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A preliminary list of larger fungi from Kingwood Forest northeast of Houston, Texas.

Abstract. -- A preliminary survey of the larger fungi occurring in Kingwood Forest of southeast Texas is presented. A total of 152 species in 18 different families are reported. The habitat and frequency of occurrence of each species is given. A review of additional regional studies is also presented.


Reports on the fungal flora of the state of Texas include Theirs (1959a; 1959b; 1959c), Lewis et al. (1981), Lewis & MacGraw (1984), Singer et al. (1990) and Rodham & Lewis (1994). Metzler & Metzler (1992) recently listed 120 agarics and allied fungi in their field guide. Considering the vast and diverse geographical situations, vegetational types and climatic conditions of Texas, a much more complex and varied fungal composition is expected to be present. For example, Miller (1993) descriped a new species of Cortinarius from southeast Texas and Abraham & Loeblich (1993) has reported Gymnopilus palmicola Murr. colonizing the adventitious roots of the ornamental palm Sabal palmetto (Wal.: Lod. & Schul.) from Galveston. This complexity could be attributed to the introduced fungal elements of diverse origin (such as African, European and South American) interacting with the indigenous fungal components, often introduced along with their hosts such as pine, eucalyptus or palm.

Although there are several forests in and around the city of Houston such as Kingwood, Friendswood, Woodlands, etc., fungi occurring in these forests have not been studied and are therefore poorly understood. Most of these forests are semi-inhabited and subjected to considerable pressures of various nature. Human activities such as extension of residential areas, construction of roads, swimming pools, recreational activities, etc., exert increasing pressures on both flora and fauna. Extensive pressures of abiotic and edaphic nature especially from the ever increasing industrial pollution could lead to the elimination of several useful fungi and bring others to the verge of extinction. No serious attempts have been made to study the fungal resources which directly contribute to the good forest standing of this region. This study was undertaken to survey the fungal flora of Kingwood Forest and document the macro fungi in relation to the tree communities (where the interaction is often either mycorrhizal or parasitic). It is intended that this information on occurrence, distribution and frequency of species would be of benefit in formulating future conservation measures.


This study was conducted during the months of June and July 1993 in Kingwood Forest, a mixed deciduous coniferous forest situated 25 miles NE of the city of Houston, Texas. A total of 250 collections were made and 152 specimens were identified to their specific level. A broad spectrum of the fungal composition of Kingwood Forest is presented. The species are arranged in alphabetical order within families following Singer (1986). The habitat of each species is given as duff, dung, lignicolous and soil (or combinations thereof). The frequency of occurrence of each species is given as infrequent, common or abundant (and widespread). All specimens are deposited with the holdings of the Mycological Herbarium of Texas Southern University (MHTSU).


The structure and composition of the Kingwood fungal flora is similar to Florida and neighboring states as well as the Big Thicket area of east Texas (see Lewis et al. 1981; 1984). Most of the mycorrhizal species, especially members of Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Cortinariaceae and Russulaceae, are an integral part of this ecosystem which also contributes to a comparatively stable and balanced species diversity in Kingwood Forest in spite of increasing environmental pressures.

The mycorrhizal species outnumber other agarics in this study. Members of the Ascomycetes are not absent in Kingwood Forest but their poor representation in this study is probably due to the time and season of the collection. These as well as other fungi belonging to the Gasteromycetes and Polyporaceae probably do occur in the area but were neither collected nor encountered. Additional studies of the area are needed to verify the presence of these additional species.

Amanita flavaconia, A. livida and A. pubescens and several members of Boletes and members of Russulaceae are of temperate origin while the impact of the tropical and Mexican (South American) species are obvious in the increasing numbers of Pleurotus, Panus, Lentinus and allied species. Most of the agarics collected are temperate in habitat which appear similar in all respects to their European counterparts. Therefore certain connections could be drawn with fungal floras of neighboring continents. Some species such as Laccaria laccata, Volvariella speciosa (and closely related members V. bombycina and Pholiota squrrosa) as well as some of the brown-spored members of Cortinariaceae and the whole spectrum of white-spored Tricolomataceae would be expected to occur in this area of east Texas.

