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A review on potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles. (Review).


Recently, a review has already been made on the synthetic contraceptive agents whereas this review embraces the natural contraceptives upto year 2001 with 355 references. It also includes the isolation of their active principles, methods of analysis of active ingredients through TLC, HPLC, their side effects and pharmacological action.

Key words: Medicinal plants, Anti-fertility activity, Adverse effects, TLC-autobiography


The population explosion is one of the major problems of present era in the world. The increment of population raises so many sufferings like lack of food, water, energy and raw material supply, decline in mortality etc. before human beings and it also has increased the life expectancy. In view of above discussion, scientists have started to tackle this serious problem by developing the effective contraceptives.

The term contraceptives refers to those chemical substances that inhibit either the sperms production and sperm motility in males or prevent the formation of ovum and produce some changes in the endometrium, rendering it non-receptive to a fertilized ovum in females (Haller, 1965; Pincus, 1965a, b; Pincus and Bialy, 1965; Tyler, 1967).

The adverse effects (Borell, 1970; Kannel, 1979; Takacs, 1979; Blashkova et al. 1981) caused by oral and injectible contraceptives are increased blood transminase, cholesterol levels, indigestion, weight gain, headache, depression, fatigue, hypermenorrhea and intermenorrheal bleeding (not exceeding by 8%). These also disturb the metabolism of lipid, protein, carbohydrates, enzymes and vitamins (Zaeslein-Buthe, 1971; Bingel and Benoit, 1973a, b; Spellacy, 1974).

One of the most challenging pursuits in the realm of pharmaceutical and medical sciences is the search for newer and more potent drugs with little toxic effects, self-administrable, less expensive and completely reversible. Much of these properties are observed in the drugs of plant origin. During the latter part of this century, the practice of herbalism has become mainstream throughout the world. This is due in part to the recognition of the value of traditional medical systems, particularly of Asian origin, and the identification of medicinal plants from indigenous pharmacopeias. In the Western world, in particular, the developing concept that 'natural' is better than 'chemical' or 'synthetic' has led to the evolution of Neo-Western herbalism. In the US, often guised as food or food supplements, known as nutriceuticals, these formulations are readily available for those that wish to self-medicate (Lewis, 2001).

Among the three ways of controlling population i.e. Abortion, Sterilization or Contraception, the contraceptive way of birth control is one of the most popularizing ways nowadays and different types of contraceptive devices are being used which are:

1. Mechanical devices -- diaphragm, cervical cap, intrauterine devices (IUD).

2. Physiological devices -- oral pills.

3. Surgical devices -- tubectomy/vasectomy.

In females these devices act upon any of the reproductive organ/physiological aspect like, they may

1. Be anti-ovulatory.

2. Affect the union of ova and sperm.

3. Be abortifacient.

4. Show anti-implantation activity.

5. Have effect on the uterus.

Male contraceptive (Sharma et al. 2001) are mainly directed towards:

1. Development of antispermatogenic agents to suppress sperm production.

2. Prevention of sperm maturation.

3. Prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens.

4. Prevention of sperm deposition.

A few TLC systems (Beyermann and Roeder, 1967; Roeder, 1967; Szekacs and Kiembala, 1970) viz.

1. Ethyl Acetate -- Cyclohexane -- Acetone (v/v 25:75:10)

2. Ethyl Acetate -- Cyclohexane (v/v 54:46)

3. Choloroform -- Acetone (v/v 90:10) were found suitable for the separation and identification of contraceptives. The reagents used for identification were [H.sub.3][PO.sub.4] - MeOH (v/v 1:1) and [SbCl.sub.3] or [SbCl.sub.5] - AcOH (v/v 1:1) The quantitative determination was carried out by spectrophotometry with the aid of calibration curve. The components after extracting with [CHCl.sub.3] from silica gel were identified by their [R.sub.f] values. After evaporating the solvent, the residue was dissolved in 20 ml Acetone -- Pyridine (v/v 10:1) mixture containing 0.1 ml nujol/100 ml. The solution is evaporated on mirror and analysis was carried out by IR reflective spectrography and calculated by calibration curve. This combined procedure was found most appropriate and very sensitive to identify and for separating upto 0.01-1 mg.

Johnston (1981) used HPLC for determination of oral contraceptive formulations. The procedure involves a simple solvent extraction followed by analysis on silica gel column with cyclohexane and 2-propanol as the mobile phase.

The various reviews (Jackson, 1959; Misra et al. 1961; Siegfried, 1966; Malhi and Trivedi, 1972; Orzechowski, 1972; Brondegnard, 1973; Hardman, 1974; Farnsworth et al. 1975; Kholkute et al. 1976b; San Martin Casamada, 1976; Bingel and Farnsworth, 1980; Woo et al. 1981; Farnsworth and Waller, 1982; Zhu, 1982; Bhargava, 1986c; Kong et al. 1986; Xie et al. 1986; Wong, 1987; Xu et al. 1987a) have been given on medicinal plants and their active principles for fertility regulation but the present review refer only natural contraceptives up to year 2001. The medicinal plants with their chemical substances are being summarized in the appendix (see page 245).


In addition to those plants listed, various other plant extract and plant products have also been used to control the fertility in either sex.

Korkhov et al. (Korkhov and Mats, 1983) summarised the contraceptive preparations of plant origin. Davis (1978) reported the composition containing an ovicide podophylotoxin in the form of savin or savin oil, stilbestrol and apiole made into tablets and when taken orally, it controls extrauterine pregnancy.

Bagros (1979) mentioned that aqueous solution of tannin (1-1%) has power to coagulate human cervical mucus, seminal fluid and other mucin type of glycoprotein. According to Bagros (1976) supposition were formulated from tannin ethers, benzalkonium chloride, carboxymethyl cysteine and excipients in sufficient quantities. It acts as a barrier for sperm penetration and thus enhanced the possibility for contraception purposes.

Alkaloids (Coutinho, 1971; Trifunac and Bernstein, 1982) were described as short-term contraceptives. Coronaridine.HCl (Mehrotra and Kamboj, 1978) (30 mg/kg) given orally to rats on day 1-5 post-coitum prevented pregnancy. Only low order antifertility activity were found for isoflavones (Moersch et al. 1967) related to genistein in mice. Gallegos (1983) reported that the zoapatle was traditional remedy for fertility control.

Chow et al. (1980) observed that cytochalasin-A, was most effective spermicide while cytochalasin-B had little or no effect on sperm motility even at 0.1%. In vitro experiments (Brown-Wood man and White, 1977) on human sperms indicated that quinine. HCl is spermicidal enough for use in an intracervical device that it blocks sperm metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

(3R) Classequinone (Guerra et al. 1985) when administered to rats at 200 [micro]g/100 g i.p. on the 4th day of gestation, inhibit implantation and caused abortion in 32.3% of implanted embryos.

Sander (1940) reported a great spermatocidal efficiency of higher unsaturated fatty acids, which have originated from animal and plant fats and oils. Astedt et al. (1977) reported estradiol as an oral contraceptive without causing thromboembolic incidents.

Sanyal (Sanyal, 1956b; Sanyal and Sarkar, 1958; Sanyal, 1960) obtained similar results of 2,6-dixylenomethane and 3,5-dixylylquinol with those of m-xylohydroquinone in counteracting the effect of chronic gonadotropin progesterone and estrogen.

Li Keliang et al. (1995) reported that latex or polyurethane containing nonoxynol, iodophor and an appropriate amount of distilled water, is used as contraceptive. Shlenker et al. (1993) reported methods of making biocide containing latex articles (condom) which acts as a chemical barrier against the transmission of disease causing microbes. According to Roland (1993) the use of latex rubber condom reduces the probability of HIV infection by roughly a factor of three.

