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A revision of Afrotropical Oligopogon Loew, 1847 (Diptera: Asilidae) with the description of eighteen new species.

INTRODUCTION

Oligopogon Loew, 1847 (Fig. 1) is a fascinating asilid genus found only in the Afrotropical and Palaearctic regions. Geller-Grimm and Hradsky (2003) revised the Palaearctic fauna comprising eight species recorded mainly from eastern Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Israel, Syria and Turkey. Included in their review was the type species, O. hybotinus (Loew, 1847), from Greece (Rhodes) and a species described from Egypt (O. nitidus Efflatoun, 1937) that has also been listed as an Afrotropical species as the type locality (Gebel Elba) lies in a disputed area between Egypt (considered part of the Palaearctic Region) and Sudan (considered part of the Afrotropical Region). Oldroyd (1980), in cataloguing the Afrotropical fauna, listed ten species, including the Palaearctic genotype and the 'Egyptian' nitidus. In attempting to identify the many specimens that have accumulated in the collection of the KwaZulu-Natal Museum it became obvious that there were many undescribed species and that a modern taxonomic review was required.

A brief summary of the literature pertaining to Afrotropical species serves to contextualise this study.

Loew (1847)--Described Dasypogon hybotinus, placing it in his tenth 'group' within the genus, which he called Oligopogon. This has since been accepted as the generic description. His material was from 'Die Insel Rhodus' (= Island of Rhodes, Greece). Walker (1849)--Described Dasypogon Carvilius (= carvilius) on a female specimen without provenance.

Loew (1858)--Described penicillatus from 'Caffraria' (an undefined region in the southeastern parts of southern Africa) placing it in the genus Oligopogon.

Loew (1860)--Produced a more detailed description of penicillatus based on a female specimen from 'Caffrerei' collected by Wahlberg.

Bigot (1876)--Described Emphysomera hyacinthina from 'Natal' (= KwaZulu-Natal), South Africa.

Bigot (1879)--Described atrum (= ater) from 'Natal', South Africa.

Bezzi (1906)--Recorded penicillatus from 'Sabarguma' (= Eritrea).

Kertesz (1909)--Catalogued ater, ?Carvilius, hybotinus and penicillatus in Oligopogon and hyacinthina in Emphysomera.

Engel (1932)--Describedpollinosus from 'Rhodesia' (= Zimbabwe).

Efflatoun (1937)--Described nitidus from 'Gebel Elba, Wadi Edeib and Wadi Kanssissrob' localities in present day Sudan and Egypt.

Engel & Cuthbertson (1937)--Described nigripennis from 'Rhodesia' (= Zimbabwe).

Engel & Cuthbertson (1939)--Recorded penicillatus from 'Umtali [= Mutare] district', 'Southern Rhodesia' (= Zimbabwe) and provided a key to the three species recorded for the country (nigripennis, penicillatus, pollinosus).

Oldroyd (1960)--Described Rhipidocephala hyalipennis from Madagascar.

Hull (1962)--Redescribed the genus, placing it in his Dasypogoninae, and listing six 'Ethiopian' (= Afrotropical) species (ater, hybotinus, nigripennis, nitidus, penicillatus, pollinosus) and one (? carvilius) from an unknown region. He listed hyacinthina under Emphysomera.

Hull (1967)--Recorded nigripennis from 'Basutoland' (= Lesotho).

Oldroyd (1970)--Described harlequini from Nigeria and 'Gold Coast' (= Ghana) and superciliatus from 'Katanga' (part of DR Congo). He also provided provisional records of hybotinus from 'Urundi' (= Burundi) and the Garamba National Park (DR Congo) and a key to the eight 'Ethiopian' (= Afrotropical) species known to him (harlequini, hyalipennis, hybotinus, nigripennis, nitidus, penicillatus, pollinosus, superciliatus--hyalipennis being transferred from Rhipidocephala Hermann, 1926).

Papavero (1973)--Placed Oligopogon in his subfamily Trigonomiminae in his 'preliminary classification' of asilid genera.

Oldroyd (1974)--Discussed the genus, placing it in the tribe Xenomyzini, and described enigmatus from 'Kransp.' (= Kranskop) and 'Zusterstr.' (= Zusterstroom) in a key to South African species that included enigmatus, nigripennis, penicillatus and pollinosus.

Oldroyd (1980)--Catalogued the genus under the tribe Xenomyzini, listing 10 species (ater, enigmatus, harlequini, hyalipennis, hybotinus, nigripennis, nitidus, penicillatus, pollinosus, superciliatus). Bigot's Emphysomera hyacinthina being listed under Ommatius Wiedemann, 1821.

Scarbrough and Marascia (1996)--In reviewing Emphysomera Schiner, 1866 (Ommatiinae) synonymised E. hyacinthina with O. penicillatus.

Geller-Grimm and Hradsky (2003)--Reviewed the Palaearctic fauna giving a brief history of the world fauna (restricted to the Palaearctic (7 species) and Afrotropic regions (11 species)) and discussed issues relating to subfamilial allocation. The genus was placed in the Stenopogoninae. They redescribed the genus on the typespecies, hybotinus, and questioned Oldroyd's allocation of Afrotropical material to this species, only recorded from Greece and 'Transcaucasia'.

Dikow (2009)--Included Oligopogon in what is presently the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis undertaken, concluding that it remains incertae sedis as it did not group with any other genus.

Tomasovic and DeBakker (2010)--Described mbambingomia from the DR Congo.

Londt (2010)--Recorded the genus for the first time from The Gambia, merely listing the species as Species 1 and 2.

Londt (2012a)--Reported further on Gambian species identifying his 2010 'Species 2' as harlequini.

Londt (2012b)--Mentions the genus in a list of genera reported from Madagascar.

Londt (2013)--Included Oligopogon in a key to the Afrotropical genera of Stenopogoninae.

There were, therefore, 11 recognised Afrotropical species assigned to Oligopogon at the commencement of this study. These are the 10 species catalogued by Oldroyd (1980), under Oligopogon and Ommatius, and mbambingomia Tomasovic & DeBakker, 2010 described 30 years after publication of the catalogue.

Material

The majority of specimens studied are housed in the KwaZulu-Natal Museum, unless otherwise stated. Other material examined, or information provided about type specimens not studied, was made available by the following institutions. Abbreviations used in this report and the names of contact people are provided below.

AMGS--Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (J. Midgley). BMNH--The Natural History Museum, London, UK (E. McAlister). BMSA--National Museum, Bloemfontein, South Africa (A. Kirk-Spriggs). CASC--California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, U.S.A. (V. Smith). CNC--Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada (J. O'Hara). DMSA--Durban Natural Science Museum, Durban, South Africa (K. Williams). ESEC--Entomological Society of Egypt Collection, Cairo, Egypt (H. Badrawy & G.M. Abu El-Hassan). ISNB--Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium (P. Limbourg). MRAC--Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium. (E. De Coninck). NHRS--Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden (Y. Brodin). NMBZ--National Museum of Zimbabwe, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe (M. Fitzpatrick). NMSA--KwaZulu-Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (B. Muller). OXUM--Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, UK (Z. Simmons). SAMC--South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa (D. Larsen). SANC--South African National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa (R. Urban). USNM--National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. (T. Dikow). ZMHB--Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany (J. Ziegler).

