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A performer's guide to the sacred solo cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

INTRODUCTION

TALIAN AND GERMAN BAROQUE solo cantatas occupy a significant portion of the literature from that period, but one that finds an undeservedly infrequent pedagogic use. (1) Choosing a sacred solo cantata for specific voices and instruments from a catalog of more than two hundred plus cantatas written by Johann Sebastian Bach can be a daunting task. This guide enables the professional performer, teacher, or student to quickly select a sacred cantata for a solo voice or voices. Supplementary tables add relevant comments useful in the selection process.

In forty cantatas, solo singers perform all of the movements of each cantata with a concluding hymn in four parts. These hymns are appropriate for congregational singing. An additional seven cantatas have no chorale ending (Table 1).

Many of Bachs choral cantatas barely escape the title of solo cantata because they contain only a single choral movement inappropriate for congregational singing. Bach himself used the term cantata on only six occasions; three of those are solo cantatas (BWV 54, 56, and 173). (2)

Bach wrote his sacred solo cantatas during the years at Weimar (17081717) and at Leipzig (1723-1750). The cantatas included in this index employ texts for the Lutheran liturgy (Table 2 lists the solo cantatas according to the Lutheran Calendar).

THE WEIMAR PERIOD

At Weimar, Bach was employed as concertmaster and composer for Duke Carl August. He had twelve to fourteen well trained singers at his disposal, mostly professionals that held other positions at the Duke's court. Among them was countertenor Christian Gerhart Bernhardi, for whom Bach wrote the intricate music found in Cantatas 132, 161, and 185. (3) Six choir boys appeared on a list of the Kapelle. (4)

It is interesting to speculate on the abilities of Bachs performers, especially in view of the several Weimar cantatas that display an unusually low range for solo bass (BWV 132, 152, 162, and 185). These cantatas are later revised at Leipzig. (5) Modern editions of these cantatas retain their original keys. (6)

The organ of Bachs time played in the Chorton, a minor third higher than the tief Cammerton, or low chamber pitch, of the wind instruments. He expected the strings to tune higher, to match the organ's pitch. The singers saw the same key as the organ, while the wind instruments read parts a minor third higher. Weimar solo sopranos may have seen [A.sub.5], for instance, but they sang-and today's sopranos sing--[C.sub.6]! Other problems involving modern soloists' range may occur, as Bach wrote for the various forces in Weimar (Table 3).

Bach's Weimar cantatas first appear in 1714. Three are solo cantatas: BWV 152 with a libretto by Salmo Franck, and BWV 54 and 199 with libretti by C. C. Lehms. None of these works have chorales, but several are experimental in character, most notably the instrumentation of Cantata 152; recorder, oboe, viola d'amore, viola da gamba, and basso continuo form the entire orchestra. In the final movement, the orchestra plays in unison while a soprano and bass dialogue-duet occurs over a basso continuo. (7)

Mostly solo cantatas appear in 1715 (BWV 132, 165, 161, 162, 163, and 185) and 1716 (BWV 155, 164, and 168). Their libretti are original poetic elaborations, without direct biblical quotes, by Salmo Franck. A chorale is always present as a concluding movement.

THE LEIPZIG YEARS

According to Geiringer, Bach composed (or rewrote) five sets of cantatas during the Leipzig years (1723-1731). (8) Some sixty cantatas of all types appear in the first set, including a number of solo cantatas: 1723-BWV 167,199, 162, 89, 60, and 90; 1724-BWV 153, 154, 155, 81, 83, 181, 59,173, and 165. (9) Of the solo cantatas produced in Leipzig, several came from Weimar: BWV 199,162,154, 155, and 165. Bach revised all but Cantata 155.

Cantatas from this period, solo as well as choral, display a uniformity of libretto and structure. There is preference for texts starting with a Bible quotation that serves as a motto for the ensuing movements. Many of these cantatas conclude with a chorale; other movements are recitatives and arias of varied structure.

The second set of Leipzig cantatas dates from the first Sunday after Trinity 1724 to Trinity Sunday 1725. This group has been authenticated from the Thomasschule collection in the Bach-Archive, as well as by scores received by various persons through Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. According to Durr, this second set includes solo cantatas 42, 87, 183, and 175 (1725).

With some editing by Bach, Marianne von Ziegler wrote the libretti for the last three. There is a Bible quotation at the beginning of each, and a chorale at the end. BWV 183 and 175 open with a recitative based on the Gospel for the day instead of an aria or sinfonia.

The third group of Leipzig cantatas, according to scores once owned by Carl Phillipp Emanuel Bach, cover from Christmas 1725 to Septuagesima 1727: BWV 57 (1725); BWV 32, 88, 170, 35, 169, 56, 49, 55, and 52 (1726); BWV 82 and 84 (1727). Several of these cantatas (BWV 57, 32, 49, 58) are in the form of dialogues between the Soul (soprano) and Jesus (bass). In this set, Bach begins writing cantatas for a single voice with a concluding chorale (BWV 52 and 84 for soprano; BWV 35,169, 170 for alto; BWV 55 for tenor; and BWV 56 and 82 for bass). Interestingly, in the Leipzig cantatas, we find Bach borrowing rather liberally from several of his earlier instrumental works (Table 4).

The fourth cycle of the Leipzig cantatas is largely lost, although BWV 156, 159, 174, and 188 are extant. It is noteworthy that BWV 159 shares many of the St. Matthew Passion themes. Picander wrote most of the libretti. Notable too is the expanded orchestra; Bach became director of Leipzig's Collegium Musicum, and had more instrumentalists available at this time.

Only fragments of the fifth cycle exist. (10)

WHY BACH WROTE CANTATAS FOR SOLO VOICES

As the popularity of opera in eighteenth century Germany grew, so did solo singing employing recitative and aria. These forms spread into church music and pushed choral music back from its predominance in the Lutheran worship service. (11)

Johann Kuhnau (1660-1772), Bachs immediate predecessor at Leipzig, who had attempted opera composition, protested the use of operatic forms and styles during liturgical services. However, congregational demand for the aria form existed when Bach assumed the duties of Cantor. (12)

Bach found it expedient to write solo cantatas because of administrative difficulties in acquiring the depth of talent he desired, (13) his reluctance to train choirs, (14) and the exhausting schedule he maintained. (15) By using more talented solo singers and his professional orchestra, he could conveniently and reasonably limit choir participation.

An examination of the church calendar reveals that solo cantatas appear in clusters. Major feast days require more music than other Sundays. For example, three musical services are required in one week for Whit Sunday, Whit Monday, and Whit Tuesday. In addition, the following Sunday is Trinity Sunday, a relatively important feast day. Cantata 194, presented on Trinity of 1724, is a large two part choral work of twelve movements. To lighten the rehearsal load, Bach found it expedient to present solo cantatas, where rehearsals can be confined to three or four instruments and the singer. Therefore the choirs could spend more time preparing for the major event.

Similarly, solo cantatas of the Leipzig years appear in concentration during the last Sundays of Trinity, the season prior to Advent and Christmas, and, in 1724, from the first Sunday after the Circumcision to Sexuagesima Sunday, the season prior to Holy Week (Table 5).