Recent biochemical approaches to post testicular epididymal contraception include the work of Cooper and Yeung (1999). According to these biochemists, targeting a specific sperm protein acquired in the testes but depleted in the epididymis by toxicant that induce rapid infertility may also lead to the discovery of new contraceptives. These will require developing new organs-specific delivery of contraceptive drugs. Goldberg (1999) invented novel proteins and peptides derived from proteins unique to sperm and testes. These are useful in vaccines for contraception in mammals. These proteins and peptides are also useful in diagnostic assays for assessing infertility. Howett and Reider (1999) observed that broad-spectrum microbicidal and spermicidal composition containing anionic surfactants are used for preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Diclosed are microbicidal and spermicidal devices, methods and compositions containing sodium dodecyl sulfate or related anionic surfactants as active ingre dients for the control of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

The relative slow emergence of fertility control technologies for practical application clearly reflects the complexity of science and the requirement of multidisciplinary research approach. Effective immunocontraceptive vaccines will also be critically dependent on the design of the delivery systems. These will be unique to each species under study. A major challenge for free ranging species will be to ensure that the vaccine can induce a long-lasting immune response to a high percentage of the target population, thus reducing the frequency and, hence, the cost of vaccine application. Many of the delivery systems being considered will utilize recombinant organisms. Hence, considerations on the use of such organisms need to take into account the political, ethical and safety constraints prior to any environmental release. Also careful thought has to be given to ensure that the specificity can be built into the vaccines at several levels (Bradley et al. 1999).

From above discussion, it is evident that today is the need of hour to develop either potent oral or injectible, hormonal or biochemical contraceptives for controlling the population explosion of the world which cause no undesirable side effects. Some important factors (Iglesias, 1985; Arsyad, 1986) viz. LH-RH analogs, inhibition of leutinization/steroid formation etc. must be considered in the development and standardisation of new fertility regulating principles.

 Name of the Plant/ Chemical Constituents (s)
S.No. Part of the Plant/extract if any

1. Abrus precatorius PEP-103, PEP-104, Abridin,
 Dry extract from seeds Steroidal fraction.

2. Acacia arabica -

3. Acacia auriculiformis Two partially characterised
 triterpenoid saponins (Tg),
 containing acaciaside A and
 acaciaside B with the aglycon
 structure of acacic acid
 lactone. (I)

4. Acacia caesia Acacic acid saponin (I-VI)
 lupeol, [alpha]-spinosterol
 and stigmasterol.

5. Acacia catechu -

6. Acacia concinna Lupeol, [alpha]-spinosterol,
 Bark. hexacosanol, [alpha]-
 apinasterone, acacic acid,
 acacic acid lactone and an
 amorphous saponin.

7. Acalypha indica -

8. Achyranthes aspera -
 Methanolic, acetone,
 n-BuOH extract of
 aerial parts.

9. Achyranthes bidentata Achyranthes bidentata

10. Adiantum capillus Isoadiantone.
 Whole plant/petroleum
 ether extract.

11. Aehonychon purpurea- Lithospermic acid.

12. Albizzia lebbek Lebbekanin-E.

13. Albizzia procera Oleanolic acid saponin and
 Seeds. proceric acid saponin mixture.

14. Anagallis arvensis -
 Whole plant.

15. Ananas comosus Steroids.

16. Andrographis -
 Leaves dry powder,
 powdered stem.

17. Androsace Triterpene glycosides.
 Plant extract.

18. Aristolochia indica Sesquiterpene, aristolochic acid.
 Roots/EtOH extract.

19. Asparagus pubescens -
 Root/methanolic extract.

20. Azadirachta indica Neem oil.
 Leaves, seeds/dry
 powder, hexane,
 ethanolic extract.

21. Balanites roxburghii -
 planch fruit pulp
 extract/ethanolic extract.

22. Barleria prionitis -
 Root extract.

23. Beaumontia grandiflora -
 Leaves extract.

24. Berberis sp. Berberis alkaloid.

25. Berberis chitria Palmitine hydroxide.

26. Brachybotrys Phenol carboxylic acids mainly
 paridiformis lithospermic acid.

27. Bursera fagaroides Glycosides

28. Butea frondosa -
 Seeds/ethanolic extract.

29. Butea monosperma Butin.

30. Calendula officinalis Saponins employed in extract form
 or pure form.

31. Calotropis procera Calotropin.

32. Cannabis sativa -

33. Carica papaya -
 Fruit, drypowder
 of seed.

34. Casearia iticifolia Flavonoids, triterpenes
 Leaves. and Steroids.

35. Centella asiatica Isothankuniside and BK Compound
 [Methyl-5-hydroxy-3, 6-diketo-23

36. Chordia dichotoma -
 Leaf extract.

37. Cichorium intybus -
 Seeds/ethanolic extract.

38. Citrus aurantium Cirantine.

38a. Clerodendrum serratum -
 Plants excludint root.

39. Colebrookia -
 Leaf extract.

40. Coleus barbatus -
 Hydroalcoholic extract.

41. Combretodendron africanum Tannins and saponisides.
 stem bark/aqueous extract.

42. Coccus lacca -

43. Curcuma longa 50% -
 ethanolic extract.

44. Curcuma zedoaria -

45. Cyclamen persicum Saponins.

46. Cynoglossum officinale Acid preparations, eksi, cynokis
 imkis, lithospermic acid.

47. Cynomorum coccineum -
 Aqueous extract.

48. daphne species Yuahuatin.

49. Datura quercifolia Daturalactone ([DQ.sub.1])

50. Daucus carota Volatile oil carbohydrate
 Seeds/alcoholic extract. fraction (CH) of carot seed oil.

51. Deutzia corymbosa -
 Whole plant/50%
 ethanolic extract

52. Dictamnus albus Fraxinellone.
 Root bark/methanolic
 and hexane extract.

53. Dieffenbachia amoena -
 Leaves/ aqueous extract

54. Dioscorea zingiberensis Saponins.

55. Diploclisia glaucescens Ecdysterone

56. Dipsacus mitis -
 Root/ethyl acetate

57. Echeveria gibbifiora -
 Aqueous crude extract

58. Echinops echinatus -
 Root/50% alcoholic

59. Echium vulgare Ekis, cynokis, imkis,
 hthospermic acid.

60. Embelia ribes Embelin.
 Seeds or fruit berries/
 petroleum ether,
 methanolic, henzene
 and chloroform extract.

61. Ensete superpa Kadalin.

62. Ephedera gerardiana -
 Acetone extract.

63. Epilobium augustifolium -
 Hexane/aqueous extract.

64. Eupatorium brevipes Brevipenin.

65. Ferula jaesochkeana Ferujol.
 Aerial part/hexane

66. Foeniculum vulgare Anethole

67. Gardenia jasminoides Two new cycloartane triterpenoids
 Flowers/ethyl acetate namely gardenic acid and
 extract. gardenolic acid B.

68. Geranium lucidum -
 Acetone extract.

69. Gnaphalium indicum -
 Whole plant/50%
 ethanolic extract.

70. Gossypium barbadense -
 Seed/aqueous extract.

71. Gossypum herbaceum Cotton seed oil emulsion, gossypol,
 gossypol acetic acid and gossypol

72. Guetterda andamanica -
 Aerial parts/ethanolic

73. Gypsophila paniculata Saponinu

74. Hedera nepalensis [beta]-amyrin, [beta]-sitosterol,
 Inflorescence. oleanolic acid and [beta]-
 sitosterol-D-glucosides, Nepalin-1
 Nepalin-2, Nepalin-3.

75. Heliotropium n-hexacosanol, sitosterol,
 indicum Petroleum stigmasterol, chalinasterol and
 ether extract. campestrol.

76. Hibiscus macranthus -
 Aqueous extract.

77. Hibiscus rosasinensis -
 chloroform and 50%
 EtOH extract.

78. Hyptis suabeoleus -
 Whole plant.

79. Ixora finlaysoniana -
 Serial part/crude
 ethanolic extract.

80. Juniperus communis -
 Acetone extract.

81. Lappula myosotis -

82. Lepidium capitatum -
 Whole plant/
 benzene extract.

83. Lithospermum Phenol carboxylic acid.

84. Lygodium flexuosum -
 Whole plant/
 alcoholic extract.

85. Malvaviscus -
 conzattus Greenm
 50% EtOH extract.

86. Marsdenia koi Steroidal glycoside:
 Whole plantlmethanolic Marsdekoiside A and B.

87. Maytenus ilicifolia -

88. Melodinusfusiformis Alkaloids: 11, 19(R)-dihydroxy
 tabersonine, 11-hydroxy-14, 15
 [alpha]-epoxy tabersonine.

89. Memcyclon lushingtonii
 Aerial parts/ethanolic

90. Mentha arvensis -
 Leaves/petroleum ether,
 50% ethanolic extract.

91. Mesuaferrea -

92. Momordica augusti- -
 sepala L.
 Aqueous extract.

93. Momordica charantia [beta]-momorcharin and three
 Seeds/petroleum ether sterols.
 and benzene extract.

94. Momordica Momorcochin

95. Momordica diocia -
 Tuber/zqueous extract.

96. Montanoa tomentosa (a)(-) Kaura-9 (11)-16 dien-
 Leaves/hexane, 19-oic acid (b) Kaurenoic acid
 aqueous extract. and (c) Monogynoic acid,
 Grandiflorenic acid (GA).