Family Agaricaceae
 Agaricus campestris (Fr.) 1020 soil/duff common
 Agaricus micromegathus Peck 1062 soil/duff infrequent
 Agaricus meleagris J. Shaffer 1070 duff/soil infrequent
 Agaricus rhoadsii Murril 1088 soil/duff infrequent
 Agaricus sylvaticus (Vitt.) Fr. 1003 duff/soil common
 Agaricus xanthodermoides Murr. 1121 soil/duff common
 Agaricus langei (Moll.) Moll. 1039 soil/duff infrequent
 Agaricus lanipes (Moll.: 1046 duff/soil infrequent
 Schaff.) Sing.
 Agaricus subperonatus (Lange) 1117 soil/duff infrequent

Family Amanitaceae
 Amanita bisporigera Atk. 1129 soil/duff infrequent
 Amanita brunnescens Atk. 1042 soil/duff infrequent
 Amanita caesaria (Scop.) Pers. 1140 soil/duff common
 Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) S.F. 1026 duff/soil common
 Amanita flavaconia Atk. 1031 duff/soil abundant
 Amanita farinosa Schw. 1090 duff/soil infrequent
 Amanita rubescens (Pers.:Fr.) 1004 duff/soil common
 S.F. Gray
 Amanita spissa (Fr.) Quel. 1116 soil/duff common
 Amanita porphyria (A. & S.:Fr.) 1150 soil/duff infrequent
 Amanita pantherina (DC.:Fr.) 1044 soil/duff common
 Amanita vaginata (Bull.:Fr.) 1077 soil/duff common
 Amanita verna (Bull.) Lamk. 1018 duff/soil infrequent
 Amanita lividia S.F. Gray 1079 soil/duff infrequent
 Amanita fulva (Sch.) Seyot 1134 soil/duff infrequent
 Amanita pubescens Schw. 1111 soil/duff infrequent

Family Bolbitiaceae
 Agrocybe pediades (Fr.)Fayod 1081 soil/duff common
 Agrocybe vervacti (Fr.)Singer 1002 duff/soil common
 Agrocybe semiorbicularis 1035 soil/duff common
 (Bull.) Fayod
 Bolbitius vitellinus (Per.:Fr.) 1038 soil/duff common
 Conocybe aurea (J. Schaeff.) 1132 soil/duff common
 Conocybe tenera Wat. 1009 duff/soil common
 Conocybe semiglobata (Kunher) 1072 duff/soil common
 Kunher & Watlng
 Conocybe glabra (Murril) Wat. 1011 soil/duff infrequent

Family Boletaceae
 Boletus communis Fr. 1126 soil/duff infrequent
 Boletus erythropus (Fr.) 1087 soil/duff common
 Boletus badius Fr. 1029 soil/duff infrequent
 Boletus piperatus Fr. 1016 duff/soil infrequent
 Boletus reticulatus Peck 1078 soil/duff infrequent
 Boletus pulverulentus Opat. 1071 soil/duff infrequent
 Boletus impolitus Fr. 1124 soil/duff infrequent
 Chalciporus piperatus (Bull.: 1101 duff/soil infrequent
 Gyroporus cynescens (Fr.) Quel. 1073 soil/duff common
 Leccinum Scabrum Smith & Theirs 1145 soil/duff infrequent
 Leccinum albellum (Peck.) 1025 soil/duff infrequent
 Tylopilus tabacinus (Peck.) 1099 duff/soil abundant
 Suillus tomentosus (Kauff.) 1037 soil/duff common
 Singer, Snell & Dick
 Suillus frostii Murr. 1055 soil/duff common
 Suillus lakei (Murr.) Smith & 1092 duff/soil infrequent
 Austroboletus gracilis (Pk.) 1119 soil/duff infrequent
 Xerocomus spadiceus (Fr.) Quel. 1013 soil/duff infrequent

Family Cantharellaceae
 Cantharellus cibarius Fr. 1057 soil/duff common
 Cantharellus cinnabarnius Schw. 1122 soil/duff abundant

Family Coprinaceae
 Coprinus sterquillinus (Fr.) 1125 soil infrequent
 Coprinus plicatus (Curt.:Fr.) 1142 soil infrequent
 Coprinus lagopus Karst. 1006 soil infrequent
 Leucocoprinus fragilissimus 1034 soil/duff common
 (Berk. & Curt.) Pat
 Leucocoprinus birnbaumii 1097 soil/duff common
 (Corda) Singer
 Copelandia cynescens (B. & 1007 soil infrequent
 Br.) Sacc.
 Panaeolus semiovatus (Sow.: 1067 dung/soil common
 Fr.) Lundell
 Panaeolus accuminatus Quel. 1033 soil common
 Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr.) 1128 soil common
 Psathyrella conodolleana(Fr.) 1014 soil/duff common
 Psathyrella gracilis (Fr.) 1131 duff/soil infrequent
 Psathyrella companulatus 1017 soil/duff infrequent
 (Bull.:Fr.) Quel.
 Psathyrella conopilus (Fr.) 1036 soil/duff infrequent
 Pears. & Dennis

