A research manual on Phoenician and Punic civilization. (Review Article).
1.1. THE VOLUME UNDER REVIEW collects fifty-eight articles by thirty-five specialists summarizing the state of Phoenician studies in the first half of the last decade of the twentieth century. Most of the contributors are European scholars; all of the articles are in French. (1)
Sabatino Moscati inaugurated the modem phase of Phoenician studies in 1963 with his programmatic paper, "La questione fenicia." (2) In this seminal study, Moscati took up the question of the identity of the "Phoenicians" as a people or ethnic group, the definitional role of language in Phoenician identity, the religious continuities and discontinuities of "Phoenician" populations, and the systematic description of Phoenician art. Moscati returned to these guiding questions repeatedly. (3) The Italian school of scholarship Moscati nurtured at the University of Rome gave new impetus to Phoenician studies in Europe. It is not surprising that in his introduction to this volume Moscati reprises the themes of ethnogenesis, language and writing, historical process, religion, and art (pp. 1-15).
As the scholarly study of Phoenician civilization completed its third century, it entered what Moscati aptly labeled an era of synthesis. (4) In philological studies, reliable research tools have been produced, and a growing textual corpus assembled. (5) In archaeological research, pottery assemblages have been collected and catalogued; architectural features and techniques have been studied; small finds and glyptic intensively surveyed. Thus the time is most appropriate for the appearance of a handbook that surveys the discipline, representing the current state of research in a small but increasingly diverse field of investigation.
2.1 The volume is organized in three sections: Sources (pp. 17-181), Introduction to the Civilization (pp. 183-549), and Areas of Research (pp. 551-844). (6) A sixty-page bibliography (pp. 845-904) comprising about 2500 entries (current through 1992, with selected 1993 and 1994 entries) complements the text (minor errors are numerous); indexes of personal names (pp. 905-10; names of modern scholars are not indexed) and names of places and peoples (pp. 911-23) are also included. Sixty-four black-and-white plates complete the volume.
3.1. Articles in this section fall under two headings: written sources and material sources. M. G. Amadasi Guzzo surveys Phoenician and Punic epigraphy, with sections on Byblos, Sidon, Tyre and its vicinity, other Phoenician sites, greater West Asia and Egypt, Cyprus, and the Mediterranean islands, Greece, and the west (pp. 19-25). Briefer sections on script, typology of inscriptions, and published corpora of inscriptions complete the survey (pp. 25-29). (7)
3.2. V. Krings surveys the evidence from Greek and Latin writers for works of literature in Phoenician and Punic, now utterly lost. With respect to Phoenician literature she surveys the testimony of Josephus, Philo of Byblos, and references to Greek histories of the Phoenicians (pp. 33-34). Of Punic literature, the Periplus of Hanno is perhaps a surviving example in Greek "translation"; other examples would be the lost agricultural treatise of Mago and the treaty of Hannibal with Philip V of Macedon. (8) A brief discussion of the libraries of ancient Carthage and their disposition concludes the chapter. (9)
3.3. P. Xella's survey of cuneiform sources is substantial. Syro-Mesopotamian texts from Ebla, Ur, Mari, Emar, Amarna, and Ugarit are discussed with respect to the linguistic, socio-political, and religious background of Canaanite/Phoenician civilization. The section on Ugarit (pp. 46-51) includes a catalogue of syllabic and alphabetic texts mentioning or originating in Phoenician cities: Akko, Arwad, Beirut, Byblos, Sidon, Tyre. Very brief summaries of the mythological texts focus on religious themes common to Phoenician-Punic traditions. Assyrian and Babylonian documents from Tiglath-Pileser 1 to Nebuchadnezzar II receive brief but perceptive attention. The survey is not carried into the Achaemenid era.
3.4. The treatment of Egyptian sources by G. Scandone (pp. 57-63) is principally a survey of Egyptian relations with Byblos. Less than half a page is allocated to other Phoenician cities. Topics such as Egyptian political, economic, military, and cultural relations with the Punic Mediterranean are not discussed.
3.5. As P. Xella observes (p. 64), the absence of Phoenician historical literature places the Bible in an extraordinarily important position for the history, religion, economy, and art of the Phoenicians, especially in the east. "Bible" is understood here in a Christian sense, including at least potentially the Apocrypha and the New Testament (reference is also made to the Pseudepigrapha), but the discussion is limited to the Hebrew Bible. Hiram of Tyre's relations with David and Solomon are understood historically, and the Tarshish trade established by the latter refers to the Iberian peninsula (p. 68). Xella notes that the Tyrian role in constructing the temple in Jerusalem does not require us to hold that the temple's architectural plan was Phoenician; in fact, its type is more generally "Syrian" (p. 68). (10) Phoenician relations with the Omrides is given most space, although Jezebel is mentioned only as the "victim of a massacre" (p. 69). The royal ritual of "passing through fire" is taken up in connection with the tophet and the Punic molk ritual, although the connection remains unclear (p. 70). Prophetic texts are more briefly discussed. In three sentences, Xella places Ezekiel 26-28 in context; there is fuller discussion of Amos and the institution of mrzh (Amos 6:4-7), with its larger cultural associations.
3.6. With characteristic sophistication, S. Ribichini takes up Greek and Latin sources. (11) He cautions against simple diachronic surveys of the literature, and seeks a typology sensitive to the limits of culture-bound Greek and Roman perceptions of barbarian alterity. Myth and stereotype inform the stories of Elissa/Dido, Kadmos, Phoenix, Agenor, Adonis, and other culture heroes. Stories of political and economic interaction between Greeks and Phoenicians show similar features. The Greek and Latin interpretatio of Phoenician and Punic deities "never responds to simple criteria of equivalence" (p. 78). A brief diachronic survey of sources (pp. 79--81) is followed by thematic discussion (pp. 81--82), although the themes themselves are largely undeveloped. The final section of this article, "Epigraphy" (pp. 82--83), lists Greek and Latin inscribed sources relevant to Phoenician-Punic studies.
3.7. M. Yon's overview of archaeological surveys and excavations in the eastern Mediterranean takes up five topics: the geographical delimitation of "Phoenicia" (she follows a core-periphery model), chronological boundaries (thirteenth century to end of first millennium B.C.), archaeological criteria for identifying a site as "Phoenician," a general history of Phoenician archaeology, and a history of research by site (Arwad, Amrit, Tell Kazel, Homs, Tell Arqa, Tripoli, Byblos, Beirut, Sarepta, Sidon, Tyre, Umm el-Amed, Akziv, Akko, Tell Abu Hawam, and Larnaka/Kition on Cyprus). Factors that constrain archaeological research in the region are the lack of surveys, continuous occupation of ancient sites, destructive events in the past, limited excavation results, and political instability.
3.8. S. Lancel's corresponding overview of archaeological surveys and excavations in the western Mediterranean sets its geographic boundaries thus: from the east, Malta to the Libyan coast; to the north, Sardinia; west, North Africa and Iberia including the Baleares. Chronological limits are set by epigraphic finds: from the ninth century until 146 B.C. Observing the brief history of Phoenician-Punic archaeology in this region, and the significance of numismatics in generating greater archaeological curiosity, Lancel pays tribute to the pioneering role of Cintas in ceramic interpretation. Following an abbreviated history of archaeological research at Carthage, Motye, Sardinia, and the Iberian peninsula (pp. 109-10), Lancel offers a site-by-site survey from Carthage and Tunisian sites to Libya (three sentences), Algeria, Morocco, Malta, Sicily (Motye, Lilibneum, Eryx, Selinunte), Sardinia (Antas, Bitia [ex-votos indicate a temple possibly consecrated to Bes], Monte Sirni, Olbia, Tharros). In Iberia, the Balear ic island of Eivissa (Ibiza) comes first, with a description of the Phoenician-Punic necropolis at Puig des Molins (p. 116). Phoenician and Punic sites from the coast of Alicante westward into Andalusia are described in brief paragraphs. Cadiz, Castillo de Dofia Blanca, and Huelva (where an Euboean skyphos fragment was found [p. 118]) are hastily mentioned, and Portuguese sites listed.