BACH'S USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN THE SOLO CANTATAS

In general, Bach's solo cantatas employ the same orchestral forces as his choral cantatas. To the complement of strings (viola parts divisi in the Weimar cantatas), he usually adds a wind instrument or instruments. As with choral cantatas, Bach occasionally uses sinfonias (Table 6). In an introduction to an aria, an obbligato instrument often will present the melody that the singer will repeat upon entering, the familiar "motto beginning" from earlier Italian style.

Orchestral texture defines three types of arias that Bach uses in his cantatas: a reduced orchestra, a ritornello style using the full orchestra, and continuo arias. In his predominant choice of orchestral texture, Bach reduces the size of the orchestra for solos and duets, which are mostly in da capo form. Trio sonata texture is most prevalent in arias, with the solo instrument, the singer, and the basso continuo forming a Baroque trio. Quartet texture appears less regularly, mostly with vocal duets, and only one solo cantata has a quintet movement: BWV 60, no. 3 uses oboe d'amore, violin, alto, tenor, and continuo. (As an interesting sidebar, this cantata contains the hymn "Es ist genug," a tune later explored by Alban Berg and others.)

Next in frequency are arias accompanied by the entire orchestra. These movements usually have one ritornello. After moments of reduced texture, the instruments echo the soloist in concertante style. With rare exception, the continuo plays throughout.

Least frequent are arias accompanied by continuo only. Sometimes they are built on an instrumental ostinato figure (BWV 165, no. 3), or have a short ritornello (BWV 162, no. 5).

All three types of orchestra texture may be found in any of the solo cantatas, and there is usually a combination of two of the styles. Only one solo cantata from Weimar does not use the chamber texture aria. In BWV 162, movement one, the bass soloist sings with the entire orchestra. The other movements are continuo arias, followed by an alto-tenor duet with continuo and ritornello accompaniment.

A greater variety of instruments appears in the Leipzig cantatas. Bach could hire his town musicians and university students, as well as employ the Thomasschule students. At Leipzig, oboe da caccia, horns, flutes, and violoncello appear exclusively, while timpani, viola d'amore, and viola da gamba are unique to his Weimar cantatas. All other instruments are found in both groups of cantatas. Bach uses the oboe as a solo instrument most frequently (28 out of the 47 cantatas listed here). Next in order of frequency is the violin (18), especially at Weimar, not a surprise, as that was one of Bach's proficiencies. Next come two more types of oboes, oboe d'amore (13), and the oboe da caccia (11) (Table 7).

The following is a general survey and performance guide to Johann Sebastian Bachs solo church cantatas, arranged by voice types. It shows singers' ranges, librettists, orchestral forces, number and types of movements within each cantata, average duration, (16) and other comments that may help singer or teacher in choosing cantatas for complete performance or for excerpting arias and identifying obbligato instruments for recital performance.

SOPRANO

BWV 51

Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen! (Praise God in all lands) Text: Unknown (Bach?); Chorale: Johann Gramann

Range: [C.sub.4]-[C.sub.6] Trumpet in C, strings, b.c.

1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. S Chorale; 5. Aria Duration: 17:50

Bach indicated in his score that this cantata also could be put to general use. The libretto is relevant to the Gospel "Seek ye first the kingdom of God" and to the Epistle praising the fruit of the spirit. The very virtuosic solo demands that the singer compete with the trumpet in duet.

BWV 52

Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht (False world, I trust you not) Text: Unknown; Chorale: Adam Reusner

Range: [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5] Horns I, II, oboe I, II, III, strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. Sinf; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 15:00

The opening sinfonia is an adaptation of Brandenburg Concerto Number One (BWV 1046). This joyous movement is followed by a somber recitative whose text reflects the falseness of the world.

The second aria exhibits similarity with Handel's "V'adore pupille' (Giulio Cesare).

BWV 84

Ich bin vergniigt mit meinem Gliicke (I am happy with my good fortune)

Text: Picander; Chorale: Schwarsburg-Rudolstadt

Range: [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5] Oboe, strings, b.c.

1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 14:00

The laborer, feeling unworthy for having worked only one hour, gets the same reward as those who labored all day. The soprano has many trills in its imitative duet with the oboe.

BWV 199

Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut (My heart swims in blood) Text: G.C. Lehms; Chorale: Johann Heerman

Range: [B.sub.3- [A.sup.[flat].sub.5] Oboe, strings, b.c. with bassoon and bass 1. Recit.; 2. Aria and recit.; 3. Recit.; 4. Aria; 5. Recit.; 6. Chorale; 7. Recit.; 8. Aria Duration: 24:20

The soprano must possess both a beautiful legato and a clear coloratura.

In the chorale (No. 6), the soprano sings the hymn as a cantus firmus, while the viola plays a thematically derived obbligato.

Written at Weimar, this cantata was revised for use in Leipzig in conjunction with BWV 179 (1723).

ALTO

BWV 35

Geist and Seele wird verwirret (Spirit and Soul become disordered) Text: Georg Christian Lehms

Range: [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia (or taille, a tenor oboe), concerted organ, strings, b.c.

1. Sinf; 2. Aria; 3. Recit.; 4. Aria; 5. Sinf; 6. Recit.; 7. Aria Duration: 26:10

This two-part cantata has a sinfonia as the first movement of each part. The sinfonias and three arias are adaptations of an earlier Harpsichord Concerto, BWV 1059. It is one of three cantatas written for the 12th Sunday after Trinity that uses the Gospel of the day, the healing of a deaf man.

The cantata is best suited for performance with an orchestra with a fine organist.

BWV 54

Widerstehe doch der Sunde (Stand against sin) Text: Georg Christian Lehms

Range: [F.sub.3]-[C.sub.5] Strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria Duration: 11:50

Note the low voice range, accessible to young male alto-tenors. This is one solo work that Bach called a cantata.

BWV 169

Gott soll allein mein Herze haben (God alone shall have my heart) Text: Unknown; Chorale: M. Luther

Range: [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c. 1. Sinfonia; 2. Arioso; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria; 6. Recit.; 7. Chorale Duration: 23:40

Bach adapted the first and second movements of his Concerto for Clavier, BWV 1053 for the first and fifth movements of this cantata.

The clavier part is for a single manual organ with pedals. Another cantata with possible earlier origins in Weimar, it is a superb work, with notable interplay between organ and singer.

BWV 170

Vergniigte Ruh,' beliebte Seelenlust (Pleasant rest, beloved soul's desire)

Text: G. C. Lehms Range:[ A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] Oboe d'amore, concerted organ, strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria Duration: 22:50

The second recitative uses no continuo, but strings and organ (no pedals). The organ plays two parts, the violin and viola play the third.

The text deals with death and peace.

Notable is the exquisite lyricism of the alto arias and the concerted use of the organ.

TENOR

BWV 55 Ich armer Mensch, ich Siindenknecht (I, wretched man, I, slave of sin) Text: Unknown; Chorale: Johann Rist

Range: [D.sub.3]-[B.sup.[flat].sub.4] Flute, oboe d'amore, strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 13:10

The work requires a tenor capable of sustaining a high tessitura. The text dwells on the theme of a guilt-ridden sinner standing before the throne of God.

BASS

BWV 56

Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen (I will gladly carry the cross-staff) Text: Unknown; Chorale: Johann Franck

Range: [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia (taille), strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit. and arioso; 5. Chorale Duration: 20:30

A beautiful cantata requiring dramatic singing with long phrasing.