Efforts to obtain valuable material from the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France, where the holotype of hyalipennis (Oldroyd, 1960) is housed, proved fruitless despite repeated efforts to contact staff at the institution. Fortunately the BMNH has paratypes of hyalipennis, but the Paris collection probably contains a wealth of other material from the afrotropics.

All material studied was pinned. For a variety of reasons, mostly relating to the small size of species, material was frequently in poor condition. Large pins damage specimens while specimens glued to cards are difficult to study. Many old specimens lack antennae or have missing legs, wings or abdomens. Despite these difficulties I am reasonably confident that my identifications are reliable.

Label data

In recognition of the value of detailed lists of material examined (Dikow et al. 2009), a standard format has been employed when recording label information. For type specimens all label data are reproduced as they appear on labels (except that upper case words are transposed into upper and lower case and unnecessary punctuation is eliminated). For multiple labels each label is demarcated by the use of single inverted commas while each line of data is separated by a spaced slash (i.e. /). Data that appear on the reverse side of a label are preceded by a '~' symbol. In some instances the colour of a label is provided in square brackets when not white. Square brackets are also used when useful additional information, or comment, not found on labels, is provided. In this regard, coordinates are usually given when these, or a quarter degree grid reference, do not appear on a label. Coordinates provided are usually for the populated place or geographic feature mentioned immediately before the added note (no attempt is made to estimate coordinates for collecting sites recorded as being a certain distance from a populated place). The use of question marks usually indicates unknown or questionable information. All specimens are arranged in geographical order according to latitude and within alphabetically ordered countries. For records of non-type material a standard order for information has been adopted: locality, coordinates or quarter degree grid reference, altitude (if recorded), date of collection (month in roman numerals), collector (initials excluded when surname is known), any other potentially useful information provided, institution where specimen(s) is found when not housed by NMSA.

Descriptive passages

A brief generic diagnosis is provided. Species descriptions, although brief, are usually based on all available material, but with special attention being given to type specimens. Descriptions focus chiefly on characteristics that are considered reasonably helpful in the separation of species. Standard terminology is usually used, chiefly in accordance with McAlpine (1981). It should be noted that interpretation of some characters can be problematic and the following matters need special mention: (1) 'Greasy' surfaces make it difficult to appreciate the colour or extent of pruinescence. In addition the type and direction of lighting used can affect the appearance of pruinescence. (2) The antennal style is composed of three elements (proximal 'beadlike' element, elongate seta-bearing element, terminal seta-like sensory element), but it is not always possible to see a clear distinction between the first two elements. In addition the terminal element may be hidden from view amongst the long setae so characteristic of the genus. (3) The colour of setae may be difficult to determine, especially tiny setulae, as they reflect light. A dark red-brown seta can appear yellow when reflecting light.

Oligopogon species tend to be heavily pruinose and the extent and distribution of apruinose areas provide useful characters in separating species. The following notes are useful in this context:

Occipital pruinescence (Fig. 2A-F): Species fall into two main groups--12 species (adonis, argolagon, baringo, harlequini, hyalipennis, kochi, nigripennis, penicillatus, snowi, superciliatus, torsteni, trichopteron) with the occiput entirely pruinose (condition A), and those possessing apruinose occipital areas. A single species (pollinosus) possesses a tiny apruinose spot situated between each dorsal eye margin and cervical region (condition B). One species (platypteron) possesses small circular spots between the dorsal eye margin and cervical region (condition C) while another species (ndumo) has a small elongate, sub oval spot (condition D). 13 species (agnostos, ater, eburacta, enigmatus, freidbergi, hyacinthina, mbambingomia, mhlopeni, napaios, nitidus, rossi, waltonae, zulu) possess fairly large elongate, subtriangular to semicircular apruinose areas of varying size and shape that may touch the dorsal eye margin (condition E), while the most extensive apruinose area is found in a single species (hemistego) where the subtriangular area reaches much of the eye margin dorsally (condition F).

Mesonotal pruinescence: There is considerable specific variation in the patterns of mesonotal pruinescence. A few species are entirely pruinose while others are variously patterned by apruinose areas. While descriptions give some detail of apruinose areas it is important to note that the key focusses mainly on the area anterior to the transverse suture, excluding the postpronotal lobes.

Wings present many taxonomically useful features. Most of the species have rather similar looking wings (eg. hyacinthina--Fig. 3) and display little variation in venation. However, one species (platypteron) has remarkably different and highly distinctive wings (Fig. 4) that could even support a separate generic placement at a future date. The distribution of mictotrichia on wing membranes is of particular value and while there is a little individual variation the various conditions are illustrated diagrammatically (Figs 5-13). Some species have dense microtrichia while others have rather sparse microtrichia that make it more difficult to establish patterning. Final illustrations of terminalia were prepared from pencil drawings without employing any graphic software for their enhancement or manipulation and do not usually depict setae unless these are considered of possible diagnostic value. Measurements were taken as follows: Antenna: Lengths of scape, pedicel, postpedicel, and style (all three elements combined) were measured laterally. Width of face and head: Measurements were taken in anterior view at a level corresponding with the head's widest measurement. Wing: Length is measured from the humeral crossvein to tip, breadth at the level of the r-m crossvein.

TAXONOMY

Genus Oligopogon Loew, 1947

Fig. 29

Oligopogon Loew, 1847: 497 (as subgenus of Dasypogon). Type species (by monotypy): Dasypogon hybotinus Loew, 1847.

Diagnosis: A genus, currently assigned to the Stenopogoninae, possessing the following combination of characters, many used to separate it from other members of the subfamily (Londt 2013) as well as character states discussed by Dikow (2009) (his character numbers provided in brackets for convenience). Head: Antennal style with long loosely arranged setae; setae of stylus present on all surfaces (59). Thorax: Prosternum large, abutting proepisternum and prothoracic coxae; dorsal (anterior) margin of prosternum with distinct flange-like projection (75); mesonotum strongly humped; postmetacoxal area membranous; anatergites asetose; pulvilli well developed; alula highly reduced (130); anal lobe and alula reduced and without bordering vein (ie. costa terminates at or before point where anal vein joins wing margin). Abdomen: T2 wider than long (153), but less than twice as long as wide; setae on T8 erect (ie. perpendicular to surface) (168); T10 divided into two heavily sclerotized acanthophorite plates (172); acanthophorite plates with spurs (ie. macrosetae) (174); T9 and T10 partly fused (173); T2-T7 with marginal macrosetae (186-191); lateral ejaculatory process present as a small triangular sclerite (213).

Oligopogon adonis sp. n.

Fig. 2A

Etymology: From Greek Adonis (God of love and beauty). In reference to the attractive appearance of this species.