3.9. M. Yon's chapter on monumental archaeology in the east is concerned with technique and regional influence in a given period. "Phoenician" architecture has meaning within the regional evolution of architecture generally. Broad types surveyed are palatial (p. 120), defensive (pp. 120--22), sacred (pp. 122--27), urban (the examples are Sarepta [pp. 128--29] and Kition [p. 129]), maritime (Kition/Larnaka [pp. 129--30]), and funerary (pp. 130--31).
3.10. S. Lancel's chapter on monumental archaeology in the west necessarily considers the question of Phoenician expansion westward (pp. 132--34) and intercultural contact (pp. 134--35). The limits of archaeological information are encountered in the institutional and religious spheres, where the recovery of mentalites is crucial but elusive. A very limited bibliographical sketch of Phoenician-Punic archaeology in the west brings the chapter to an abrupt close.
3.11. In ten pages A. Ciasca summarizes the history of the study of Phoenician and Punic ceramics (pp. 137--39) and the typology of ceramic forms of the east (pp. 140--43) and west (pp. 143--47). The typology developed by Patricia Bikai at Tyre (1973-1974)--the succession of Bichrome by Red Slip and the western export of the latter--effectively describes the ceramic repertoires from Sarepta (Area II, Y) and the Khalde necropolis. Bikai's typology of Phoenician ceramics from Cyprus in broad groupings called horizons is praised for its methodological rigor (p. 143). The description of Western Phoenician and Punic pottery begins with Harden's 1937 study of pottery from the Carthage tophet but depends on Cintas' monumental synthesis (the phrase is Ciasca's). H. Schubart's study of Iberian Phoenician ceramics is basic, while study of the entire Phoenician-Punic ceramic repertoire of the western Mediterranean is only beginning. The recent finds of early ceramics from Carthage had not yet been fully published at the time of writing. (12) The relation between regional and cultural variation in forms is only beginning to receive consideration.
3.12. The treatment of numismatics is likewise geographically divided. A. Destrooper-Georgiades discusses the east: Phoenicia proper from Arwad to Akko, and coinage with Phoenician legends from neighboring locations. Among the most significant publications noted is the "Bulletin d'information: Numismatique," which has appeared regularly in Transeuphratene since 1989. The Survey of Numismatic Research and Numismatic Literature are essential publications as well. Coinage began in Phoenicia in the second third of the fifth century B.C., beginning apparently at Byblos and catching on gradually at other cities over the three following decades (p. 149). Mints in the east are associated with Arwad/Arados (pp. 149-50), Byblos (pp. 150-51), Sidon (pp. 151-54), Tripoli (p. 154), Tyre (pp. 154-55). Gold emissions from Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre were struck according to the "Phoenician" standard of about 13.9g, although Sidon would adopt a lighter standard of 12.88g and later the Attic standard. Coin hoards found in Iran an d Egypt document the wide circulation of Byblian and Arwadian coinage (p. 156).
Coinage reflects the political upheavals following the campaigns of Alexander in the Levant. The Hellenistic and Roman series from Phoenicia are not to be considered successors to the "classic" Phoenician series of the fifth and early fourth centuries (p. 160).
Cyprus, with its multicultural influences, presents a complex numismatic record. Two mints struck coins with Phoenician legends: Kition and Lapethos. DestrooperGeorgiades summarizes the historical richness of these series in several dense pages (pp. 161-64). (Note the Phoenician spelling of dmwnks, Demonikos [p. 162].) The concluding section about coinage in Palestine concentrates on possible influences from Phoenician coinage on Syro-Palestinian issues.
3.13. P. Visona's chapter on western coinage is among the longer contributions in the volume. Critically assessing nineteenth-century studies, Visona establishes the obsolescence of L. Muller's 1861 classification, the importance of G. K. Jenkins' studies, particularly the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, in supplanting Muller's outdated catalog, and the significance of E. Acquaro's methodological essays and bibliographical compilations in carrying Punic numismatics forward. More detailed discussion begins with Sicily (Motye, Panormos/Palermo [note the replacement of Greek legends with Punic after 410 B.C. (p. 168)], Rsmlqrt, and a significant discussion of the legends qrthdst and mhnt on military issues [p. 169]). Carthage is virtually unrepresented numismatically before 400 B.C. (p. 170), and its mints are poorly known. The period after 350 B.C. is better attested. Numidian and Mauritanian issues are also discussed (pp. 175-76). Sardinia lacked local coinage before the Roman period (pp. 176-77). The Italian issu es of Hannibal (215-203 B.C.) are a numismatic curiosity given penetrating discussion (p. 178). Iberian Punic coinage is attested at Cadiz from the first quarter of the third century, and elsewhere after the arrival of Hamilcar's forces in 237 B.C. Discussion of Barcid coinage (pp. 179-80) and later series from Cadiz and Ibiza (pp. 180-81) completes the survey.
4.1. M. G. Amadasi Guzzo and W. Rolling commence a survey of the Phoenician language by placing it in the Canaanite group of Northwest Semitic languages with Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew, and Moabite, distinct from Aramaic. First attested epigraphically in the eleventh century (Ahiram), but continuing earlier features of, for example, Amarna Canaanite, Phoenician survives in North Africa until the fifth century A.D. (pp. 185-86). The dialect levels of the language are: (1) Phoenician, with two phases, Old Phoenician (tenth-seventh century), and "Classical" Phoenician (from the sixth century); (2) Punic, in the western colonies (fifth-fourth century); (3) Late Punic (second century); (4) Byblian. The phonology is almost entirely reconstructed from transcriptions into writing systems that more fully represent vowels. The limited range of surviving genres limits attestation of grammatical features, e.g., second-person verb forms.
Under the heading "Phonologie' the discussion of matres lectionis and vowel shifts is brief but significant (p. 188). Under "Morphologie" (p. 189) a correction is required. The sentence describing the distribution of the pronominal suffix -y should read "[a]pres une termination en voyelle' not "en consonne" as the text stands. The waw-consecutive construction is unattested except for two uncertain examples. The usual narrative form is the infinitive absolute followed by the independent personal pronoun. The future volitive employing the preposition 1- with the infinitive to express potential future action (I have labeled this construction "attributed conation") is described succinctly with several examples. The chapter concludes with a brief bibliography of general works, text corpora, grammars, bibliographies, and specialized studies.
4.2.Roillig's chapter on the alphabet takes a diachronic approach. To the discussion of the origin of the alphabet we must now add the early second-millennium inscription from Wadi el-Hol in Egypt that may be a precursor to the Proto-Sinaitic system. Deft surveys of ancient Canaanite inscriptions, the diffusion of alphabetic writing in Phoenicia, Cyprus, the Aegean and Greece, the Italian islands, Iberia, and North Africa, and an overview of Aramaic writing systems convey the reader beyond the Phoenician sphere into broader questions of cultural history. The question of alphabetic order arises in the context of South Semitic alphabets (pp. 201-2): when and how the Greeks adopted the Semitic linear alphabet is obscure; Rollig finds no support for a thirteenth-century date (p. 202) and favors a bilingual milieu, perhaps Euboean. The Greek adoption of the Semitic letter [en.sup.[subset]] ('eye') for o suggests the calque ophthalmos with the same meaning (p. 203). A paragraph on numerals closes the discussion. Fi ve pages of script charts conclude the chapter.
4.3. Onomastics and prosopography receive vigorous and comprehensive discussion from F. Israel. The formal analysis of Northwest Semitic personal names distinguishes profane names from theophoric names, Wortnamen from Satznamen, and, in the latter, SP from PS syntax. Truncation and contraction are distinguished (p. 216), and "hypocoristic" precisely defined: replacement of a divine name serving as grammatical subject by the termination 'alep (ibid.). Sources of names and research tools are surveyed briefly. Formal criteria for cross-linguistic comparison of Semitic names support a distinction between first-degree and second-degree parallels (p. 218). Non-Semitic names in Phoenician-Punic epigraphic sources are of six kinds: Anatolian, Egyptian, Greek, Jewish, Latin, and Libyan (no Persian names?). Israel adumbrates the rich potential of onomastics as a witness to the process of acculturation experienced by Phoenicians who participated in the west-ward expansion (p. 220). The discontinuity of Phoenician-Punic names with Amarna-period sources and ancient Hebrew onomastics should be noted. It is not entirely correct to say that Phoenician-Punic prosopographic studies have not led to connections with sources external to the epigraphic tradition, such as classical texts or inscriptions.