97. Moringa oleifera -
 Roots/aqueous extract.

98. Murraya exotica -

99. Murraya paniculata Yuehchukene.

100. Myristica fragrans -
 Ethanolic extract.

101. Nelumbo nucifera -
 Seeds/petroleum ether

102. Nicotiana tabaccum Nicotine.

103. Nigella sativa -
 Seeds/hexane extract.

104. Ocimum sanctum -
 Leaf powder.

105. Ophiopogon intermedius n-octacosanol, [beta]-
 Rhizome. sitosterol, diosgenin,
 ruscogenin, [beta]-sitosterol-
 [betal]-D-glucoside, dioscin
 and furostanol glycoside.

106. Paracynoglossum incretinum. Lithospermic acid.

107. Pentapanax leschenaultii Oleanolic acid (0.01%)
 leschenaultii Fruit/ triterpene glycosides.
 ethanolic extract.

108. Phytolacca americana Steroidal acidic saponin.
 Roots/EtOH extract.

109. Phtolacca dodecandra Saponins, lemmatoxin,
 BuOH extract of oleanoglycotoxin-A,
 sundried berries. lemmatoxin-C and oleanolic

110. Piper betle L. Dry extract. -

111. Pipe longum Fruit/ Wax alkaloid and piperine.
 aceton, benzene
 and EtOH extract.

112. Pipe peopuloides Waxy alkaloid.
 petroleum ether extract.

113. Pisum sativum m-xylohydroquinone, oil from

114. Pithecolobium saman Samanin-D

115. Pittosporum nilghrense Pittoside A and B.

116. Plantago ovata -

117. Plantanus orientails -
 Acetone extract.

118. Plumbago zeylanica Plumbgin free either glycosides or
 Roots/EtOH extract. tannins, plumbagin (I)

119. Plianthes tuberosa Oil.

120. Primula vulgaris Saponins.

121. Pseudolarix kaemferi -

122. Pueraria tuberosa -
 Tubers/50% ethanolic,
 D.C. and methanolic,
 crude powder, butanolic,
 hexane, chloroform,
 petroleum ether,
 benzene extract.

123. Pulmonaria mollis Phenol carboxylic acid

124. Punica grantum -
 Aqueous and MeOH

125. Rauwolfia series Reserpine.

126. Rhoeo spathacea -

127. Ricinus communis -
 extracts ether soluble

128. Ruellia prostrata Lupeol, sitosterol, stigmasterol
 Petroleum ether and and long chain ester ([C.sub.42-
 aqueous extract. [C.sub.60])

129. Ruta graveolans Chalepensin (I).
 Root, stem and leaf/
 chloroform extract.

130. Salsola 2-(4-acetoxypheny1)-2-chloro-N-
 tuberculatiformis methyl-ethylammonium chloride
 Shrub (Compound A).

131. Salviafruticosa -
 Leaves/aqueous and
 ethanolic extract.

132. Sapindus mukorosu Saponins [beta]-amyrin C-28
 carboxylic acid type of sapogenins.

133. Saracaindica -

134. Schefflera capitata Schefferoside.

135. Senecio vulgaris Senicionine and
 Methanolic extract. senicionine-N-oxide.

136. Solanum crassypetalum -
 Aerial parts/ethanolic
 extract. -

137. Solanum xanthocarpum Solasodine.

138. Sophora japonica Sophoricoside, genistein,

138. Sophora japonica Sphoricoside, genisterin,
 kaempferol, sophorabioside,
 sophoraflavonoloside, rutin.

139. Spartiumjunceum -

140. Stemodia durantifolia -

141. Sterculia foetida Oil

142. Stevia rebaudiana -
 Whole plant,
 aqueous extract.

143. Striga Iutea Acacetin, luteolin, flavones.
 Whole plant/petroleum
 ether and chloroform

144. Striga orobanchioides Apigenin and luteolin
 ethanolic extract.

145. Syzygium cumini -
 Alcoholic extract

146. Tabernaemontana Coronaridine.

147. Taxus baccata -
 alcoholic, petroleum
 ether extract.

148. Terminalia arjuna -
 Stem bark.

149. Terminalia chebula -

150. Thalictrum species Triterpene glycosides,
 minus and foetidum. foetoside progenin,

151. Thespesia populnea (+) Gossypol.

152. Traqia involucerta -

153. Trichosanthes [beta]-Trichosanthin.
 Roots tubers.

154. Trichosanthes kirilowi Trichosanthin.
 Root tuber.

155. Trigonella foenum- -
 Seed extract.

156. Tripterygium wilfordii Total glycosides, Diterpene
 epoxides, Triptolide , tripdiolide,
 triptolidenol, tripchlorolide,
 16-hydroxytriptolide and T7/19

157. Uncaria tomentosa Tannin free extract.

158. Vicoa indica -

159. Vinca rosea Vincristine.

160. Vitex negundo 'L' Flavonoid-rich fraction (5, 7, 3'-
 Seeds. trihydroxy-6, 8, 4'-trimethoxy

161. Xestospongia -

 Name of the Plant/
S.No. Part of the Plant/extract Uses

1. Abrus precatorius Oral contraceptive, prevents
 Dry extract from seeds implantationof fertilized ovum
 by inhibiting endometrial
 alkaline phosphate, induces
 100% sterility in mice when
 injected one day pre and post
 coitum. Sperm anti-motility
 activity, Steroidal fraction
 indirectly influenced the
 pituitary level, leading to
 decrease in production and
 release of testosterone,
 resulting in significant
 alterations in the testis.

2. Acacia arabica Effective oral contraceptive
 in rats and inhibits

3. Acacia auriculiformis Caused obvious immobilisation
 of sperm at lowest
 concentration. ED = 0.35 mg/mL
 in physiol. saline. ED
 prevented sperm entry in human
 cervical mucus and caused
 death of treated sperm.

4. Acacia caesia Spermicidal agent.

5. Acacia catechu Effective oral contraceptive
 in rats and inhibits

6. Acacia concinna Spermicidal and semen
 Bark. coagulating activities.
 Saponin showed spermicidal
 activity at 0.004-0.125%.

7. Acalypha indica Post-coital antiferility

8. Achyranthes aspera Anti-implantation activity,
 Methanolic, acetone, prevented pregnancy in 60%
 n-BuOH extract of female rats, dose = 75 mg/kg
 aerial parts. and for hamsters at [less than
 or equal to] 300 mg/kg.

9. Achyranthes bidentata Antifertility effect of ABS on
 rats and mice observed. On 1-
 10 days of pregnancy of mice,
 admn. of ABS by gavage
 effectively prevented
 pregnancy. ABS caused dose
 dependent antifertility effect
 in mice and [ED.sub.50] was
 218 mg/kg.

10. Adiantum capillus Inhibited post coital implantation
 Whole plant/petroleum in rats.
 ether extract.

11. Aehonychon purpurea- Contraceptive action.

12. Albizzia lebbek Spermicidal activity.

13. Albizzia procera Spermicidal activity at
 Seeds. 0.004-0.125%.

14. Anagallis arvensis Spermicidal and semen coagulating
 Whole plant. activities

15. Ananas comosus Abortifacient activity.

16. Andrographis Antispermatogenic and
 paniculata antiandrogenic effect. Significant
 Leaves dry powder, reduction in fertility and
 powdered stem. prolongation in gestation period
 after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding a
 group containing treated male
 Wistar mice and untreated female
 mice, on diets supplemented to
 extent of 0.75% by powdered stem.

17. Androsace Contraceptive and abortive action
 septentrionalis on rats and mice, prevented
 Plant extract. pregnancy in post-coital tests.
 [ED.sub.50] 100 mg/kg.

18. Aristolochia indica Antisperniatogenic and
 Roots/EtOH extract. antiandrogenic effects. 100%
 interceptive and anti-implantation
 activity, oral dose 100 mg/kg.