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, dull gold pruinose, orange setose. Antenna: Dark brown-yellow except for red-brown scape, distal 1/3 of postpedicel and distal 2/3 of style. Segmental ratios: 1:1.2:4.4:2.6 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, orange setose. Postpedicel slightly laterally compressed in crosssection, slightly swollen distally. Style of smaller diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long brown-orange setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex dull gold pruinose, mystax orange-yellow, ocellar macrosetae orange-brown. Occiput uniformly dull gold pruinose (see Fig. 2A), orange-yellow setose. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.8 (face narrower than one eye). Proboscis red-brown, straight, pale yellowish setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, pale yellow setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively dull gold pruinose, orange and pale yellow-white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with few small apruinose areas (small spot laterally anterior to transverse suture, V-shaped area postsuture). Two orange npl (other macrosetae weakly developed), general setae orange and pale yellow-white. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for two dull gold pruinose areas anteriorly, fine pale yellow setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura fairly uniformly dull gold pruinose. Katatergal setae orange. Legs: Coxae red-brown, dull gold pruinose, yellow setose. Trochanters brown-orange, pale yellow-white setose. Femora orange with red-brown ring at 2/3 length, mixed orange and pale yellowish setose. Tibiae orange with red-brown ring at 2/3 length and distal region, mostly orange-yellow setose. Tarsi orange with brown and orange-yellow setae. Wings: 3.8 x 1.3 mm (holotype). Veins brown, paler proximally. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: T1 dark red-brown, T2-8 orange with red-brown posterior margins, extensively apruinose except for fine gold-silver pruinescence anterolaterally, pale yellow setose. Sterna largely orange, entirely dull gold pruinose, pale yellow setose. [female] terminalia orange with red-brown parts ([male] unknown).

Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[female] 'South Africa: Natal/Mhlopeni Nat. Reserve/2930AB 9.iv.1983/8 km SE of Muden/Londt, Barraclough &/Seymour Thornveld' (NMSA).

Paratype: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[female] 'South Africa: Natal/Mhlopeni Nature Res./15 km SE Muden 2930AB / Coll: J.G.H. Londt/Date: 22.xii.1983' (NMSA).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 1) and biology: Known only from the type locality, Mhlopeni Private Nature Reserve (29[degrees]01'11"S 30[degrees]24'55"S, 900 m). Collected during summer and autumn. The type locality is predominantly dry woodland savanna.

Oligopogon agnostos sp. n.

Fig. 2E

Etymology: From Greek agnostos (unknown, obscure). In reference to a lack of understanding surrounding this species.

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, gold-silver pruinose, extensively black setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.2:3.3:3.5 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel circular in crosssection, tapering gradually distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long black setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex gold-silver pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput dull silver pruinose except for two large subtriangular apruinose areas between dorsal eye margin and cervical region (see Fig. 2E), black setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:4.4 (face much narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver-gold and silver pruinose, black, pale yellow and white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: postpronotal lobes, narrow strip along transverse suture laterally, large area posterolaterally involving much of postalar lobe (Mphingwe $ has short narrow medial apruinose stripes). 2 black npl, 1 weak black sal, 1 weak black pal (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae longish dark red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for silver anterior 1/3, fine dark red-brown setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura uniformly strongly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow-white. Legs: Coxae red-brown, silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters brown-yellow proximally (Zambia [male] darker), red-brown distally, pale yellow-white setose. Femora dark red-brown with yellow-brown proximal ends (distal end pale red-brown), mixed dark red-brown and pale yellowish setose. Tibiae yellow-brown, darker distally, mostly dark red-brown setose. Tarsi yellow-brown, with dark red-brown setae. Wings: 5.1 x 1.7 mm (holotype). Veins brown, yellow proximally. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga red-brown, somewhat orange-brown laterally, apruinose except for tiny silver pruinose anterolateral areas, pale yellow and white setose. Sterna red-brown, somewhat orange-brown anteriorly, extensively gold-silver pruinose except laterally at midlength, white setose. [male] and [female] terminalia red-brown.

Holotype: MOZAMBIQUE: 1[male] 'Mozambique Catapu,/Mphingwe Camp [18[degrees]02'28"S 35[degrees]11'59"E], 32 km/S of Zambezi river; dry Millettia lowland forest;/GBP Davies; January 2007' (NMSA).

Paratypes: MALAWI: 1[female] 'Malawi: 2000'/Mukwadzi For. [11[degrees]32'S 34[degrees]14'E]/29.ii.1976/I. Bampton'. MOZAMBIQUE: 1[female] same data as holotype. ZAMBIA: 1[male] 'N. Rhodesia:/Senga Hill [13[degrees]42'S 34[degrees]35'E]/40mi. S. of/Abercorn/II-12-58, 1580m', 'E.S. Ross & R.E. Leech/collectors' (CASC).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: The few records suggest a central African species extending into tropical southern Africa. Collected during midsummer. Little available biological information, but collected in 'dry Millettia lowland forest'.

Oligopogon argolagon sp. n.

Figs 2A, 14-16, 31

Etymology: From Greek argos (white, bright) and lagon f. (flank). In reference to the white katatergal setae possessed by this species.

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, red-gold and silver pruinose, extensively black setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.0:3.4:2.4 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel circular in cross-section, tapering distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long dark red-brown setae projecting from all surfaces. Face silver pruinose, frons and vertex red-gold pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput uniform dull red-gold pruinose (See Fig. 2A), black setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.2 (face narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively red-gold and silver pruinose, black and pale yellow-white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose except for following apruinose areas: much of postpronotal lobe, small sub-circular dorsolateral spot postsuture, elongate area involving postalar lobe. 2 black npl, 1 black spal, 1 black pal (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae longish dark red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, silver pruinose except for tiny lateral areas, fine dark red-brown setose (2 long apical macrosetae moderately differentiated). Pleura fairly uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae yellow-white. Legs: Coxae red-brown, silver pruinose, white setose. Trochanters brown-orange, mainly pale yellow-white setose. Femora brown orange, mixed dark red-brown and pale yellowish setose. Tibiae and tarsi brown-orange, mostly dark red-brown setose. Wings: 4.3 x 1.3 mm (holotype). Veins orange-brown. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose anterolateral margins, dark red-brown and white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, extensively silvergold pruinose, white setose. [male] terminalia (Figs 14-16) and [female] terminalia red-brown. Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[male] 'South Africa: Cape Prov/Port Elizabeth Cape/Recife area 3425BA / 22-27.xii.1995/J.G.H. Londt. Reserve' (NMSA).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[male] 'South Africa, Natal/Zululand, Ndumu [= Ndumo] Game/Reserve, 26x-1972 / ME Irwin, 2632Cc'; 7[female] 'South Africa: Natal/Kosi Bay Nat. Reserve/2632DD 30.xi.-2.xii.82 / Londt, Barraclough &/Stuckenberg Forest/& open woodland areas'; 2[female] 'South Africa, Natal Prov / Zululand; 20 mi. S. Ndumu/Game Res. Camp (2732Aa)/Nov. 29, 1971; ME&BJ Irwin/dry scrub forest; 320 ft'; 7[male] 2[female] 'So. Africa: Cape Prov./8 km S. Alexandria/3.xi.1978 3326CD/R. Miller & J. Londt / road & forest margin'; 14[male] 9[female] same data as holotype (ZMHB 1[male] 1[female]); 4[male] 'Ndumu Reserve [26[degrees]55'S 32[degrees]15'E]/Ingwavuma District/Tongaland, S. Africa/B. & P. Stuckenberg/1-10 December 1963'; 1[male] 'S Africa: KwaZulu-Natal/St Lucia 9-13.iii.2004 17m/28[degrees]22'10.8"S 32[degrees]25'09.5"E/J.G.H. Londt Coastal Bush'; 1[male] 'Aliwal North [30[degrees]42'S 26[degrees]42'E]/Cape Province/Dec. 1922', 'S. Africa/R.E. Turner/Brit. Mus./1923-45' (BMNH #1029998); 1[male] 'South Africa/C.P. Kenton-on-sea [33[degrees]42'S 26[degrees]41'E]/2.i.1972/D.J. Greathead' (BMNH #1030002); 2[male] 'Delagoa Bay. [error--should read Algoa Bay = Port Elizabeth 33[degrees]58'S 25[degrees]35'E]/8.11.1935', 'S Africa:/R.E. Turner/B.M. 1935-73' (BMNH #10300023).

