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A preliminary checklist of mammals and plants: conservation status of some species in Salonga National Park.

Abstract

The Salonga National Park, the world's second largest tropical forest park and the largest in Africa (UNEP 20004; Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Kemf and Wilson 1997; Thompson-Handler et al. 1995), is located in the central basin of the Congo River and consists of two blocks: the northern and the southern sectors. Fifty-two mammal and 132 plant species were identified in the Salonga National Park between 1997 and 2005 in 11 different locations, and through different methods. Among mammals, eight primate species were confirmed. SNP is, however, among the least described protected areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo, despite its speculated high potential biodiversity. This lack of ground-truth knowledge on the SNP is attributable to the isolation and insecurity imposed by armed gangs (e.g. Krunkelsven et al. 2000), which precluded access to the park by the conservation and scientific communities. To craft a sound conservation plan for the SNP, as is the case for other protected areas, there is need for scientific information on SNPs biological diversity and distribution (Blake and Hedges 2004; Sutherland 2000, 1999 and 1996). This paper intends to provide an overall preliminary description of the major biodiversity components in the SNP with emphasis on the conservation status of indicator large mammals and plants across 11 sites of the SNP. Additionally, this paper will attempt to assess the extent of human activities in the SNP.

Introduction

The Salonga National Park (SNP; 36,000 [km.sup.2]; Figure 1), the world's second largest tropical forest park and the largest in Africa (UNEP 20004; Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Kemf and Wilson 1997; Thompson-Handler et al. 1995), is located in the central basin of the Congo River and consists of two blocks: the northern and the southern sectors. Established in 1970, SNP became a World Heritage Site in 1980 (UNEP 2004; IUCN 1992) in order to protect rain forest habitat representative of the Congo Basin and its diverse wildlife. Yet, SNP is among the least described protected areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo despite its speculated high potential biodiversity, for example, list of potential resident mammals (Matuka 1975).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

This lack of ground-truth knowledge on the SNP is attributable to the isolation and insecurity imposed by armed gangs (e.g. Krunkelsven et al. 2000), which have precluded access to the park by the conservation and scientific communities. The SNP remained largely ignored until the late 1990s; until then only a few studies (e.g. Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Alers et al. 1992; Evrard 1968; Meder et al. 1988) were conducted to assess the park's biodiversity potential. Recently, however, the situation has improved due to the confirmation of the presence of bonobo (e.g. Krunkelsven et al. 2000). Data is now becoming available (e.g. Inogwabini 2005; Blake and Hedges 2004; Eriksson et al. 2004; Van Krunkelsven et al. 2000; Van Krunkelsven and Draulans 2000), though geographical dimensions make attempts to gather the park-wide data difficult, rendering most available information essentially a localized picture. Simple information on readily identifiable and quantifiable large fauna and major vegetation is difficult to obtain; the sparse information that is available constantly changes from one location to another.

To craft a sound conservation plan for the SNP, as is the case for other protected areas, there is a need for scientific information on the park's biological diversity and distribution (Blake and Hedges 2004; Sutherland 2000, 1999 and 1996). This paper intends to provide an overall preliminary description of the major biodiversity components in the SNP, with emphasis on the conservation status of indicator large mammals and plants across 11 sites of the SNP. Additionally, this paper will attempt to assess the extent of human activities in the SNP.

Study sites

The SNP (36,000 [km.sup.2]; Figure 1) is located between S1[degrees]: 25':00" S2[degrees]: 45':00" and E20[degrees]: 20':00" E21[degrees]: 30':00" (Inogwabini and Omari in press; Laporte 2000). The westernmost regions of the SNP are in the lowest platform of the Cuvette Centrale whose major characteristics are flat topography and low altitude (300m). The topography rises up eastward reaching approximately 700m (Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Matuka 1970; Evrard 1968), at which heights the terrain becomes a non-undulating plateau. The habitat is predominantly mixed mature lowland tropical forest (Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Kortlandt 1995; Evrard 1968), encompassing areas of seasonally flooded and permanently inundated zones characterized by open understory, composed of communities of Guibortia, Raphia sese, Pandanus, Guibortia demeusi, Uapaca guineensis, and Uapaca heudelotii (Inogwabini 2005; Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Evrard 1968). At long rainy seasons, 50% of the northern sector of the SNP is inundated (Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999). The terra firma forest of the SNP is characteristically mixed mature forest, wherein Scorodophloeus zenkeri, Anonidium manii, Polyalthia suaveolens, Diospyros sp., etc. are the most common plant species. Patches of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei occur in the SNP although in less extensive unbroken areas (Kortlandt 1995; Evrard 1968). Marantaceae stands (e.g. Haumania librechtsiana and Megaphrynium macrostachii) are frequent in understories and, in some particular areas of the northern sector, constitute pure mono-dominant vegetation stands. Mean annual rainfalls oscillate between 2007 and 2106 mm (Gauthier-Hion et al. 1999; Griffiths 1972; Evrard 1968), with the mean annual temperature = 24.5[degrees]C (Inogwabini 2005; UNEP 2004; Griffiths 1972).

