae on the mid femur, but without long setulae on the hind femur. It is distinguished from the other species of this group (S. clementsi sp. n., S. smithi sp. n., S. ranomafanensis sp. n.), by the long basal flagellomere (Fig. 238) and the diagnostic male terminalia (Figs 242-247).

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Length: ca 5.5 mm.

Head: 1. 1 mm high. Eye brown, with a few scattered, inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli pale yellow-brown. Ocellar tubercle brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 240). Ocellar triangle brown. Frons blackish brown lateral to ocellar triangle, with 3 proclinate, fronto-orbital setae. Scapus and pedicellus yellow-brown, basal flagellomere brown. Arista dark brown, 3 segments evident, situated dorsally on basal flagellomere (Fig. 238). Scapus with few black setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 238. One distinct black vertical seta (1 damaged). Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black, distinctly silver pruinose; with a row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis yellow-brown basally, becoming dark brown distally, except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 2.2 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-white; mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum and postalar calli), scutellum and mediotergite blackish brown. All setae damaged with exception of 3 black notopleural setae and 1 white seta on propleuron. Scars of 2 notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta, 2 postalar setae, 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta, 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. A few black setulae on anepimeron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 4.2 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of c, base of br, bm, base of dm, cup and basal half of anal lobe virtually without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with pale brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 241. Haltere uniformly pale yellow, knob brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Whitish yellow, hind femur brown dorsally. Legs mainly with black or brown setulae, only fore and mid tibiae with pale yellow setulae. Setae on fore and mid coxae white, setae on hind coxa black. Fore and mid coxae with 1 long yellow seta and additionally with some shorter setulae. Hind coxa with group of black distal setae on inner surface and 1 black seta on outer surface. Hind trochanter without teeth or conspicuous setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged black setulae posteriorly on the basal half, and black setulae ventrally, distinctly longer than diameter of mid tibia. Hind tibia with 1-3 short black spines on anterior surface. Claws brown basally, distally black. Pulvilli yellow-white. Empodia short, pale yellow-brown.

Abdomen: Yellow-brown, with tergites 1-2 broadly brown medially, tergites 3-4 with brown posterior margin and small brown median fascia, tergites 5-6 and epandrium mainly dark brown (Fig. 237). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae and longer setulae laterally on tergite 5. Tergite 1 with long white setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 4 lateral black setae on anterior margin and 1 or 2 long white setae on either side. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 242-247. Cercus rounded distally (Fig. 242). Dorsal margin concave. Cercus with long, strong black spines dorsally (Fig. 244), and small keel ventrally, with 2 black spines. Surstylus with long black setulae mainly at apex (Fig. 242), two black spines distally and few scattered setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 245.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar: Province / Fianarantsoa, Parc National / Ranomafana, radio tower / at forest edge, elev 1130m / 16.-26. November 2003 "; (2) "21[degrees]15.05'S 47[degrees]24.43'E / coll: M. Irwin, R. Harin'Hala / California Acad of Sciences / malaise, mixed tropical / forest MA-02-09B-79"; (3) "Holotypus / Stylogaster/ schachti [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Some setae damaged. Left wing damaged and deposited in glycerine. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1130 m).

Stylogaster seguyi Camras, 1962

Figs 248-254

Stylogaster seguyi Camras, 1962b: 184, 185 (Type locality: "Madagascar: Mtge. d'Ambre").

Literature: Camras (1962b), Smith (1967).

Holotype (examined): [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Holotype [male] / Stylogaster / seguy / Camras" [red label, partially handwritten]; (2) "Madagascar. D.-S. / Mtge. D'Ambre / 12.V.1958 F. KEISER" (NHMB). Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen. Holotype is complete and in perfect condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar, known only from unique holotype.

Bionomics: Parc National de la Montagne d'Ambre is a volcanic massif (1475 m), covered in montane rainforest that rises from the surrounding dry plains.

Stylogaster seyrigi Seguy, 1932

Figs 255-259

Stylogaster seyrigi Seguy, 1932: 161, 162 (Type locality: "Madagascar: Rogez"). Literature: Seguy (1932), Smith (1967).