BWV 82

Ich habe genug (I have enough) Text: Unknown Range: [G.sub.2]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria Duration: 23:10

Three versions of this cantata exist: 1) in E minor for soprano with flute instead of oboe; 2) in C minor for alto; 3) in C minor for bass. The autograph begins for soprano, changed to alto, and is for bass after the first movement. Two movements appear in Anna Magdalena's Notebook.

The soloist should possess a lyric legato and be capable of agile singing.

BWV 158

Die Friede sei mit dir (Peace I give to you) Text: Johann Georg Albinus (first movement); S. Franck?; Chorales: Johann Rosenmuller, M. Luther

Range: [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Two chorales: the aria (No. 2) has the Rosenmuller chorale as cantus firmus while the bass sings Albinus's text; there is a concluding four-part chorale Violin, oboe, b.c. 1. B recit.; 2. B aria with S chorale; 3. B recit. and arioso; 4. Chorale Duration: 11:00

Numbers 1 and 4 use part of the text by Salmo Franck(?) belonging to the Gospel for Easter Tuesday; the text for Nos. 2 and 3 relate to the Feast of the Purification. Therefore, it is likely that someone assembled the cantata from several sources, and that a soprano may be used in the Rosenmuller chorale. The cantata may have appeared for a special funeral service. Note the lack of full orchestra.

SOPRANO-BASS

BWV 32

Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen (Dearest Jesus, my desiring) Text: Christian Friedrich Henrici (Picander)

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sup.#.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Bass, [A.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. 1. S aria; 2. B recit.; 3. B aria; 4. S, B recit. (Dialogue); 5. S, B duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 23:20

The bass aria (No. 3) and duet (No. 5) are in da capo form. The autograph score is inscribed "Dialogus," a dialogue between Jesus and the Soul.

All arias are duets: the soprano with the oboe in her aria, the bass with a violin obbligato in his aria.

BWV 49

Ich geh and suche mit Verlangen (I go and seek with longing) Text: Unknown; Jeremiah 31:3; Rev. 3:20; Chorale: Phillipp Nicolai

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sup.#.sub.5]-[G.sup.#.sub.5]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe d'amore, violoncello piccolo, strings, concerted organ, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. B aria; 3. S, B recit.; 4. S aria; 5. S, B recit.; 6. S, B duet and chorale Duration: 25:20

The text is taken from the Song of Songs and reworked into another dialogue between the Soul and Christ. The sinfonia is an adaptation of the B Major Clavier Concerto, BWV 1053. Notable is the bass's repeat of the first phrase of his preceding aria (No. 2) in the No. 3 duet.

Each soloist has an aria with one of the obbligato instruments. The final movement is in chorale prelude style, where the soprano sings verse seven of Nicolai's hymn, Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern, while the bass sings texts from Jeremiah and Revelation.

BWV 57

Selig ist der Mann, der die Anfechtung erduldet (Blessed is the man who endureth temptation) Text: Georg Christian Lehms; Jacobus 1: 1,12; Ahasverus Fritsch

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c. 1. B aria; 2. S recit.; 3. S aria; 4. B, S recit.; 5. B aria; 6. B, S recit.; 7. S aria; 8. Chorale Duration: 24:30

Bach described this work as "Concerto in dialogo." The bass sings the part of Jesus and the soprano the part of the Soul. This cantata presents striking contrast to the usual joyous season of Christmas.

BWV 58

Ach, Gott, wie manches Herzeleid II (Ah, God, how many a heart sorrow) Text: Martin Moller; Unknown; Martin Behm

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c.

1. Chorale and S, B duet; 2. B recit.; 3. S aria; 4. S recit.; 5. Chorale and S, B duet Duration: 13:50

This is another "Concerto in dialogo." Cantata 3 also bears the same title, but uses an entirely different text for movements other than the first.

The first and last movements of this duet use chorale prelude technique: the soprano sings the melody, while the bass's comforting words weave in and out. The third movement is a free da capo aria for soprano, violins, and continuo.

BWV 59

Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten (Who loves me, keeps my word) Text: Erdmann Neumeister; John 1:14, 23; Martin Luther

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Trumpet I, II, tympani, strings, b.c. 1. S, B duet; 2. S recit.; 3. Chorale; 4. B aria Duration: 11:40

After the short bass aria of number four, a copyist wrote "Choral Segue," perhaps suggesting that the chorale is to be repeated as a finale, and possibly with additional text.

Trumpets are used only in the opening movement. Written in 1716, the first movement was expanded to form the opening chorus of Cantata 74 (1735).

BWV 152

Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn (Walk in the path of faith) Text: S. Franck

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Bass, [D.sub.2]-[C.sub.4] Recorder, viola d'amore, gamba, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. B aria; 3. B recit.; 4. S aria; 5. B recit.; 6. S, B duet Duration: 18:30

The work begins with a French overture for all instruments, and ends with a duet in gigue style. Note the reduced orchestra. This cantata is especially suited for lyric voices.

TENOR-BASS

BWV 157

Ich lasse dich nicht, du segnest mich dean (I leave Thee not, Thou bless me then) Text: Picander; Chorale: C. Keymann Ranges: Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[B.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute, oboe, oboe d'amore, solo violin, strings, b.c. 1. T, B duet; 2. T aria; 3. T recit.; 4. B recit. and arioso; 5. Chorale Duration: 19:35

This cantata was inscribed "Funeral music at the grave of Herr J. C. von P [Johann Christoph von Ponikau] October 31, 1726." The memorial service occurred February 6, 1727, but the cantata may have been sung four days earlier at Leipzig. There are no da capo arias. The strings appear only in the chorale and the tenor recitativo.

SOPRANO-TENOR-BASS

BWV 18

Gleich wie der Regen and Schnee vom Himmel fallt (Even as the rain and snow from Heaven falls) Text: Erdmann Neumeister; Isaiah 55:10, 11; Chorale: Lazarus Spengler

Ranges: Soprano, [E.sup.[flat].sub.4]-[A.sup.-[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [F.sup.[flat].sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Recorders I, II, viola I-IV, bassoon, violoncello, b.c. 1. Sinfonia; 2. B recit./chorale; 3. T recit. and litany; 4. S aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 15:10

The soprano has the only aria (No. 4). The opening sinfonia is followed by a movement of recitative/arioso and interspersions of the chorale.

The tenor arioso is very melismatic.

SOPRANO-ALTO-BASS

BWV 89

Was soll ich aus dir machen, Ephraim? (What shall I make of thee, Ephraim?) Text: Unknown; Hosea 11:8; Chorale: J. Heerman

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Alto, [B.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2][E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Horn, oboe I, II, strings, b.c. 1. B aria; 2. A recit.; 3. A aria; 4. S recit.; 5. S aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 12:10

A biblical quotation serves as the motto for the work. God emits a terrifying outburst of anger against Ephraim and Israel for worshipping false gods. The remainder of the cantata concerns the Gospel of the day, the Parable of the unjust servant.

The original source for this cantata is lost.