4.4 G. Bunnens's survey of the history of events in the east is a wonder of compression. He considers five great periods: the "obscure centuries" marking the LB-Iron I transition (1200-1000 B.C.); the period of Phoenician independence (tenth--ninth centuries); the period of resistance and submission to Assyrian domination (ninth-seventh centuries); the period of Babylonian domination (sixth century); the period of incorporation into the Persian empire until the conquests of Alexander.
In the first period, the absence of Tyre from the list of tributaries submitting to Tiglath-Pileser I may be merely a result of Tyre's southern (and therefore less threatened) location (p. 224). Bunnens takes up the tale of Wen-Amun at some length; the tale confirms the image of a pacific and prosperous Phoenicia also gained from Tiglath-Pileser I's accounts (pp. 224-25). The second period involves the biblical story of Solomon's relations with Hiram of Tyre. This topic necessitates discussion of excerpts from Menander of Ephesus and Dius cited by Josephus (Ag.Ap. 1.116-19, 121-25, 156- 58; Ant. 8.144-49, 324; 9.284-87; FGH, no. 783). Bunnens follows a cautious methodology, treating the Tyrian king list as essentially sound, but the regnal years as corrupt in places. Ittobaal from this list (Ag.Ap. 1.123) is the ruler identified by Josephus as the father of Jezebel, spouse of Ahab of Israel (Ant. 8.317, 324; 1 Kgs 18:4, 13).
Regarding the third period, Bunnens summarizes NeoAssyrian (pp. 227-32) and Neo-Babylonian (pp. 232- 34) sources concerning the city-states of Phoenicia with comprehensive brevity. Treatment of the fifth period integrates Phoenician inscriptions, Babylonian chronicles, numismatics, classical authors, and modem scholarship concerning this crucial period. Sidon is the focal point of attention, with limited consideration of Byblos and Tyre.
4.5. Krings aspires in the next chapter not to a summary account of historical events in the west, but to a broad diachronic view that pauses at particular "moments." The moments are themes, such as the "birth and death" of Carthage (pp. 238-39) and the "destruction" of Carthage (pp. 239- 40). The former discussion centers on Timaeus' attempt to date the city's foundation; the latter points out that contemporary archaeological finds do not support the image of systematic destruction created by narratives such as that of Polybius. The "obscure centuries" (eighth-seventh) remain so despite archaeological discovery of occupation at Carthage from the first half of the eighth century B.C. (p. 241). Contemporary archaeologists and historians are treated as mythographers of a modern mythology that places hypostatized entities such as "the Phoenicians" and "the Greeks" or "the Etruscans" in opposition. The archaic period (sixth century to 480 B.C.) is a "tableau" that places "Phoenicians" and "Greeks" in conflict: Al alia, the (anti-Hellenic) Magonids, and Carthaginian alliance with Rome. The "classical" period (480-323 B.C.) begins with the Carthaginian defeat at Himera in Sicily. Krings implies that the consequences of this battle have been exaggerated in modern as well as ancient historiography (p. 243). Material evidence of ceramic imports and urban expansion at Carthage do not support the view of economic decline and cultural retreat promulgated in earlier treatments. The author pauses at several later "moments": fourth-century conflicts of Carthage with Sicily, Hellenistic influence, and the series of wars "dites 'puniques'" (here reduced to single paragraphs, even single lines).
4.6. H. G. Niemeyer's treatment of expansion and colonization is substantial and sound. The fundamental problem for the archaeologist is to distinguish Phoenician commercial or trade centers in the Mediterranean from colonies. Colonies maintain a dependence on the metropolis but extend the political dominance of the mother city into new territory. Surveying the archaeological problematic, Niemeyer poses three areas of investigation: (1) the appearance of Syro-Levantine products in the Mediterranean context, (2) evidence of "cultural permeability" or "acculturation" in different zones of Phoenician expansion and colonization, and (3) Phoenician and Punic establishments in the ancient world (p. 249). Research on Phoenician-Punic culture is not a single discipline, like, say Egyptology. It is an intersection of disciplines: Semitic studies, ancient oriental studies, Old Testament exegesis, biblical archaeology, ancient history, history of architecture, and historic preservation. The methodology of classical stud ies has been dominant but not entirely suitable.
The survey of written sources covers familiar ground. The archaeology of Phoenician expansion is treated diachronically and regionally, beginning with LB precursors to expansion (note the discovery of two shards of MYC IIIA/IIIB ware at Montoro in the Guadalquivir Valley in Spain [p. 253]). Phoenician presence in the Aegean in the first millennium is particularly evident at Lefkandi in Euboea, and at Kommos on the southern coast of Crete, where J. W. Shaw has discovered a Phoenician shrine with three betyls (p. 253). The proto-orientalizing and orientalizing horizons of the early first millennium have multiple roots. Phoenician establishments in Sardinia in the second half of the eighth century B.C. link precolonial trade centers in Etruria with the Euboean establishment at Pithecussai on the island of Ischia near the Bay of Naples. Iberia plays a paramount role in Phoenician expansion. The equivalence of Tartessos (in the Guadalquivir Valley) with biblical Tarshish is assumed. Architectural echoes of the nor th-Syrian bit-hilani can be seen in an indigenous palatial building at Cancho Roano in Extremadura (NW of the Sierra Morena and Andalusia). Levantine influence had extended far beyond the Guadalquivir at an early period.
Niemeyer presents examples illustrating the archaeology of the Phoenician colonies: Kition, certainly the oldest permanent Phoenician establishment in the west (p. 260); Gades/Cadiz, the most significant in the far west (p. 261); Malaga, on Spain's Costa del Sol (pp. 262-63); and Carthage, which can now be shown to have been a city of 25 hectares in the early eighth century B.C., and thus one of the largest cities of the ancient Mediterranean (p. 263). The early date of Phoenician westward expansion comports with biblical stories of the Tarshish trade. Examples such as Pithecussai demonstrate that Phoenician expansion began in cooperation and cultural exchange with Greek settlements, and that competition and hostility were later developments.
4.7. S. F Bondi offers erudite analysis of commerce, exchange, and economy. For the "pre-colonial" period, Bondi surveys literary sources (Wen-Amun, biblical texts) with little sustained discussion of archaeological material. A sentence devoted to Phoenician weights (a topic too little studied) makes no reference to the studies of N. F. Parise (p. 274). Seaborne commerce was essential in the economies of Levantine Phoenician cities, in part because of the limited natural resources of the coastal region (p. 276). As Assyrian hegemony sent Levantine economies into decline, Carthage and western establishments rose in significance. Bondi speaks of a Carthaginian commonwealth (p. 278) from the sixth century. Economic expansion drove new exploitation of western Punic establishments in Sicily, Sardinia, and Iberia (what Niemeyer labels "secondary colonization").
4.8. P. Bartoloni's chapter on ships and navigation brims with interesting detail. Phoenician sailors steered not by Polaris, but by the star kokhab in the left rear paw of Ursa Minor--the classical Stella Phoenicia (p. 283).
Other topics include principal routes, typology of ports, naval carpentry (with reference to the Marsala Punic ship), merchant ships, and warships. (13)
4.9. Bondi takes up institutions, political organizations, and administration, first of the Phoenician cities in the east, then of Carthage, finally of other colonies. The major contrast between mother city and colony is the absence of monarchy from the latter. I agree with Bondi (p. 296) that sufetes did not wield military power. (I have shown that military office carried the Punic title rb.) Evidence for the representative assemblies in the government of Carthage comes almost entirely from Aristotle, Polybius, Livy, and Justin. Punic inscriptions from other colonies mention titles of office and administrative or legislative assemblies, but the interpretation of these is necessarily speculative.
4.10. G. Brizzi, in discussing armies and warfare, begins with the observation that the Phoenicians were not highly militarized as a society, perhaps because of their commercial interests. Carthage developed its military more systematically. From an early period, Phoenician cities employed mercenary specialists in warfare, perhaps imitating Assyrian practice. Punic armies were strongly influenced by Greek military tactics, adopting the hoplite formation (p. 307). Citizen militias probably gave way to mercenaries in the second half of the sixth century with the rise to power of Magon (p. 308). It is not clear whether the Macedonian phalanx was adopted (p. 309). The use of elephants (loxodonta africana cyclotis) compensated for a weak infantry (pp. 3 10-11); the animals were usually armored but did not carry towers. Hannibal was the first Punic commander to exploit fully the foreign equipment and battle tactics of his mercenary troops (p. 313).