Note: The following specimen from East Africa keys to argolagon but is poorly preserved and almost certainly dispecific. Further material is required before a meaningful allocation can be made. 1[female] 'Kenya SE/Lamu prov., Witu/Kipini [02[degrees]23'S 40[degrees]26'E] 10.iv.2004/M. Snizek lgt.'.

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: The type locality is the Cape Recife Nature Reserve (34[degrees]01'S 25[degrees]42'E, 10 m) near Port Elizabeth. The species is fairly widely distributed in the eastern parts of southern Africa (Fig. 31), with many localities being coastal. Collected from October through to March. Found in open woodland, dry scrub forest and coastal scrub vegetation.

Oligopogon ater Bigot, 1879

Fig. 2E

Oligopogon atrum Bigot, 1879: 439.

Oligopogon ater. Hull 1962: 212; Oldroyd 1980: 370 (catalogue).

Redescription:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, red-gold and dull silver pruinose, extensively black setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.0:3.0:2.8 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel circular in cross-section, tapering distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long black setae projecting from all surfaces. Face and vertex dull silver pruinose, frons red-gold pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput dull silver pruinose except for two large subtriangular apruinose areas between dorsal eye margin and cervical region (see Fig. 2E), pale yellow setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.3 (face narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, pale yellow-white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, pale yellow-white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver pruinose, black, pale yellow and white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: postpronotal lobes, large lateral area anterior to transverse suture, large posterolateral area postsuture extending to postalar lobe, broad medial band (sometimes showing signs of two coalesced stripes) almost reaching anterior margin and falling far short of posterior margin. 2 black npl, 1 black spal (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae dark red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for narrow anterior margin (more extensive in Luzi River material), fine dark red-brown setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow. Legs: Coxae dark red-brown, silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters dark red-brown, pale yellow-white setose. Femora dark red-brown, mixed dark red-brown and white setose. Tibiae and tarsi dark red-brown, mostly dark red-brown setose. Wings: 3.4 x 1.3 mm (holotype). Veins yellow. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown to black, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose anterolateral margins, white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, entirely silver-gold pruinose, white setose. [male] and [female] terminalia dark red-brown.

Syntypes: SOUTH AFRICA: 1? 'Syn-/type' [circular blue edged], '358 in/Coll./Bigot.', 'Coll. Bigot / abt. 1845-93/Pres. 1914 by/J.E. Collin.', 'Type Dip: 300 1/2/Oligopogon/ater Bigot/Hope Dept. Oxford' (OXUM); 1[male] 'Syn-/type' [circular blue edged], '358 in/Coll./Bigot.', 'Oligo- /pogon/niger / J. Bigot/358 in/Coll./Bigot', 'Coll. Bigot/abt. 1845-93/Pres. 1914 by/J.E. Collin.', 'Type Dip: 300 2/2/Oligopogon/ater Bigot/Hope Dept. Oxford' (OXUM).

Notes: Bigot (1879), who did not designate a holotype, only indicated having studied male material so it is likely that the now defective syntype is a male. While no provenance appears on the labels, Bigot records 'Natal.--Ma collection'. It is not known why the name 'niger' appears on one of the labels. This may have been a manuscript name. The syntypes are generally in poor condition.

Other material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: 4[male] 7[female] Transkei [now part of the Eastern Cape Province], Pitseng Pass, Banks of Luzi River, 3028CB, 11.i.1979, Londt & Stuckenberg, Rocky hill & Grassland (NMSA, BMNH 1[male] 1[female]).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: The type locality is not known, except that it is somewhere in KwaZulu-Natal. The only known locality is on the banks of the Luzi River, Pitseng Pass, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa (ca. 30[degrees]45'S 28[degrees]19'E, 1600 m). Collected in January. Found in long grass on the banks of a stream at the base of a rocky hillside.

Oligopogon baringo sp. n.

Fig. 2A

Etymology: Named after the type locality of Lake Baringo, Kenya.

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, dull silver-gold and silver pruinose, pale yellow and red-brown setose. Antenna: Red-brown except for yellow proximal ends of postpedicel and style. Segmental ratios: 1:1.0:3.0:2.2 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, but pedicel broader, pale yellow setose. Postpedicel laterally compressed, parallel sided, broadly rounded distally. Style narrower than distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long brown setae projecting from all surfaces. Face and frons dull silver-gold pruinose, vertex dull gold-silver pruinose, mystax pale yellow, ocellar macrosetae short red-brown. Occiput uniformly dull gold-silver pruinose (See Fig. 2A), red-brown setose dorsally, yellow-white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.7 (face narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, pale yellow setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, pale yellow setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver-gold and silver pruinose, pale yellow setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: postpronotal lobes (partly), extensive lateral areas anterior to transverse suture and postsuture that extend posteriorly to hind margin and involve postalar lobe, pair broad medial stripes that extend narrowly anteriorly but do not reach anterior margin as well as posteriorly where they coalesce before reaching posterior margin. 2 brown-yellow npl (other macrosetae weakly developed), general setae pale yellow. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for small anterolateral silver pruinose areas, fine yellowish setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura fairly uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow. Legs: Coxae dark red-brown, silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters dark red-brown, pale yellow-white setose. Femora dark red-brown with brown-yellow proximal and distal ends, mixed dark red-brown and pale yellowish setose. Tibiae brown-yellow with red-brown distal ends, mixed dark red-brown and yellow setose. Tarsi brown-yellow, mostly dark red-brown setose. Wings: 3.0 x 1.1 mm (holotype). Veins yellow to brown-yellow. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown to black, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose anterolateral margins, white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, extensively gold-silver pruinose except for large posterolateral corners, white setose. [female] genitalia dark red-brown ([male] unknown).

Holotype: KENYA: 1[male] 'Kenya Kampi-Va-/Samaki (Lake Baringo)/00[degrees]37'N:36[degrees]02'E 980 m/30.V.-2. vi.1980/B. Lamoral Malaise' (NMSA).

Paratypes: 2[female] same data as holotype.