ALTO-TENOR-BASS

BWV 60 O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (Oh, Eternity, thou thunder-word) Text: J. Rist and Psalm 119:166; Revelation 4:14, 13; Chorale: Franz Joachim Burmeister

Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Horn, oboe d'amore I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T, A duet; 2. A, T recit.; 3. A, T duet; 4. A recit. and B arioso; 5. Chorale Duration: 16:00

In the first movement, Johann Rist's text is sung by Fear (alto), while Hope (tenor) sings words of the Psalm in free counterpoint. All movements, except the chorale movement, are in dialog form. This cantata is one of Bachs most dramatically and harmonically complex cantatas.

Cantata 20, written a year earlier, contains more of the words of the Rist poem.

The chorale is the famous "Es ist genug," with its startling harmonies and whole-tone scale. (See Alban Berg's Violin Concerto dedicated to the death of a friend, and Chopiris C minor Prelude, No. 20.)

BWV 81

Jesus schluft, was soll ich hoffen (Jesus sleeps, what hope is there for me?) Text: Neumeister?; Matthew 4:8, 26; Chorale: J. Franck

Ranges: Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Recorders I, II, oboe d'amore I, II, strings, b.c. 1. A aria; 2. T recit.; 3. T aria; 4. B arioso; 5. B aria; 6. A recit.; 7. Chorale Duration: 17:00

This cantata is a dramatic work, where the Soul is in a storm of fear and is near Death's abyss. Jesus quells the storm.

The voices should be capable of operatic drama, especially in the tenor aria that alternates Allegro rapid passages in high tessitura, with Adagio calm lyricism.

BWV 83

Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde (Joyful time in the new dispensation) Text: Unknown, Luke 2:29-31; Chorale: Martin Luther

Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sub.2]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Horn I, II, oboe I, II, violin solo, two violins, b.c., 1. A aria; 2. Introduction and recit.; 3. T aria; 4. A recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 19:00

The first movement seems to be a rewritten lost violin concerto because of the florid writing. The second movement includes the plainsong "Nunc dimittus," with recitative and ritornelli interpolated.

Note the small orchestra easily adapted for recital.

BWV 87

Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten in meinem Namen (Until now have you asked for nothing in my name) Text: Marianne von Ziegler; John 16:24-31; Chorale: H. Mueller Ranges: Alto, [B.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Ten, [F.sub.3]-[B.sup.[flat].sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c.

1. B arioso; 2. A recit.; 3. A aria; 4. T recit.; 5. B arioso; 6. T aria; 7. Chorale Duration: 19:10

A rather somber cantata. Noteworthy is the siciliano tenor aria, the only movement in a major key, and the denouement of the cantata.

BWV 90

Es reifet euch ein schrecklich Ende (There ripens a dreadful ending) Text: Unknown; Chorale: M. Moller Ranges: Alto, [C.sub.4]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sup.[flat].sub.2][E.sup.[flat].sub.4]

Piccolo trumpet, strings, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. A recit.; 3. B aria; 4. T recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 12:40

The powerful tenor aria describes God's descent from Heaven during the Second Coming and the terrifying predictions of the Antichrist, false prophets, and the world's suffering, The equally powerful bass aria, with many trumpet fanfares and runs, describes the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem.

BWV 153

Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind' (Behold, dear God, how my enemies) Text: Unknown; David Denicke; Isaiah 14:10; Chorale: M. Moller

Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Strings, b.c. 1. Chorale; 2. A recit.; 3. B aria; 4. T recit.; 5. Chorale; 6. T aria; 7. B recit.; 8. A aria; 9. Chorale Duration: 15:00

Nos. 1, 5, and 9 are chorales evidently planned for congregational participation, but provenance also suggests that the choir sang them. At this time in the liturgical year, full musical forces performed frequently. The libretto centers around the Holy Family's flight into Egypt.

Notable are the minuet form of the alto aria, perhaps based on previously composed music, and the dramatic, stormy, tenor aria.

BWV 154

Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren (My dear Jesus is lost) Text: Unknown, Luke 2:49; Chorales: Martin Jahn, Christian Keymann

Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe d'amore I, II, oboe I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. T recit.; 3. Chorale; 4. A aria; 5. B arioso; 6. T recit.; 7. A, T duet; 8. Chorale Duration: 16:00

This work is a possible resetting and retexting of an earlier Weimar work, as indicated by some of the Weimar watermarks on the harpsichord part.

The alto aria, accompanied by two oboes d'amore, lacks lower basso continuo and organ accompaniment.

BWV 156

Ich steh' mit einem FuJ3 im Grabe (I stand with one foot in the grave) Text: Picander; Chorales: J. H. Schein, Kaspar Bieneman

Ranges: Alto, [F.sub.3]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. T aria with S chorale; 3. B recit.; 4. A aria; 5. B recit.; 6. Chorale Duration: 13:00

There are two chorales: the first with the soprano line singing Schein's "Machts mit mir, Gott, nach definer Gut" as cantus firmus against the tenor; the second chorale is the final movement.

The beginning sinfonia is an adaptation of the F minor Concerto for Clavier, BWV 1056, or a violin concerto, now lost. Here, the solo instrument is the oboe.

BWV 159

Sehet! Wirgehen hinaufgen Jersalem (Come! Let us go up to Jerusalem) Text: Picander, Luke 1:31; Chorales: Paul Gerhaart, Paul Stockmann

Ranges: Alto, [B.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2][E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. B arioso and A recit.; 2. A aria and S chorale; 3. T recit.; 4. B aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 15:20

Alto, tenor, and bass represent the Christian soul, grieving over Jesus's journey toward the Cross. It was written contemporaneously with St. Matthew Passion.

In No. 2, oboe joins the soprano cantus firmus, "O Haupt voll Blut and Wunden," while the alto sings the aria.

The expressive bass aria with oboe obbligato is frequently extracted for recital performance. Note the similarities with St. John Passion.

BWV 174

Ich liebe den Hochsten von ganzem Gemiite (I love the Highest with all my heart) Text: Picander; Chorale: Martin Schalling

Ranges: Alto, [C.sup.#.sub.4]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[G.sup.#.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Horn I, II, oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, concerted violins I, II, III, concerted viola I, II, III, b.c. (bassoon, bass, organ) 1. Sinf; 2. A aria; 3. T recit.; 4. B aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 21:10

The sinfonia is an expanded version of the Third Brandenberg Concerto, BWV 1048, although the parts are scattered for this version.

An extended alto aria gets the spotlight in this cantata, with two oboes interweaving counterpoint in alternation or in duet with the soloist, and in their own final lively duet.

BWV 175

Er rufet seinen Schafen mit Namen (He calls His sheep by name) Text: Marianne von Ziegler; John 10:5, 6; Chorale: Johann Rist

Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.4]-[E.sub.4] Trumpet I, II, recorders I, II, III, violoncello piccolo solo; b.c. 1. T recit.; 2. A aria; 3. T recit.; 4. T aria; 5. A, B recit.; 6. B aria; 7. Chorale Duration: 15:40

The final chorale was also used in the third movement of Cantata 59.

The aria "Es dunket mich" is adapted from No. 7 of the secular solo cantata Durchlauchtster Leopold, BWV 173a. This aria was not used in BWV 173. Originally for bass, bassoon, and b.c., it appears here for tenor, violoncello piccolo, and b.c.

The treatment of the soloists is particularly noteworthy: 3 recorders a la sicilianno accompanying the alto aria, the violoncello piccolo (tuned like a cello, held in the arm like a viola, rumored to be Bach's invention) pairing with the tenor, and the two trumpets energizing the bass aria.