4.11. C. Bonnet and P. Xella present a comprehensive survey of Phoenician religion in just under twenty pages (pp. 316-33). They reject the notion of a single "Phoenician" or "Punic" religion in favor of local and regional manifestations of a broader cultural synthesis. The "Phoencian"-"Punic" opposition is unnecessary and misleading in the study of religion (pp. 316-17). The sources are largely those discussed in earlier chapters of this volume. The discussion of methodology makes no reference to authors or works outside the immediate field of Phoenician-Punic studies (pp. 319-20).
Topics surveyed are deities, human-divine relations, interactions between Phoenician and non-Phoenician religious systems, myths and mythology, death and human sacrifice, and cult sites. Royal ideology is formative in concepts and symbolization of deities (p. 322), and has deep cultural roots. A distinction between public and private pantheons cannot be made systematically in the current state of documentation. Double deities (e.g., Eshmun-Melqart) were probably paired in a mythological episode long since lost (p. 323). The organization of priesthoods is not clear (priestesses are not mentioned, although epigraphically attested); sacred prostitution was an actual practice. Much of western iconography of the divine is found in actual representations of the god Baal Ham(m)on (pp. 325-26). Of life-cycle rituals almost nothing is known, but "temple boy" statues may imply circumcision (p. 326). We know that magic amulets were employed and oracles consulted, but the associated rituals and beliefs are lost. The pers istence of Egyptian deities and religious ideas was, I think, even stronger than suggested here (p. 327). The case for ritualized infanticide among the Phoenicians, particularly at Carthage, is unclear, and the authors present a balanced description of the evidence.
4.12. In tracking les mentalites, Ribichini sails uncharted waters. Again, the second-hand character of most of the sources is problematic. Can a Phoenician cosmology be reconstructed from Sanchuniaton's strange account? Do the primordial elements mentioned by Eudemius of Rhodes--Chronos, Pothos, Omichle--preserve a lost cosmology? Menander's king list (see 4.4 above) suggests a historiographical tradition of secular as opposed to sacred history (p. 338). The qualitative evaluation of time (and corresponding ritualization of the life cycle in rites of passage) is available to us only in hints. Questions of the qualitative conceptions of life, events, space are reminiscent of the phenomenology of, e.g., Gaston Bachelard. This series of "flashes" on particular themes, as the author suggests, requires a subtle and interdisciplinary approach available to few.
4.13. Bondi's nine-page summary of Phoenician society (pp. 345-53) traces its evolution from palatine societies of Late Bronze Syria-Palestine. The rise of a mercantile class, exchange systems, and long-distance trade transformed Phoenician society. The discussion of social class is thorough, if somewhat speculative. About slaveholding and the incorporation of indigenous populations, the modicum of source information is judiciously examined. The administration of justice is discussed without reference to relevant epigraphic sources, although possible inscriptional cases of testamentary disposition and adoption are cited.
4.14. Bartoloni surveys technical and scientific achievements. Topics include metallurgy, ceramic production, glassmaking, dyeing, food production, textile production, and carpentry and joinery.
4.15. The topic of urban life and urbanism forms the subject of two articles: "partim orient," by M. Yon (pp. 362-69), and "partim occident" by S. Lancel (pp. 370-88). Yon's article is illustrated with one figure; Lancel's has nineteen. Yon points out that most "Phoenician" cities in the east have long prehistories, only a part of which is Canaanite. The salient unifying factor is language. The choice of islands and coastal promontories as foundation sites is another common thread. Necropolises, ports, and political and social organization receive attention in rapid succession. The west is presented in more detailed typology. First geographic types: insular, peninsular, estuarial and rivermouth settlements (with illustrative figures). Then construction types by societal function: necropolises (in relation to inhabited spaces), fortifications, open-air sacrificial sites (the tophet) and temples, port and harbor installations, public edifices (in relation to road systems), and commercial and artisanal sectors. Carthage provides the greatest number of examples.
4.16. Likewise, military, civil, and domestic architecture is a topic divided. S. M. Cecchini treats the east (no illustrations), Lancel the west (seven drawings). Beginning with military architecture, Cecchini considers defensive structures (a glacis at Byblos, a wall at Tell Dor), Tyre as portrayed in the Balawat gate relief (p. 391), and the defensive structures at Banias (40 km N of Tartous). The harbors of Arwad, Tripolis, Tyre, and Sidon are briefly considered (p. 393). Palaces are poorly attested and summarily discussed. Braemer's fundamental study of domestic architecture underlies Cecchini's discussion of house types at Tyre, Sarepta, and Tell Sukas. Cecchini discusses industrial installations together with domestic in a paragraph including mention of the pottery workshop at Sarepta.
4.17. Lancel organizes his study by function and location. One example of civil architecture is the three-room oblong building (Building C) at Toscanos datable to the eighth century (p. 397, fig. 1). Another is the Punic shipsheds partly reconstructed on the island of admiralty in the center of the cothon or military harbor at Carthage (pp. 397-98, fig. 2). Military architecture includes city walls (Toscanos in Spain, Motye in Sicily, Monte Sirai, Tharros, and Monte Luna in Sardinia for the earlier period; Lilybaeum in Sicily, Kerkouane in Tunisia for the later period). Military fortresses on Cap Bon (Tunisia) include Ras el-Fortas, Ras ed-Drek, and Clypea/Kelibia; l'Hospitalet on Mallorca may be a fifth- century Punic fortress (p. 402). Domestic architecture is attested in all periods, and in many places. Eighth-century stumps of rammed-earth and stone walls from Carthage are too fragmentary to suggest a plan (p. 402). Materials and techniques include masonry materials (baked brick and opus Africanus), pavements, and decoration (stucco, polychrome, pilasters and columns).
4.18. E. Dies Cusi analyzes funerary architecture. Stone is the most common medium, simplicity the style (pp. 411-12). Tomb-construction was a specialized craft for the worker, and for the patron a significant investment (pp. 412-13). The funerary ritual symbolized the separation of spirit from body (p. 413). The objects accompanying the deceased seem to reflect social class, but the techniques of inhumation and incineration are not differentiated by associated objects (and hence not hierarchical?). The funerary ritual can be known only by its surviving remains: offerings and libations, sacrifices, and the objects associated with them. "Exterior elements" and "subterranean elements" of a burial site are considered separately. The exterior element is most frequently vertical and anepigraphic, morphologically developed from the obelisk (p. 415). Less frequent is the stela, still less the monument (p. 417, fig. 3). The author describes the re-use of graves in detail, with illustrations (p. 425, fig. 6).
4.19. The subject "art" is divided into nine articles according to medium, and concludes with a study of iconography and iconology. G. Falsone, a noted specialist in Phoenician-Punic metalwork, surveys the subject. Phoenician bowls are treated chronologically. While there is brief consideration of methods of manufacture, Falsone concentrates attention on style and iconography (pp. 427-32). Jugs or oinoche whose handles are adorned with palmettes and lotus flowers are of two classes: circular mouth and trefoil mouth. Western examples are probably of Cypriot origin (p. 433). Larger vessels probably have a wider geographic range of stylistic influences. Arms and harnesses form the next category, the Amathonte buckler being the unique example of the former (second half of the eighth century [pp. 433-34]). Phoenician and Punic ceremonial razors are a type much studied for their Egyptianizing and hellenizing iconography. Plastic work, such as "smiting god" figures, seated Astarte figures, and zoomorphic weights, is less common in Iron Age Phoenicia than in the Bronze Age. Cypriot and Aegean male figurines dressed in an Egyptian-style loincloth may have been the work of Phoenician metalworkers resident in Cyprus (p. 437). Unlike many, Falsone dates the Sciacca statuette early in the first millennium, not in the second. Incense-burners and tripods are two additional forms subjected to brief analysis.