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: Known only from the type locality. Collected in a Malaise trap at the end of May and early June in an equatorial situation. The locality is dominated by open woodland and savanna.

Oligopogon eburacta sp. n.

Fig. 2E

Etymology: From Latin ebur (of ivory) and acta f. (seashore, coast). In reference to the type locality of Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire).

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, dull gold-silver pruinose, extensively black setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.0:3.0:2.8 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel circular in cross-section, tapering distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long black setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex dull gold-silver pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput dull silver pruinose except for two large subtriangular apruinose areas between dorsal eye margin and cervical region (see Fig. 2E), black setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:4.1 (face much narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively red-gold and silver pruinose, black, pale yellow and white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: small part of postpronotal lobe, small lateral area anterior to transverse suture, large area occupying much of posterior region, pair broad medial stripes that coalesce with posterior area. 2 black npl (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae longish dark red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, entirely apruinose, fine dark redbrown setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow-white. Legs: Entirely dark red-brown. Coxae silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters white setose. Femora mixed dark red-brown and white setose. Tibiae and tarsi mostly dark red-brown setose. Wings: 2.6 x 1.0 mm (holotype). Veins brown. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose anterolateral margins, white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, entirely silver-gold pruinose, white setose. [male] and [female] terminalia dark red-brown.

Holotype: COTE D'IVOIRE: 1[male] 'Cote D'Ivoire: Comoe/Nat. Park. Kakpin/Camp 16-18.iv.1989 / 08[degrees]40'N:03[degrees]12'W/JGH Londt Malaise/and savanna woodland' (NMSA).

Paratype: COTE D'IVOIRE: 1[male] same data as holotype.

Other material examined: KENYA: 1[female] Voi [03[degrees]23'S 38[degrees]34'E], 13-19.xi.2011, 750 m, Snizek, Sagala env. [environs]; 2$ E of Mwingi [00[degrees]56'S 38[degrees]03'E] W of Nguni, xii.2010, Snizek.

Note: The Kenyan material closely resembles type material but is excluded from the type series as it is in poor condition and identification requires confirmation.

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: Known with certainty at the type locality in West Africa. Collected at the type locality in April, but Kenyan material apparently collected during November and December. The type specimens were found in savanna woodland.

Oligopogon enigmatus Oldroyd, 1974

Figs 2E, 31

Oligopogon enigmatus Oldroyd, 1974: 124 (key); 1980: 370 (catalogue).

Redescription:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, fine silver pruinose, black and white setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.2:3.0:2.6 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel circular in crosssection, tapering gradually distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long red-brown setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex fine silver pruinose, mystax white, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput dull silver pruinose except for two large subtriangular apruinose areas between dorsal eye margin and cervical region (see Fig. 2E), black setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.4 (face slightly narrower than one eye). Proboscis red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver pruinose, predominantly white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: postpronotal lobe, large lateral area extending from well anterior to transverse suture posteriorly to include postalar lobe, broad medial band which splits into two and coalesces with lateral areas anteriorly that does not extend to anterior or posterior margins. 2 black npl (the only black setae on mesonotum, other macrosetae weakly developed), general setae longish white. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for tiny strip along anterior margin, fine white setose (2 thin, long apical macrosetae). Pleura uniformly strongly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae white. Legs: Coxae dark red-brown, silver pruinose, white setose. Trochanters dark red-brown, white setose. Femora and tibiae dark redbrown, mixed dark red-brown and white setose. Tarsi red-brown, dark red-brown and white setose. Wings: 4.2 x 1.5 mm (holotype). Veins yellow. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga red-brown, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose anterolateral margins, long white setose. Sterna red-brown, entirely silver-gold pruinose, white setose. [male] and [female] terminalia red-brown.

Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[male] 'Kransp [Kranskop 28[degrees]58'S 30[degrees]53'E]/21.12.06', 'collection/Transvaal / Museum', Oligopogon [female] [No!]/enigmatus sp. n./det H. Oldroyd 1973/Holotype' [black ink on white card] (NMSA) Note: Missing left wing, otherwise in good condition.

Paratype: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[female] 'Zusterstr. [Zusterstroom farm 25[degrees]35'08"S 29[degrees]00'28E]/17.12.04', 'Oligopogon [female]/ enigmatus sp. n./det H. Oldroyd 1973/Paratype' [black ink on white card] (NMSA).

Other material examined: LESOTHO: 1[male] Mamathes [29[degrees]08'S 27[degrees]51'E], 3.i.954, Bevis (DMSA Dip. 1606); 1[female] Mamathes, 1--9.i.1953, Bevis (DMSA Dip. 1605); 1[male] Mamathes, 27.xii.1947, Jacot-Guillarmod (USNM 00832535); 1[female] Mamathes, 20.xii.1947, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS); 1[male] Mamathes, 27.xii.1947, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS); 2[male] 2[female] Pulane [29[degrees]15'S 27[degrees]56'E], 5.i.1954, Bevis, nr Mateka (DMSA Dip. 1602-4, 1332). SOUTH AFRICA: 1[female] Nylsvley Nature Reserve, 24[degrees]39'S 28[degrees]42'E, 20-21.ii.1979, Mansell, collected by sweeping grass (SANC); 1[male] 20 km SE Loskopdam, 25[degrees]22'S 29[degrees]35'E, 9-13.ii.1981, van Tonder & Kok (SANC); 2[female] Loskopdam Nat. Res., 25[degrees]25'S 29[degrees]20'E, 12-13.xii.1985, Eardley (SANC); 1[male] Loskopdam Nat. Res., 25[degrees]25'S 29[degrees]20'E, 12-13.xii.1985, Millar (SANC); 1[female] O.T.K. Reserve nr Loskopdam, 25[degrees]27'S 29[degrees]24'E, 9-11.xii.1985, Eardley (SANC); 1[male] Rustenburg [25[degrees]40'S 27[degrees]15'E], xii.1961, Capener (SANC); 1[female] Rustenburg, 4-11.i.1957, Capener (SANC); 1[male] Pretoria [25[degrees]44'S 28[degrees]11'E], 4.xii.1915, Munro (SANC); 1[male] Pretoria, 14.i.1914, Munro (SANC); 1[male] Pretoria, 17.xii.1913, Munro (USNM 00832550); 2[female] Pretoria, 12.i.1919, Munro (SANC, USNM 00832548); 1[female] Pretoria, 10.i.1914, Munro (USNM 00832549); 1[female] Pretoria, 28.xii.1913, Munro (USNM 00832546); 1[male] Pretoria, 2.i.1916, Munro (USNM 00832551); 1[female] Pretoria, 1.i.1916, Munro (USNM 00832553); 1[male] Pretoria, 18.xii.1913, Munro (USNM 00832554); 1[female] Pretoria, Silverton, 9.xii.1915, Munro [collected together with trichopteron] (USNM 00832545); 6[female] 1? Barberton [25[degrees]47'S 31[degrees]03'E], 1.iii.1979, Harrop (SANC); 2[female] Vredefort Dome nr Parys, 26[degrees]48'S 27[degrees]22'E, 1500 m, 26.xii.2000, Stiller, Swept off Eragrostis ? tef (Poaceae) land (PPRI); 2[male] 6[female] Goudhoek nr. Babanango, 28[degrees]23'S:31[degrees]05'E, 24.ii.1990, Reavell (NMSA, BMNH 1[male] 1[female]).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: Distribution confined to South Africa and Lesotho (Fig. 31). Collected between November and March in a summer rainfall region. A grassland species.

