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A review of heat transfer enhancement using nano fluids with different base fluids.


Machining experiences high temperatures due to friction between the tool and work piece. Temperatures can be controlled by reducing the friction between tool-work piece and tool-chip interface with the help of effective lubrication. Nano-particles are an excellent media to increase the thermal conductivity of the base fluids [1, 2]. Nano fluids have also been used in a variety of mechanical machining processes. Nano fluids were first innovated by Choi [3] in 1995 at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Compared with traditional slid-liquid suspensions containing millimetre or micrometer sized particles, nanofluids as coolants in the heat exchangers have shown better heat transfer performance because of small size of suspend solid particles. Many research groups experimentally reported that the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes CNT suspensions are much higher than those of other nanoparticles with the small volume fraction [4-6]. The addition of CNT improves the thermal conductivity of nanofluids but it can also increase the dynamic viscosity and affect the density and the heat capacity. This shows that these properties are closely correlated. In fact, a significant increase in viscosity can lead to a significant pressure drop which can reduce the practical benefits of nanofluids in some industrial applications [7, 8]. Ding et al. [9] found that thermal conductivity of CNT based nanofluids increases significantly with the temperature by 15% at 20 [degrees]C, 30% at 25 [degrees]C and by 79% at 40 [degrees]C at the same volume fraction. Meng et al. [10] showed that the relative thermal conductivity of CNT based nanofluids is independent of temperature for temperature range from 15 to 55 [degrees]C. These results are consistent with those found by Yu et al. [11] and Chen et al. [12]. To promote the performance of machine tools and to regulate the machining conditions, different kinds of cutting fluids have long been used in machining. The cutting fluids are found to improving the machining quality by their cooling effect (through the reduction in localised heating zone, thermal expansion and distortion of the work-piece) and by their lubrication effect (in the reduction of cutting force, extension of tool life, etc.).

II. Past Review of Work:

P.Vamsi Krishna et al [13] This paper describes a specific study on the application of nonsolid lubricant suspensions in lubricating oil in turning of AISI 1040 steel with carbide tool. SAE-40 and coconut oil are taken as base lubricants and Boric acid solid lubricant of 50nm particle size as suspensions. The volume concentration of nanoparticle is from 0.25% to 5%. From the result, Thermal conductivity increased and specific heat decreased with percentage increase in nanoboric acid in base oil. Heat transfer coefficient increased slightly with increase in percentage of nanoboric acid in base oil and cutting speed. However, cutting temperatures, tool flank wear and surface roughness were decreased significantly with nanolubricants compared to base oil due to the lubricating action of boric acid. In all the cases, coconut oil based nanoparticle suspensions showed better performance compared to SAE-40 based lubricant, due to the better lubricating properties of the base oil. Further, in both the lubricants, performance was better in terms of cutting temperatures, tool wear and surface roughness at 0.5% nanoboric acid suspensions.

Navid Bozorgan et al [14] This article reports an experimental investigation on application of CuO-Water Nanofluids in Automotive Diesel engine radiator. A 20nm CuO-Water nanofluid with volume concentration of 0.1 to 2% was taken as a coolant in a radiator of Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine. It shall be noted that metal oxides such as CuO nanoparticle are chemically more stable than their metallic counterparts. The results show that for CuO-Water nanofluids at 2% of volume concentration circulating through the flat tubes with [] =6000 while the automotive speed is 70 km/hr, the overall heat transfer coefficient and pumping power are approximately 10% and 23.8% more than that of base fluid for given condition, respectively.

Rosari Saleh et al [15]:- reports that the thermal conductivity and viscosity were studied experimentally for Titanium Dioxide nanoparticle dispersed in distilled water. the volume concentration of nanoparticle is from 0.05% to 5% and the working temperatures ranging between 10 and 60 [degrees]C. The result of this experiment is the relative thermal conductivity of distilled water is significantly increased with the addition of Titanium Dioxide nanoparticle and with temperatures. Viscosity measurements indicate that the relative viscosity increases with increasing nanoparticle volume fraction. However, the results show that nanofluids viscosity is independent of temperature.

Salma Halelfadl et al [16]:- This paper experimentally investigated the thermo -physical properties of water based nanofluids containing carbon nano tubes (CNT) and stabilized by SDBS as surfactant. The influence of particles concentration from 0.0055% to 0.278% and temperature from 20 [degrees]C to 40 [degrees]C. On the density, thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluids were presented and discussed. Based on this experiment, the density is independent of temperature and increases with particle volume fraction. A similar trend is reported for the relative density, the relative thermal conductivity increases with nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature. The relative viscosity of nanofluids is affected by both the increase in nanoparticle volume fraction and shear rate. In laminar regime, the nanofluids become efficient at 30 [degrees]C and for Reynolds numbers ranging from 180 to 330. Increasing the temperature to 40 [degrees]C, the efficiency of nanofluids is increased to higher range of Reynolds numbers. In turbulent regime, the efficiency of the nanofluids is dependant to both the decrease in particle volume and the increase in temperature.