Methods

Data Collection

Large mammals were identified by direct sighting using Kingdon's 1997 guide for mammals. Unseen monkey species were identified by calls, using the audio CD-ROM of the Central African primate call repertoire recorded by Gauthier-Hion et al. (1999). The study also relied on indirect unquestionable evidences such as dung piles, pellet clusters, or fresh spurs (Parnell 2000). Data were collected either along line transect methods (Buckland et al. 1993), reconnaissance routes, or opportunistically. Examples include the presence of species skins (e.g. Felis serval, Civettictis civetta, skins collected at Bofoku-mai, SNP-North), and dead specimens (e.g. Smutsia tetradactyla at Monkoto SNP-South).

Plant species were identified in situ by use of available botanic keys or books (e.g. Letouzey 1970; White and Abernethy 1997), or by collecting samples (leaves, flowers and/or fruits) of species that could not be identified in the field for further identification using the above keys and manuals. Local trackers were also used to identify plant species in the Lomongo, a local language, which were then converted into the scientific nomenclature using Hulstaert (1992) which incorporates three variants of Lomongo spoken in the region and uses museum collections to identify species (Inogwabini 2005). A final stage of the identification was a comparison between nomenclatures from Hulstaert (1992) and those of current botanical experts (e.g. White and Abernethy 1997; Letouzey 1970; Evrard 1968).

The following human signs were recorded to document the extent of human activities in the SNP: permanent campsites, recent machete cuts, snares, and open permanent human footpath.

Large Mammal Abundance Data Analysis

Dung piles, pellet clusters, sightings, and calls were used to estimate abundance indexes. Spurs (even the fresh ones) were not accounted for to avoid difficulties related to their conversion into abundance. Encounter rates ([delta])(e. g. Blom et al. 2004; Inogwabini et al. 2000; Hart and Hall 1996) were calculated as total signs over total distance and are presented here as relative indexes of abundance. Encounter rates are the only appropriate method to provide estimates of relative abundance in this case because data were collected in different ways and therefore cannot be lumped to estimate densities. Furthermore, some species were recorded simply as present at the first sign and ignored. This was the case for species such as Cricetomys gambianus, Anomalurus derbianus, Atherurus africanus and Dendrohyrax dorsalis, which were either sighted or heard in several instances but were recorded only once. To provide an idea of the spatial distribution of human pressure on the park, human signs were summed and grouped by site and sector. There are four categories of conservation status: (1) Rare, (2) Common, (3) Abundant, (4) Very abundant. These were defined based on encounter rates as follows: (1) Rare: 1 < x < 10 signs of the species over the total effort of 2000 km ([delta] = 0.005 - 0.05 signs/km), (2) Common: 11 < x < 20 signs ([delta] = 0.055 - 0.10 signs/km), (3) Abundant: 21 < x < 30 signs ([delta] = 0.105 - 0.15 signs/km), (4) Very abundant: x > 31 signs ([delta] > 0.155 signs/km).

Results

Large Mammal Diversity

Fifty-two species of mammals were identified in the SNP (Annex 1). These include, with the exception of the bonobos, herein treated separately, 8 species of diurnal primates: (1) black mangebey (Lophocebus aterrimus), (2) Angola pied colobus (Colobus angolensis), (3) blue monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius), (4) Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopithecus nigroviridis), (5) the Tshuapa red colobus (Poliocolobus tholloni), (6) Wolf's monkey (Cercopithecus mona wolfi), (7) De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus), (8) golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus chrysogaster). The bonobo (Pan paniscus), the only great ape occurring in this zone, was confirmed present in both sectors. Other mammals of conservation concern present in the SNP were: forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis), leopard (Panthera pardus), giant pangolin (Smutsia gigantean), African forest buffalo (Syncerus caller nanus), bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola), bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis), and water chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus).

Plant Diversity

The study identified 132 plant species, with the Caesalpinoideae family totalling 11 species: (1) Brachystegia laurentii, (2) Copaifera mildbraedii, (3) Cynometra sessiliyqora, (4) Erythrophloeum suavolens, (5) Gilbertiodendron dewrei, (6) Guibortia demeusei, (7) Julbernalia sp., (8) Macrolobium coeruleum, (9) Pachyelasme tessmannii, (10) Schotia bequaertii, and (11) Scorodophloeus zenkeri. The second and third families with higher numbers of species were Euphorbiaceae and Apocynaceae, with 10 and 9 species respectively (Annex 2).

Large Mammals' Abundance Indexes and Human Signs

A total sampling effort of 200 km (transects and reconnaissance) was spent to record (excluding the bonobo and elephants that need a special type of analysis) 250 mammalian signs in both sectors. The total [delta] = 1.25 mammalian signs/km. Three of the fourteen species, whose data permits to estimate relative abundances, are very abundant (Table 1): (1) Cephalophus monticola (0.315 signs/km), (2) Potamocherus porcus (0.19 signs/km), and (3) Cephalophus dorsalis (0.16 signs/km).

A total of 158 human signs were recorded over 200 km in both sectors of the SNP (Table 2). Of these, ~ 51% were metallic snares ([delta] = 0.4 snares/ km). There were 33 active human trails, which were being used both for long distance traveling as well as hunting.