SOPRANO-ALTO-TENOR-BASS

BWV 42

Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbahs (At evening of the same Sabbath) Text: Bach?; John 20:19; Matthew 18:20; Fabricius

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sup.#.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sup.#.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, bassoon, strings, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. T recit.; 3. A aria; 4. S, T duet; 5. B recit.; 6. B aria; 7. Chorale Duration: 27:30

The Sinfonia first movement is in triple concerto style. The full orchestra accompanies one of the greatest of Bach's alto arias.

BWV 88

Siehe, ich will Fischer aussenden (Behold, I will send out fishers) Text: Unknown; Jeremiah 16:16; Luke 5:10; Chorale: Georg Neumark

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[G.sup.#.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Horn I, II, oboe d'amore I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c. A two part cantata: 1. B aria; 2. T recit.; 3. T aria; 4. T recit. and B aria; 5. S, A duet; 6. S recit.; 7. Chorale Duration: 20:50

The Nazarean fishermen and their miraculous catch is the Gospel of the day, but in the interpolated Jeremiah text, God warns that the idol worshipping Israelites shall be caught by His fishers. In Part II, Bach alters the words to fit the Gospel of the day.

Part I: Bass aria, tenor recitative, tenor aria.

Part II: Bass aria, soprano-alto duet, soprano recitative, chorale.

BWV 132

Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bohn (Prepare the way, prepare the course) Text: Salomo Franck; Chorale: Elisabeth Kreuzinger

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sup.#.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sup.#.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [E.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Oboe, strings, bassoon, b.c. 1. S aria; 2. T recit.; 3. B aria; 4. A recit.; 5. A aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 20:00

As with several Weimar cantatas, note the bass low E.

Usually Bach did not perform cantatas during Advent at Leipzig.

Each of these marvelous arias is especially enhanced by a solo instrument: oboe with the soprano, cello with the bass, and violin with the soprano.

BWV 151

Susser Trost, mein Jesus kommt (Sweet comfort, my Jesus comes) Text: G. C. Lehms; Chorale: Nikolas Hermann

Ranges: Soprano, [E.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute, oboe d'amore, strings, b.c. 1. S aria; 2. B recit.; 3. A aria; 4. T recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 16:30

Text based on Hebrews 1:1-14.

The soprano sings a memorable aria, often excerpted, with flute obbligato.

BWV 155

Mein Gott, wie Lang, ach lange? (My God, how long, ah, long?) Text: S. Franck; Chorale: Paul Speratus

Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [B.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[C.sub.4] Bassoon, strings, b.c

1. S recit.; 2. A, T duet; 3. B recit.; 4. S aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 13:00

One of the more modest, early cantatas written at Weimar, this is the only Bach cantata for the Second Sunday after Epiphany that notes the proper Epistle and Gospel, the turning of water into wine. The bassoon plays vivid obbligato for the alto-tenor duet.

BWV 162

Ach! Ich sehe, itzt, do ich zur Hochzeitgehe (Ah! I see, now, as I go to the wedding) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Johann Rosenmuller

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Alto, [G.sub.3]-[C.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [D.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Trumpet, strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. B aria; 2. T recit.; 3. S aria; 4. A recit.; 5. A, T duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 16:20

When Bach revised this cantata for Leipzig in 1723, he added a slide trumpet to the outer movements, and expanded the orchestra.

Both versions are available, both in print and in performance, the Weimar version in the key of A and the Leipzig version in B.

BWV 163

Nur jedem das Seine (Only to each his due) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Johann Heerman

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-B5; Alto, [G.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Violin I, II, viola, violoncello obbligato I, II, b.c.

1. T aria; 2. B recit.; 3. B aria; 4. S, A arioso; 5. S, A duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 16:10

The text examines the "rendering unto Caesar" commandment. The court of Weimar had been in mourning for three months, and no cantatas had been performed until this one. Here Bach wrote a rather ravishing cantata deserving of more frequent performance. No. 4 is a duet arioso between two voices in canon.

BWV 164

Ihr, die ihr each von Christo nennet (You, who call yourselves after Christ) Text: S. Franck; Chorale: E. Creuzinger

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. B recit.; 3. A aria; 4. T recit.; 5. S, B duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 17:40

The libretto deals with the parable of the Good Samaritan.

The cantata has a unified message, but each aria displays a different form. Several use canonic devices. The cantata is not technically difficult, and rather pleasing to hear.

BWV 165

O heiliges Geist- and Wasserbad (Oh Holy Ghost and water-bath) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Ludwig Helmbold

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[B.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. S aria; 2. B recit.; 3. A aria; 4. B recit.; 5. T aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 13:00

A short cantata with limited instrumentation, written at Weimar, this cantata reappeared at Leipzig in 1724. The first aria is in fugal form, and speaks of the surety of grace by baptism. The tenor aria, "Jesu meines Todes Tod," is based on a striking theme that shows the serpentine movement of the "little serpent of healing."

BWV 167

Ihr Menschen, riihmet Gottes Liebe (You men, extol God's love) Text: Unknown, Chorale: Johann Gramann

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Clarino, oboe, oboe da caccia, violin I, II, viola, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. A recit.; 3. S, A duetto; 4. B recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 18:00

The chorale is accompanied by orchestra with trumpet (originally "clarino"), but since it was written for a range of [D.sub.4]-[D.sub.6], it probably was a keyed trumpet.

It is a joyful cantata whose subject is John the Baptist, and because of its appearance in 1723, likely has its origins in Weimar.

BWV 168

Tue Rechnung! Donnerwort!

(Make a reckoning! Thunderword!) Text: S. Frank, Chorale: Bartolomaus Ringwaldt

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe d'amore I, II, strings, b.c. 1. B aria; 2. T recit.; 3. T aria; 4. B recit.; 5. S, A duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 13:30

The parable of the unjust steward is set with many colorful orchestral effects to illustrate judgment and wrath. Again, this could have originated in Weimar, but no earlier version is extant. The tenor recitative is accompanied by sustained unison from both oboes d'amore.

BWV 173

Erhohtes Fleisch and Blut (Exhalted flesh and blood) Text: Unknown (Bach?)

Ranges: Soprano, [E.sub.4]-[B.sub.5]; Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [D.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T recit.; 2. T aria; 3. A aria; 4. B, S duet; 5. S, T recit.; 6. Fourpart chorus Duration: 14:40

Bach adopted six of eight numbers from the birthday cantata Durchlauchster Leopold, BWV 173a, written for Prince Leopold at Anhalt-Kothen. The words are contrafacta on the older music. The solos, originally for soprano and bass, are transposed and distributed among a quartet of singers. The soloists sing the final chorus. The music is generally dance-like.

BWV 183

Sie werden each in den Bohn tun II (Ye shall be cast into the darkness) Text: C. M. von Ziegler, John 16:2, Chorale: P Ziegler

Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [D.sub.4]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[B.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Oboe d'amore I, II, oboe da caccia I, II, violoncello piccolo, strings, b.c. 1. B recit.; 2. T aria; 3. A recit.; 4. S aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 13:50

Cantata 44 bears the same title. Nos. 1 and 2 of that cantata use the same text found in this cantata. Unusual is the opening bass recitative accompanied by all four oboes and continuo. Although the cantata is rather brief, note the large scale orchestra. The four oboes are prominent throughout and are necessary for a good performance of the work.