19. Asparagus pubescens 0.5-1.5 g/kg protected animals from
 Root/methanolic extract. conception for 4-14 gestational
 periods in rabbits, rats and mice.
 It inhibited fetal implantation.
 Its contraceptive effect may in
 part be due to its
 anti-implantation and/or a direct
 effect on the uterus.

20. Azadirachta indica Antispermatogenic activities and
 Leaves, seeds/dry histological changes in testes and
 powder, hexane, epididymides. Prevented pregnancy
 ethanolic extract. (100%) if taken before sexual
 intercourse and checked embryo
 implantation. Anti-implantational
 and abortifacient effects
 were observed in females mated by
 the males fed with the extract
 Completely abrogate pregnancy in
 rodents upto a concentration of
 10%. Mechanism of action- By
 activating cell mediated immune
 reactions. Elicits less side
 effects than the steroidal
 contraceptives. Praneem polyherbal
 cream showed high contraceptive
 efficacy in rabbits and in monkeys
 after intravaginal application.

21. Balanites roxburghii Mass atrophy of spermatogenic
 planch fruit pulp elements due to secondary
 extract/ethanolic extract. effects of hyperglycemia in dogs.

22. Barleria prionitis Antifertility effect on male rats.
 Root extract.

23. Beaumontia grandiflora Showed anti-implantational,
 Leaves extract. abortifacient and luteolytic

24. Berberis sp. Antifertility, antibacterial,
 antileukemic and antiulurous

25. Berberis chitria Impairment of germ cells.

26. Brachybotrys Contraceptive action.

27. Bursera fagaroides Human spermatozoa and those
 Cortex/ethanolic obtained from mouse epididymis
 extract. became agglutinated and
 immobilized in 100% with 30% of
 viability decrease. This effect
 occurred in 50% of pig's sperm
 and 50% of rabbits sperm when
 the concenteration was increased
 ten fold.

28. Butea frondosa Partial abortive in action in mice
 Seeds/ethanolic extract. and rats when given orally daily
 during the 1st 5 days of pregnancy.

29. Butea monosperma Potential male contraceptive with
 Seeds. minimal side effects.

30. Calendula officinalis Spermatocides, anti-blastocysts
 and abortion agents.

31. Calotropis procera Antispermatogenic effect and Icydig
 Root. cell atrophy.

32. Cannabis sativa Dosage of 14mg/kg for 90 days
 caused testicular lesions resulting
 in mass atrophy of spermatogenic

33. Carica papaya Antispermatogenic effect. Possess
 Fruit, drypowder reversible male contraceptive
 of seed. potential and the effects appear to
 be mediated through the testis.
 Contraceptive effects are mainly
 post-testicular in nature without
 adverse toxicity and without
 influencing toxicological profile
 and libido of animals i.e. male
 albino rats.

34. Casearia iticifolia Antifertility activity.

35. Centella asiatica Used as oral antifertility agents
 in albino mice and both compounds
 caused consistent reduction of
 fertility in female mice.

36. Chordia dichotoma Anti-implantational and
 Leaf extract. abortifacient effects were observed
 in females mated by the males fed
 with the extract.

37. Cichorium intybus Showed significant contraceptive
 Seeds/ethanolic extract. activity when administered orally
 to adult female Sprague-Dawley
 rats in days 1-10 postcoitum.

38. Citrus aurantium oral contraceptive. 0.75 mg/kg
 Peel. in 0.1% ethylene glycol daily on

38a. Clerodendrum serratum Showed spermicidal activity.
 Plants excludint root.

39. Colebrookia Effect on testicular cell
 oppositifolia population.
 Leaf extract.

40. Coleus barbatus Folk medicine to interupt
 Hydroalcoholic extract. pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats
 on treatment with 880 mg/kg per
 day of etract before embryo
 implantation caused delayed
 fetal development and an anti-
 implantation effect and thus
 justifies its use for abortive

41. Combretodendron africanum Caused abortion at 1g/kg. s.c. in
 stem bark/aqueous extract. miee and rats. 0.05 g/kg dose
 ablished copulation for 30 days in
 female rabbits. Contain substances
 exhibiting estrogenic and possibly
 anti-estrogenic potency. It
 appeared as to be a potent
 secretagogue not requiring LHRH
 receptors. Blocks the estrous
 cycle in luteal phase of the
 mature female mice.

42. Coccus lacca Showed anti-progestational activity
 in rabbits. Exhibited 33.3% to
 85.7% anti-implantation effect
 when given 1.25-50 mg/kg orally
 from days 1-5 of pregnancy.

43. Curcuma longa 50% Interference with spermatogenesis
 ethanolic extract. at later stages.

44. Curcuma zedoaria Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on
 Tubers. days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited
 implantation in 60% of animals and
 increased foetal loss.

45. Cyclamen persicum Immobilised human sperm (60-120x
 [10.sup.2] sperm/ml).

46. Cynoglossum officinale Cynokis and ekis decreased the wt.
 of ovaries [10-20 mg/kg s.c.
 (cynokis) or 30-100 mg/kg (imikis)
 for 14 days into female rat prior
 to copulation prolonged diestrus
 and decreased fertility.

47. Cynomorum coccineum Effect on epididymal sperm pattern.
 Aqueous extract.

48. daphne species Contraeeptive principle.
 [LD.sub.50] = 3.02 mg/kg.
 Abortifacient [min.sup.m] dose
 for monkey = 50 [micro]g/animal

49. Datura quercifolia Most effective antifertility agent.
 25 mg/kg orally for 1-7 days of
 pregnancy. [DQ.sub.1] showed dose
 related response. 100 mg/kg from
 1-7 days of pregnancy caused 73.3%
 anti-implantation effect.

50. Daucus carota Posesses weak estrogenic property
 Seeds/alcoholic extract. anti-pregnancy effect. Inhibits
 implantation effectively at doses
 80 and 120 mg/mouse orally from
 day 4 to 6 post coitum.
 [F.D.sub.50] of CH = 2.9 ml/kg
 for termination of early pregnancy
 in mice.

51. Deutzia corymbosa Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats.
 Whole plant/50%
 ethanolic extract

52. Dictamnus albus Decreased fertility in rats when
 Root bark/methanolic administered orally on day's 1-10
 and hexane extract. post-coitum. Fraxinellone showed
 antifertility activity by
 inhibition of implantation.

53. Dieffenbachia amoena Extract when given for 4 days
 Leaves/ aqueous extract during estrous cycle to female
 Wistar rats induced significant
 variations of LH, FSH, PRI,
 progresterone and 17 beta-estradiol
 levels. It led to temporary
 inhibition of ovulation.

54. Dioscorea zingiberensis Used as contraceptives.

55. Diploclisia glaucescens Spermicidal activity.

56. Dipsacus mitis Prevented pregnancy by 100% in adul
 Root/ethyl acetate but partially in rat when administe
 extract and 1-10 postcoitum respectively.
 Effective dose in both species was
 150 mg/kg

57. Echeveria gibbifiora Guinea pig spermatozoa suffered a
 Aqueous crude extract hypotonic-like effect. Suitable for
 use as a vaginal barrier or male
 contraceptive agent.

58. Echinops echinatus Sperm antimotility, sperm density
 Root/50% alcoholic in cauda epididymis was reduced.

59. Echium vulgare Decreased the weight of ovaries.

60. Embelia ribes Potent oral contraceptive. Prevent
 Seeds or fruit berries/ pregnancy 37-75%, reversible male
 petroleum ether, contraceptive at dose 80 mg/kg.
 methanolic, henzene Female autifertility principle 100
 and chloroform extract. mg/kg. Control 57.5%

61. Ensete superpa Possesses antifertility activity.

62. Ephedera gerardiana Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats.
 Acetone extract.

63. Epilobium augustifolium Reduction in weight of accessory
 Hexane/aqueous extract. sex organs.

64. Eupatorium brevipes Brevipenin has spermicidal

65. Ferula jaesochkeana Contraceptive agents. Prevented
 Aerial part/hexane pregnancy in adult female rats when
 extract. administered orally on days 1-5
 post coitum. Uterine
 histoarchitecture of treated rats
 appeared non-receptive for

66. Foeniculum vulgare Administered orally at 500 ml/kg.
 Seeds. on days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited
 imlantation in 60% of animals and
 increased foetal loss. Reduced
 secretory activity and weight of
 accessory sex glands.

