A preliminary list of larger fungi from Kingwood Forest northeast of Houston, Texas.
Reports on the fungal flora of the state of Texas include Theirs (1959a; 1959b; 1959c), Lewis et al. (1981), Lewis & MacGraw (1984), Singer et al. (1990) and Rodham & Lewis (1994). Metzler & Metzler (1992) recently listed 120 agarics and allied fungi in their field guide. Considering the vast and diverse geographical situations, vegetational types and climatic conditions of Texas, a much more complex and varied fungal composition is expected to be present. For example, Miller (1993) descriped a new species of Cortinarius from southeast Texas and Abraham & Loeblich (1993) has reported Gymnopilus palmicola Murr. colonizing the adventitious roots of the ornamental palm Sabal palmetto (Wal.: Lod. & Schul.) from Galveston. This complexity could be attributed to the introduced fungal elements of diverse origin (such as African, European and South American) interacting with the indigenous fungal components, often introduced along with their hosts such as pine, eucalyptus or palm.
Although there are several forests in and around the city of Houston such as Kingwood, Friendswood, Woodlands, etc., fungi occurring in these forests have not been studied and are therefore poorly understood. Most of these forests are semi-inhabited and subjected to considerable pressures of various nature. Human activities such as extension of residential areas, construction of roads, swimming pools, recreational activities, etc., exert increasing pressures on both flora and fauna. Extensive pressures of abiotic and edaphic nature especially from the ever increasing industrial pollution could lead to the elimination of several useful fungi and bring others to the verge of extinction. No serious attempts have been made to study the fungal resources which directly contribute to the good forest standing of this region. This study was undertaken to survey the fungal flora of Kingwood Forest and document the macro fungi in relation to the tree communities (where the interaction is often either mycorrhizal or parasitic). It is intended that this information on occurrence, distribution and frequency of species would be of benefit in formulating future conservation measures.
METHODS AND SPECIES LIST
This study was conducted during the months of June and July 1993 in Kingwood Forest, a mixed deciduous coniferous forest situated 25 miles NE of the city of Houston, Texas. A total of 250 collections were made and 152 specimens were identified to their specific level. A broad spectrum of the fungal composition of Kingwood Forest is presented. The species are arranged in alphabetical order within families following Singer (1986). The habitat of each species is given as duff, dung, lignicolous and soil (or combinations thereof). The frequency of occurrence of each species is given as infrequent, common or abundant (and widespread). All specimens are deposited with the holdings of the Mycological Herbarium of Texas Southern University (MHTSU).
The structure and composition of the Kingwood fungal flora is similar to Florida and neighboring states as well as the Big Thicket area of east Texas (see Lewis et al. 1981; 1984). Most of the mycorrhizal species, especially members of Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Cortinariaceae and Russulaceae, are an integral part of this ecosystem which also contributes to a comparatively stable and balanced species diversity in Kingwood Forest in spite of increasing environmental pressures.
The mycorrhizal species outnumber other agarics in this study. Members of the Ascomycetes are not absent in Kingwood Forest but their poor representation in this study is probably due to the time and season of the collection. These as well as other fungi belonging to the Gasteromycetes and Polyporaceae probably do occur in the area but were neither collected nor encountered. Additional studies of the area are needed to verify the presence of these additional species.
Amanita flavaconia, A. livida and A. pubescens and several members of Boletes and members of Russulaceae are of temperate origin while the impact of the tropical and Mexican (South American) species are obvious in the increasing numbers of Pleurotus, Panus, Lentinus and allied species. Most of the agarics collected are temperate in habitat which appear similar in all respects to their European counterparts. Therefore certain connections could be drawn with fungal floras of neighboring continents. Some species such as Laccaria laccata, Volvariella speciosa (and closely related members V. bombycina and Pholiota squrrosa) as well as some of the brown-spored members of Cortinariaceae and the whole spectrum of white-spored Tricolomataceae would be expected to occur in this area of east Texas.