BWV 185

Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe (Merciful heart of eternal love) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Johann Agricola

Ranges: Soprano, [B.sup.#sub.3]-[G.sup.#.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[C.sup.#.sub.5]; Tenor, [B.sup.#.sub.2]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [F.sup.#.sub.2]-[C.sup.#.sub.4] Oboe (or trumpet), strings, bassoon, b.c. 1. S, T duet; 2. A recit.; 3. A aria; 4. B recit.; 5. B aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 14:20

Bach revised this cantata for Leipzig.

The lovely opening soprano-tenor duet is a chorale arrangement with the soprano and tenor against an oboe cantas firmas of Agricola's hymn, "Ich ruf an dir, Herr Jesu Christ," which Bach used in Cantata 177, written for the same Sunday.

The final chorale is the same hymn with a high violin obbligato.

BWV 188

Ich habe meine Zuversicht aaf den getreuen Gottgericht't (I have placed my confidence on the true God) Text: Picander; Chorale: Caspar von Stieler

Ranges: Soprano, [E.sub.4]-F5; Alto, [C.sub.4]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [C.sub.3][E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, obbligato organ, strings, b.c. 1. Sinfonia; 2. T aria; 3. B recit.; 4. A aria; 5. S recit.; 6. Chorale Duration: 24:20

A note on the autograph score indicates that the first movement of the D minor Clavier Concerto, BWV 1052, be played as the opening sinfonia. The final chorale has no instrumentation specified.

The two arias of this cantata stand among the best arias of Bach's cantatas and are well worth examining.

WEBSITES

www.bach-cantatas.com An erudite resource, with entries that include the Lutheran Church Calendar, the readings for each day and their applicable cantata numbers, both choral and solo, texts, translations, printable piano-vocal scores, references, librettists. A weekly forum cyclically reviews recordings for beginning Bach lovers to erudite Bach scholars.

wwwjsbach.org An easy-to-use guide with indices of complete works in many categories, links to several other websites for available recordings and their reviews, and links to Bach information and web sites with MIDI files other than cantatas. wwwbach.gwdg.de/bach engl.html A database/catalog/provenance of the works of Johann Sebastian Bach.

wwwmusic.qub.ac.uk/tomita/bachbib The home page title says it all: Bach Bibliography for the Global Community of Bach Scholars.

FURTHER READING

Boyd, Malcolm, ed. Oxford Composer Companions: Bach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. A comprehensive coverage of each cantata.

Chiapusso, Jan. Bach's World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. An historical treatise of the city-states as Bach encountered

Chafe, Eric. Analyzing Bach Cantatas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. An in-depth, theoretic, theological, and analytic discussion of Bach's compositional techniques, using several of his cantatas.

--. Tonal Allegory in the Vocal Music of J. S. Bach. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Durr, Alfred, trans. D. P. Jones. The Cantatas of J. S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. London: Oxford University Press, 2005. One of the latest translations of the scholarship of Durr.

Robertson, Alec. The Church Cantatas of J. S. Bach. New York: Praeger and Co., 1972.

Terry, Charles Sanford. Cantata Texts Sacred and Secular; With a Reconstruction of the Leipzig Liturgy of His Period. London: Holland Press, 1964.

--. The Music of Bach. Mineola, NY. Dover Press, 1963. A relatively inexpensive version of a standard text.

NOTES

(1.) For an overview and musical analysis of Bachs liturgical solo works, see Richard Dale Sjoerdsma, "The Solo Liturgical Cantatas of J. S. Bach (Part I)," The NATS Journal 42, no. 2 (November/December 1985): 5-11, and "The Solo Liturgical Cantatas of J. S. Bach (Part II)," The NATS Journal 42, no. 5 (May/June 1986):12-17.

(2.) Charles Sanford Terry, Bach, the Cantatas and Oratorios, Book I (London: Oxford University Press, 1925), 5.

(3.) Karl Geiringer, Johann Sebastian Bach, the Culmination of an Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), 143.

(4.) Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel, The New Bach Reader (New York: W W Norton and Co., 1972), 71ff.

(5.) Geiringer, 144.

(6.) Sacred solo cantatas originating at Weimar and revised for Leipzig: BWV 155, 162, 165, 173, 185. See Alfred Durr, "Zur Chronologie der Leipziger Vokalmusik J. S. Bachs," Bach Jahrbuch 44 (1975): 57ff.

(7.) Werner Neumann, Handbuch der Kantaten Johann Sebastian Bachs (Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel Musikverlag, 1947, 1967, 1971, 1979).

(8.) Geiringer, 153-178. C. P E. Bach preserved these particular cantatas.

(9.) Durr, 57f

(10.) Geiringer, 174.

(11.) Albert Schweitzer, J. S. Bach, Vol. I, trans. Ernest Newmann (New York: Dover Publications, 1966), 80f

(12.) Lois Rimbach, "The Church Cantatas of Johann Kuhnau" (PhD dissertation, Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester, 1966), 35-39.

(13.) David and Mendel, 120.

(14.) Ibid., 119ff.

(15.) Ibid., 91.

(16.) According to www.almusic.com/cg. To access the information, click "Classical," and then write "Bach Cantata" and the number. It will be necessary to find the specific cantata from the list generated.

Antonio Rodrigues-Pavao, perhaps more widely known as Tony Pavao, has been a voice teacher for nearly forty years. During that time, he has been involved with the National Association of Teachers of Singing and its Wisconsin Chapter Board of Directors, as well as the Greater Milwaukee Chapter of the Voice Foundation. After retiring from public school teaching, Tony continued teaching voice in his home studio and at Carroll University, Waukesha, WI.

Tony has sung bass roles with the Skylight Theatre, the Illinois Opera Group, and other various regional opera companies. He has also performed with the Gregg Smith Singers, and has soloed with a number of symphony orchestras and as recitalist.

He has composed solo songs and choral music that have been performed at high schools, colleges, and ACDA national and state conventions. His hobbies include house remodeling, strength training, and reading.
"There is not much that I can do,
For I've no money that's quite my own!"
Spoke up the pitying child-A
little boy with a violin
At the station before the train came in-"But
I can play my fiddle to you,
And a nice one 'tis, and good in tone!"
The man in the handcuffs smiled:
The constable looked, and he smiled too,
As the fiddle began to twang;
And the man in the handcuffs suddenly sang
With grimful glee:
   "This life so free
   Is the thing for me!"
And the constable smiled, and said no word,
As if unconscious of what he heard;
And so they went on till the train came in--The
convict, and boy with the violin.

Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)
"At the Railway Station, Upway"

TABLE 1. Sacred solo cantatas without chorales.

Cantata                      Place of       Year of
Number       Voice(s)      Composition    Composition

BWV 35         Alto          Leipzig         1726
BWV 51        Soprano        Leipzig         1730
BWV 54         Alto           Weimar         1714
BWV 82         Bass          Leipzig         1727
BWV 152    Soprano-Bass       Weimar         1714
BWV 170        Alto          Leipzig         1726
BWV 173        SATB          Leipzig         1724

TABLE 2. Bach's sacred solo cantatas in the Lutheran church
calendar, place and date of composition.