67. Gardenia jasminoides Terminated early pregnancy in rats
 Flowers/ethyl acetate

68. Geranium lucidum Inhibited pregnancy in 60% rats.
 Acetone extract.

69. Gnaphalium indicum Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats.
 Whole plant/50%
 ethanolic extract.

70. Gossypium barbadense Extract given to rats cause rapid
 Seed/aqueous extract. damage to testicular, liver, kidney
 and muscular tissues.

71. Gossypum herbaceum Gossypol-Oral contraceptive for
 man, Gossypol directly inhibited
 epididymal sperm motility in vitro
 and its injection inhibited sperm
 motility in vivo. Gossypol affect
 sperm motility by a mechanism which
 is related to the structure and
 functions of the plasma membrane.
 Dosage - 1.250-10 mg/kg for 5-14
 week for rabbit. Gossypol acetic
 acid produces its contraceptive
 effect by depressing spermatogenic
 function through its direct action
 on Leydig cells. Gossypol acetate
 induced sterility at dose level of
 5 or 10 mg/kg daily for 12 week.
 Potential vaginal contraceptive, no
 adverse effect on blood
 composition, hematological
 parameters and urinary secretions.
 Coprecipitation of gossypol and PVP
 prevented sperm motility when
 applied vaginally. Gossypol
 inhibits spermatogenesis in many
 mammals. Cotton seed oil emulsion
 also exhibited spermatozoal
 motility inhibition. Effects the
 physiomorphology of sertoli cells.

72. Guetterda andamanica Showed significant contraceptive
 Aerial parts/ethanolic activity when administered orally
 extract. to adult femal Sprague-Dawley rats
 in days 1-10 postcoitum.

73. Gypsophila paniculata Spermicidal actvity at dilution of

74. Hedera nepalensis Nepalin-1, 2 and 3 at 0.5, 0.25 and
 Inflorescence. 0.125% respectively, completely
 immobilised human sperm.

75. Heliotropium 40% antifertility activity at a
 indicum Petroleum dose in female albino rats.
 ether extract.

76. Hibiscus macranthus Effect on testicular function.
 Aqueous extract.

77. Hibiscus rosasinensis Antispermatogenic and anti
 Flowers/benzene, androgenic effect. Antifertility
 chloroform and 50% activity and anti-implantation
 EtOH extract. effect. Oral administration of
 benzene extract of flowers at
 1 g/kg/day from day 5 to 8 of
 of gestation terminated pregnancy
 in about 92% animals Antifertility
 activity of benezene extract =
 83.7% and alcoholic extract = 50%
 respectively. When administered
 during day 1-4 of gestation,
 exerted anti-implantation effect
 without affceting the tubal
 transport of zygote.

78. Hyptis suabeoleus Antifertility effect.
 Whole plant.

79. Ixora finlaysoniana Oral administration of extract to
 Serial part/crude adult female rats at 250 mg/kg dose
 ethanolic extract. on days 1-5 or 1-7 post-coitum
 prevented pregnancy in 100% rats.

80. Juniperus communis Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats.
 Acetone extract.

81. Lappula myosotis Contraceptive action.

82. Lepidium capitatum Anti-implantation activity.
 Whole plant/
 benzene extract.

83. Lithospermum Contraceptive action.

84. Lygodium flexuosum Antiovulatory and anti-implantation
 Whole plant/ activity.
 alcoholic extract.

85. Malvaviscus Antispermatogenic effect. Effective
 conzattus Greenm male contraceptive 50mg/day for a
 Flowers/methanolic, period of 2 weeks. Methanolic
 50% EtOH extract. extract interfered with the
 synthesis and/or release of
 gonadotropin(s) from the pituitary
 gland. The [LD.sub.50] of the
 extract was found to be 20g/kg body

86. Marsdenia koi Both compounds exhibited good
 Whole plantlmethanolic antifertility activity.

87. Maytenus ilicifolia Swiss mice was administered with a
 Leaves/ethanolic dose of 200mg/kg/day
 extract. intraperitoneally for 20 days, and
 at a dose of 800mg/kg/day orally
 for 30 days, which showed
 alternations like exfoliated germ
 cells, occasional germ cell death
 few vacuolized seminiferous

88. Melodinusfusiformis Show significant spermatocidal

 Showed significant contraceptive
89. Memcyclon lushingtonii activity when administered orally
 Aerial parts/ethanolic to adult female in day's 1-10
 extract. postcoitum.

90. Mentha arvensis Possess reversible antifertility
 Leaves/petroleum ether, property without adverse toxicity
 50% ethanolic extract. in male mice. Reduces fructose
 synthesis in seminal vesicles, as a
 result of which the viability of
 spermatozoa seems to be altered.

91. Mesuaferrea Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on
 Flowers. on days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited
 implantation in 60% of animals and
 increased foetal loss.

92. Momordica augusti- Pregnant animals aborted their
 sepala L. fetuses some hourse after
 Aqueous extract. administration.

93. Momordica charantia Antispermetogenic effect.
 Seeds/petroleum ether Momorcharins were teratogenic to
 and benzene extract. cultured mouse embryos at the early
 organogenesis state. Inhibited
 embryonic implantation and

94. Momordica An abortifacient protein induced
 lochinchinensis mid-term abortion in mice.

95. Momordica diocia Spermicidal activity.
 Tuber/zqueous extract.

96. Montanoa tomentosa Controls antifertility in female
 Leaves/hexane, rats and anti-implantation effects
 aqueous extract. for human and lower animals.
 Increased uterine contractions or
 induced labor or abortion.
 (a) at a dosage of 272 [micro]g/rat
 produced 100% resorption of
 fetuses. Possess unique
 antifertility activity in females.
 Inhibited implantation in rats and
 mice when administered on days 1-6
 and in hamsters when administered
 on days 4-6 of gestation.

97. Moringa oleifera Oral administration of extract to
 Roots/aqueous extract. rats showed antiprogestational and
 antifertility activity.

98. Murraya exotica Strong anti-implantation activity
 Roots. in rats.

99. Murraya paniculata Potent anti-implantation activity
 Roots in rats at 3 mg/kg orally on
 pregnancy day 2.

100. Myristica fragrans Premature ejaculation.
 Ethanolic extract.

101. Nelumbo nucifera When administered to sexually
 Seeds/petroleum ether mature female albino Swiss mice at
 extract. Monogynoic acid, Grandiflorenic
 a dose of 3-mg/kg-body weight on
 altermate days for 15 days after 18
 hours fasting, exhibited
 significant contraceptive,
 antiestrogenic and
 antiprogestational activities.

102. Nicotiana tabaccum Antiandrogenic effect.

103. Nigella sativa Showed significant antifertility
 Seeds/hexane extract. activity. Administered orally at
 500 ml/kg on days 1-5 of pregnancy
 inhibited implantation in 60% of
 animals and increased foetal loss.
 Prevented pregnancy in Sprague-
 Dawley rats treated orally at 2
 k/g daily does on day's 1-10 post-

104. Ocimum sanctum Atrophy of Leydig Cells.
 Leaf powder.

105. Ophiopogon intermedius Showed spermicidal activity.

106. Paracynoglossum incretinum. Decreased the weight of ovarie

107. Pentapanax leschenaultii Completely immobilised human
 leschenaultii Fruit/ spermatozoa.
 ethanolic extract.

108. Phytolacca americana Spermatocidal agent possesses
 Roots/EtOH extract. weak estrogenic property;
 inhibit implantation at does
 80 and 20 mg/mouse given

109. Phtolacca dodecandra Prevented pregnancy or
 BuOH extract of decreased the embryonic count
 sundried berries. on days 1, 4 and 6 after
 coitus, had little or no
 effect on pregnancy at doses
 100 [micro]g. after 15 min.
 compared to 50% in a control.
 Reduced sperm motility to 0%
 at 20 [micro]g/ml.

110. Piper betle L. Dry extract. Oral contraceptive prevents
 implantation of fertilized

111. Pipe longum Fruit/ Antispermetogenic effect.
 aceton, benzene Prevent implantation
 and EtOH extract. in 50% of rats.