Oligopogon freidbergi sp. n.

Fig. 2E

Etymology: Named for Dr Amnon Freidberg, collector of the type material and in recognition of his generosity in donating valuable material to the KwaZulu-Natal Museum.

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, red-gold and silver pruinose, extensively black setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.2:3.3:2.5 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel circular in cross-section, tapering gradually distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long black setae projecting from all surfaces. Face silver pruinose, frons and vertex red-gold pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput dull silver pruinose except for two large subtriangular apruinose areas between dorsal eye margin and cervical region (See Fig. 2E), black setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.9 (face much narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively red-gold and silver pruinose, black and white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: postpronotal lobe, large lateral areas extending from anterior to transverse suture to postalar lobes that coalesce with broad medial band that extends anteriorly as pair of stripes that do not reach anterior margin. 2 black npl (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae longish dark red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, entirely apruinose, fine dark red-brown setose (2 thin apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow-white. Legs: Dark red-brown except for yellow-brown proximal region of metathoracic femora (Congo material with all tibiae and tarsi yellow-brown). Coxae silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters pale yellow-white setose. Femora mixed dark red-brown and white setose. Tibiae and tarsi mostly dark red-brown setose. Wings: 2.9 x 1.1 mm (holotype), Congo material bigger. Veins brown. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose anterolateral margins, white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, entirely dull silver pruinose, white setose. [male] and [female] terminalia dark red-brown to black

Holotype: KENYA: 1[male] 'Kenya Tsavo [ca. 03[degrees]00'S 37[degrees]59'E]/Mtito Andei/6.xii.1989/A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan' (NMSA).

Paratypes: DR CONGO: 8[male] 13[female] 'B Congo:/7mi. NW. of/Jadotville [Likasi 10[degrees]59'S 26[degrees]44'E]/I-27-58, 1350m', 'E.S. Ross & R.E. Leech/collectors' (CASC); 1[male] 'Musee du Congo/Elizabethville [11[degrees]40'S 27[degrees]28'E]/Dr M. Bequaert', 'Oligopogon sp./cf. nitidus Effl/det. H. Oldroyd 1966' (MRAC); 1[male] 4[female] 'B. Congo:/18mi. NW. of/Tshinsenda [12[degrees]17'S 27[degrees]59'E]/II-8-58, 1330m', 'E.S. Ross & R.E. Leech/collectors' (CASC); KENYA: 2[male] 9[female] same data as holotype; 1[male] 2[female] 'Kenya/Tsavo West [ca. 03[degrees]00'S 37[degrees]59'E]/KilaguniLod/6.xii.1989/A. Freidberg/& F. Kaplan' (NMSA).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: An East and Central African species. Collected from December to February in equatorial climes. Appears to be a woodland savanna species.

Oligopogon harlequini Oldroyd, 1970

Figs 2A, 13

Oligopogon harlequini Oldroyd, 1970: 295 (key) 296; 1980: 370 (catalogue).

Redescription (based on Nigerian material):

Head: Dark red-brown to black, dull gold pruinose, dark red-brown and yellow setose. Antenna: Extensively red-brown except for orange proximal 1/2 of postpedicel and proximal 1/3 of style. Segmental ratios: 1:1.2:2.8:2.2 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, yellow setose. Postpedicel laterally compressed in cross-section. Style of smaller diameter than distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long dark red-brown setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex dull gold pruinose, mystax yellow, ocellar macrosetae red-brown. Occiput uniformly dull gold pruinose (See Fig. 2A), red-brown setose dorsally, yellow ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.9 (face narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, pale yellow white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, yellow-white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively dull gold pruinose, yellow setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose except for following apruinose areas: postpronotal lobes, pair of short medial stripes confined to central region, 2 small areas laterally anterior to transverse suture, 2 larger areas laterally postsuture. 2 yellow npl (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae longish yellow. Scutellum dark redbrown, largely apruinose except for dull gold anterolateral areas, fine brown setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura fairly uniformly dull gold pruinose. Katatergal setae yellow. Legs: Coxae red-brown, dull gold pruinose, pale yellow setose. Trochanters brown-orange, pale yellow-white setose. Femora orange with red-brown ring at 2/3 length, yellow setose. Tibiae orange, distal end slightly darker, mostly red-brown setose. Tarsi yellow-brown, dark red-brown setose. Wings: 3.1 x 1.4 mm (holotype). Veins pale brown-yellow. Membrane transparent, unstained, extreme tip of cell [r.sup.2+3] with few microtrichia (most evident on paratypes) (Fig. 13).

Abdomen: T1 dark red-brown, T2-7 dark red-brown with large anterolateral areas brown-orange, largely apruinose except for silver anterolateral margins, white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, silver-gold pruinose except for large mediolateral apruinose areas, white setose. [male] and [female] terminalia orange brown.

Holotype and paratypes (3 specimens on one polyperous strip, one, marked with an 'X', being the holotype): NIGERIA: 3[male] (holotype and paratypes) 'Udubo [11[degrees]57'N 10[degrees]27'E]/29.8.57' ~ '43', 'Oligopogon/harlequin Oldroyd/det. H. Oldroyd 1966/Holotype X/+ 2[male] paratypes', 'Type' [red edged circular], 'Holo- /type' [red edged circular], 'Para-/type' [yellow edged circular], 'BmNH(E)/#1029960', 'BMNH(E)/#1029961', 'BMNH(E)/#1029962' (BMNH).

Paratype: GHANA: 1[female] 'Para-/type' [yellow edged circular], 'Gold Coast/N. Territories/Yagaba [10[degrees]14'N 01[degrees]17'W]/11.vii.1914/Capt. Armitage', Pres. by/Imp. Bur. Ent./Brit. Mus./1924-298.', 'Oligopogon/harlequin Oldroyd/det. H. Oldroyd 1966/$ paratype', 'BMNH(E)/#1029963' (BMNH).

Note 1: Oldroyd (1970) recorded 1$ (holotype) 2$ (paratypes) from 'N. Nigeria: Udubo, 28.viii.57 [? Collector] (SAIMR)' and 'Gold Coast: N. Territories, Yagaba, 1$, 11.viii.1914 (Capt. Armitage) (BMNH)'. The Udubo material is actually housed in the BMNH not SAIMR (South African Institute for Medical Research) as stated. Close examination of the Ghanaian specimen strongly suggests that it is dispecific, strongly resembling snowi sp. n., but as it is in relatively poor condition it is retained here until more West African material becomes available.

Note 2: Londt's (2012) recorded specimens from Kaneba (The Gambia) are here described as a new species (snowi).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: Known with certainty from the type locality in Nigeria. Collected in August. Almost certainly a woodland savanna species.

Oligopogon hemistego sp. n.