4.20. G. Pisano's treatment of gold working begins with general matters, observing that the previous fifteen years had seen vigorous study of Phoenician craftwork in gold. The virtual absence of eastern exemplars inhibits the search for prototypes. Factors such as the expansion of trade circuits, hoarding, traditionalism, and the difficulty of establishing historical context make precise chronological arrangement impossible. What the second-millennium eastern examples from Byblos do demonstrate is the use of several types of material in a single piece. The typology of western pieces is functional: earrings and nose-rings, finger-rings, pendants and necklaces, and bracelets. Most examples are seventh century or sixth. Egyptian religious themes, part of the general patrimony of ancient Near Eastern motifs, are supplanted after the fifth century by provincial motifs of local origin.
4.21. D. Ciafaloni gives a thorough and insightful survey of glyptic art, confined almost entirely to stamp-seals. The fundamental insight (deriving from earlier studies by Acquaro) is that Punic artisans after the sixth century became increasingly liberated (p. 504) from Egyptianizing iconography and motifs, adhering more closely to Etrusco-Ionian models in the sixth and fifth centuries. The location where this transition is most evident is Tharros, on the island of Sardinia (pp. 503-4). The magical and apotropaic function of seals guaranteed their continued manufacture, use, and wide distribution. The principal iconographic motifs of seals (pp. 506-7), it should be noted, are shared with ivory carvings as well. The curious Punic preference for miniscule fields of meticulous technical detail is noted with reference to the formative comments of Acquaro.
4.22. M. Barthelemy discusses Phoenician glass and glassmaking. Beginning with a general discussion of glass and glassmaking before the Roman period, Barthelemy briefly summarizes technical details of the composition and production of glass. No Phoenician glass-furnace survives; in fact, the only surviving ancient glassworks from the Near East is at el-Amarna, dating from the fourteenth century B.C. A glassmaker from Tyre is mentioned in the Amarna correspondence of the same period (no citation given). Examples of glass from the early period (1200-750 B.C.) in the Levant are rare, mostly small, and mostly luxury items for trade and exchange: beads, amulets, containers. In the archaic period (750-500 B.C.) the repertoire expands. From Aliseda (Spain), flasks and jars; from Praeneste (Italy), a flask; from Bologne, an amphoriskos; from Cyprus (site unmentioned), an alabastron. Glass from Assyrian and Mesopotamian sites appears to have come from a Syrian workshop (p. 513). The famous pendants portraying masculin e heads, human and demonic, are works of the archaic period. From the fourth century until the Roman period, discoveries are more abundant and more closely linked to Carthage. The types vary little: unguentaries, amulets, beads. (14)
4.23. Among the most celebrated artistic products of Phoenician workshops are ivory carvings. S. M. Cecchini has compressed a remarkably detailed and informative survey of the topic into ten pages. Hippopotamus ivory, I learned, was used for small objects intended for everyday use; elephant ivory was reserved for luxury items (p. 516). Once again, examples from the eastern Phoenician cities are scarce: Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, and Sarepta each provide one. Outside Phoenicia proper, the major findspot in the east is Samaria, where of the 500 ivory pieces found, about 200 are worked. The greatest finds of worked ivory have been from Nimrud (ancient Kalbu). It was the study of the Nimrud ivories by Poulsen (1912) and Barnett (since 1935) that distinguished a "North Syrian" style from a "Phoenician" style of iconography. More than a hundred worked ivory pieces from Arslan Tash, and ivory finds at Khorsabad (ancient Dur Sharrukin), Karkemish, Tell Halaf, and Hama support a distinction between "Phoenician" and "North S yrian" styles, and perhaps a "South Syrian" style is to be distinguished as well (pp. 518-22). Egyptianizing iconographic motifs are characteristic of the "Phoenician" school. The main motifs are: hero with griffin, winged feminine figures, the cow suckling her calf, and the woman at the window. The author appears to support Ciafaloni's thesis that Phoenician artisans had direct knowledge of artistic motifs from Tanis, and probably also of their ideological significance (p. 523).
4.24. Western Phoenician and Punic ivory work is rare, and its connection to eastern centers evident but difficult to establish. Apart from orientalizing ivory pieces in the famed Etruscan tombs of Italy (p. 524), Carthage, Malta, Sardinia, and Iberia provide examples. The poverty of documentation, reflects the author, probably corresponds to limited production (p. 525). Ivory produced by Hispano-Phoenician workshops served the luxury needs of Tartessian princes of Huelva, preserving Phoenician iconographic themes of an earlier time in the East.
4.25. In the following chapter, on minor arts, Cecchini focuses on three topics: painting, ostrich eggs, and amulets. Painting is rare in Phoenician contexts, surviving principally in tombs. The most intriguing of the painted tombs is certainly Tomb VIII at Djebel Mlezza on Cap Bon in Tunisia. The author cites Fantar's interpretation (p. 528) but offers no independent assessment of the apparently eschatological motifs. Punic tombs in Sicily are not painted, but the shrine at Grotta Regina, near Palermo, does have paintings in a "popular" style (p. 529). In Sardinia, the necropolis near Cagliari has several painted decorations, including gorgoneia. Decorated ostrich eggshells have been found at Carthage and North African sites, in Malta and Sicily, and in Sardinia. The most abundant source is Spain, with more than eight hundred examples (pp. 532-33). Amulets are abundantly attested, very frequently in tombs, particularly tombs of women and children (p. 533). They are the most abundant evidence that Egyptian ma gical beliefs and practices had an important role in Phoenician-Punic popular culture. Phoenician artisans selected certain motifs from the vast Egyptian repertoire: the eye of Horus, the uraeus, the infant Horus, Isis nutrix, Thoth and Bes. Very few amulets employ symbols drawn from Punic figurative art, such as the sign of Tanit (pp. 533- 34). It is not always possible to distinguish amulets of Egyptian manufacture from Phoenician-Punic products.
4.26. Concluding part II, D. Ciafaloni discusses iconography and iconology. In a brief introductory statement on methodology, the author defines the terms. "Iconography" implies the exact description of figured monuments from a classificatory and philological perspective, largely dominated by studies of Near Eastern artistic production. "Iconology" is a deeper investigation of a semantic type that implies assessment of the cultural value of the image analyzed. Phoenician-Punic studies have long been dominated principally by documentary interests. The vast iconographic witness of Phoenician art has been undervalued; accusations that it lacks originality and is repetitive persist to the present. The strongly aniconic tendencies of Phoenician-Punic art are recognized by the author, Moscati's analysis of the "bottle-idol" providing an exemplary methodology (pp. 538-39). Ciafaloni offers ten examples of iconological exegesis of iconographic themes: (1) the tree of life, (2) the papyrus barque, (3) two young men fa cing a papyrus plant, (4) the falcon-headed sphinx, (5) the winged sphinx, (6) the cow suckling her calf, (7) the woman at the window, (8) Baal Hammon [spelled with double m in the text], (9) Melqart, and (10) Astarte.
5. AREAS OF RESEARCH
This section, part III, consists of sixteen chapters. Six of the authors contributed to parts I or II or both; ten articles are by new but not unfamiliar authors. Each article concerns a geographic area, and coverage ranges from six pages to more than thirty. In addition to unevenness of coverage, there is considerable overlap with the previous sections. In spite of these features, there is much to satisfy both specialist and general readers.
5.1. J.-Fr. Salles provides a detailed examination of the theme "Phoenicia" as a conceptual and geographic entity. Two excellent maps (pp. 554-55) illustrate the physical geography and locate the archaeological sites relevant to the discussion. The author first considers time and space (pp. 553-69). Rejecting Moscati's recommendation that the term "Phoenician" be confined to the Iron Age, Salles surveys the continuous cultural history of Byblos from the third millennium through the Iron Age, relevant Bronze Age sites and discoveries, and the question of Phoenician origins. He then turns to the relation between "Canaan" and "Phoenicia" as geographical areas (". . . aucun consensus 'objectif' n'est possible" [p. 564]), and offers archaeological summaries of the Levantine cities of Phoenicia: Tyre, Sarafand! Sarepta, Sidon, Beirut, Tel Arqa, Tell Kazel, Arwad. In the second part of his study (pp. 569-82), Salles considers the Phoenician mountain ranges, the sea and Phoenicia, and resources of Phoenicia. In scope , tone, and documentation, this article is one of the most satisfying studies in the volume.