SPECIES MHTSU HABITAT RELATIVE HEBARIUM # FREQUENCY Family Agaricaceae Agaricus campestris (Fr.) 1020 soil/duff common Agaricus micromegathus Peck 1062 soil/duff infrequent Agaricus meleagris J. Shaffer 1070 duff/soil infrequent Agaricus rhoadsii Murril 1088 soil/duff infrequent Agaricus sylvaticus (Vitt.) Fr. 1003 duff/soil common Agaricus xanthodermoides Murr. 1121 soil/duff common Agaricus langei (Moll.) Moll. 1039 soil/duff infrequent Agaricus lanipes (Moll.: 1046 duff/soil infrequent Schaff.) Sing. Agaricus subperonatus (Lange) 1117 soil/duff infrequent Sing. Family Amanitaceae Amanita bisporigera Atk. 1129 soil/duff infrequent Amanita brunnescens Atk. 1042 soil/duff infrequent Amanita caesaria (Scop.) Pers. 1140 soil/duff common Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) S.F. 1026 duff/soil common Gray Amanita flavaconia Atk. 1031 duff/soil abundant Amanita farinosa Schw. 1090 duff/soil infrequent Amanita rubescens (Pers.:Fr.) 1004 duff/soil common S.F. Gray Amanita spissa (Fr.) Quel. 1116 soil/duff common Amanita porphyria (A. & S.:Fr.) 1150 soil/duff infrequent Sear. Amanita pantherina (DC.:Fr.) 1044 soil/duff common Sec. Amanita vaginata (Bull.:Fr.) 1077 soil/duff common Vitt. Amanita verna (Bull.) Lamk. 1018 duff/soil infrequent Amanita lividia S.F. Gray 1079 soil/duff infrequent Amanita fulva (Sch.) Seyot 1134 soil/duff infrequent Amanita pubescens Schw. 1111 soil/duff infrequent Family Bolbitiaceae Agrocybe pediades (Fr.)Fayod 1081 soil/duff common Agrocybe vervacti (Fr.)Singer 1002 duff/soil common Agrocybe semiorbicularis 1035 soil/duff common (Bull.) Fayod Bolbitius vitellinus (Per.:Fr.) 1038 soil/duff common Fr. Conocybe aurea (J. Schaeff.) 1132 soil/duff common Hongo Conocybe tenera Wat. 1009 duff/soil common Conocybe semiglobata (Kunher) 1072 duff/soil common Kunher & Watlng Conocybe glabra (Murril) Wat. 1011 soil/duff infrequent Family Boletaceae Boletus communis Fr. 1126 soil/duff infrequent Boletus erythropus (Fr.) 1087 soil/duff common Kromb. Boletus badius Fr. 1029 soil/duff infrequent Boletus piperatus Fr. 1016 duff/soil infrequent Boletus reticulatus Peck 1078 soil/duff infrequent Boletus pulverulentus Opat. 1071 soil/duff infrequent Boletus impolitus Fr. 1124 soil/duff infrequent Chalciporus piperatus (Bull.: 1101 duff/soil infrequent Fr.)Singer Gyroporus cynescens (Fr.) Quel. 1073 soil/duff common Leccinum Scabrum Smith & Theirs 1145 soil/duff infrequent Leccinum albellum (Peck.) 1025 soil/duff infrequent Singer Tylopilus tabacinus (Peck.) 1099 duff/soil abundant Singer Suillus tomentosus (Kauff.) 1037 soil/duff common Singer, Snell & Dick Suillus frostii Murr. 1055 soil/duff common Suillus lakei (Murr.) Smith & 1092 duff/soil infrequent Theirs Austroboletus gracilis (Pk.) 1119 soil/duff infrequent Wolfe. Xerocomus spadiceus (Fr.) Quel. 1013 soil/duff infrequent Family Cantharellaceae Cantharellus cibarius Fr. 1057 soil/duff common Cantharellus cinnabarnius Schw. 1122 soil/duff abundant Family Coprinaceae Coprinus sterquillinus (Fr.) 1125 soil infrequent Fr. Coprinus plicatus (Curt.:Fr.) 1142 soil infrequent Fr. Coprinus lagopus Karst. 