Discussion

Large Mammals

This study presents a ground-truth and up-dated evaluation of the biological diversity of large mammals and plant species in the SNP. Earlier published materials (e.g. UNEP 2004; Matuka 1970) speculated over the presence of species such as Okapi (Okapia johnstoni), savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana africana), dwarf elephant (Loxodonta pumilio), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and the Salongo monkey (Cercopithecus dryas). A continuous search over seven years in both sectors of the park had not confirmed the presence of these species, although the geographical extent of the SNP precludes all clear-cut conclusions. It is highly unlikely that chimpanzees, savanna elephants, and the okapi are present in the SNP. The Salongo monkey, considered to be endemic in the region, has not been recorded over 7 years of continuous field research in both sectors (Thompson personal communication; Inogwabini personal observation). Furthermore, local people do not recognize the species from a picture, which leads to the conclusion that the species may simply not exist in the SNP. The Salongo monkey is a rather enigmatic species for which field documentation is very slim. Apart from the specimen in the Museum, which helped identify the species, field effort has not discovered the species in areas previously described as its preferential habitat (J.A. Thompson personal comments). The golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus chrysogaster) is absent in the northern SNP and north of the southern sector, occurring only in regions south of the Lokolo River (Inogwabini and Thompson in preparation).

The black mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) was abundant while Angola pied colobus (Colobus angolensis) and red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius) were common. The Tshuapa red colobus (Piliocolobus tholloni), an insufficiently known species (Kingdon 1997), was rare. This species has been observed in remote areas of the SNP river systems (Van Krunkelsven et al. 2000).

The SNP Mammal Diversity in a Regional Perspective

The total of 52 mammalian species equaled the large mammal diversity in the Mahale Mountain National Park (Tanzania), and is of the same magnitude as Mewru-Wantipa National Park (Zambia) and the Karuma and Kalinzu-Maramagambo forest (Uganda) of the Rift Albertine complex (Kityo et al.). With fifty-two mammalian species, however, the SNP comes under the Kahuzi-Biega National Park and the Itombwe Massif (DRC), Nyungwe National Park (Rwanda) (Kityo et al.; Omari et al. 1999). The SNP, however, has higher mammalian diversity than Gombe National Park (Tanzania), Bugoma, Kagombe and Kitechura forests of the Rift Albertine complex (Kitiyo et al). Particularly, with eight diurnal primate species, the SNP is comparable in Central Africa only to the Odzala National Park in Congo-Brazzaville (Bermejo 1999), which has the same high monkey diversity.

The high diversity of diurnal monkeys should not, nevertheless, overlook the fact that all species were in lower numbers as compared to Odzala, where equivalent species exhibited higher encounter rates. Nearly all primates of the SNP are legally either fully or partially protected (Kisoka 2000) but they remain hunted both for bushmeat trade and for subsistence. Particular attention needs to be paid to the case of the Tshuapa red colobus, an easy poaching target as the species moves in large groups. The species, lower encounter rates in areas adjacent to villages might indicate higher human pressure in areas surrounding villages.

Large Mammal Species Conservation Status

Three species were very abundant: (1) blue duikers ([delta] = 0.315 signs/km), (2) red river hogs ([delta] = 0.19 signs/km), and (3) bay duikers ([delta] = 0.155 signs/km). Black-fronted duikers were abundant ([delta] = 0.105 signs/km), as were leopards ([delta] = 0.55 signs/km), sitatungas ([delta] = 0.06 signs/ km) were common but not widespread as previously inferred (Van Krunkelsven et al. 2000; Von Richter et al. 1990). Giant pangolins ([delta] = 0.01), bongos ([delta] = 0.025 signs/km), yellow-backed duikers ([delta] = 0.025 signs/km), water chevrotains ([delta] = 0.005 signs/km) and giant pangolins ([delta] = 0.01 signs/km) were rare.

Von Richter et al. (1990) indicated that the conservation statuses of yellow-backed duikers and the bongos were satisfactory and that extensive swamp forest meant a widespread distribution of sitatungas all over the DRC. This study shows that bongos, yellow-backed duikers, and the water chevrotain were rare. Metallic snaring has been reported to deplete populations of large mammals across central Africa (Bowen-Jones and Pendry 1999). Higher metallic snaring rates (51% of human signs or [delta] = 0.4 snares/km), may have played a key role in reducing these species. Furthermore, bongo was described as a perfect target for commercial bushmeat, requiring substantial investment such as armed poaching because the species can provide higher returns of hunting costs (De Merode et al. 2000). With the rampant armed poaching in the SNP, the species may have served as a particular target. Bongos also were reduced in the northern Congo-Brazzaville by epizootics (Elkan personal communication), which might alternatively explain their decline. However, such a massive decimation by epidemic would hardly go unseen by the conservators of the SNP. Yellow-backed duikers, water chevrotains, and giant pangolins are culinary delicacies (Kingdon 1997; Lazarus 1994) that would also constitute special targets for subsistence. Traditional beliefs may have also played a role, particularly in the case of giant pangolins whose scales are used in traditional medicine (Lazarus 1994). In the region of the SNP, giant pangolins have a wide variety of traditional uses, including fetishes linked to power (Bom'oa Nkoso personal communication). A combination of such traditional demands and commercial bushmeat may have placed high tolls on these species, therefore reducing their numbers. With higher snaring rates, it appears at first, though rather puzzlingly, that blue duikers and red hogs are still in relatively great numbers, though they are targeted and vulnerable to cable snares. However, Kingdon (1997) suggested that blue duikers and red hogs have intrinsic growth rates that require less time to recover from perturbations, which may absorb the effects of hunting and stabilize their populations under dire exploitation conditions.