Figs 2F, 8, 17-19

Etymology: From Greek hemi (half) and stego (cover). In reference to the fact that microtrichia cover about half of the wing surface.

Description:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, dull silver pruinose, black and white setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.1:3.9:2.3 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel long, circular in cross-section, tapering distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long black setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex fine dull silver pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput silver pruinose except for two large subtriangular apruinose areas abutting dorsal eye margin and extending almost to cervical region (see Fig. 2F), pale yellow-white setose. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:4.3 (face much narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively dull silver pruinose, black and white setose. Mesonotum: Pruinose except for the following large apruinose areas: postpronotal lobes, broad medial strip (not extending to anterior or posterior margins), large posterolateral areas that coalesce with median strip. 2 black npl (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, silver pruinose anteriorly, apruinose apically, fine dark red-brown setose (ca. 4 thin poorly differentiated apical macrosetae). Pleura fairly uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow-white. Legs: Coxae dark red-brown, silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters dark red-brown, pale yellow-white setose. Femora dark red-brown (note: a few [female] specimens have orangebrown femora and may be somewhat teneral), predominantly pale yellow-white setose (1 dorsodistal black macroseta). Tibiae and tarsi brown-orange, mixed red-brown and pale yellow setose. Wings: 6.3 x 1.6 mm (holotype). Veins brown (somewhat yellowish proximally). Membrane transparent, unstained, extensively microtrichose distally (Fig. 8) (lacking microtrichia proximally--discal cell partly microtrichose).

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for silver pruinose lateral margins, white setose. Sterna dark red-brown, extensively silver pruinose except for lateral margins, white setose. [male] terminalia (Figs 17-19) brown-orange, [female] terminalia red-brown.

Holotype: ANGOLA: 1[male] 'Angola (A17)/15mls. N. Sa/de Bandeira [14[degrees]01'S 15[degrees]11'E],/c. 6500 ft. / 3.iii.1972', 'Southern/African Exp./B.M. 1972-1' (BMNH).

Paratypes: ANGOLA: 1[female] 'Angola: 20mi. S./Caconda [13[degrees]44'S 15[degrees]03'E], 1680m./8-xii-1966/E.S. Ross &/K. Lorenzen' (CASC); 7[male] 12[female] same data as holotype (BMNH, NMSA 1[male] 1[female]).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: Known only from two localities in Angola. Collected in December and March. Habitat is probably woodland savanna.

Oligopogon hyacinthina (Bigot, 1876) Stat. Rev.

Figs 1, 2 E, 3, 11, 20-22, 32

Emphysomera hyacinthine Bigot, 1876: lxxxvi [86]; Hull, 1962: 437. Ommatius hyacinthina: Oldroyd 1980: 347 (catalogue). Oligopogon hyacinthina: Scarbrough & Marascia 1996: 212.

This species was originally described in Emphysomera Schiner, 1866 before being transferred to Ommatius Wiedemann, 1821 by Oldroyd (1980). Scarbrough and Marascia (1996) then transferred it to Oligopogon, at the same time synonymizing it with penicillatus. It is clear that the type, which was not studied by Scarbrough and Marascia, is indeed an Oligopogon, but that it is dispecific with penicillatus and so is here reinstated as a valid species within Oligopogon.

Redescription:

Head: Dark red-brown to black, red-gold pruinose, extensively black setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.3:5.0:3.5 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, black setose. Postpedicel long, circular in cross-section, gradually tapering distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long black setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex red-gold pruinose, mystax black, ocellar macrosetae black. Occiput red-gold to gold-silver pruinose except for two large, oval apruinose areas between dorsal eye margin and cervical region (See Fig. 2E), black setose dorsally, white ventrally. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:3.9 (face somewhat narrower than one eye).

Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, pale yellow-white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, pale yellow-white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively red-gold and silver pruinose, black and pale yellow setose. Mesonotum: Uniformly red-gold pruinose except for small apruinose areas associated with postpronotal and postalar lobes, 2 black npl, 1 black spal (other macrosetae weakly developed), general setae longish dark red-brown. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely red-gold pruinose except for large medial area, fine dark red-brown setose (apical macrosetae poorly differentiated). Pleura fairly uniformly gold-silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow. Legs: Coxae dark red-brown, gold-silver pruinose, pale yellow-white setose. Trochanters dark red-brown, pale yellow-white setose. Femora dark red-brown with paler red-brown proximal ends, mixed dark red-brown and pale yellowish setose. Tibiae dark red-brown, paler proximally, dark red-brown setose. Tarsi red-brown, mostly dark red-brown setose. Wings (Fig. 3): 4.6 x 1.5 mm (holotype). Veins dark red-brown. Membrane transparent, weakly pale brown stained, extensively lacking microtrichia except for small group at distal end of cell [r.sub.1] and slightly more extensive groups at distal ends of [r.sub.2+3] and [r.sub.4] (Fig. 11).

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for gold-silver pruinose lateral margins, pale yellow setose except for few brown macrosetae posterolaterally. Sterna dark red-brown, silver-gold pruinose except for fairly large posterolateral areas, pale yellow-white setose. [male] terminalia (Figs 20-22) and [female] terminalia dark red-brown.

Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA: 1[male] 'Holo-/type' [circular yellow edged], 'Emphy-/somera/hyacyntina/J. Bigot/728 in/Coll. Bigot', 'Coll. Bigot/abt. 1845-93/Pres. 1914 by/J.E. Collin.', '728 E. hyacyntina [male] [upside-down]/Natal J. Bigot' [big with black edge], 'Oligopogon Loew/pb. [probably?] penicillatus Loew/see Oldroyd--1974: 122/- 124/A. Scarbrough 96', 'Type Dip: 352/Emphysomera/hyacinthina / Bigot/Hope Dept. Oxford' (OXUM).

Notes: Specimen labels have the specific name spelt differently to the published name. Scarbrough (pers. comm.) did not see the penicillatus type and so did not make direct comparisons. He based his synonymy of this species with penicillatus on key characters used by Oldroyd (1974). Now that the holotype has been located and studied it is clear that the synonymy was unjustified.

Other material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: 3[male] Eshowe, Dlinza Forest Nature Res., 2831CD, 450 m, 22.xii.1979, Miller & Stabbins, indig. For. [indigenous forest]; 1[male] Ongoye (Ngoye) Forest, 28[degrees]50'S 31[degrees]14'E, 300 m, 21.X.2008, Miller, Eastern side of forest (SANC); 1[male] 3[female] Dlinza Forest Reserve, 28[degrees]53'31"S 31[degrees]27'05"E, 550 m, 21-22.i.2012, Londt, Forest & margins, Area around Reception (NMSA, BMNH 1[female]); 2[female] Gillitts [29[degrees]47'S 30[degrees]48'E], 29.xi.1962, Stuckenberg; 1[female] Gillitts, 20.xii.1961, Stuckenberg; 1[female] Gillitts, 21.xi.63, Stuckenberg; 1[male] Umbilo [29[degrees]54'S 30[degrees]59'E], 8.xii.1926, Bevis (DMSA Dip. 1328); 1[female] Vernon Crookes Nat. Res., Umzinto, 30[degrees]17'S 30[degrees]37'E, 443 m, 25-26.iii.1985, Mansell (SANC); 2[female] Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve nr Port Shepstone, 30[degrees]41'S 30[degrees]17'E, 30.xi.2008, Davis.