5.2. Cyprus is the area presented by Claude Baurain and A. Destrooper-Georgiades. Comprehensive, detailed, and balanced discussion of major geographical, archaeological, chronological, and historical topics make this chapter both pleasurable and profitable to read. About a third of the chapter is devoted to general introduction, and the remainder of the chapter treats in greater depth the ten major centers of Phoenician presence on the island: Kition (Larnaka), Idalion (Dali), Tamassos (Politiko), Amathonte (Aghios Tychonas), "Carthage of Cyprus," Paphos (Kouklia), Marion (Polis-tis-Chrysochous), Salamine, Lapethos-Lamboussa and Larnakatis-Lapithou (Narnaka), and Kourion (Episkopi). Three maps and a table illustrate the discussion. On Cyprus, "Phoenician" populations had long contact and association with "Greek" civilization. The questions of cultural identity and intercultural influence raised by Phoenician Cyprus are profound and perplexing. The authors address these questions repeatedly and insightfully.
5.3. G. Scandone and P. Xella collaborate on a much briefer discussion of Egypt. A general discussion of references to Levantine Phoenician sites in Egyptian texts, Egyptian governance of and influence in Syria and Palestine, and the tale of Wen-Amun (pp. 632-37) is Scandone's. The treatment of Phoenician and Punic inscriptions from Egypt (pp. 637-39) is by Xella. As an introduction for the uninitiated, this chapter will serve adequately. The specialist will, of course, wish that more had been covered.
5.4. W. Rollig's chapter on Anatolia is less a comprehensive introduction than a specialist's survey of Phoenician inscriptions from the region. Considered first is the coalition of Abdimilkutti, king of Sidon, with Sanduari, king of Kundi and Sissu (pp. 640-42). The uncertain location of Myriandros receives a substantial paragraph (p. 642). Third is [sam.sup.[contains]]al (Zincirli), where the dialect known as [y.sup.[contains]]dy was written (KAI 214-15), and a major Phoenician inscription (KAI 24) was found. The Hassan-Beyli inscription (KAI 23) is briefly discussed (without reference to Lipinski 1985). The parallel inscriptions in hieroglyphic Luwian and Phoenician from Karatepe receive more discussion; Rollig dates them to the last quarter of the eighth century (p. 643). The roughly contemporary Phoenician inscription from Ivriz is described at some length. (To my knowledge, this inscription remains unpublished.) The Cebel Ires Dagi inscription is the westernmost Phoenician inscription in Anatolia. Five seals inscribed in seventh-century Phoenician script are probably Cilician. (15) Rollig accepts them as genuine. (16) A Phoenician dedication by a Lycian (CIS I 45) completes the corpus. The Anatolian inscriptions in the Phoenician language raise perplexing questions of language contact and Phoenician cultural influence. Rollig cautions that the limited geographic distribution of Phoenician inscriptions in Anatolia should not be mistaken as marking the limit of Phoenician cultural and linguistic influence in the region.
5.5. C. Bonnet provides an admirable survey of relations between the Phoenician-Punic realm and the Aegean region. The Aegean region is defined to include the Cyclades, Dodecanese, Sporades, and Crete, as well as Ionia and its insular fringe. The period covered is roughly the Iron Age. While the investigation is framed in terms of cultural relations, it is principally Phoenician presence in the Aegean that has been controversial. Bonnet finds Bernal's thesis useful principally as a critique of ideological positions that have informed historical and archaeological research. A study of epigraphic sources lists twenty-four Phoenician inscriptions (seventeen with accompanying Greek) from Aegean sites (pp. 653-54). Material sources are treated by find spot: Crete (pp. 655-56); Euboeia (656-57); Attica (pp. 657-58); Peloponnese (p. 658); Dodecanese (pp. 658- 59); and Greek contact with Phoenicia (pp. 659-60). In concluding, the author points out that the question of continuity between Bronze Age and Iron Age exchan ges between the Aegean and the east needs considerably more investigation.
5.6. M. G. Amadasi Guzzo presents the Etruscan world and Italian-Phoenician relations. Phoenician contacts with the Etrusco-Italic area may be evident in oriental objects from tenth- and ninth-century burials, but are best attested in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C. Pithecussai receives detailed discussion (pp. 666-68), as do the first treaty between Carthage and Rome (509 B.C.) and the Phoenician inscription from Pyrgi (pp. 67 1-73). The Pyrgi text is the latest direct evidence of Phoenician relations with the Etruscans.
5.7. G. Falsone's summary of the evidence from Sicily is admirable. Beginning with a review of research on the question of Phoenician colonization of the island, the author succinctly surveys the colonial and Punic periods (pp. 678-80), the topography and archaeology of Phoenician settlement and occupation (pp. 68 1-84), urban planning and architecture (pp. 685-87), cults, cult sites, and religious beliefs (pp. 687-90), tombs and funerary practices (pp. 690-92), and the arts: statuary, cippes and steles, masks and terra-cottas, ceramics, glass, and amulets and jewelry (pp. 692-97). Dating the bronze "smiting god" figure found in the sea not far from Sciacca to the late eighth or early seventh centuries (p. 677), Falsone finds no convincing support for the position of Tusa and Moscati that a "precolonial" period of Phoenician contact with the island preceded Phoenician settlement. The earliest evidence for Phoenician settlement on Sicily falls between 850 and 730 B.C. The discussion of the ramparts of Eryx (pp . 686-87) will interest epigraphists as well as archaeologists. The tophet of Motya and the cult of Astarte Erycine receive brief but informative consideration. Falsone compares the rock-cut tombs of Palermo, Pizzo Cannita, Solonte, and Lilybaeum to the royal necropoli of Byblos and Sidon (p. 691). The discussion of ceramics is necessarily brief.
5.8. A. Ciasca's survey of Phoenician and Punic presence on the islands of Malta and Gozo condenses three decades of archaeological investigation and reflection since the Italian "Missione Malta" (1964-73). Phoenician presence on the island is characterized by strong integration with indigenous communities (cf. Cyprus) and a very limited productive economy (pp. 706-7). Ceramic change on Malta seems to have lagged behind developments in other western Phoenician settlements, with older ceramic forms in use for longer periods on the island (p. 709). The recurrence of geometric Greek skyphoi in tombs of Tal Liedna and Tas Silg links Malta with Carthage, Motye, Sulcis, and the Iberian peninsula (p. 710). Nothing is said about the Maltese language in relation to Phoenician-Punic.
5.9. C. Tronchetti's study of Sardinia is a work of archaeological synthesis. Phoenician settlement in Sardinia began about 750 B.C., probably at Sulcis, came under Carthaginian domination about 550 B.C., and effectively ended after the mercenary revolt of 238 B.C. (p. 712). The author's survey of previous archaeological investigation of Phoenician and Punic civilization in Sardinia (pp. 714-16) is clear and thorough, highlighting the rich Italian contribution to this area of research. About the "precolonial" phase (twelfth to ninth centuries B.C.), Tronchetti is cautious and nuanced. Discussion of the colonial period is specific and full. Accounts of the foundation of Sulcis (pp. 720-23) and Nora (pp. 723-24) give way to detailed discussions of pottery (no concessions to the novice) and burial practices. The cultural transition from "Phoenician" to "Punic" (= Carthaginian) is meticulously documented (pp. 728-36). Special attention goes to the emergence of Tharros as a center of artisanal and craft production (pp. 736-40). Evidence of cultural continuity in later phases of Sardinian society is treated more briefly.
5.10. H. Schubart treats Phoenician settlement in and influence on the Iberian peninsula. Phoenician settlement followed the well-known pattern of site selection: access to the sea is primary, and nearby river valleys provide access inland for commercial exploitation of the hinterlands (p. 747). Cadiz fits this pattern, located on a peninsula facing the mouth of the Guadalete River, with the Guadalquivir further north. Torre de Dona Blanca, an originally Tartessian site near the mouth of the Guadalete (Puerto de S. Maria is the nearby modern city), was a larger settlement open to Phoenician contact. Strong Phoenician influence continues northeastward to Huelva, radiating along the Algarve coast of modern Portugal. Excavations at Abul, near Setubal, Portugal, at the mouth of the Rio Sado, have uncovered a characteristically Phoenician settlement with occupation phases during the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.