An overall caveat in comparing Von Richter et al. (1990) and current work is that Von Richter et al. (1990) based their evaluation on the availability of suitable habitats. Therefore, their results are not comparable to this study. However, habitat suitability can explain species abundance under ideal conditions (Sutherland 2000). It therefore remains apparent that high poaching levels (Kingdon 1997) played a determinant role in reducing large mammal populations.

The leopard (CITES Appendix I; Kingdon 1997) is a totem for tribes in the region of the SNP. Its skins, teeth and bones are used for different traditional authority ceremonies and are thought to embody the power. Traditional usages combined with the commerce of leopard skins fuels poaching of the species, though its ecology preserves the species in relatively sustainable numbers. In 2000, the ICCN staff confiscated leopard skin at Mondjoko from professional commercial traders particularly searching for leopard skins, a fact confirmed by Draulans and Krunkelsven (2002).

Overall, it is appalling that lack of information on species abundance and distribution has caused the fact that 65% of the mammals of the SNP are not rated at the IUCN red list (IUCN 2003). This means that almost all animals must start from the basic elements such as listing species and documenting their conservation status.

Plant diversity

The SNP Plant Diversity in a Regional Perspective

The total of 132 species reported in this study is lower than would reveal a detailed botanic study throughout the entire SNP. Preliminary reports from Lui-Kotal, at the southwestern edge, indicate high plant species diversity (Fruth et al. 2003). However, the plant diversity at Lui-Kotal is likely higher than average of the overall SNP because Lui-Kotal study site is at the forest-savannah ecotone. Ecotone systems are known to exhibit higher species (Richard 1966). Furthermore, the on-going study at Lui-Kotal incorporates tree climbers (Homann and Fruth 2003), which were not documented in this study.

The SNP Plant Diversity Conservation Status

Of the 132 tree species identified, eight are of high commercial value and posted to the international wood market websites (tt-Timber.com 2004; Chudnoff 1984): (1) Entandrophragma angolense, (2) Entandrophragma cyclindricum, (3) Staudtia stipitata, (4) Chlorophora excelsa, (5) Pterocarpus casteelsii, (6) Erythrophloeum suavolens, (7) Piptadeniastrum africanum and (8) Celtis sp. (Annex 2). Added to these species are also present in the SNP two species of the ebony (Diospyros hoyleana and Diospyros sp) (Annex 2). Four IUCN vulnerable plant species occur in the SNP (IUCN 2003): (1) Garcinia kola, (2) Entandrophragma angolense, (3) Entandrophragma cyclindricum, and (4) Lovoa trichilioides. These highly valued commercial species are illegally exploited by private operators in the southern sector, the bloc between Momboyo-Luilaka and the Lokolo. People come from distant towns such as Mbandaka and Kinshasa with outboards and forestry equipments to chop down trees. Tree logs are carried down, floated, and/or pushed by outboard motors and are traded to expatriates in the main towns. Illegal logging is not only detrimental to the protection of the SNP but also to the government as it deprives the state of taxes that are critical for the economy. Furthermore, and more importantly, for long term conservation, illegal logging operations have no management plan and lead to major habitat destructions. Illegal logging also encourages movements of people in and around the SNP, some large communities dwelling in the SNP even long periods after logging operations are over. Lawlessness has been a particular feature of the SNP since its creation (e.g. Inogwabini and Thompson in preparation; Van Krunkelsven et al. 2000). However, logging in the park is a new phenomenon, probably stirred up by the anarchy brought by the war (Draulans and Krunkelsven 2002) and will increase levels of illegal hunting within the park.

Conclusion

The SNP still harbors numbers of species that presided over its creation. However, some species previously cited seem to be absent as they have yet to be confirmed by field observation. Some other species previously thought to occur in significant numbers were confirmed to be abundant but most of species are in strangely small numbers. This is because the SNP had hardly known any sort of law enforcement (Inogwabini et al. 2005; Blake and Hedges 2004). With a moderate human density of 0.4 people/[km.sup.2] (range: 0.1--9 people/[km.sup.2]; D'Huart 1998; INS 1984) around the SNP, hunting for subsistence would hardly reach current poaching levels. The depletion of wildlife species in the SNP is, hence, solely caused by illegal hunting (increased snaring rates and organized armed poaching), essentially to fuel market cities like Boende, Ingende, Mbandaka and Kinshasa. Poaching reached intolerable rates during the war (1998-2002), when massive numbers of troops amassed in Boende, Ingende and Mbandaka, which sensibly increased the demand in bushmeat to feed soldiers operating on different front lines. The situation remains very fragile; even with the peace agreement, fluxes of automatic weapons brought by the war are still circulating in the region of the SNP and will certainly place a high toll price on all species. Therefore, beautiful untouched forest stands of SNP should not mislead the conservation community; mammals residing therein are assaulted. Strong conservation measures are urgently needed to save what is can be saved.