112. Pipe peopuloides Post-coital antifertility
 petroleum ether extract. activity.

113. Pisum sativum Oral contraceptive inhibits
 endometrial development in

114. Pithecolobium saman Spermicidal activity.

115. Pittosporum nilghrense Killed human spermatozoa
 (0.125% I or II)

116. Plantago ovata Froms a gel in fallopian

117. Plantanus orientails Prevent implantation of 50%
 Acetone extract. or rats.

118. Plumbago zeylanica Effective antifertility agents.
 Roots/EtOH extract. Anti-implantation, abortifacient
 activity in rats, inhibit
 ovulation in rabbits. (I) has
 LD50 values of 4 and 6.5 mg/100g
 in mice and rats respectively.

119. Plianthes tuberosa Oral contraceptive prevents
 implantation of fertilized ovum.

120. Primula vulgaris Immobilized human sperm (60-120 x
 [10.sup.9] sperm/ml) at dilution of

121. Pseudolarix kaemferi Terminated pregnancy.

122. Pueraria tuberosa Post-coital contraceptive. Exhibit
 Tubers/50% ethanolic, 88.8% and 85.5% anti-implantation
 D.C. and methanolic, activity. Crude powder, ethanolic
 crude powder, butanolic, and butanolic extracts evoke a
 hexane, chloroform, significant antifertility activity
 petroleum ether, in rats, mice and hamsters whereas
 benzene extract. hexane, chloroform, methanol,
 petroleum ether and banzene
 extracts are significantly
 effective to prevent implantation
 only in rats and mice.

123. Pulmonaria mollis Contracetive action.

124. Punica grantum Prevent implantation in 50% of rats
 Aqueous and MeOH

125. Rauwolfia series Affect the fertilising capacity of
 human spermatozoa in vitro.

126. Rhoeo spathacea Stimulatory activity of uterus.

127. Ricinus communis When administered to adult female
 Seeds/methanolic rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2
 extracts ether soluble g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively,
 fraction. showed anti-implantation and
 anticonceptive activities.

128. Ruellia prostrata 20% antifertility activity 10
 Petroleum ether and mg/kg, 40% antifertility activity
 aqueous extract. in female rats 500 mg/kg.

129. Ruta graveolans Showed significant antifertility
 Root, stem and leaf/ activity in rats when administered
 chloroform extract. intragastrically on day 1-10 post
 coitum. I act at early stages of

130. Salsola Compound A had a contraceptive
 tuberculatiformis effect on female Wistar rats with
 Shrub a concomitant decrease in total
 body weight, uterus etc. Caused
 prolonged gestation in sheep and
 contraception in rats.

131. Salviafruticosa Viable fetuses reduced in females.
 Leaves/aqueous and
 ethanolic extract.

132. Sapindus mukorosu Spermicidal activity in human seme.

133. Saracaindica Showed anti-progestational activity
 in rabbits. Exhibited 33.3% to
 85.7% anti-implantation effect when
 given 1.25 to 50 mg/kg orally from
 days 1-5 of pregnancy

134. Schefflera capitata Spermicidal activity.

135. Senecio vulgaris Administered orally to rats on days
 Methanolic extract. 1-10 postcoitum, decreased the no.
 of normal fetuses per pregnant rat.

136. Solanum crassypetalum Showed significant contrceptive
 Aerial parts/ethanolic activity when administered orally
 extract. to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats
 in days 1-10 postcoitum.

137. Solanum xanthocarpum Antispermatogenic/anti-androgenic
 properties. Effect on germ cells
 & Leydig cells.
138. Sophora japonica Contraceptive action or antifertili

138. Sophora japonica Contraceptive action or
 antifertility action in lab.

139. Spartiumjunceum Reduced rate of fertility and
 Broom acrosin enzyme activity. Male adult
 rabbits and rats when treated with
 the drug showed a significant
 decrease in fertility. The
 antifertility effect is completely

140. Stemodia durantifolia Antifertility activity.

141. Sterculia foetida Chemosterilant in female housefly.

142. Stevia rebaudiana Desease in testosterone level.
 Whole plant,
 aqueous extract.

143. Striga Iutea Possesses significant antifertility
 Whole plant/petroleum activity in mice. Graded doses in
 ether and chloroform acacia suspension by oral
 extracts. administration from day 1 to day 4
 of pregnancy showed dose-dependent
 anti-implantation activity (5-25
 mg/kg body weight/day). Exhibits
 estrogenic property at their
 contraceptive dose level.

144. Striga orobanchioides Exhibited slight anti-estrogenic
 ethanolic extract. activity. Showed dose-dependent and
 significatn anti-implantation
 activity. Reduced weight of sex

145. Syzygium cumini Antispermatogenic effect.
 Alcoholic extract

146. Tabernaemontana Prevents pregnancy in adult female
 heyheana rats on oral administration.

147. Taxus baccata Inhibited pregnancy in 60% of
 Leaves/aqueous, albino rats.
 alcoholic, petroleum
 ether extract.

148. Terminalia arjuna Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on
 Stem bark. days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited
 implantation in 60% of animals and
 increased foetal loss.

149. Terminalia chebula Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on
 Seeds. days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited
 implantation in 60% of animals and
 increased foetal loss.

150. Thalictrum species Possesses estrogenic activity.
 minus and foetidum. Showed contraceptive activity, when
 administered s.c. to rats post
 coitum. Thalcosides has greatest
 contraceptive effect decreasing
 pregnancy by 50% at 0.25 mg/kg.

151. Thespesia populnea 100% inhibition of implantation in
 female ablino mice.

152. Traqia involucerta Effective oral contraceptive in
 rats and inhibits implantation.

153. Trichosanthes Induced mid term abortion in mice
 cucumeroids and twice as potent as
 Roots tubers. trichosanthin.

154. Trichosanthes kirilowi Induced mid-term abortion.
 Root tuber.

155. Trigonella foenum- Exerts both antifertility and
 graecum antiandrogenic activity. Dosage =
 Seed extract. 100 mg/day/male albino rat.

156. Tripterygium wilfordii Safe, reversible male antifertility
 agent. Antispermatogenic activity
 similar to that of gossypol (30
 mg/kg in diet for 80 days). Induce
 complete infertility male rats and
 selected for further toxicological
 and pharmacological evaluation.

157. Uncaria tomentosa Prevent pregnancy in mice when
 Root. given orally.

158. Vicoa indica Possessed antifertility activity
 which is dose-related and was found
 to be free from side effects.

159. Vinca rosea Decrease in secretory activity of
 accessory sex glands. Epididymal

160. Vitex negundo 'L' 100% anti-implantation effects when
 Seeds. given orally from day 4-6
 pregnancy. Dose 100 mg/kg i.p. for
 45 days, azoospermia achieved
 without altering the metabolism and
 (or) libido.

161. Xestospongia Antifertility activity.

 Name of the Plant/
S.No. Part of the Plant/extract References

1. Abrus precatorius Zia-ul-Haque et al. 1983a, b,
 Dry extract from seeds Sinha and Mathur, 1990,
 Ratnasooria et al. 1991.

2. Acacia arabica Chowdhury et al. 1984.

3. Acacia auriculiformis Pakrashi et al. 1991.

4. Acacia caesia Banerji and Nigam, 1980.

5. Acacia catechu Chowdhury et al. 1984.

6. Acacia concinna Banerji et al. 1979, Banerji
 Bark. and Nigam, 1980, Kamboj and
 Dhawan, 1982.

7. Acalypha indica Hiremath et al. 1999.

8. Achyranthes aspera Prakash, 1986, Wadhwa et al.
 Methanolic, acetone, 1986.
 n-BuOH extract of
 aerial parts.

9. Achyranthes bidentata Zhu, 1982.

10. Adiantum capillus Murthy et al. 1984.
 Whole plant/petroleum
 ether extract.

11. Aehonychon purpurea- Mats et al. 1982.

12. Albizzia lebbek Varshney et al. 1979.

13. Albizzia procera Banerji et al. 1979.

14. Anagallis arvensis Kamboj and Dhawan, 1982.
 Whole plant.

15. Ananas comosus Pakrashi and Basak, 1976.

16. Andrographis Shamsuzzoha et al. 1979,
 paniculata Akbarsha et al. 1990.
 Leaves dry powder,
 powdered stem.

17. Androsace Surina et al. 1971,
 septentrionalis Mats et al. 1984,
 Plant extract. Mats and Savchenko, 1986.

18. Aristolochia indica Pakrashi and Shaha, 1977,
 Roots/EtOH extract. Che et al. 1984,
 Gupta et al. 1996b.

19. Asparagus pubescens Nwafor et al. 1998.
 Root/methanolic extract.

20. Azadirachta indica Deshpande et al. 1980, Sinha
 Leaves, seeds/dry et al. 1984a, b, Tewari et al.
 powder, hexane, 1986, Prakash et al. 1988,
 ethanolic extract. Riar et al. 1988, Choudhary
 et al. 1990, Upadhyay et al.
 1990, Garg et al. 1993,
 Juneja and Williams, 1993,
 Shaikh et al. 1993, Upadhyay
 et al. 1993, Garg et at. 1994,
 Juneja et al. 1994, Juneja and
 Williams, 1994, Jacobson,
 1995, Kasturi et al. 1995,
 Talwar et al. 1997, Garg et al.
 1998, Mukerjee et al. 1999,
 Awasthy, 2001.