Seguy's (1932) description of S. seyrigi was based on two syntypes ([male] and [female]). Smith (1967) noted that Seguy's description of the male did not accord with that of the female. Based on examination of photographs of the syntypes, the male is here identified as S. pauliani Camras, bearing the labels: (1) "MUSEUM PARIS / MADAGASCAR / PROV D'ANALALAVA / MAROMANDIA / R. DECARY 1923" [blue label]; (2) "Stylogaster / seyrigi [male]. / E. SEGUY det. 1932" [partly handwritten] (MNHn). To prevent any future confusion, the female is hereby designated as the lectotype, bearing the labels: (1) "TYPE"; (2) "Madagascar / Rogez / VI. 30 / A. Seyrig"; (3) "Stylogaster [female] / seyrigi Typ. / E. SEGUY det 1932" (MNHN). This designation conforms to the interpretation of S. seyrigi by Smith (1967).

The assignment of the male reported below as S. seyrigi is justified as follows: males of two species (S. seyrigi and S. stuckenbergi sp. n.) are very similar, but can be distinguished by colouration of the pleura and characters of the terminalia. The same differences in the colouration of the pleura are found in females with very long and diagnostic terminalia, which is typical for S. seyrigi (Seguy 1932). Therefore, those males with black maculae on the pleura are identified as S. seyrigi.

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa: 1[male] Parc National Ranomafana, radio tower, at forest edge, 21[degrees]15.05'S 47[degrees]24.43'E, 1130 m, 15-26.ii.2006, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap (CAS).

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Found in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1130-1215 m).

Stylogaster smithi sp. n.

Figs 260-272

Etymology: The species is named in honour of Kenneth G. V. Smith, who published some of the most important papers concerning Afrotropical Conopidae, especially a significant work concerning Afrotropical Stylogaster.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster smithi sp. n. belongs to a species-group with dark markings on the abdomen and long setulae on the mid femur, but without long setulae on the hind femur. Of the species belonging to this group, only S. smithi sp. n. and S. schachti sp. n. exhibit the blackish brown mesoscutum (Fig. 260). S. schachti sp. n. has an elongated basal flagellomere (Fig. 238), which distinguishes it from S. smithi sp. n. The male terminalia of the last-mentioned species distinguishes it from all other species of this group.

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 5.5 mm.

Head: 1.2 mm high. Eye brown, with a few scattered inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli yellow-brown. Ocellar tubercle dark brown, with 1 pair of ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 265). Ocellar triangle dark brown. Frons blackish brown lateral to ocellar triangle, with 1 proclinate fronto-orbital seta. Scapus and pedicellus yellowbrown, basal flagellomere pale brown. Arista brown, only 2 segments evident. Arista situated dorsally on basal flagellomere (Fig. 264). Scapus with a few black setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 264. One distinct black vertical seta (1 damaged). Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black, distinctly silver pruinose; with a row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis yellow-brown basally, becoming dark brown distally, except for the yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 2.3 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown; mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum and postalar calli), scutellum and mediotergite blackish brown. Setae black, with exception of golden seta on propleuron. Two notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta, 2 postalar setae, 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta, 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. A few black setulae on anepimeron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 4.2 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of br, bm, very narrowly at base of dm and cup almost without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with pale brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 266. Haltere uniformly pale yellow, knob brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Whitish yellow, hind femur brown dorsally at apex and dorsally at base, leaving a lighter area in-between. Legs mainly with black or brown setulae, only fore and mid tibiae with pale yellow setulae. Setae on fore coxa white, setae on mid and hind coxae black. Fore coxa with 2 long yellow setae and some shorter setulae. Mid coxa with 1 black seta and some shorter setulae. Hind coxa on inner surface with group of black distal setae, and 1 black seta on outer surface. Hind trochanter without teeth or conspicuous setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged black setulae posteriorly on basal half and strong black setulae ventrally, slightly longer than diameter of mid tibia. Hind tibia with 3 or 4 short black spines on anterior surface. Claws brown basally, distally black. Pulvilli yellow-white. Empodia short, yellow-white.