Studies (e.g. Cowlishaw and Dunbar 2000; Colin et al. 1999; Oates 1986) suggested that primates are good biological indicators and tell about the ecological health of their habitats. Low abundances of several monkey species over large areas of the SNP, and particularly the very low abundance of the red colobus, may indicate disequilibrium in the SNP ecosystems and call for detailed research. This is but a preliminary step toward the understanding of the biodiversity of the SNP. More research is needed to fully document different segments of the biodiversity of the SNP, especially detailed ecological studies to unravel ecological parameters underlying current biodiversity patterns in the SNP.

Acknowledgements

A first data set was collected while I worked with the Zoological Society of Milwaukee and complemented through the Wildlife Conservation Society. Thanks to the Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature for permission to work in the SNP. John Oates commented on earlier draft. Thanks: Omari Ilambu, Mbenzo Abokome, Dino Shwa, Mbende Longwango, Samuel Matungila, Mafuta Ngomankosi and Lisalama Wema-Wema.

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Sutherland, W.J. 1999. Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Sutherland, W.J. 1996. Why Census? In Sutherland (ed). Ecological Census Techniques-A handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Thompson-Handler, N.; Malenky, R. & Reinartz, G.E. 1995. Action plan for the Pan paniscus-Report on free ranging populations and proposals for their preservation. Zoological Society of Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA.

tt-Timber.com. 2004. www.tt-timber.com/servelet/control/wtk

United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). 20004. World Heritage Sites--Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. www. unep-wcmc/sites/salonga.html

Van Krunkelsven, E., Inogwabini, B.I & Draulans, D. 2000. A survey of bonobos and other large mammals in the Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx. 34 (3): 180-187.

Von Richter, W., Hart, J., Hart, T., Blom, A., Alers, M.P.T., Germi, F., Minne, R., Smith, K., Smith, F. & Verschuren, J. 1990. Antelopes: Global survey and regional action plans 24: Zaire. In East, R. (ed.). Antelopes: Global survey and regional action plans Part 3: West and Central Africa. IUCN-WWF: 126-138.

White, L.J.T. & Abernethy, K. 1997. A guide to the vegetation of the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Multipress, Libreville. Gabon.

Bila-Isia Inogwabini

Wildlife Conservation Society BP 15.872 Kin 1, Kinshasa. Democratic Republic of Congo

binogwabini@wwfcarpo.org or bi4@kent.ac.uk

Bila-Isia Inogwabini's previous work has included surveys of eastern lowland gorillas, chimpanzees, and elephants in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, and bonobos in Salonga National Park. He recently served in the Regional Forest Program, Central Africa, with the Wildlife Conservation Society, where he has worked on the MIKE (Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants) survey. Before joining the World Wide Fund for Nature/DRC Program, where he is currently the project manager for the CBFP-funded project in the Lac Tumba Landscape, he oversaw the Elephant Monitoring Program in the Odzala National Park in Congo-Brazzaville.
IUCN Key

EX Extinct NT Near Threatened
EW Extinct in the Wild LC Least Concern
CR Critically Endangered DD Data Deficient
EN Endangered NE Not Evaluated
VU Vulnerable

Annex 1. The preliminary checklist of common mammals of SNP

# Scientific name French name

1 Allenopithecus nigrovindis Singe de marais
2 Anomalurus derbianus Ecureuil volant de Derby
3 Aonyx congica congica Loutre du Congo
4 Atherurus africanus Porc-epic
5 Cephalophus callipygus Cephalophe de Peter
6 Cephalophus dorsalis Cephalophe baie
7 Cephalophus monticola Chephalophe bleue
8 Cephalophus nigrifrons Cephalophe a front noir
9 Cephalophus silvicultor Cephalophe a dos jaune
10 Cercocebus chrysogaster Singe a ventre dore
11 Cercopithecus ascanius
12 Cercopithecus mona wolfi Mone de Meyer
13 Cercopithecus neglectus Cercopitheque de Brazza
14 Civettictis civetta Civette d'Afrique
15 Claviglis lorraineus
16 Colobus angolensis Colobe d'Angola
17 Cricetomys gambianus Rat de Gambie
18 Crocidura congobelgica
19 Crossarchus alexandri Mangue d'Alexandre
20 Dendrohyrax dorsalis Daman d'arbre
21 Felis laurata Chat core
22 Felis serval Serval
23 Funischus anerythrus Finisciure a dos raye
24 Galago phasma
25 Galagoides thomasi Galago de Thomas
26 Genetta servalina Genette servaline
27 Genetta tigrina Genette tigrine
28 Heliosciurus rufobrachium Heliosciure a pattes rouses
29 Herpestes icheneumon Manouste ichneumon
30 Herpestes naso Mangouste a long museau
31 Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotame
32 Hyemoschus aquaticus Chevrotain aquatique
33 Hypsignathus monstrosus Sauve-sours
34 Lemniscomys striatus Zebra mice
35 Lophocebus aterrimus Mangabey noir
36 Loxodonta africana cyclotis Elephant de foret
37 Lutra maculicollis Loutre a cou tachete
38 Melivora capensis Ratel
39 Pan paniscus Bonobo
40 Panthera pardus Panthere
41 Perodictus potto faustus Potto de Bosman
42 Petrodromus tordayi
43 Poliocolobus tholloni Colobe bai de Thollon
44 Potamocherus porcus Potamochere
45 Potamogale velox Potamogale
46 Smitsia tetradactyla Pangolin a longue queue
47 Smutsia gigantea Pangolin geant
48 Smutsia triscuspis Pangolin commun
49 Syncerus caffer nanus Buffle de foret
50 Tragelaphus euryceros Bongo
51 Tragelaphus spekei Sitatunga
52 Rainette