21. Balanites roxburghii Dixit et al. 1981 b.
 planch fruit pulp
 extract/ethanolic extract.

22. Barleria prionitis Gupta et al. 2000.
 Root extract.

23. Beaumontia grandiflora Choudhary et al. 1990.
 Leaves extract.

24. Berberis sp. Kondo, 1976.

25. Berberis chitria Gupta et al. 1989a.

26. Brachybotrys Mats et al. 1982.

27. Bursera fagaroides Huacuja et al. 1990.

28. Butea frondosa Razdan et al. 1969,
 Seeds/ethanolic extract. Kapila et al. 1970.

29. Butea monosperma Dixit et al. 1981a,
 Seeds. Bhargava, 1986b.

30. Calendula officinalis Pakhurst and Stolzenberg,

31. Calotropis procera Gupta et al. 1990.

32. Cannabis sativa Dixit, 1981.

33. Carica papaya Das, 1980, Chnoy and George, 1983,
 Fruit, drypowder Lohiya and Goyal, 1992, Chinoy et
 of seed. al. 1994, Lohiya et al. 1994,
 Lohiya et al. 1999a, Lohiya et al.
 1999b, Udoh and Kehinde, 1999,
 Lohiya et al. 2000, Pathak et al.
 2000, Stokes, 2001.

34. Casearia iticifolia Weniger et al. 1982.

35. Centella asiatica Dutta and Basu, 1968.

36. Chordia dichotoma Choudhary et al. 1990.
 Leaf extract.

37. Cichorium intybus Keshri et al. 1998.
 Seeds/ethanolic extract.

38. Citrus aurantium Ghosh et al. 1955.

38a. Clerodendrum serratum Setty et. al. 1976.
 Plants excludint root.

39. Colebrookia Gupta et al. 2001.
 Leaf extract.

40. Coleus barbatus Almeida and Lemonica, 2000.
 Hydroalcoholic extract.

41. Combretodendron africanum Bouquet et al. 1967,
 stem bark/aqueous extract. Benie et al. 1990

42. Coccus lacca Suganthan and
 Santhakumari, 1979.

43. Curcuma longa 50% Purohit, 1991.
 ethanolic extract.

44. Curcuma zedoaria Seshadri and Pillai, 1981.

45. Cyclamen persicum Primorac et al. 1985.

46. Cynoglossum officinale Man'ko et al. 1977.

47. Cynomorum coccineum El rahman et al. 1999.
 Aqueous extract.

48. daphne species Hu et al. 1984.

49. Datura quercifolia Chandhoke, 1978,
 Chandhoke et al. 1978a.

50. Daucus carota Sharma et al. 1976,
 Seeds/alcoholic extract. Tung et al. 1981,
 Chu et al. 1985.

51. Deutzia corymbosa Prakash, 1986.
 Whole plant/50%
 ethanolic extract

52. Dictamnus albus Woo et al. 1987.
 Root bark/methanolic
 and hexane extract.

53. Dieffenbachia amoena Costa de Pasquale et al. 1984.
 Leaves/ aqueous extract

54. Dioscorea zingiberensis Applezweiz, 1977,
 Szechwan Institute of
 Biology, 1978.

55. Diploclisia glaucescens Bandara et al. 1989.

56. Dipsacus mitis Kitchla et al. 1999.
 Root/ethyl acetate

57. Echeveria gibbifiora Delgado et al. 1999.
 Aqueous crude extract

58. Echinops echinatus Sharma et al. 1988,
 Root/50% alcoholic Chaturvedi et al. 1995a, b.

59. Echium vulgare Man'ko et al. 1977.

60. Embelia ribes Das, 1966, Kholkute et al.
 Seeds or fruit berries/ 1978, Seshadri et al. 1978,
 petroleum ether, Purandare et al. 1979,
 methanolic, henzene Krishnaswamy and
 and chloroform extract. Purushottaman, 1980a, b,
 Prakash, 1981, Dixit and
 Bhargava, 1983, Agarwal et
 al. 1986, Prakash et al. 1986,
 Roy Chaudhary et al. 2001.

61. Ensete superpa Amonkar et al. 1978.

62. Ephedera gerardiana Prakash, 1986.
 Acetone extract.

63. Epilobium augustifolium Hiermann and Bucar, 1997.
 Hexane/aqueous extract.

64. Eupatorium brevipes Guerrero et al. 1988.

65. Ferula jaesochkeana Singh et al. 1985,
 Aerial part/hexane Prakash et al. 1991.

66. Foeniculum vulgare Seshadri and Pillai, 1981,
 Seeds. Farooq et al. 1991

67. Gardenia jasminoides Xu and Gao, 1986,
 Flowers/ethyl acetate Xu et al. 1987b.

68. Geranium lucidum Prakash, 1986.
 Acetone extract.

69. Gnaphalium indicum Prakash, 1986.
 Whole plant/50%
 ethanolic extract.

70. Gossypium barbadense Thomas et al. 1991.
 Seed/aqueous extract.

71. Gossypum herbaceum National Co-ordination group
 on male antifertility agents,
 1978, Chang et al. 1980,
 Chien et al. 1980, Waller
 et al. 1980, Hoshiai et al.
 1981, Liu, 1981, Murthy et al.
 1981, Shi et al. 1981, Tso and
 Lee, 1981a, b, Ye et al. 1981,
 Cameron et al. 1982, Hadley
 and Burgos, 1982, Hoffer,
 1982, Hoshiai et al. 1982,
 Jensen et al. 1982, Kalla,
 1982, Kalla et al. 1982,
 Kulkarni, 1982, Lei, 1982,
 Shandilya et al. 1982, Tso
 and Lee, 1982a, b, Zhou,
 1982, Zhou et al. 1982a, b,
 Gu, 1983, Gu et al. 1983,
 Hong et al. 1983, Kennedy et
 al. 1983, Lei, 1983,
 Posinovec, 1983, Prasad and
 Diczfalusy, 1983, Shi and
 Friend, 1983, De Peyester,
 1984, Gu et al. 1984a, b,
 Nordenskjoeld and Lambert,
 1984, Qian and Wang, 1984,
 Xiao and Gu, 1984, Kainz et
 al. 1985a, b, Kalla et al. 1985,
 Matlin et aT. 1985, Sadykov
 et al. 1985, Segal, 1985,
 Stephens et al. 1985, Wang
 etal. 1985,Walleretal. 1986,
 Abou_Donia et al. 1989,
 Kanwar et al. 1989, Gupta et
 al 1996a, Coutinho, 2002.

72. Guetterda andamanica Keshri et al. 1998.
 Aerial parts/ethanolic

73. Gypsophila paniculata Abd-Elbary and Nour, 1979.

74. Hedera nepalensis Pant et al. 1988b.

75. Heliotropium Andhiwal et al. 1985.
 indicum Petroleum
 ether extract.

76. Hibiscus macranthus Moundipa et al. 1999.
 Aqueous extract.

77. Hibiscus rosasinensis Kholkute et al. 1976a, Singwi and
 Flowers/benzene, Lall, 1981, Singh et al. 1982,
 chloroform and 50% Bhattacharya et al. 1984, Pal et
 EtOH extract. al. 1985, Pakrashi et al. 1986,
 Reddy et al. 1997.