Bizhan Rahmati et al [17]:- This article reports, the Morphology of surface generated by end milling AL6061-T6 using molybdenum disulfide ([MoS.sub.2]) nanolubrication in end milling machining. The nanolubricants were prepared by mixing [Mos.sub.2] nanoparticle (average particle size of 20 - 60 nm) with the mineral oil (ECOCUT HSG 905S) and stirred for 48 hrs followed by ultrasonication (240W, 40 kHz, 500W) for 48 hrs in order to homogenously suspended the nano particles in the mixture. The concentration of [Mos.sub.2] nanoparticle in base oil was 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 wt%. In case of 0.0 wt% concentration, it was purely minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) process. This experiment result shows that, the presence of Mo[S.sub.2] nanoparticle in the toolwork piece interfaces, improved the quality of the machined surface. The machining of AL6061-T6 alloy with nanolubricants containing 0.5 wt% [MoS.sub.2] improved the surface roughness by 3.87% compared with pure oil in an ordinary machining process. When the nanoparticle concentrations continued to increase up to 1.0 wt% the residual content of [MoS.sub.2] was decreases.

Yabin Zhang et al [18]:- describes experimental evaluation of Mo[S.sub.2[ nanoparticle in jet MQL grinding with liquid paraffin, palm oil, rapeseed oil, and soybean oil as base oil and the work piece material is C45 steel. [MoS.sub.2] with a diameter of 50nm was used as the nanoparticle. Nanoparticles are excellent media to increase the thermal conductivity of base fluid. In addition, Nanoparticles have a ball/roll bearing effect, they significantly enhance tribological and wear characteristics. [MoS.sub.2] is an important solid lubricant with excellent anti-friction and antiwear effect under high temperature and high pressure. The nanoparticle jet MQL grinding process using [MoS.sub.2] and CNT Nanoparticles, and showed that nanofluids could effectively improve surface finish and reduce specific grinding energy. From the results, conclusions are, compared with liquid paraffin, palm oil has lower coefficient of friction and specific grinding energy in nanoparticle jet MQL grinding. Therefore, vegetable oil can replace mineral oil as the base oil of nanoparticle jet MQL grinding. Compared with liquid paraffin, palm oil, soybean oil, and rapeseed oil have lower coefficient of friction and specific grinding values in the nanoparticle jet MQL grinding condition. In consideration of the difference in fatty acid type and content in three kinds of vegetable oils, the lubricating property of the three kinds of vegetable oils has the following order: palm oil < rapeseed oil < soybean oil. The difference in lubrication effect for three types of vegetable oils as base oil is small, particularly the coefficient of friction value, which only has a 0.04 difference between rapeseed oil and palm oil values. However, soybean oil viscosity is only 20% of palm oil viscosity. A low grinding temperature can be attaining using soybean oil as base oil. In such case, considering the slight influence of viscosity is more suitable as the base oil of nanoparticle jet MQL grinding. The addition of [MoS.sub.2] nanoparticles in soybean oil increases nanoparticle concentration, and nanoparticle jet MQL grinding viscosity increases correspondingly with the increased acting force among molecules. High viscosity can produce a good lubricating property, and the increase in nanoparticle concentration can optimize the lubricating property. Nanoparticle concentration has the best range, but the addition of excessive [MoS.sub.2] nanoparticles may result in nanoparticle agglomeration that reduces the good lubricating property. The optimal concentration of nanoparticle [MoS.sub.2] measured in the experiment is 6%. Vegetable oil contains abundant unsaturated bonds and carbon-carbon double bonds, which are easily oxidized by oxygen in air and lead to vegetable oil degradation. Therefore, antioxidants such as Vitamin E should be added during the experimental process to maintain oil stability.

Thadathil S. Sreeremya et al [19]:- this article experimentally investigated the synthesis and characterization of cerium oxide based nanofluids: an efficient coolant in heat transport application. Used surface modified ceria nanoparticles for fabrication of a highly stable and thermo conductive fluid. Surface modified and well dispersed ceria nanocrystals of cubic morphology have been successfully synthesized by a comparatively simple method involving the thermolysis of respective oleate precursor. The surface functionalized nanocrystals are ideal for nanofluids preparation as they offer long term stability. The enhanced thermal conductivity offered by ceria nano fluid can be attributed to small sizes of particles and the compatibility of surfaced modified nanoparticles with the base fluid. The results of the experiment are, ceria-oil nanofluids exhibited long term stability > 5 months. Less amount of vol% of nanoparticle concentration gives good result in thermal conductivity. Oil-based nanofluids containing ceria nanoparticles showed shear-thinning behaviour and produced 14.6% enhancement in thermal conductivity at 50 [degrees]C with 0.7 vol% solid loading.