Family Cortinariaceae
 Gymnopilus penetrans (Fr.:Fr.) 1093 lignicolous infrequent
 Inocybe fastigiata (Schaeff.: 1027 soil common
 Fr.) Quel.
 Inocybe maculata Bond. 1005 soil infrequent
 Inocybe geophylla (Sow.:Fr.) 1115 soil infrequent
 Galerina sp. 1032 lignicolous infrequent
 Hebeloma testacea (Batsch.:Fr.) 1113 soil/duff infrequent
 Crepidotus applanatus(Pers.: 1041 lignicolous infrequent
 Pers.) Kum.
 Pholiota curvipes (Fr.) Quel. 1075 lignicolous infrequent
 Pholiota graminis (Quel.) 1063 lignicolous infrequent
 Hypholoma fasiculare (Huds.: 1015 lignicolous infrequent
 Fr.) Karst

Family Entolomataceae
 Entoloma mougeotii (Fr.) Hesler 1008 soil/duff common
 Entoloma nitidum Quel.) 1051 duff/soil common
 Entoloma strictus (Pk.) Sacc. 1052 duff/soil infrequent
 Entoloma serrulatum (Fr.) Hes. 1069 duff/soil infrequent

Family Gomphidiaceae
 Chroogomphus vinicolor O.K. 1021 duff/soil common

Family Lentinellaceae
 Lentinus strigosus (Schew.) Fr. 1001 lignicolous abundant
 Lentinus lepideus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. 1010 lignicolous common
 Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.:Fr.) 1082 lignicolous infrequent
 Panellus stipticus (Fr.) Karst. 1012 lignicolous infrequent
 Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) 1019 lignicolous common
 Pleurotus platypus (Cke. & 1028 lignicolous infrequent
 Mass.) Sacc.

Family Lepiotaceae
 Lepiota americana Peck 1089 soil common
 Lepiota procera (Fr.) S.F. Gray 1022 soil/duff common
 Lepiota humei Murr. 1068 duff/soil infrequent
 Lepiota clypeolaria (Bull.:Fr.) 1091 soil/duff infrequent
 Chlorophyllum molybdites (Fr.) 1074 soil/duff abundant
 Leucoagaricus nauceus (Fr.) 1076 soil infrequent

Family Pluteaceae
 Pluteus cervinus (Schaeffer. 1105 lignicolous common
 Fr.) Kummer
 Pluteus burserae Singer 1065 soil infrequent

Family Russulaceae
 Lactarius controversus (Fr.: 1023 soil/duff infrequent
 Fr.) Fr.
 Lactarius hygrophoroides Beck & 1030 soil infrequent
 Lactarius corrugis Peck 1110 soil/duff infrequent
 Lactarius indigo (Schw.) Fr. 1024 soil/duff abundant
 Lactarius maculatipes Burl. 1056 soil infrequent
 Lactarius piperatus (Fr.) S.F. 1102 soil/duff infrequent
 Lactarius volemus (Fr.) Fr. 1106 duff/soil infrequent
 Russula brevipes Peck. 1135 duff/soil abundant
 Russula emetica group 1107 soil common
 Russula foetens (Fr.) Fr. 1096 soil/duff common
 Russula laeta Moll. 1084 soil infrequent
 Russula maculata Quel. 1054 soil/duff infrequent

Family Schizophyllaceae
 Schizophyllum communue Fr. 1047 lignicolous common

Family Strophariaceae
 Stropharia ambigua (Pk.) Zel. 1043 soil abundant
 Psilocybe coprophila (Bull.: 1085 dung common
 Fr.) Kummer
 Psilocybe semilanceata 1114 duff/soil infrequent
 (Batsch:Fr.) Quel.