Phoenician settlement flourished on the Mediterranean coast east of Gibraltar. El Villar, a hill that once was an island at the mouth of the Rio Guadalhorce, was a seventh-century settlement. At Malaga near the mouth of the Rio Guadalmedina stood another seventh-century settlement. East of Malaga, inland from Torre del Mar at the mouth of the Rio Velez, lay Toscanos. Seven kilometers east of Toscanos, on the east bank of the Rio Algarrobo, Morro de Mezquitilla was a Phoenician and later Punic settlement. The necropolis of Trayamar on the west bank of the Algarrobo shows use in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. Further east, Chorreras appears to have been a single-phase settlement of the eighth and seventh centuries. In Grenada, near the town of Almunecar, was a Phoenician settlement probably to be identified as ancient Sexi. Two necropolises, Cerro de S. Cristobal and Puente de Noy, are associated with this site. A small island east of Salobrena bears evidence of seventh-century Phoenician occupation. Site s near Adra, Villaricos, and Guardamar del Segura provide further evidence of Phpoenician coastal settlement to the east. Schubart considers the evidence from these settlements for urban planning, funerary practices, ceramic production and metallurgy, artistic and craft production, economic development, and cultural links.
5.11. Phoenician and Punic settlement on the Balearic islands is the subject of C. Gomez Bellard's excellent survey. Ibiza and Formentera, anciently called the Pithyuses, were the islands first settled by Phoenicians; Mallorca and Minorca saw Phoenician presence from about the fifth century. Attention is focused on Ibiza, beginning with a brief history of investigation. Phoenician settlement on Ibiza was unique, because the island had no earlier permanent settlement. Consequently, "... the cultural, economic, and social evolution would not be influenced in any manner by an indigenous substratum" (p. 765). Sa Caleta, on the southeastern coast, was the earliest settlement. The seventh-century site is large (about 4 hectares), with rectangular blocks of buildings separated by streets (p. 767). Sources of lead, and thus silver, nearby point to the purpose of the settlement. In the sixth century, Sa Caleta was abandoned without violence, and settlement transferred to the bay of Eivissa (Ibiza city). The plan of th e city on the hill of Puig de Vila is hardly discernible, but the hill of Puig du Molins is the site of one of the richest Phoenician-Punic necropolises. Covering nearly seven thousand square miles, more than a dozen incineration tombs have yielded Phoenician ceramics, imported ceramic ware, silver amulets, and other athyrmata (the Homeric term is Moscati's) in addition to osteological remains. Two important sanctuaries have been explored. On Illa Plana, a small island in the bay, stood a sanctuary where several dozen praying figures in Carthaginian style have been found (p. 769). On the northeast of the island of Ibiza, the natural grotto of Es Cuiram was frequented by worshipers who left hundreds of terracottas, many depicting a figure interpreted as a winged goddess Tanit. A lead plaque inscribed on both sides, (17) coins, and a quantity of ceramic ware have also been recovered there. Agricultural exploitation of Ibiza was limited mainly to oil and wine. A type of amphora almost exclusive to Ibiza was deve loped for the transport of oil; wine containers imitated contemporary Greek forms (pp. 770-71). The commercial expansion of Balearic trade by the beginning of the third century B.C. marked the onset of the late Punic period (p. 772). The period of the Punic wars did not produce marked cultural change before Roman conquest in 123 B.C., nor did Romanization entirely suppress the Punic language or cultural mores before Vespasian transformed the city of Ibiza into Municipium Flavium Ebusitanum, incorporated into the Provincia Terraconensis in 74 A.D.
5.12. Pliny the Elder reported that the temple of Heracles at Lixus on the Atlantic coast of Africa was even older than the corresponding temple of Gades (Cadiz). P. Rouillard summarizes what is known of Lixus, Mogador, and other Phoenician sites in contemporary Morocco. The main evidence from Lixus is red-slip ware datable to the seventh century B.C. (p. 779). Excavations at the site of Mogador, not far from modern Essaouira-Souira Jdida, have since 1950 produced amphoras, red-slip plates, lamps, and mushroom-lipped flasks similar to Andalusian corpora. Phoenician graffiti on some of the vases have been published. (18) The author considers at length the origin, nature, and duration of Punic presence and influence in Morocco (pp. 783-85).
5.13. S. Lancel surveys Phoenician settlement in Algeria, beginning from the island of Rashgun, the furthest western site, to Hippo Regius in the east (see fig. 1, p. 787). Brief summaries of the archaeological record along the Mediterranean coast are followed with evidence of Punic influence in the interior, and discussion of the importance of Siga in Punic-Numidian relations (pp. 788-93). Cirta-Constantine receives detailed attention. The persistence of Punic religious practices into the Christian period, and of spoken Neo-Punic well into the fifth century A.D., attests to the strength of Punic penetration in earlier records.
5.14. H. Ben Younes, surveying Phoenician and Punic presence in Tunisia, offers a sustained reflection on intercultural relations. The autochthonous population (here called "Libyans") is never far from view as the Phoenician superstratum holds our gaze. An important part of northern and west-central Tunisia belonged to the Numidian kingdom, and never knew the political dominance of Carthage (pp. 797-98). The early story of archaeological investigation in Tunisia is a frustrating tale of lost opportunity--the "demi-siecle obscur"-- imprecise records, few photographs, lost and robbed artifacts, and excavators whose knowledge died with them (pp. 796-97). National independence brought more archaeological accountability. Since 1964, a generation of Tunisian archaeologists has trained at Kerkouane. The 1972 inauguration of an international campaign to preserve the remains of Carthage returned the city to its proper prominence among pre-Roman sites in the Mediterranean world.
The chapter is a research monograph. Ben Younes undertakes a synthetic interpretation of Phoenician and Punic necropolis sites throughout Tunisia (pp. 801-8; map, fig. 1, p. 802). A "Punic entity" can be distinguished from a "Phoenician entity"; the distinction is also regional (p. 808). There is a comprehensive survey of Phoenician and Punic religious sanctuaries (pp. 811- 13; map, fig. 2, p. 812) followed by a reflection on the significance of the deity Baal Hammon (pp. 813-14). Steles receive full stylistic analysis by location: Carthage, Sousse, El-Kenissia, and northern and west-central sites (pp. 814-19). The artistic canons of Hadrumetum (Sousse) are completely different from those of Carthage, and continue without significant variation over the course of six centuries (p. 814). El-Kenissia, by contrast, witnesses a degenerative vulgarization of Phoenician motifs (p. 816). The Punic votive formula bym [n.sup.[subset]]m wbrk is mistranslated "au jour heureux, ce jour-ci" (correct to "au jour heureux et beni"), and the assertion that the religious sentiment expressed in such formulas arises from the indigenous Libyan spirit (p. 819) requires textual validation. The identity of the ancient Libyphoenicians is explored through attention to toponymy (the majority of toponyms are non-Phoenician), onomastics, language contact (accepting A. Ferjaoui's argument that the attenuation of laryngeals in late Punic is the result of substrate influence from Libyan), and funerary practices (fetal-position and lateral inhumations) (pp. 820-24). The chapter closes with a sustained comparison of Carthage and Kerkouane as examples of Phoenician-Punic urban planning (pp. 824-27).
5.15. M. Longerstay's survey of Libya is the book's final chapter. Supplied with two maps, a site plan, and three archaeological drawings, the article presents major sites (Lepcis, Oea, Sabratha, pp. 828-36) and a historical sketch (pp. 837-38). Libyan civilization is studied through art and architecture (pp. 838-41) and cults and cult sites (pp. 841-43; note the distinctive pantheons of Tripolitania, p. 843). Oddly, the discussion of the so-called Latino-Punic inscriptions of the third and fourth centuries A.D. ignores the numerous publications of C. R. Krahmalkov, the acknowledged master of this corpus. (19)
6. FINAL REMARKS
It is difficult to assess the strengths and weaknesses of such a large and various collection as this. For the specialist, the constraints of format are often frustrations. More is desired precisely where more cannot be given. For the student (and I am thinking particularly of graduate students in American and Canadian universities), La civilisation phenicienne et punique provides a nearly complete and bibliographically thorough vade mecum to a perplexing field. To the general historian, the volume offers an alternative history of the Mediterranean before Rome, balancing the hellenocentric narratives that have so long determined the shape of "Western" civilization. In a time of multicultural curiosity, this work documents the culturally plural roots of circum-Mediterranean societies. Finally, this volume demonstrates the value of responsible specialization. Lifetimes of scholarly care and effort, often unmarked and little rewarded, have yielded the disparate lines of evidence brought together in these pages. As a record of scholarship, it will remain itself a monument. As a tool for students, it will serve a generation. The editor and contributors deserve our thanks and gratitude.