By refer the above journals we conclude that,

1. Nano fluids have more thermal conductivity than compared to conventional fluids.

2. The overall heat transfer co-efficient and pumping power is increased by using nanofluids.

3. Quality of the machined surface is increase due to nano fluids.

From the above statements we conclude that the thermal conductivity & heat transfer co-efficient is increase by using the single wall CNT nanofluids than conventional fluids.

When we use the Multi Wall CNT nanofluids instead of using single wall CNT, the properties like thermal conductivity & heat transfer co-efficient should be increased more than single wall CNT nanofluids.


[1.] Moghadassi, A.R., S.M. Hosseini, D. Henneke, A. Elkamel, 2009. A model of nanofluid effective thermal conductivity based on dimensionless groups, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 96(1): 81-84.

[2.] Hwang, Y., H.S. Park, J.K. Lee, W.H. Jung, 2006. Thermal conductivity and lubrication characteristics of nanofluids, Current Applies Physics. 6S1: e67-e71.

[3.] Choi, S.U.S. and J.A. Eastman, 1995. "Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids with Nanoparticles," ASME International Mechanical Congress and Exposition, San Francisco, 12-17.

[4.] Mare, F., S. Halelfadl, O. Sow, P. Estelle, S. Duret, F. Bazancay, 2011. Comparison of the thermal performance of two nanofluids at low temperature in a plate heat exchanger. Exp. Therm. Fluid. Sci., 35(8): 1525-1543.

[5.] Lio, M.S., M.C Lin, L.T. Huang, C.F. Wang, 2005. Enhancement of thermal conductivity with carbon nanotubes for nanofluids. Int. Common Heat Mass Transfer, 32: 1202-1210.

[6.] Xie, H., H. Lee, W. Youn, M. Choi, 2003. Nanofluids containing multiwall carbon nanotubes and their enhanced thermal conductivities. J. Appl. Phys, 94: 4967-4971.

[7.] Fercoulltax, S., A. Bontempa, J.P. Ribciro, J.A. Gross, O. Soriano, 2011. Hydraulic and heat transfer study of [SiO.sub.2]/water nanofluid in horizontal tubes with imposed wall temperature boundary conditions. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 32: 424-439.

[8.] Mayer, J.P., T.J. Mc Krell, K. Grote, 2013. The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on single phase heat transfer and pressure drop characteristic in the transitional flow regape of smooth tube. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 58: 597-609.

[9.] Ding, Y., H. Alias, D. Wen, R.A. Williams, 2006. Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes CNT nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49: 240-250.

[10.] Meng, Z., O. Wu, L. Wang, H. Zhu, Q. Li, 2013. Carbon nanotube glycol nanofluid photo thermal properties, thermal conductivities and theological behaviour. Paracoology, 10: 614-618.

[11.] Yu, W., S.U.S. Choi, The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids

[12.] Chen, L., H. Xie, Y. Li, W. Yu, Nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes created by mechochemical reaction.

[13.] Vamsi Krishna, P., R.R. Srikant, D. NageswaraRao, 2010. Experimental investigation on the performance of Nanoboric Acid suspension in SAE-40 and coconut oil during turning of AISI 1040 steel. Int. J. of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 50: 911-916.

[14.] Navid Bozorgan, KomalanganKrishna Kumar, NarimanBozargan, 2012. Numerical Study on Application of CuO-Water Nanofluid in Automotive Diesel Engine Radiator. J. In Modern Mechanical Engineering, 2: 130-136.

[15.] Rosari Saleh, Nanty Putra, Romualdus Enggar Wibowo, Wayan Nata Septiadi, 2014. Titanium dioxide nanofluids for heat transfer applications. J. of Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 52: 19-29.

[16.] Salma Halelfadl, Thierry Mare, Patrice Estelle, 2014. Efficiency of Carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids as coolants.. J. of Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 53: 104 -110.

[17.] Bizhan Rahmati, Ahamed A.D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, 2014. Morphology of surface generated by end milling AL6061-T6 using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanolubrication in end milling machining, Journal of Cleaner Production, 66: 685-691.

[18.] Yanbin Zhang, Changhe Li, Dongzhou Jia, Dongkun Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, 2015. Experimental evaluation of MoS2 nanoparticles in jet MQL grinding with different types of vegetable oil as base oil. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87: 930-940.

[19.] Thadathil, S., Sreeremya, Asha Krishnan, A. Peer Mohamed, U.S. Hareesh, 2014. Swapankumar Ghosh, Synthesis and characterization of cerium oxide based nanofluids: An efficient coolant in heat transport applications. Chemical Engineering Journal, 255: 282-289.

(1) P. C. Mukesh Kumar and (2) M. Muruganandam

(1) Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, Dindigul-624622.Tamilnadu, India.

(2) Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College of Engineering and Technology, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India.

Received 28 February 2017; Accepted 22 May 2017; Available online 6 June 2017

Address For Correspondence:

P. C. Mukesh Kumar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, Dindigul-624622.Tamilnadu, India.
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Author:Kumar, P.C. Mukesh; Muruganandam, M.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jun 1, 2017
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