Family Tricholomataceae
 Armillaria mellea (Fr.) Karst. 1058 lignicolous common
 Collybia butyracea (Fr.) Quel. 1123 soil/
 lignicolous common
 Collybia dryophylla (Fr.) 1094 lignicolous/
 Kummer soil infrequent
 Collybia gibba (Pers.) Kummer 1053 soil/duff infrequent
 Collybia personata (Fr.) Orton 1048 soil common
 Clitocybe flaccida (Fr.) Quel. 1080 soil infrequent
 Mycena clavicularis (Fr.) 1130 soil infrequent
 Mycena pura (Fr.) Kummer 1133 soil infrequent
 Mycena overholtsii Smith & 1136 soil infrequent
 Mycena maculata Karst 1149 soil/duff common
 Mycena tintinabulum (Fr.) Quel 1138 duff/soil common
 Mycena polygramma (Bull.) S.F. 1156 soil infrequent
 Hohenbulia peltaloides(Berk) 1127 lignicolous/
 Singer duff common
 Panus crinitus (L.: Fr.) Singer 1059 lignicolous infrequent
 Trocholoma portentosum (Fr.) 1155 soil/duff infrequent
 Tricholomospsis sp. 1139 soil infrequent
 Melanoleuca psuedoluscina Bon. 1157 soil infrequent

Family Polyporaceae
 Clavulina coniculata Fr. 1159 duff/ common
 Coltricia perennis Fr. 1147 lignicolous common
 Cerrena unicolor Fr. 1141 lignicolous common
 Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolt.) 1153 lignicolous common
 Daedaleopsis tricolor Fr. 1143 lignicolous common
 Fomes formentarius (Fr.) Kick 1146 lignicolous common
 Fomitopsis pinicola (Fr.) Kar. 1148 lignicolous common
 Ganoderma applantum (Fr.: 1152 lignicolous common
 Wall.) Pat.
 Ganoderma tsugae Murr. 1152A lignicolous abundant
 Gleophyllum sepiarium (Fr.) 1086 lignicolous infrequent
 Hydnum imbricatum Fr. 1154 lignicolous infrequent
 Hydnum repandum L. 1158 lignicolous infrequent
 Lenzites betulina (L.) Fr. 1040 lignicolous common
 Mycorrhaphium adustum (Wild.) 1100 lignicolous infrequent
 Polyporus brumalis Fr. 1103 lignicolous common
 Stereum unicolor (Wild.) S.F. 1104 lignicolous infrequent
 Trametes versicolor (L) Pil. 1060 lignicolous abundant
 Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr. 1108 lignicolous common

Family Gasteromyceae
 Bovista radicata Berk. & Curt 1049 soil/duff common
 Geastrum saccatum Fr. 1050 duff/soil infrequent
 Geastrum pectinatum Pers. 1095 soil/duff infrequent
 Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff.: 1118 duff/soil common
 Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. 1098 duff/soil infrequent
 Scledroderma citrinum Pers. 1109 duff/soil common
 Scledroderma veruucosum 1061 duff/soil infrequent
 Pisolithus tinctorus (Pers.) 1083 duff/soil abundant
 Cok. & Couch


Abraham, S. P. & A. Loeblich. 1995. Gymnopilus palmicola, a lignicolous Basidiomycetes growing on Adventitious roots of palm (Sabal palmetto) in Texas. Principe, 39(2):84-88.

Lewis, D. P. & J. L. MacGraw. 1981. Agaricales, family Amanitaceae of the Big Thicket. The Southwestern Naturalist, 26(1):1-4.

Lewis, D. P. & J. L. MacGraw. 1984. Studies on Big Thicket Agaricales. The Southwestern Naturalist, 29(3):257-264.

Metzler, S. & V. Metzler. 1992. Texas Mushrooms--a field guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, 350 pp.

Miller, O. K. 1993. A new Cortinarius species from SE Texas. Mycotaxon, 47:461-466.

Tuloss, Rodham & D. P. Lewis. 1994. Amanita westii--taxonomy and distribution. A rare species from states bordering the Gulf Mexico. Mycotaxon, 50:131-138.

Singer, R., C. L. Ovrebo & D. P. Lewis. 1990. A new species of Melanophalia (Crepidotaceae). Mycotaxon, 37:47-52.

Singer, R. 1986. Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy. 4th Ed. Koeltz, Koenigstein.

Theirs, H. D. 1959. The Agaric flora of Texas-1. New species of agarics and boletes. Mycologia, 49:707-722.

Theirs, H. D. 1959. The Agaric flora of Texas II New Taxa of white and pink-spored agarics. Mycologia, 50:514-523.

Theirs, H. D. 1959. The Agaric flora of Texas III. New taxa of brown-spored agarics. Mycologia, 51:529-540.

O. A. Jejelowo and S. P. Abraham

Department of Biology, Texas Southern University

Houston, Texas 77004

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Author:Jejelowo, O.A.; Abraham, S.P.
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1U7TX
Date:May 1, 1998
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