1006 soil infrequent Leucocoprinus fragilissimus 1034 soil/duff common (Berk. & Curt.) Pat Leucocoprinus birnbaumii 1097 soil/duff common (Corda) Singer Copelandia cynescens (B. & 1007 soil infrequent Br.) Sacc. Panaeolus semiovatus (Sow.: 1067 dung/soil common Fr.) Lundell Panaeolus accuminatus Quel. 1033 soil common Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr.) 1128 soil common Quel. Psathyrella conodolleana(Fr.) 1014 soil/duff common Maire Psathyrella gracilis (Fr.) 1131 duff/soil infrequent Quel. Psathyrella companulatus 1017 soil/duff infrequent (Bull.:Fr.) Quel. Psathyrella conopilus (Fr.) 1036 soil/duff infrequent Pears. & Dennis Family Cortinariaceae Gymnopilus penetrans (Fr.:Fr.) 1093 lignicolous infrequent Murr. Inocybe fastigiata (Schaeff.: 1027 soil common Fr.) Quel. Inocybe maculata Bond. 1005 soil infrequent Inocybe geophylla (Sow.:Fr.) 1115 soil infrequent Kummer Galerina sp. 1032 lignicolous infrequent Hebeloma testacea (Batsch.:Fr.) 1113 soil/duff infrequent Quel. Crepidotus applanatus(Pers.: 1041 lignicolous infrequent Pers.) Kum. Pholiota curvipes (Fr.) Quel. 1075 lignicolous infrequent Pholiota graminis (Quel.) 1063 lignicolous infrequent Singer Hypholoma fasiculare (Huds.: 1015 lignicolous infrequent Fr.) Karst Family Entolomataceae Entoloma mougeotii (Fr.) Hesler 1008 soil/duff common Entoloma nitidum Quel.) 1051 duff/soil common Entoloma strictus (Pk.) Sacc. 1052 duff/soil infrequent Entoloma serrulatum (Fr.) Hes. 1069 duff/soil infrequent Family Gomphidiaceae Chroogomphus vinicolor O.K. 1021 duff/soil common Miller Family Lentinellaceae Lentinus strigosus (Schew.) Fr. 1001 lignicolous abundant Lentinus lepideus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. 1010 lignicolous common Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.:Fr.) 1082 lignicolous infrequent Fr. Panellus stipticus (Fr.) Karst. 1012 lignicolous infrequent Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) 1019 lignicolous common Kummer Pleurotus platypus (Cke. & 1028 lignicolous infrequent Mass.) Sacc. Family Lepiotaceae Lepiota americana Peck 1089 soil common Lepiota procera (Fr.) S.F. Gray 1022 soil/duff common Lepiota humei Murr. 1068 duff/soil infrequent Lepiota clypeolaria (Bull.:Fr.) 1091 soil/duff infrequent Kummer Chlorophyllum molybdites (Fr.) 1074 soil/duff abundant Sacc Leucoagaricus nauceus (Fr.) 1076 soil infrequent Singer Family Pluteaceae Pluteus cervinus (Schaeffer. 1105 lignicolous common Fr.) Kummer Pluteus burserae Singer 1065 soil infrequent Family Russulaceae Lactarius controversus (Fr.: 1023 soil/duff infrequent Fr.) Fr. Lactarius hygrophoroides Beck & 1030 soil infrequent Curt. Lactarius corrugis Peck 1110 soil/duff infrequent Lactarius indigo (Schw.) Fr. 1024 soil/duff abundant Lactarius maculatipes Burl. 1056 soil infrequent Lactarius piperatus (Fr.) S.F. 1102 soil/duff infrequent Gray Lactarius volemus (Fr.) Fr. 1106 duff/soil infrequent Russula brevipes Peck. 1135 duff/soil abundant Russula emetica group 1107 soil common Russula foetens (Fr.) Fr. 1096 soil/duff common Russula laeta Moll. 1084 soil infrequent Russula maculata Quel. 1054 soil/duff infrequent Family Schizophyllaceae Schizophyllum communue Fr. 1047 lignicolous common Family Strophariaceae Stropharia ambigua (Pk.) Zel. 1043 soil abundant Psilocybe coprophila (Bull.: 1085 dung common Fr.) Kummer Psilocybe semilanceata 1114 duff/soil infrequent (Batsch:Fr.) Quel. Family Tricholomataceae Armillaria mellea (Fr.) Karst. 1058 lignicolous common Collybia butyracea (Fr.) Quel. 1123 soil/ lignicolous common Collybia dryophylla (Fr.) 1094 lignicolous/ Kummer soil infrequent Collybia gibba (Pers.) Kummer 1053 soil/duff infrequent Collybia personata (Fr.) Orton 1048 soil common Clitocybe flaccida (Fr.) Quel. 1080 soil infrequent Mycena clavicularis (Fr.) 1130 soil infrequent Gillet Mycena pura (Fr.) Kummer 1133 soil infrequent Mycena overholtsii Smith & 1136 soil infrequent Solheim Mycena maculata Karst 1149 soil/duff common Mycena tintinabulum (Fr.) Quel 1138 