Abdomen: Yellow-brown, with tergite 1 broadly brown medially, tergite 2 with brown posterior margin and broad median fascia, tergite 3 with brown posterior margin and smaller median fascia, tergite 4 with brown posterior margin and no median fascia, tergites 5-6 with broad brown medial fascia, and epandrium only with indistinct pale brown markings (Fig. 263). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae and longer setulae laterally on tergite 5. Tergite 1 with long white setulae laterally, tergite 2 with 5 lateral white setae on either side of anterior margin. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 267-272. Cercus broad distally (Fig. 269). Dorsal margin straight. Cercus with long tooth, black distally and several strong black setae on dorsal inner surface (Fig. 270). Inner surface with long dense setulae distally. Surstylus without black teeth. Some setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 271. Some setulae conspicuous distally.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar: Province / Fianarantsoa, Parc National / Ranomafana, radio tower / at forest edge, elev 1130m / 26 May--12 June 2005 / 21[degrees]15.05'S 47[degrees]24.43'E "; (2) "coll: M. Irwin, R. Harin'Hala / California Acad of Sciences / malaise, mixed tropical / forest MA-02-09B-116"; (3) "CASLOT 033465"; (4) "Holotypus / Stylogaster/ smithi [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Some setae damaged, left wing torn, right wing damaged and deposited in glycerine. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise in good condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1130 m).

Stylogaster spinicercus sp. n.

Figs 273-284

Etymology: From Latin spina (thorn), reflecting the thorn-like black spine on the cercus of this species.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster spinicercus sp. n. has the cercus broadened, as does S. amplicercus sp. n., but the two species are easily separable by reference to the black setae on the base of the cercus (Fig. 281) and the unique shape of the surstylus (Fig. 279), having black discal setae.

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 6.9 mm.

Head: 1.6 mm high. Eye dark brown, with a few scattered, inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli yellow-brown. Ocellar tubercle blackish brown, with 1 pair of damaged ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 275). Ocellar triangle yellow-brown. Frons brown lateral to ocellar triangle, with 1-3 small discernible fronto-orbital setae. Scapus and pedicellus yellow-brown, basal flagellomere brown distally. Arista dark brown with a small yellow-brown area basally, 2 segments evident, situated dorsally on apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 276). Scapus with a few black setulae dorsally. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 276. One distinct black vertical seta. Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black to brown, distinctly silver pruinose; with a row of regularly-arranged small white setulae dorsally, and several longer white setulae ventrally. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis pale yellow basally, becoming dark brown distally, except for yellow-brown distal division of labellum. Labrum ca 3.0 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown; mesoscutum (with exception of postpronotum), scutellum and mediotergite orange-brown. All undamaged setae on holotype black (supra-alar and dorsocentral setae missing, 1 postalar seta present, all setae on anepimeron missing), with exception of golden seta on propleuron. Two notopleural setae, 1 supra-alar seta, 2 postalar setae, 1 praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 apical scutellar seta, 1 seta on anepimeron and 1 seta above fore coxa on propleuron. A few black setulae on anepimeron. Black semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 6.1 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of bc, base of [r.sub.1] and very narrowly basally in [r.sub.2+3], base of br, bm, very narrowly at base of dm and cup without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black or brown setulae. Venation as in Fig. 278. Haltere uniformly yellow-brown basally, knob brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Fore and mid legs pale yellow. Hind leg darker with brown base and brown dorsal surface of hind femur, and yellow-white subapical area at hind tibia. Legs mainly with black or brown setulae, only fore and mid tibiae and fore femur additionally with pale yellow setulae. Setae on fore and mid coxae whitish yellow, and on hind coxa black. Fore coxa without distinct setae, but with strong white setulae distally. Mid coxa with 1 white seta. Hind coxa without lateral black setulae, but with strong black setulae distally on anterior surface. Hind trochanter without teeth or dense setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged black setulae posteriorly on basal half and additionally, a few longer setulae on ventral surface. Mid tibia with short erect black setulae ventrally (Fig. 277). Hind femur with few longer black setulae ventrally. Hind tibia with 2 short black spines on anterior surface. Claws dark brown basally, distally black. Pulvilli pale yellow. Empodia short, brown.

Abdomen: Mainly orange-brown, tergites 2-4 with conspicuous dark brown posterior margin and less distinct brown medial fascia, tergites 5-6 and epandrium slightly darker brown medially (Fig. 274). Tergites with semi-adpressed black setulae. Tergite 1 with long black setulae laterally, tergite 2 on anterior margin with 6 black lateral setae on either side. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 279-284. Cercus triangular, conspicuously broadened laterally (Fig. 281). Dorsal margin straight. Cercus with a conspicuous lappet ventrally, clothed in black setae (Figs 281, 282). Surstylus without teeth, but with unique outline, and black setae distally. No setulae on inner surface. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 283. Some distinct black setulae distally.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar: Prov. Antananarivo. 46 km NE / of Ankazobe: Anbohitantely 18[degrees]11.88'S / 47[degrees]16.89'E, 7.-22.xII.2004, 700m, malaise trap in / sclerophyl forest MG 27-23"; (2) "CASENT 807G539"; (3) "Holotypus / Stylogaster / spinicercus [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Left hind leg and several setae damaged. Abdomen dissected, macerated and deposited in glycerine in a microvial pinned beneath specimen, holotype otherwise in reasonable condition.