78. Hyptis suabeoleus Saluja and Santarin, 1997.
 Whole plant.

79. Ixora finlaysoniana Singh et al. 1993.
 Serial part/crude
 ethanolic extract.

80. Juniperus communis Prakash, 1986.
 Acetone extract.

81. Lappula myosotis Mats et al. 1982.

82. Lepidium capitatum Singh et al. 1984.
 Whole plant/
 benzene extract.

83. Lithospermum Mats et al. 1982.

84. Lygodium flexuosum Gaitonde and Mahajan, 1980.
 Whole plant/
 alcoholic extract.

85. Malvaviscus Dixit and Bhargava, 1978, Joshi et
 conzattus Greenm al. 1980, Verma et al. 1980, Joshi
 Flowers/methanolic, et al. 1981, Saluja and Santarin,
 50% EtOH extract. 1983, Pakrashi et al. 1985,
 Banerjee et al. 1999.

86. Marsdenia koi Yuan et al. 1991.
 Whole plantlmethanolic

87. Maytenus ilicifolia

88. Melodinusfusiformis He et al. 1992.

 Keshri et al. 1998.
89. Memcyclon lushingtonii
 Aerial parts/ethanolic

90. Mentha arvensis Mathur, 1991,
 Leaves/petroleum ether, Sharma and Jacob, 2001.
 50% ethanolic extract.

91. Mesuaferrea Seshadri and Phillai, 1981.

92. Momordica augusti- Aguwa and Mittal, 1983.
 sepala L.
 Aqueous extract.

93. Momordica charantia Chan et al. 1984, Chan et al.
 Seeds/petroleum ether 1986, Ng et al. 1986, Tam
 and benzene extract. et al. 1986, Yeung et al. 1986,
 Neseem et al. 1998.

94. Momordica Yeung et al. 1988.

95. Momordica diocia Dhawan et al. 1980.
 Tuber/zqueous extract.

96. Montanoa tomentosa Gallegos, 1977,
 Leaves/hexane, Mateos and Noriega, 1977,
 aqueous extract. Hahn et al. 1981,
 Levine et al. 1981,
 Bejar et al. 1984,
 Gallegos, 1985.

97. Moringa oleifera Shukla et al. 1988.
 Roots/aqueous extract.

98. Murraya exotica Kong et al. 1985a,
 Roots. Kong et al. 1986b.

99. Murraya paniculata Kong, 1985, Kong et al.
 Roots 1985a, b, Kong et al. 1986a.

100. Myristica fragrans Misra and Shukla, 1980.
 Ethanolic extract.

101. Nelumbo nucifera Mazumder et al. 1992.
 Seeds/petroleum ether

102. Nicotiana tabaccum Londonkar et al. 1998.

103. Nigella sativa Seshadri and Pillai, 1981,
 Seeds/hexane extract. Kong et al. 1986b,
 Keshri et al. 1995

104. Ocimum sanctum Singh, 1997.
 Leaf powder.

105. Ophiopogon intermedius Rawat et al. 1988.

106. Paracynoglossum incretinum. Man'ko et al. 1977.

107. Pentapanax leschenaultii Pant et al. 1988a.
 leschenaultii Fruit/
 ethanolic extract.

108. Phytolacca americana Shaaban and Ahmed, 1959.
 Roots/EtOH extract.

109. Phtolacca dodecandra Pakhurst and Stolzenberg,
 BuOH extract of 1975, Stolzenberg and
 sundried berries. Pakhurst, 1975, Stolzenberg
 et al. 1976.

110. Piper betle L. Dry extract. Das, 1976.

111. Pipe longum Fruit/ Das , 1966, Das, 1976,
 aceton, benzene Raman et al. 1976, Malini et
 and EtOH extract. al. 1999. Roy Chaudhary
 et al. 2001.

112. Pipe peopuloides Chandhoke et al. 1978a.
 petroleum ether extract. Prakash, 1986.

113. Pisum sativum Sanyal et al. 1950, Sanyal,
 1956a, Sanyal, 1960, Sanyal,

114. Pithecolobium saman Varshney and Khanna, 1978.

115. Pittosporum nilghrense Jain et al. 1980.

116. Plantago ovata Nandi et al. 1982

117. Plantanus orientails Prakash, 1986.
 Acetone extract.

118. Plumbago zeylanica Chowdhury et al 1982,
 Roots/EtOH extract. Prasad and Diczfalusy, 1983,
 Bhargava, 1984.

119. Plianthes tuberosa Das, 1976,
 Chattopadhyay et al. 1983.

120. Primula vulgaris Primorac et al. 1985.

121. Pseudolarix kaemferi Xu and Gao, 1986.

122. Pueraria tuberosa Prakash et al. 1985,
 Tubers/50% ethanolic, Prakash, 1986,
 D.C. and methanolic, Shukla, 1996.
 crude powder, butanolic,
 hexane, chloroform,
 petroleum ether,
 benzene extract.

123. Pulmonaria mollis Mats et al. 1982.

124. Punica grantum Prakash, 1986.
 Aqueous and MeOH

125. Rauwolfia series
 Pellegatti, 1966, Zipper et al.
 1982, Chan and Tang, 1984.

126. Rhoeo spathacea Weinger et al. 1982.

127. Ricinus communis Okwuasaba et al. 1991.
 Seeds/methanolic Salhab et al. 1999.
 extracts ether soluble

128. Ruellia prostrata Andhiwal et al. 1986.
 Petroleum ether and
 aqueous extract.

129. Ruta graveolans Kong et al. 1989.
 Root, stem and leaf/
 chloroform extract.

130. Salsola Louw et al. 1997,
 tuberculatiformis Louw et al. 2000.

131. Salviafruticosa Elbeticha et al. 1998.
 Leaves/aqueous and
 ethanolic extract.

132. Sapindus mukorosu Setty et al. 1976.

133. Saracaindica Suganthan and

134. Schefflera capitata Jain et al. 1977.

135. Senecio vulgaris Tu et al. 1988.
 Methanolic extract.

136. Solanum crassypetalum Keshri et al. 1988.
 Aerial parts/ethanolic

137. Solanum xanthocarpum Dixit and Gupta, 1982,
 Gupta et al. 1989b.

138. Sophora japonica

138. Sophora japonica He et al. 1982.

139. Spartiumjunceum Baccetti et al. 1993,
 Broom Chen et al. 1993.

140. Stemodia durantifolia Weniger et al. 1982.]

141. Sterculia foetida Beroza and Brecque, 1967.

142. Stevia rebaudiana Melis, 1999.
 Whole plant,
 aqueous extract.

143. Striga Iutea Hiremath and Rao, 1990,
 Whole plant/petroleum Hiremath et al. 1990.
 ether and chloroform

144. Striga orobanchioides Hiremath et al. 1997,
 ethanolic extract. Hiremath et al. 2000.

145. Syzygium cumini Sinha et al. 1986.
 Alcoholic extract

146. Tabernaemontana Meyer et al. 1973.

147. Taxus baccata Garg, 1972
 alcoholic, petroleum
 ether extract.

148. Terminalia arjuna Seshadri and Pillai,
 Stem bark. 1981, Chauhan et al.

149. Terminalia chebula Seshadri and Pillai,
 Seeds. 1981.

150. Thalictrum species Mats et al. 1988
 minus and foetidum.

151. Thespesia populnea Murthy et al. 1981.

152. Traqia involucerta Chowdhury et al. 1984.

153. Trichosanthes Yeung and Li, 1987.
 Roots tubers.

154. Trichosanthes kirilowi Yeung and Li, 1987.
 Root tuber.

155. Trigonella foenum- Kamal et al. 1993.
 Seed extract.

156. Tripterygium wilfordii Zheng et al. 1985,
 Zhen et al. 1995,
 Lue et al. 1998,
 Huynh et al. 2000.

157. Uncaria tomentosa Keplinger 1982.

158. Vicoa indica Gandhi et al. 1983,
 Dhall and Dogra ,1988.

159. Vinca rosea Akbarsha et al. 1995.
 Averel et al. 1996.

160. Vitex negundo 'L' Bhargava, 1984a, b,
 Seeds. Bhargava, 1986a,
 Bhargava 1989.

161. Xestospongia Coral et al. 1995.


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R. Unny, (1) A.K. Chauhan, (1) Y.C. Joshi, (1) M.P. Dobhal, (2) and R.S. Gupta (3)

(1) Chemical Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India

(2) Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.

(3) Reproductive Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India


Y C. Joshi, Chemical Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004, India

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Author:Unny, R.; Chauhan, A.K.; Joshi, Y.C.; Dobhal, M.P.; Gupta, R.S.
Publication:Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2003
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