# English name Local name

1 Allen's swamp monkey Bongale (ekele, Bontoko)
2 Lord Derby's anomalure Lokio
3 Swamp otter Lioko (Lienge)
4 Porcupine Ikoo
5 Peter's duiker Bofala (Mbengele)
6 Bay duiker Bombende (Nkulufa)
7 Blue duiker Mboloko
8 Black-fronted duiker Mpambi
9 Yellow-backed duiker Lisoko
10 Golden-bellied mangabey Linku
11 Red-tailed monkey Mbeka
12 Wolfs monkey Nsoli
13 De Brazza's monkey Mpunga
14 Liowoo
15 Inkesi
16 Angolan pied colobus Libuka
17 Giant pouched rat Bontomba
18 White-toothed shrews Bosutumpo
19 Likaala (enkanda)
20 Tree hyrax Bombolo
21 Golden cat Lowa
22 Yolonkoi
23 Thomas's rope squirrel Ekotshi
24 Lisile
25 Thomas's Galago Engende
26 Servaline genet Bonkono (Nsimba)
27 Blotched genet Bomanga
28 Red-legged sun squirrel
29 Egyptian mongoose Bolia wa nkenge
30 Long-snouted mongoose Bolia
31 Hippopotamus Ngubu
32 Water chevrotain Entambe
33 Hammer bat Bokoma
34 Inkengi
35 Black mangabey Ngila
36 Forest elephant Ndjoku
37 Spot-necked Otter Botele (njondo)
38 Esisi
39 Bonobo Edja (bi)
40 Leopard Nkoi
41 Nkatu
42 Litoko
43 Tshuapa red colobus Djofe
44 River red Hog Nsombo
45 Giant Otter Shrew Yongo (Esofe)
46 Nkalamonyo
47 Giant pangolin Nkanga
48 Nkalamonyo
49 African forest buffalo Ngombo
50 Bongo Mpanga
51 Sitatunga Mbuli
52 Litaka

# IUCN

1 RL/nt (1994)
2 Not rated
3 DD (1994)
4 Not rated
5 RL/nt (1994)
6 RLlnt (1994)
7 DD (1994)
8 LR/nt (1994)
9 RL/nt (1884)
10 Not rated
11 Not rated
12 Not rated
13 Not rated
14 Not rated
15 Not rated
16 Not rated
17 Not rated
18 VU (1994)
19 Not rated
20 Not rated
21 VU (1994)
22 Not rated
23 Not rated
24 Not rated
25 Not rated
26 Not rated
27 Not rated
28 Not rated
29 Not rated
30 Not rated
31 Not rated
32 DD (1994)
33 Not rated
34 Not rated
35 LR/nt (1994)
36 EN
37 VU (1994)
38 Not rated
39 EN
40 Not rated
41 Not rated
42 Not rated
43 Not rated
44 Not rated
45 EN
46 Not rated
47 Not rated
48 Not rated
49 RL/cd (1994)
50 RL/nt (1994)
51 RL/nt (1994)
52 Not rated

Annex 2. The preliminary checklist of common plants of SNP.