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Sampled in sclerophyl forest at low elevation (700 m).

Stylogaster stuckenbergi sp. n.

Figs 285-296

Etymology: The species is named in honour of the late Brian Roy Stuckenberg (1930-2009), who published one of the most important papers dealing with Afrotropical Stylogaster and loaned specimens cited in this paper.

Diagnosis: Stylogaster stuckenbergi sp. n. can be recognised by the orange-brown abdomen and thorax (Fig. 287), and by the entirely black frons with a broad ocellar triangle (Fig. 289). Concerning females sharing these characters, there is at least one undescribed species similar to S. stuckenbergi. The male terminalia (Figs 290-296) should be taken into account when identifying the species.

Description (based on holotype):

Male.

Overall length: ca 8.5 mm.

Head: 1.8 mm high. Eye dark brown, with a few scattered, inconspicuous ommatrichia. Facets on inner side slightly enlarged. Ocelli yellow-brown. Ocellar tubercle blackish brown, with 1 pair of inconspicuous ocellar setae. Ocellar triangle occupies virtually entire frons, reaching as far as antennae (Fig. 289). Ocellar triangle black. Frons black lateral to ocellar triangle, with 4 fronto-orbital setae. Scapus yellow-brown, pedicellus yellow-brown basally, pale brown distally, basal flagellomere pale brown. Arista dark brown, black at apex, 3 segments evident. Arista situated dorsally at apex of basal flagellomere (Fig. 288). Scapus dorsally with few pale brown setulae. Pedicellus with black setulae. Shape of antenna as illustrated in Fig. 288. One distinct golden vertical seta. Face pale yellow with silver pruinosity. Occiput black to brown, distinctly silver pruinose; dorsally with row of regularly-arranged small white setulae, ventrally with several longer white setulae. Some long white setulae on mouth opening. Proboscis uniformly pale brown. Labrum ca 3.4 mm, labellum approximately same length.

Thorax: Yellow-brown. Setae black and golden. Two golden notopleural setae (1 on right side of mesoscutum black), 1 supra-alar seta damaged, 2 black postalar setae, 1 black praescutellar dorsocentral seta, 1 black apical scutellar seta, 1 black seta on anepimeron and 1 golden seta above fore coxa on propleuron. Golden, semi-adpressed setulae on mesoscutum.

Wing: Length 6.4 mm. Generally clothed in microtrichia, but base of c, base of r2+3, most of br, bm, base of dm, cup and base of anal lobe virtually without microtrichia. Hind margin of wing with black setulae. Venation as in Fig. 286. Haltere uniformly yellow-brown, with areas of sensillae at base.

Legs: Fore and mid legs whitish yellow, hind leg brown with subapical white area on hind tibia and conspicuous black hind tarsi. Fore and mid legs with white setae and setulae, hind leg with black, golden and white setae and setulae. Fore and mid coxae without distinct setae, but with strong golden setulae distally. Hind coxa with strong golden setulae distally on anterior surface, and smaller golden setulae laterally. Hind trochanter without teeth or conspicuous setulae. Mid femur with a row of regularly-arranged, golden setulae posteriorly in distal half. Hind tibia with single short black spines on anterior surface. Claws brown only narrowly basally, distally black. Pulvilli brown. Empodia short, brown.

Abdomen: Uniformly orange-brown (Fig. 287). Tergites with semi-adpressed black and golden setulae. Tergite 1 with long golden setulae laterally, tergite 2 on anterior margin with 3 black and 3 golden lateral setae on either side. Abdomen of holotype not dissected, but appears to match terminalia of a paratype. Terminalia as illustrated in Figs 290-296. Cercus triangular with a distinct 90[degrees] angle distally (Fig. 293). Dorsal margin concave. Cercus with conspicuous lappet ventrally (Fig. 294). No conspicuous teeth ventrally. No black setae. Surstylus with 1 medial black tooth at concave distal margin (Fig. 291). Inner surface with barely visible keel ventrally, and few strong setulae. Phallus sheath as illustrated in Fig. 292. Strong black basal setulae conspicuous.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] MADAGASCAR: (1) "Madagascar, Fianarantsoa Prov., / 12 km W Ranomafana Natl Pk / entrance. radio tower, malaise in / montane tropical forest. 20.III--/ 3.IV.03, R H 'Hala, M E Irwin, 1215m / 21[degrees]15.05'S. 47[degrees]24.43'E. MG 9B-56"; (2) "Holotypus / Stylogaster / stuckenbergi [male] / des. Stuke, 2011" (CAS). Holotype complete, in good condition.