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: Known from a relatively small region of KwaZulu-Natal in the eastern parts of South Africa (Fig. 32). Collected from October through to March in a summer rainfall region. The species inhabits forest margins where individuals perch at the tips of dead twigs adjacent to long grass.

Oligopogon hyalipennis (Oldroyd, 1960) Figs 2A, 29

Rhipidocephala hyalipennis Oldroyd, 1960: 277.

Oligopogon hyalipennis: Oldroyd 1970: 295 (key); 1980: 370 (catalogue). Redescription:

Head: Dark red-brown, silver pruinose, extensively pale yellow-white setose. Antenna: Dark red-brown. Segmental ratios: 1:1.2:4.2:2.8 (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, style). Scape and pedicel of similar development, pale yellow setose. Postpedicel circular in cross-section, tapering gradually distally. Style of similar diameter to distal end of postpedicel, equipped with long yellow setae projecting from all surfaces. Face, frons and vertex dull silver pruinose, mystax yellow-white, ocellar macrosetae red-brown. Occiput uniformly silver pruinose (See Fig. 2A), white setose. Face to head width ratio in anterior view 1:4.3 (face much narrower than one eye). Proboscis dark red-brown, straight, white setose. Palpi minute, 2-segmented, white setose.

Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver pruinose, pale yellow and white setose. Mesonotum: Extensively pruinose with following apruinose areas: small lateral area postsuture, small area on postalar lobe, short broad anteromedial band reaching anterior margin. 2 pale yellow npl, 1 pale yellow spal, 1 pale yellow pal (other macrosetae poorly developed), general setae white. Scutellum dark red-brown, largely silver pruinose except for narrow posterior margin, fine white setose (2 weak apical macrosetae). Pleura uniformly silver pruinose. Katatergal setae pale yellow-white. Legs: Coxae red-brown, silver pruinose, whitish setose. Trochanters brown-orange, white setose. Femora redbrown with brown-yellow proximal ends, mixed pale yellow and white setose. Tibiae brown-yellow, darker red-brown distally, red-brown setose. Tarsi brown-yellow, redbrown setose. Wings: 3.4 x 1.2 mm ([male]). Veins brown-yellow. Membrane transparent, unstained, entirely lacking microtrichia.

Abdomen: Terga dark red-brown, largely apruinose except for broad silver pruinose lateral margins, white setose. Sterna red-brown, extensively silver pruinose except for small anteromedial area, white setose. [male] and [female\] terminalia dark red-brown.

Paratypes: MADAGASCAR: 1[male] 2[female] 'Para-/type' [yellow edged circular], 'Anakao [23[degrees]40'S 43[degrees]39'E] (Haut)/dct de Tulear/7.4.53 (A.R.)', 'Institut[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Scientifique/Madagascar', 'Pres. IRSM./B.M. 1957-343', 'BMNH(E)/#1029965' [male], 'BMNH(E)/#1029966', 'BMNH(E)/#1029969' (BMNH); 1[male] 'Para-/type' [yellow edged circular], 'Anakao (Haut)/dct de Tulear/8.4.53 (A.R.)', 'Institut.Scientifique/Madagascar', 'Pres. IRSM./B.M. 1957-343', 'BMNH(E)/#1029968''BMNH(E); 1[male] 'Para-/type' [yellow edged circular], 'Anakao (Haut)/Tulear/4.53 (A.R.)', 'Institut.Scientifique/Madagascar', 'Pres. IRSM./B.M. 1957-343', 'BMNH(E)/#1029967' (BMNH).

Note: Oldroyd (1960) studied an undisclosed number of specimens of both sexes recording 'Distribution: Madagascar Sud-Ouest: Tulear. Anakao (R. P.). Avril.'. While it is assumed that the holotype is in the Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN), I have not been able to confirm this.

Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 8[male] 5[female] 2? Madagascar, Tulear Pr. [province], Betioky [24[degrees]36'S 44[degrees]46'E], 275 m, 15.iii.1968, K.M.G. & P.D. (BMNH #1029972-4, #1029976-7, #1029980-6, NMSA 1[male] #1029979 1[female] #1029978); 1[female] same data but 27.iii.1968 (BMNH #1029975); 1[female] same data but 8.iv.1968 (BMNH #1029970).

Distribution (Table 1), phenology (Table 2) and biology: This is the only Madagascan species and is known only from the south western parts of the island (see Fig. 29). Collected in March and April. The species is known from one of the drier parts of the island dominated by spiny forest.

Oligopogon hybotinus (Loew, 1847)

Dasypogon hybotinus Loew, 1847: 498-499.

Oligopogon hybotinus: Hull 1962: 212; Oldroyd 1970: 295 (key) 296-7 (figs 68 $ terminalia, 69 wing); 1980: 370 (catalogue).

Type material: Loew (1847) studied both [male] and [female] and recorded 'Vaterland: Die Insel Rhodes, wo ich beide Geschlechter im Mai fing.'

Discussion: Loew (1847) described this, the type species of Oligopogon, on material from the Mediterranean island of Rhodes (Greece) located in the Palaearctic Region. Oldroyd (1970), however, recorded the species for the Afrotropical countries of Burundi and DR Congo as follows: 'Urundi: Burma, 4[male], 6[female], x.1948 (F. J. Franqois) (MRAC)', 'Garamba National Park: P.N.G., 308, Mt. Ndogo, 2[male], 4[female], 15.iii.1950, I/a/1, 1[female], 1.v.50 (Demoulin)' (MRAC, IRSNB) and '3461, Inimvua, 1[female], 16.v.1952' (IPNC IRSNB). I have studied the following specimens, all labelled as hybotinus by Oldroyd in 1966. 6[male] 1[female] 2? (MRAC) from Burma which I have assigned to nitidus (see detailed listing under that name). Although two specimens are now without abdomens it is obvious that Oldroyd was mistaken about the sexes of some of these specimens as details do not tally. The other specimens listed by Oldroyd (1970) have the following label data: 1[female] 'Congo Belge, P.N.G./Miss. H. De Saeger/Mt. Ndogo, 15-iii-1950/Rec. H. De Saeger. 308' (IRSNB); 1[female] 'Congo Belge, P.N.G./Miss. H. De Saeger/Inimvua, 16-v-1952 / D. De Saeger. 3461' (IRSNB); 1[female] 'Congo Belge, P.N.G./Miss. H. De Saeger/I/a/1 [no locality], 1-v-1950/Rec. G. Demoulin. 469' (IRSNB). All three were misidentified and actually represent a species of Rhabdogaster Loew, 1858. It appears, therefore, that hybotinus does not occur in the Afrotropical Region. The Palaearctic distribution is discussed by Geller-Grimm and Hradsky (2003).
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Title Annotation:p. 269-293
Author:Londt, Jason G.H.
Publication:African Invertebrates
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:60AFR
Date:Dec 1, 2014
Words:9156
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