duff/soil common Mycena polygramma (Bull.) S.F. 1156 soil infrequent Gray Hohenbulia peltaloides(Berk) 1127 lignicolous/ Singer duff common Panus crinitus (L.: Fr.) Singer 1059 lignicolous infrequent Trocholoma portentosum (Fr.) 1155 soil/duff infrequent Quel Tricholomospsis sp. 1139 soil infrequent Melanoleuca psuedoluscina Bon. 1157 soil infrequent Family Polyporaceae Clavulina coniculata Fr. 1159 duff/ common lignicolous Coltricia perennis Fr. 1147 lignicolous common Cerrena unicolor Fr. 1141 lignicolous common Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolt.) 1153 lignicolous common Schroet Daedaleopsis tricolor Fr. 1143 lignicolous common Fomes formentarius (Fr.) Kick 1146 lignicolous common Fomitopsis pinicola (Fr.) Kar. 1148 lignicolous common Ganoderma applantum (Fr.: 1152 lignicolous common Wall.) Pat. Ganoderma tsugae Murr. 1152A lignicolous abundant Gleophyllum sepiarium (Fr.) 1086 lignicolous infrequent Karst Hydnum imbricatum Fr. 1154 lignicolous infrequent Hydnum repandum L. 1158 lignicolous infrequent Lenzites betulina (L.) Fr. 1040 lignicolous common Mycorrhaphium adustum (Wild.) 1100 lignicolous infrequent Karst. Polyporus brumalis Fr. 1103 lignicolous common Stereum unicolor (Wild.) S.F. 1104 lignicolous infrequent Gray Trametes versicolor (L) Pil. 1060 lignicolous abundant Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr. 1108 lignicolous common (L.) Family Gasteromyceae Bovista radicata Berk. & Curt 1049 soil/duff common Geastrum saccatum Fr. 1050 duff/soil infrequent Geastrum pectinatum Pers. 1095 soil/duff infrequent Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff.: 1118 duff/soil common Fr. Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. 1098 duff/soil infrequent Scledroderma citrinum Pers. 1109 duff/soil common Scledroderma veruucosum 1061 duff/soil infrequent Bull.:Pers. Pisolithus tinctorus (Pers.) 1083 duff/soil abundant Cok. & Couch
Abraham, S. P. & A. Loeblich. 1995. Gymnopilus palmicola, a lignicolous Basidiomycetes growing on Adventitious roots of palm (Sabal palmetto) in Texas. Principe, 39(2):84-88.
Lewis, D. P. & J. L. MacGraw. 1981. Agaricales, family Amanitaceae of the Big Thicket. The Southwestern Naturalist, 26(1):1-4.
Lewis, D. P. & J. L. MacGraw. 1984. Studies on Big Thicket Agaricales. The Southwestern Naturalist, 29(3):257-264.
Metzler, S. & V. Metzler. 1992. Texas Mushrooms--a field guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, 350 pp.
Miller, O. K. 1993. A new Cortinarius species from SE Texas. Mycotaxon, 47:461-466.
Tuloss, Rodham & D. P. Lewis. 1994. Amanita westii--taxonomy and distribution. A rare species from states bordering the Gulf Mexico. Mycotaxon, 50:131-138.
Singer, R., C. L. Ovrebo & D. P. Lewis. 1990. A new species of Melanophalia (Crepidotaceae). Mycotaxon, 37:47-52.
Singer, R. 1986. Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy. 4th Ed. Koeltz, Koenigstein.
Theirs, H. D. 1959. The Agaric flora of Texas-1. New species of agarics and boletes. Mycologia, 49:707-722.
Theirs, H. D. 1959. The Agaric flora of Texas II New Taxa of white and pink-spored agarics. Mycologia, 50:514-523.
Theirs, H. D. 1959. The Agaric flora of Texas III. New taxa of brown-spored agarics. Mycologia, 51:529-540.
O. A. Jejelowo and S. P. Abraham
Department of Biology, Texas Southern University
Houston, Texas 77004
OAJ at: email@example.com
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|Author:||Jejelowo, O.A.; Abraham, S.P.|
|Publication:||The Texas Journal of Science|
|Date:||May 1, 1998|
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