Paratypes: MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa: 1[male] same data as holotype, except 30.iv-7.v.2002 [sic!] (CAS); 2[male] same, except 5-13.v.2002 [sic!] (CAS & J-HS); 1[male] Belle Vue, 1.2 km S Ranomafana, Parc National Ranomafana, entrance, rainforest, 21[degrees]15.99'S 47[degrees]25.21'E, 1095 m, 26.ii-4.iii.2001, M. Irwin & R. Harin'Hala, Malaise trap (J-HS); 2[male] same, except 26-31.iii.2002 (CAS).

Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar.

Bionomics: Found in primary rainforest at moderately high elevation (1095-1215 m).

Stylogaster varifrons Malloch, 1930

Stylogaster varifrons Malloch, 1930: 465 (Type locality: Zimbabwe: "Umtali, S. Rhodesia").

Literature: Camras (1962a, b), Krober (1939), Malloch (1930), Smith (1967), Smith & Cunningham-van Someren (1985).

Material examined: KENYA: Coast: 1[female] Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, 3[degrees]25.21'S 39[degrees]53.81'E, 7-14.vii.2000, R. Copeland, Malaise trap; 1[male] same, except 5-12.viii.2000 (NMKE & J-HS). MALAWI: 3[male] Mulanje Mountain, Likabula River valley, SE1535Dc, 1000 m, 28-30.xi.1980, J.G.H. Londt & B.R. Stuckenberg, riverine Brachystegia woodland (NMSA). ZAMBIA: 2[male] Kasanka National Game Reserve, Lake Wasa area, Dambo, 12[degrees]30'S 30[degrees]15'E, 16-22.xii.1989, P.E. Reavell (NMSA); 1[male] Kasempa env. forest meadow, 13[degrees]27.62'E:25[degrees]50.35'E, 16-18.xi.2006, Kubik; 1[male] 50 km W Chingola, 1-2.i.2003, Halada (MB & J-HS).

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical Africa: Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Additional published records from the Democratic Republic of the Congo require confirmation.

Stylogaster westwoodi Smith, 1967

Figs 2-10

Stylogaster westwoodi Smith, 1967: 64-66 (Type locality: Tanzania: "Tanganyika: Amani").

Literature: Hinton (1981), Smith (1967), Smith & Cunningham-van Someren (1985).

Material examined: KENYA: Eastern Province: 2[male] Kibwesi forest, 2[degrees]27.90'S 37[degrees]54.91'E, 13- 20.xi.1999, R. Copeland, Malaise trap; 1[male] 1[female] same, except 27.xi-4.xii.1999. Western Province: 1[male], Kakamega Forest, 0[degrees]14.13'S 34[degrees]51.87'E, 9-16.iv.2000, R. Copeland, Malaise trap; 1[female] same, except 19-26.vi.2000; 1[male] "Wika", 4.ix.1987, R. Copeland; 1[female] Magunga, 18.ix.1987, R. Copeland. Coast: 2[female] Muhaka Forest, 4[degrees]19.47'S 39[degrees]31.45'E, 1-6.ix.1999, R. Copeland, Malaise trap; 1[female] same, except 6-13.i.2000; 1[female] Arabuko- Sokoke forest, 3[degrees]25.21'S 39[degrees]53.81'E, 3-10.iv.1999, R. Copeland, Malaise trap; 1[female] same, except 26.v- 2.vi.2000 (all NMKE & J-HS); 1[male] Nairobi, Karura forest, 1[degrees]14'S 36[degrees]50'E, 5000 ft, 15.i.1972, C.F. Huggins (BMNH). MALAWI: 1[male] Ntchisi Forest Reserve, SE1334Ac, 1500 m, 3-4.xii.1980, J.G.H. Londt & B.R. Stuckenberg, montane forest woodland (NMSA); 1[female] Kasungu National Park, Lifupa Camp, SE1333Aa, 9-10.xii.1980, 1000 m, J.G.H. Londt & B.R. Stuckenberg (NMSA). SOUTH AFRICA: Limpopo: 1[male] Kruger National Park, Pafuri, 22[degrees]21'S 31[degrees]17'E, 1-13.ii.1980, L. Braack, Malaise trap (NMSA); 1[male] Lekqalameetse Reserve, 24[degrees]12'S 30[degrees]20'E, 25-31.iii.2001, F. Koch (ZMHB). TANZANIA: 1[female] Mlingano, iv.1952, J. Shipps (BMNH).