This is a review article of: La civilisation phenicienne et punique: Manuel de recherche. Edited by VERONIQUE KRINGS. Handbuch der Orientalistik, section 1: Near and Middle East, vol. 20. Leiden: BRILL, 1995. Pp. xx + 923, plates. $248.75. Bibliographical abbreviations follow the usage of the volume under review.
(1.) Thirteen contributors (about forty percent) composed their essays in Italian, three in German, one in Spanish, one in English. These contributions were translated into French (p. xx).
(2.) RANL ser. 8, 18 (1963): 483-506. Moscati trained as an Arabist with G. Levi Della Vida (see E. Acquaro, S. Pernigotti, and G. Garbini, Sabatino Moscati: Bibliografia degli scritti 1943-1991 [Monografie di SEAP, Series Minor, vol. 3; Pisa: Giardini, 1992], esp. pp. 2, 13-22). He was also the author of articles and monographs concerning Semitic linguistics (Bibliografia, nos. 14, 40, 58, 65, 70, 83, 90, 120, 123, 125, 130, 131, 132, 149, 162, 166, 175) and excavation reports, surveys, and introductory as well as technical volumes on archaeological method (nos. 164, 173, 176, 179, 188, 189, 192, 195, 197, 208, 214, 221, 236, 255, 261, 307, 318, 321, 328, 337, 338, 365, 371, 372, 379, 391, 397, 415, 420, 422, 429, 442, 443, 495, 506). Moscati's autobiographical statement is Sulle vie del passato: Cinqueant'anni di studi, incontri, scoperte (Milan: Jaca Book, 1990).
(3.) Moscati, Problematica della civilta fenica (Rome: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 1974); "La questione fenicia: venti anni dopo," in Diacronia sincronia e cultura: Saggi linguistici in onore di Luigi Heilmann (Brescia: La Scuola, 1984), 37-44; "Les Pheniciens reconsidere," in Phoinikeia grammata: Lire et ecrire en Mediterrane. Actes du Colloque de Liege. 15-18 novembre 1989, ed. C. Baurain, C. Bonnet, and V. Krings (Namur: Societe des Etudes classiques, 1991), 3-17; Chi furono i fenici (Turin: S.E.I., 1992); Nuovi studi sull'identita fenicia (Rome: Herder, 1993).
(4.) "L'Eta della sintesi," Rivista di Studi Fenici 23 (1995) 127-46.
(5.) A new edition of the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum is in preparation.
(6.) In the first two sections, several topics are divided into separate articles, "partim Orient" and "partim Occident."
(7.) Her survey of Cyprus does not mention at least seventy-three Phoenician inscriptions written in ink on gypsum, found in 1993 at Idalion. The texts are mentioned later in the volume (p. 619). Announced too late for mention in the volume under review was the large eighth-century steta bearing a Phoenician inscription that E. Carter discovered at Injirli in SE Turkey in 1993, now housed in the Gaziantep Museum. The Phoenician text is being prepared for publication by S. Kaufman and B. Zuckerman (see <http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/nelcstelasite/stelainfo.html>).
(8.) Add to the bibliographical citations M. L. Barre, The GodList in the Treaty between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedonia: A Study in Light of the Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Tradition (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1983).
(9.) Not mentioned is the physical evidence of papyrus documents and archives. For Carthage, see J. Vercoutter, "Empreints de sceaux egyptiens a Carthage," Cahiers de Byrsa 2 (1952): 37-48 and pls. 1-5; F. Rakob, "Ein punisches Heiligtum in Karthago und sein romischer Nachfolgebau," RM 98 (1991): 38-80, esp. 59-61 (listed in bibliography, p. 892); D. Berges, "Die Tonsiegel aus dem karthagischen Tempelarchiv: Vorbericht," RM 100 (1993): 245-68 and pls. 60-68 (appeared too late to be included in the bibliography).
(10.) The Tell [Ta.sup.[contains]]yinat temple has long been compared. More recently, the larger [Ain.sup.[subset]] Dara temple, excavated 1980-85 (A. Abu Assaf, Der Tempel von [Ain.sup.[subset]] Dara [Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1990]), has been called "the most significant parallel to Solomon's Temple ever discovered" (J. Monson, "The New [Ain.sup.[subset]] Dara Temple: Closest Solomonic Parallel," BARev 26.3 (May/June 2000): 20-35, 67; the citation is from p. 22).
(11.) See also Fonti classiche per la civilta fenicia e punica, vol. 1: Fonti letterarie greche dalle origini alla fine dell'eta classica (Rome, 1988), ed. F. Mazza, S. Ribichini, P. Xella; a second volume is in preparation.
(12.) See now Mercedes Vegas, "Eine archaische Keramikfullung aus einem Haus am Kardo XIII in Karthago," RM 106 (1999): 395-438; La Cartago fenicio-punica, ed. M. Vegas (Barcelona: AUSA, 1998).
(13.) See now D. Conrad, "Stempelabdruck eines Schiffes vom Tell el-Fuhhar (Tel Akko)," in Periplus: Festschrift fur Hans-Gunter Buchholz zu seinem achtzigstem Gebrutstag am 24. Dezember 1999, ed. P Astrom and D. Surenhagen (Jonsered: Paul Astroms Forlag.
(14.) The reviewer observed two glass aryballoi displayed in the Historical Museum of Ukraine in Kiev (March 31, 1994). Both were core-made, executed in the tricolor style (yellow, white, and cobalt blue) with zig-zag or drapery pattern characteristic of Phoenician and Punic manufacture. There is also an aryballos probably of Punic manufacture on display at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto (it is labeled "E. Aegean, 500-450 B.c."; museum no. 950.157.17).
(15.) A. Lemaire, "Essai sur cinq sceaux pheniciens inedits," Semitica 27 (1977): 29-40, published five seals with similar script, all with legends including Anatolian personal names and the construction hbrk, also known from Karatepe. N. Avigad and B. Sass, A Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities; Israel Exploration Society; Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University, 1997) have republished these as no. 717 (= Lemaire, no. 2), no. 718 (= Lemaire, no. 5), no. 720 (= Lemaire, no. 4), no. 722 (= Lemaire, no. 1), and no. 723 (= Lemaire, no. 3). The script is closely paralleled in their no. 714 (Israel Museum 73. 19.35), with the legend lmwtls hrpd(?) (the reading is based on Lemaire's 1994 examination of the seal [p. 265]).
(16.) The authenticity of this group of five seals is dubious. P. Bordreuil, "Sceaux inscrits des pays du Levant," supplement au Dictionnaire de la Bible 11 fasc. 66, col. 137, says regarding his own examination of two of the seals in the collection of the Bibliotheque Nationale, "la gravure denote certainment une fabrication recent." Avigad and Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals, 265, ask whether comparison with the Israel Museum seal makes that doubt more difficult to sustain.
(17.) M. G. Guzzo Amadasi, Le iscrizioni fenicie e puniche delle colonie in occidente (Rome: Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente, 1967), 143-45 (Spa. 10).
(18.) J.-G. Fevrier, G. Galand, and G. Vaijda, Inscriptions antiques du Maroc (Paris, 1966), 109-23 (nos. 22-122). For Lixus, 125-29 (nos. 123-24).
(19.) J. Friedrich and W. Rolling, Phonizische-Punische Grammatik, 3d ed., revised by M. G. Amadasi Guzzo and W. R. Mayer (Rome: Editrice Pontificio Biblico, 1999), xxxviii (with bibliography and discussion).
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|Author:||Schmitz, Philip C.|
|Publication:||The Journal of the American Oriental Society|
|Article Type:||Book Review|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2001|
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