Cantata                             BWV            Occasion

Bereitet die Wege                   152         Fourth Sunday
                                                  of Advent
Selig ist der Mann                   57        Christmas Monday
Susser Trost, mein Jesus kommi      151       Christmas Tuesday
Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn          152         Sunday after
                                                  Christmas
Schau lieber Gott, wie meine                       Sunday
  Feind'                            153       after Circumcision
Ach, Gott, wie manches                             Sunday
  Herzeleid II                       58       after Circumcision
Mein liebster Jesus ist                         First Sunday
  verloren                          154         after Epiphany
Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen        32         First Sunday
                                                after Epiphany
Mein Gott, wie lang', ach,                      Second Sunday
  lange                             155         after Epiphany
Ich steh' mit einem Fuss im                     Third Sunday
  Grabe                             156        after Epiphany
Jesus schlaft, was soll ich                     Fourth Sunday
  hoffen?                            81         after Epiphany
Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde         83      Purification of BVM
Ich habe genug                       82      Purification of BVM
Ich lasse dich nicht                157      Purification of BVM
Der Friede sei mit dir              158      Purification of BVM
Ich bin vergnugt mit meinem
  Glucke                             84      Septuagesima Sunday
Gleich wie der Regen und
  Schnee vom Himmel fallt            18       Sexagesima Sunday
Sehet, wir gehen hinauf gen
  Jerusalem                         159      Quinquagesima Sunday
Am Abend aber desselbigen                       First Sunday
  Sabbats                            42          after Easter
Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten       87      Fifth Sunday after
                                                    Easter
Sie werden euch in den Bann                     Sixth Sunday
  tun II                            183          after Easter
Wer mich liebet, der wird mein
Wort halten                          59          Whit Sunday
Ich liebe den Hochsten von
  ganzem                            174          Whit Monday
Erhohtes Fleisch und Blut           173          Whit Monday
Er rufet seinen Schafen mit
  Namen                             175          Whit Tuesday
O heiliges Geist- und
  Wasserbad                         165         Trinity Sunday
Ihr Menschen, ruhmet Gottes
  Liebe                             167      St. John the Baptist
Barmherzigens Herze der ewigen                  Fourth Sunday
  Liebe                             185         after Trinity
Siehe, ich will viel Fischer                    Fifth Sunday
  aussenden                          88         after Trinity
Vergnugte Ruh', beliebte                        Sixth Sunday
  Seelenlust                        170         after Trinity
Widerstehe doch der Sunde            54        Seventh Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Tue Rechnung! Donnerwort!           168         Ninth Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut         199        Eleventh Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Geist und Seele wird verwirret       35        Twelfth Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Dir, die ihr euch von Christo                 Thirteenth Sunday
  nennet                            164         after Trinity
Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen!       51       Fifteenth Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Gott soll allein mein Herze                   Eighteenth Sunday
  haben                             169         after Trinity
Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne                  Nineteenth Sunday
  tragen                             56         after Trinity
Ach! Ich sehe, jetzt, da ich                  Twentieth Sunday
  zur Hochzeit gehe                 162         after Trinity
Ich geh und suche mit                         Twentieth Sunday
  Verlangen                          49         after Trinity
Ich habe meine Zuversicht auf                   Twenty-first
  den getreuen Gott gericht't       188      Sunday after Trinity
Was soll ich aus dir machen,                    Twenty-second
  Ephraim?                           89      Sunday after Trinity
Ich armer Mensch, ich                           Twenty-second
  Sundenknecht                       55      Sunday after Trinity
Nur jedem das Seine                 163      Twenty-third Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Falsche Welt, dir trau ich                      Twenty-third
  nicht                              52      Sunday after Trinity
O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort            60      Twenty-fourth Sunday
                                                after Trinity
Es reifet euch ein schrecklich                  Twenty-fifth
  Ende                               90      Sunday after Trinity

                                  Date of          Place of
Cantata                           Composition    Composition

Bereitet die Wege                   1715            Weimar

Selig ist der Mann                  1725           Leipzig
Susser Trost, mein Jesus kommi      1725           Leipzig
Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn          1714            Weimar
Schau lieber Gott, wie meine
  Feind'                            1724           Leipzig
Ach, Gott, wie manches
  Herzeleid II                      1727           Leipzig
Mein liebster Jesus ist
  verloren                          1724           Leipzig
Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen       1726           Leipzig
Mein Gott, wie lang', ach,
  lange                             1716            Weimar
Ich steh' mit einem Fuss im
  Grabe                            1729?           Leipzig
Jesus schlaft, was soll ich
  hoffen?                           1724           Leipzig
Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde        1724           Leipzig
Ich habe genug                      1727           Leipzig
Ich lasse dich nicht                1727           Leipzig
Der Friede sei mit dir            172?,173?        Leipzig
Ich bin vergnugt mit meinem
  Glucke                            1727           Leipzig
Gleich wie der Regen und
  Schnee vom Himmel fallt          1714?            Weimar
Sehet, wir gehen hinauf gen
  Jerusalem                        1729?           Leipzig
Am Abend aber desselbigen
  Sabbats                           1725           Leipzig
Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten      1725           Leipzig
Sie werden euch in den Bann
  tun II                            1725           Leipzig
Wer mich liebet, der wird mein
Wort halten                         1714            Weimar
Ich liebe den Hochsten von
  ganzem                            1729           Leipzig
Erhohtes Fleisch und Blut          1724?           Leipzig
Er rufet seinen Schafen mit
  Namen                             1725           Leipzig
O heiliges Geist- und
  Wasserbad                         1715            Weimar
Ihr Menschen, ruhmet Gottes
  Liebe                             1723           Leipzig
Barmherzigens Herze der ewigen
  Liebe                             1715            Weimar
Siehe, ich will viel Fischer
  aussenden                         1726           Leipzig
Vergnugte Ruh', beliebte
  Seelenlust                        1726           Leipzig
Widerstehe doch der Sunde           1714            Weimar
Tue Rechnung! Donnerwort!           1725           Leipzig
Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut         1714            Weimar
Geist und Seele wird verwirret      1726           Leipzig
Dir, die ihr euch von Christo
  nennet                            1725           Leipzig
Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen!      1730           Leipzig
Gott soll allein mein Herze
  haben                             1726           Leipzig
Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne
  tragen                            1726           Leipzig
Ach! Ich sehe, jetzt, da ich
  zur Hochzeit gehe                 1715            Weimar
Ich geh und suche mit
  Verlangen                         1726           Leipzig
Ich habe meine Zuversicht auf
  den getreuen Gott gericht't      1729?           Leipzig
Was soll ich aus dir machen,
  Ephraim?                          1723           Leipzig
Ich armer Mensch, ich
  Sundenknecht                      1726           Leipzig
Nur jedem das Seine                 1715            Weimar
Falsche Welt, dir trau ich
  nicht                             1726           Leipzig
O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort           1723           Leipzig
Es reifet euch ein schrecklich
  Ende                              1723           Leipzig

TABLE 3. Sacred solo cantatas with exceptional ranges.