Distribution: Widely distributed in the Afrotropics: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

DISCUSSION

Thirty-four valid species of Afrotropical Stylogaster are now known, representing 3 0 % of the world fauna of this genus. Twenty-three species (68 %<>) are apparently restricted to Madagascar, and none are currently known to occur both on Madagascar and in the continental Afrotropical Region. Whether the apparently high diversity on Madagascar is due to its long isolation and in situ speciation, or the result of disproportionately intensive sampling efforts on Madagascar in the past few years, remains an open question. Only three Afrotropical species appear to be widely distributed: S. leonum (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Uganda), S. nitens (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, South Africa and Uganda) and S. varifrons (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe). Seventeen Afrotropical species are known only from the unique holotype or from the holotype and one paratype. These figures indicate that species richness in the genus is underestimated and that our understanding of the diversity of the group is still in its infancy. Undoubtedly, numerous other species await discovery.

Appendix. Annotated checklist of Afrotropical species ofStylogaster Macquart, 1835 (Diptera: Conopidae). Abbreviations: HT--holotype; LT--lectotype; ST--syntypes. See Material and Methods for list of institutional codens.

Genus Stylogaster Macquart, 1835

STYLOGASTER Macquart, 1835: 38. Type species: Stylogaster stylata Fabricius, 1805, by monotypy.

STYLOMYIA Westwood, 1851: 268. Type species: Stylogaster leonum Westwood, 1851, by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 610).

PTYCHOPROCTUS Bigot, 1859: 308. Type species: Stylogaster complexa Bigot, 1859, by monotypy.

acanthocercus Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Prov., Belle Vue, 1.2 km S Ranoma fana National Park entrance" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

amplicercus Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Toamasina Province, 7 km SE of Andasibe National Park" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

camrasi Stuckenberg, 1963: 269. Type locality: "Madagascar: between Moramanga and Anosibe" (HT [female] MNHN). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

clementsi Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Prov., 12 km W Ranomafana National Park" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

complexa Bigot, 1859: 309 (Ptychoproctus). Type locality: "[South Africa]: Natal. Port" (HT [female] BMNH). Afrotropical: South Africa.

copelandi Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Kenya: Western Prov., Kakamega Forest" (HT [female] NMKE). Afrotropical: Kenya.

fanjae Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Province Fianarantsoa, Parc National Ranomafana" (HT S CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

frontalis Krober, 1914: 344. Type locality: "[Democratic Republic of Congo]: Congo Belge: P.N.A., Masif Ruwenzori, Kalonge" (LT here designated [female] MRAC). Afrotropical: Democratic Republic of the Congo. [Only records of males published after the revision of Smith (1967) are accepted.]

hauseri Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Prov, 17 km W Ranomafana, Vohiparara, Ranomafana National Park" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

hirsutifemora Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Prov. Antananarivbo, 46 km NE of Ankazobe: Ambohitantely" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

irwini Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Toliara Prov., Fiherenana" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

kakamegensis Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Kenya: Kakamega Forest" (HT [female] BMNH). Afrotropical: Kenya.

kenyensis Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Kenya: Western Prov., Kakamega Forest" (HT [female] NMKE). Afrotropical: Kenya.

kirkspriggsi Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "South Africa: Cape Province, Cold spring, Grahamstown" (HT S AMGS). Afrotropical: South Africa.

kroeberi Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Toliana Prov., Fiheren" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

latifrons Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Province Fianarantsoa, Parc National Ranomafana" (HT S CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

leonum Westwood, 1851: 269 (Stylomyia).. Type locality: "Sierra Leona, Africae" (HT [female] BMNH). Afrotropical: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the the Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Uganda. [Only records published after the revision of Smith (1967) are accepted.] subapicalis Camras, 1955: 122. Type locality: "Cameroon: Lolodorf" (HT [male] FMNH).