 Family Local name

 1 Acanthaceae Bolefapo
 2 Agavaceae Boleme
 3 Ancthaceae Impete
 4 Annonaceae Belinda
 5 Annonaceae Bendenge
 6 Annonaceae Bensange
 7 Annonaceae Bontole
 8 Annonaceae Nsangalongo
 9 Apocynaceae Bokuka
 10 Apocynaceae Bondongo
 11 Apocynaceae Likete
 12 Apocynaceae Bongonge
 13 Apocynaceae Bosomba
 14 Apocynaceae Bokokota
 15 Apocynaceae Ngende
 16 Apocynaceae lyongo
 17 Apocynaceae Botofe
 18 Apocynaceae Lokolola
 19 Araceae Elembe
 20 Araceae Nkoto
 21 Begoniaceae Ekomela
 22 Begoniaceae Bekai ya toto
 23 Bombacaceae Isongu
 24 Burseraceae Besau
 25 Burseraceae Bobee
 26 Burseraceae Bofelenga
 27 Caesalpinioideae Beemba (Belafa)
 28 Caesalpinioideae Befili
 29 Caesalpinioideae Bekumbo
 30 Caesalpinioideae Beleko
 31 Caesalpinioideae Bembanga (Bomanga)
 32 Caesalpinioideae Betuna
 33 Caesalpinioideae Bokongo (waka)
 34 Caesalpinioideae Efomi (Ngbanda)
 35 Caesalpinioideae Loanga
 36 Caesalpinioideae Wamba
 37 Caesalpinioideae Wango
 38 Combretaceae Besoi
 39 Comm elinaceae Batetele (liteletele)
 40 Compositae Bekolongo
 41 Connaraceae Bokoto (Ikakai, Mpoa)
 42 Dioscoreaceae Lomama
 43 Dioscoreaceae Boololi
 44 Dioscoreaceae Lilungu
 45 Ebenaceae Mbanja
 46 Ebenaceae lyombo
 47 Euphorbiaceae Besenge
 48 Euphorbiaceae Boketa
 49 Euphorbiaceae Bolando-lando
 50 Euphorbiaceae Boondje
 51 Euphorbiaceae Befeko
 52 Euphorbiaceae Meenge
 53 Euphorbiaceae Ifumbwa
 54 Euphorbiaceae Bolanga
 55 Euphorbiaceae Bonyanga
 56 Euphorbiaceae Bomenga
 57 Flacourtiaceae Isake
 58 Guttiferae Bakoli (Besefe)
 59 Guttiferae Balongo
 60 Guttiferae Besefe
 61 Guttiferae Bompoma
 62 Guttiferae Boolongo
 63 Huaceae Boyenge
 64 Irvingiaceae Boseki
 65 Irvingiaceae Boyombo
 66 Irvingiaceae Bopalanga
 67 Lauraceae Bongolu
 68 Lecythidaceae Bondjolo
 69 Leguminosae Besulu (Besiyo)
 70 Loganiaceae Nsamba
 71 Marantaceae Bekombe
 72 Marantaceae Lokongo
 73 Marantaceae Nkongo
 74 Melastomaceae Ikasakenge
 75 Meliaceae Lifake (ba)
 76 Meliaceae Bekalaka (Bokolo)
 77 Meliaceae Bosasa
 78 Meliaceae Bolondo
 79 Meliaceae Ilondole
 80 Menispermaceae Lofete (Lokumbo)
 81 Menispermaceae Bokaso
 82 Mimosoideae Beala
 83 Mimosoideae Bekungu
 84 Mimosoideae Boamba
 85 Moraceae Balondo
 86 Moraceae Bekombo (Betumbe)
 87 Moraceae Bekomu
 88 Moraceae Bobimbo (Boimbo)
 89 Moraceae Bofonge
 90 Moraceae Bonkaa
 91 Moraceae Limonge
 92 Moraceae Lokumo
 93 Myristicaceae Bontole (bosenga,Boson u
 94 Myristicaceae Ikolombe
 95 Octoknemaceae Ebenge
 96 Olacaceae Betaka
 97 Olacaceae Boleko
 98 Palmae Lifeke (ba)
 99 Palmae Bakau (-)
 100 Palmae Ikali
 101 Palmae Ilebo (Ilewo, Ileo)
 102 Palmae Mpetempete
 103 Pandanaceae Lileke
 104 Papilionoidaea Lilangi
 105 Piperaceae Balombo
 106 Piperaceae Beleko
 107 Rosaceae Befale (Bokanja)
 108 Rubieceae Bokendu
 109 Rubieceae Bonsole
 110 Rubieceae Indole
 111 Rubieceae Lioko
 112 Rubieceae Bokakate
 113 Rutaceae Engondo
 114 Sapindaceae Bonsemi
 115 Sapindaceae Botende (be)
 116 Sapotaceae Bepambu (Bofambu)
 117 Sapotaceae Bofunga
 118 Sapotaceae Bolonge
 119 Sapotaceae Ilonge
 120 Sapotaceae Wanga (Lito yansombo
 121 Sterculiaceae Boluku
 122 Tiliaceae Bolembo (Lilemanjoku)
 123 Ulmaceae Bongonda
 124 Zingiberaceae Besombo
 125 Befumbo
 126 Bolukutu
 127 Bomposo
 128 Bonkole
 129 Bosendja (be)
 130 Bonsefo
 131 Lokokoloko
 132 Lokosa