                  Usual
Voice             Range          Cantata No.        High

                                   BWV 154           --
                                   BWV 199           --
Soprano    [C.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]     BWV 165        [B.sub.5]
                                   BWV 163        [B.sub.5]
                                   BWV 51         [C.sub.6]
                                   BWV 54            --
                                   BWV 156           --
Alto       [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]     BWV 162           --
                                   BWV 163           --
                                   BWV 87      [B[flat].sub.4]
                                   BWV 55      [B[flat].sub.4]
Tenor      [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]     BWV 157        [B.sub.4]
                                   BWV 183        [B.sub.4]
                                   BWV 132           --
                                   BWV 152           --
Bass       [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4]     BWV 162           --
                                   BWV 185           --

Voice              Low           Place Written      Year

                [B.sub.3]          Leipzig          1724R
                [B.sub.3]          Weimar           1714R
Soprano            --              Weimar           1715R
                   --              Weimar           1715
                   --              Leipzig          1730
                [F.sub.3]          Weimar           1714
                [F.sub.3]          Leipzig          1729
Alto            [G.sub.3]          Weimar           1715R
                [G.sub.3]          Weimar           1715
                   --              Leipzig          1725
                   --              Leipzig          1726
Tenor              --              Leipzig          1727
                   --              Leipzig          1725
                [E.sub.2]          Weimar           1715
                [D.sub.2]          Weimar           1715
Bass            [D.sub.2]          Weimar           1715
                [F.sub.2]          Weimar           1715

R--Revised for use at Leipzig

TABLE 4. Solo cantatas using borrowed instrumental works.

BWV 35    No. 1   D Minor Clavier Concerto (fragmentary),
                    BWV 1059
          No. 2   Unknown Clavier Concerto
          No. 5   Unknown Clavier Concerto
BWV 49    No. 1   E Major Clavier Concerto, BWV 1053
BWV 52    No. 1   First Brandenburg Concerto, BWV 1046
BWV 82    No. 2   Notebook for Anna Magdelena 11, No. 34
          No. 3   Notebook for Anna Magdelena 11,
                    Nos. 34, 38
BWV 83    No. 1   Unknown violin concerto
          No. 3   Unknown violin concerto
BWV 156   No. 1   F Minor Clavier Concerto, BWV 1056?
                    /Unknown violin concerto?
BWV 169   No. 1   E Major Clavier Concerto, BWV 1053
          No. 5   E Major Clavier Concerto BWV 1053
BWV 174   No. 1   Third Brandenburg Concerto, BWV 1048
BWV 188   No. 1   D Minor Clavier Concerto, BWV 1052
                    (also in Cantata 146)

TABLE 5. Most frequent use of sacred solo cantatas during
Bach's Leipzig years.

1723:      Trinity XX      Trin. XXI      Trin. XXII

Solo:          162                             89
Choral:                        109

1723:     Trin. XXIII      Trin. XIV       Trin. XXV

Solo:                          60              90
Choral:        194

Cantata 109 has six movements: one choral movement, one chorale
movement using a soprano cantus firmus, alto and tenor solo,
and no chorale.

Cantata 194, originally for Trinity Sunday: twelve movements in
two parts, one choral movement, soprano, alto, and bass solos, and
two chorales.

1724:       1st Sun.        Epiphany         Ep. I          Ep. II
          after Circum.

Solo:          153                            154            155
Choral:                        65

1724:        Ep. III         Ep. IV        Purif BVM        Sept.

Solo:                          81              83
Choral:        74                                            144

Cantata 65 has seven movements: one choral movement, two chorales,
and tenor and bass solos.

Cantata 74 consists of five movements: one choral movement (with
three recitatives interspersed by the three soloists), and soprano,
tenor, and bass solos.

Cantata 144 is six movements long: one choral movement, two chorales,
and soprano, tenor, and bass solos.

1724:     Whit Sunday     Whit Monday     Whit Tuesday   Trinity Sunday

Solo:          59              173                           165
Choral:        172                                           194

Here Bach obviously used a cantata before the Epistle as well as
after the Gospel on the two Sundays.

Cantata 172 has seven movements: two choral movements, one chorale,
and soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos.

Cantata 194 appears above in 1723.

1725:       Easter V      Ascen. Thurs.   Sun. after      Whit Sun.

Solo:          87                             183
Choral:                        128                            74

1725:      Whit Mon.       Whit Tues.     Trinity Ascen.

Solo:                          175
Choral:        68                             176

Cantata 128 has five movements: one choral movement, one
chorale, alto, tenor, and bass solos.

Cantata 74 is eight movements long: one choral movement,
one chorale, soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos.

Cantata 68 consists of five movements: one extended chorale,
one choral movement, and soprano and bass solos.

Cantata 176 has six movements: one choral movement, one
chorale, and soprano, alto and bass solos.

1726:     Trin. XVIII      Trin. XIX       Trin. XX

Solo:          169             56              49
Choral:

1726:      Trin. XXI       Trin. XXII     Trin. XXIII

Solo:                          55              52
Choral:        98

Cantata 98were written for the fifth
and sixth Sunday after Trinity.

Solo Cantatas 88 and 170 appear between the two larger and more
chorally centered cantatas of Johann Ludwig Bach. They were
written for the fifth and sixth Sunday after Trinity.

TABLE 6. Sacred solo cantatas with sinfonias.

Cantata                    Place of        Year of
Number       Voice(s)     Composition    Composition

BWV 35         Alto         Leipzig          1726
BWV 42         SATB         Leipzig          1725
BWV 49     Soprano-Bass     Leipzig          1726
BWV 52       Soprano        Leipzig          1726
BWV152     Soprano-Bass      Weimar          1714
BWV 156        ATB          Leipzig         1729?
BWV 169        Alto         Leipzig          1726
BWV 188        SATB         Leipzig          1728

TABLE 7. Solo and obbligato instruments employed in Bach's sacred
solo cantatas.

Oboe             Leipzig: 32, 35, 42, 52, 56, 57, 58, 82, 83, 84,
                   87, 89, 156, 157, 159, 164, 167, 169, 170, 174,188
                 Weimar: 132, 152, 158, 185, 199
Oboe da caccia   Leipzig: 35, 56, 57, 58, 87, 88, 167, 169, 174, 183,
                   188
                 Weimar: 0
Oboe d'amore     Leipzig: 49, 55, 60, 81, 88, 151, 154, 157, 168,
                   170, 183
                 Weimar: 163
Organ            Leipzig: 35, 49, 169, 170, 188
                 Weimar: 161
Trumpet          Leipzig: 51, 90, 167, 175
                 Weimar: 59, 162, 185
Horn             Leipzig: 52, 60, 83, 88, 89, 174
                 Weimar: 0
Flute            Leipzig: 55,151, 157, 164, 173
                 Weimar: 0
Timpani          Leipzig: 0
                 Weimar: 59
Recorder         Leipzig: 81,175
                 Weimar: 152
Bassoon          Leipzig: 159,165
                 Weimar: 155, 162, 199
Viola d'amore    Leipzig: 0
                 Weimar: 152
Viola da gamba   Leipzig: 0
                 Weimar: 152
Violin           Leipzig: 32, 42, 51, 52, 57, 58, 60, 83, 84, 88,
                   156, 157, 170, 174
                 Weimar: 59, 132, 158
Viola            Leipzig: 83, 156, 170, 174
                 Weimar: 199
Violoncello      Leipzig: 188
                 Weimar: 163
Violoncello      Leipzig: 49, 175, 183
  piccolo        Weimar: 0
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Author:Rodrigues-Pavao, Antonio
Publication:Journal of Singing
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2009
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