malgachensis Camras, 1962b: 185. Type locality: "[Madagascar]: Ankarafantsika Forest, Tsaramandroso" (HT [male] MNHN). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

nilssoni Smith, 1984: 233. Type locality: "Madagascar: Ankazobe, Ambohitantely Forest" (HT [male] BMNH). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

nitens Brunetti, 1925: 111. Type locality: "[Ghana]: Obuasi Ashanti" (ST 2[male] BMNH). Afrotropical: Angola, Democratic Republic of the the Congo, Ghana, South Africa and Uganda. [Egg records from hosts ([male] and [female]) without examination of male terminalia, remain unverified as more than one species may be involved.] nitidula Krober, 1936: 262. Type locality: "[Democratic Republic of Congo]: Elisabethville" (HT [female] MRAC). parva Camras, 1955: 121. Type locality: "Uganda: Kwanda" (HT [female] BMNH).

obscurinotum Krober, 1936: 260. Type locality: "[Democratic Republic of Congo]: Bambesa" (HT [female] MRAC). Afrotropical: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda.

parkeri Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Prov., 12 km W Ranomafana National Park entrance" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

pauliana Camras, 1962b: 186. Type locality: "[Madagascar]: Analavelona Mt." (HT [female] MNHN). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

pseudofanjae Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Province Fianarantsoa, Parc National Ranomafana, radio tower" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

ranomafanensis Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Prov., 17 km W Ranomafana Vohiparara, Ranomafana National Park" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

rinhaii Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar, Fianarantsoa Prov., 12 km W Ranomafana National Park entrance" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

schachti Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Province Fianarantsoa, Parc National, Ranomafana" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

seguyi Camras, 1962b: 184. Type locality: "[Madagascar]: Mtge. d'Ambre" (HT [male] NHMB). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

seyrigi Seguy, 1932: 161. Type locality: "Madagascar: Rogez" (LT [female] MNHN). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

smithi Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Province Fianarantsoa, Parc National, Ranomafana" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

spinicercus Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar: Prov. Antananarivo. 46 km NE of Ankazobe: Anbohitantely" (HT [female] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

stuckenbergi Stuke, sp. n. Type locality: "Madagascar, Fianarantsoa Prov., 12 km W Ranomafana National Park entrance" (HT [male] CAS). Afrotropical: Madagascar.

varifrons Malloch, 1930: 465. Type locality: "[Zimbabwe]: Umtali, S. Rhodesia" (HT [male] BMNH). Afrotropical: Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. [Additional published records from the Democratic Republic of Congo require confirmation.]

westwoodi Smith, 1967: 64. Type locality: "[Tanzania]: Tanganyika: Amani" (HT [female] BMNH). Afrotropical: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Nomina dubia

bigoti Smith, 1967: 66. Type locality: "S. Nigeria: Oshogbo" (HT [female] BMNH). Afrotropical: Nigeria.

cohici Seguy, 1946: 99. Type locality: "Cote d'Ivoire: reserve du Banco" (HT [female] MNHN). Afrotropical: Ivory Coast.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following individuals loaned specimens from their private collections or from public collections in their care: M. Bartak (Prague), D. Burckhardt (Basel), D. Clements (Cardiff), R. Copeland (Nairobi), M. Hauser (Sacramento), A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (Bloemfontein), the late B.R. Stuckenberg (Pietermaritzburg), M. von Tschirnhaus (Bielefeld), N. Wyatt (London) and J. Ziegler (Berlin). All specimens from Madagascar were obtained as part of "An Arthropod Survey of Madagascar's Protected Areas (1998-2009)", organised by M.E. Irwin (Vail) and E. Schlinger (Concord). To collect, sort, prepare and label the material, the assistance of Harin'Hala (Rin'ha) Rasolondalao (Antananarivo), Fanjahariniony (Fanja) Rambeloson (Paris), B. Fisher (San Francisco), D. Imes (Davis), R. Korbin (Sacramento), N. Penny (San Francisco) and D. Woods (Sacramento) was essential. L. Anders Nilsson (Uppsala) provided literature. B. Sinclair (Ottawa) made valuable comments on the interpretation of male terminalia of Conopidae. D. Clements (Cardiff) and A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (Bloemfontein) patiently corrected the manuscript.

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Jens-Hermann Stuke

Roter Weg 22, D-26789 Leer, Germany; jstuke@zfn.uni-bremen.de
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