 Scientific name IUCN

 1 Thomandersia laurifolia Not rated
 2 Dracaena sp. Not rated
 3 Pseuderanthemum ludovicianum Not rated
 4 Polyalthia suavolens Not rated
 5 Annonidium mannii Not rated
 6 Xylopia aethiopica Not rated
 7 Cleistopholis glauca Not rated
 8 Xylopia chrysophylla Not rated
 9 Alstonia bonei Not rated
 10 Clitandra cymulosa Not rated
 11 Rauvolfia mannii Not rated
 12 Ancylobotrys pyriformis Not rated
 13 Holarrhena floribunda Not rated
 14 Hunteria congolana Not rated
 15 Landolphia mannii Not rated
 16 Landolphia violacea Not rated
 17 Saba florida Not rated
 18 Strophantus sarmentosus Not rated
 19 Culcacia sp. Not rated
 20 Caladium sp. Not rated
 21 Begonia sp Not rated
 22 Begonia eminii Not rated
 23 Ceiba pentandra Not rated
 24 Dacryodes edulis Not rated
 25 Canarium schweinfurthi Not rated
 26 Dacryodes yangambiensis Not rated
 27 Gilbertiodendron dewrei Not rated
 28 Scorodophloeus zenkeri Not rated
 29 Schotia bequaertii Not rated
 30 Pachyelasme tessmannii Not rated
 31 Brachystegia laurentii Not rated
 32 Cynometra sessiliflora Not rated
 33 Guibortia demeusei Not rated
 34 Erythrophloeum suavolens Not rated
 35 Macrolobium coeruleum Not rated
 36 Copaifera mildbraedii Not rated
 37 Julbemalia Not rated
 38 Combretum sp. Not rated
 39 Palissota barteri Not rated
 40 Emilia sp. Not rated
 41 Connarus griffonianus Not rated
 42 Dioscora preussi Not rated
 43 Dioscorea semperflorens Not rated
 44 Discorea sp. Not rated
 45 Diospyros sp. Not rated
 46 Diospyros hoyleana Not rated
 47 Uapaca guineensis Not rated
 48 Erythrococca sp. Not rated
 49 Alchomea floribunda Not rated
 50 Alchornea cordifolia Not rated
 51 Ricinodendron sp. Not rated
 52 Macaranga sp. Not rated
 53 Alchornea hirtella Not rated
 54 Bridelia brideffolia Not rated
 55 Croton haumanianus Not rated
 56 Phyllanthus discoideus Not rated
 57 Caloncoba welwetschii Not rated
 58 Mammea africana Not rated
 59 Symphonia globufera Not rated
 60 Garcinia punctata Not rated
 61 Garcinia kola vu
 62 Garcinia ovalifolia Not rated
 63 Afrostyrax kamerunensis Not rated
 64 Klainedoxa gabonensis oblongifoliaNot rated
 65 Irvingia sp. Not rated
 66 Klainedoxa gabonensis Not rated
 67 Belschmiedia corbisieri Not rated
 68 Combretodendron macrocarpum Not rated
 69 Pterocarpus casteelsii Not rated
 70 Strychnos sp. Not rated
 71 Haumania liebrechtsiana Not rated
 72 Sarcophrynium sp. Not rated
 73 Megaphrynium macrostachii Not rated
 74 Dissotis decumbens Not rated
 75 Entandrophragma angolense vu
 76 Carapa procera Not rated
 77 Entandrophragma cylindricum vu
 78 Trichilia gilgiana Not rated
 79 Lovoa trichilioides vu
 80 Penianthus longifolius Not rated
 81 Kolobopetalum chevalieri Not rated
 82 Pentaclethra macrophylla Not rated
 83 Piptadeniastrum africanum Not rated
 84 Albizia adianthifolia Not rated
 85 Chlorophora excelsa Not rated
 86 Musanga cercopoides Not rated
 87 Myrianthus arboreum Not rated
 88 Treculia africana Not rated
 89 Bosqueia congolensis Not rated
 90 Ficus capensis Not rated
 91 Ficus sp Not rated
 92 Ficus sp Not rated
 93 Pycnanthus angolensis Not rated
 94 Staudtia stipitata Not rated
 95 Octoknema borealis Not rated
 96 Strombosia grandiflora Not rated
 97 Ongokea gore Not rated
 98 Raphia sese Not rated
 99 Ancystrophyllum secundiflorum Not rated
 100 Raphia laurenti Not rated
 101 Borassus Not rated
 102 Sclerosperma mannii Not rated
 103 Pandanus candelabrum Not rated
 104 Millettia psilopelata Not rated
 105 Piper umbellatum Not rated
 106 Piper cubeba Not rated
 107 Parinari glabra Not rated
 108 Aidia micrantha Not rated
 109 Psychotria sp. Not rated
 110 Amaralia sherbourniae Not rated
 111 Virectaria major Not rated
 112 Morinda lucida Not rated
 113 Fagara lemairei Not rated
 114 Chytranthus cameus Not rated
 115 Pancovia harmsiana Not rated
 116 Chrysophyllum lacourtianum Not rated
 117 Chrysophyllum perpulchrum Not rated
 118 Chrysophyllum africanum Not rated
 119 Chrysophyllum laurentii Not rated
 120 Tridesmostemon claessensi Not rated
 121 Sterculia tracantha Not rated
 122 Desplatsia dewevrei Not rated
 123 Celtis sp Not rated
 124 Aframomum sp Not rated
 125 Microcos Not rated
 126 Gabunia Not rated
 127 Chomelia Not rated
 128 Banksia Not rated
 129 Landolphia jumellei Not rated
 130 Tetrorchidium Not rated
 131 Phrynium confertum Not rated
 132 Mannyphytum africanum Not rated

Table 1. Status of large
mammals of Salonga
National Park.

Species Effort # Sins Rate Status

Colobus angolensis 200 12 0.06 Common
Cercopithecus ascanius 200 16 0.08 Common
Lophocebus atterimus 200 28 0.14 Abundant
Piliocolobus tholloni 200 5 0.025 Rare
Potamocherus porcus 200 38 0.19 Very abundant
Cephalophus nigrifrons 200 21 0.105 Abundant
Cephalophus dorsalis 200 31 0.155 Very abundant
Cephalophus monticola 200 63 0.315 Very abundant
Cephalophus sylvicultor 200 5 0.025 Rare
Hyemoscus aquaticus 200 1 0.005 Rare
Tragelaphus spekei 200 12 0.06 Common
Tragelaphus euryceros 200 5 0.025 Rare
Smutsia gigantea 200 2 0.01 Rare
Panthera rj,ardus 200 11 0.055 Common

Total 250 1.25

Table 2. Human signs
over a 200 km sampling
effort.

Human sign/Sector North South Total Rate

Snares (metallic cables) 56 24 80 0.4
Active Human trails 25 8 33 0.165
Recent machete cuts 28 9 37 0.185
Permanent hunting camp 4 4 8 0.04

Total 113 45 158 0.79
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Author:Inogwabini, Bila-Isia
Publication:Endangered Species Update
Date:Jul 1, 2006
Words:7004
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