A performer's guide to the sacred solo cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.
TALIAN AND GERMAN BAROQUE solo cantatas occupy a significant portion of the literature from that period, but one that finds an undeservedly infrequent pedagogic use. (1) Choosing a sacred solo cantata for specific voices and instruments from a catalog of more than two hundred plus cantatas written by Johann Sebastian Bach can be a daunting task. This guide enables the professional performer, teacher, or student to quickly select a sacred cantata for a solo voice or voices. Supplementary tables add relevant comments useful in the selection process.
In forty cantatas, solo singers perform all of the movements of each cantata with a concluding hymn in four parts. These hymns are appropriate for congregational singing. An additional seven cantatas have no chorale ending (Table 1).
Many of Bachs choral cantatas barely escape the title of solo cantata because they contain only a single choral movement inappropriate for congregational singing. Bach himself used the term cantata on only six occasions; three of those are solo cantatas (BWV 54, 56, and 173). (2)
Bach wrote his sacred solo cantatas during the years at Weimar (17081717) and at Leipzig (1723-1750). The cantatas included in this index employ texts for the Lutheran liturgy (Table 2 lists the solo cantatas according to the Lutheran Calendar).
THE WEIMAR PERIOD
At Weimar, Bach was employed as concertmaster and composer for Duke Carl August. He had twelve to fourteen well trained singers at his disposal, mostly professionals that held other positions at the Duke's court. Among them was countertenor Christian Gerhart Bernhardi, for whom Bach wrote the intricate music found in Cantatas 132, 161, and 185. (3) Six choir boys appeared on a list of the Kapelle. (4)
It is interesting to speculate on the abilities of Bachs performers, especially in view of the several Weimar cantatas that display an unusually low range for solo bass (BWV 132, 152, 162, and 185). These cantatas are later revised at Leipzig. (5) Modern editions of these cantatas retain their original keys. (6)
The organ of Bachs time played in the Chorton, a minor third higher than the tief Cammerton, or low chamber pitch, of the wind instruments. He expected the strings to tune higher, to match the organ's pitch. The singers saw the same key as the organ, while the wind instruments read parts a minor third higher. Weimar solo sopranos may have seen [A.sub.5], for instance, but they sang-and today's sopranos sing--[C.sub.6]! Other problems involving modern soloists' range may occur, as Bach wrote for the various forces in Weimar (Table 3).
Bach's Weimar cantatas first appear in 1714. Three are solo cantatas: BWV 152 with a libretto by Salmo Franck, and BWV 54 and 199 with libretti by C. C. Lehms. None of these works have chorales, but several are experimental in character, most notably the instrumentation of Cantata 152; recorder, oboe, viola d'amore, viola da gamba, and basso continuo form the entire orchestra. In the final movement, the orchestra plays in unison while a soprano and bass dialogue-duet occurs over a basso continuo. (7)
Mostly solo cantatas appear in 1715 (BWV 132, 165, 161, 162, 163, and 185) and 1716 (BWV 155, 164, and 168). Their libretti are original poetic elaborations, without direct biblical quotes, by Salmo Franck. A chorale is always present as a concluding movement.
THE LEIPZIG YEARS
According to Geiringer, Bach composed (or rewrote) five sets of cantatas during the Leipzig years (1723-1731). (8) Some sixty cantatas of all types appear in the first set, including a number of solo cantatas: 1723-BWV 167,199, 162, 89, 60, and 90; 1724-BWV 153, 154, 155, 81, 83, 181, 59,173, and 165. (9) Of the solo cantatas produced in Leipzig, several came from Weimar: BWV 199,162,154, 155, and 165. Bach revised all but Cantata 155.
Cantatas from this period, solo as well as choral, display a uniformity of libretto and structure. There is preference for texts starting with a Bible quotation that serves as a motto for the ensuing movements. Many of these cantatas conclude with a chorale; other movements are recitatives and arias of varied structure.
The second set of Leipzig cantatas dates from the first Sunday after Trinity 1724 to Trinity Sunday 1725. This group has been authenticated from the Thomasschule collection in the Bach-Archive, as well as by scores received by various persons through Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. According to Durr, this second set includes solo cantatas 42, 87, 183, and 175 (1725).
With some editing by Bach, Marianne von Ziegler wrote the libretti for the last three. There is a Bible quotation at the beginning of each, and a chorale at the end. BWV 183 and 175 open with a recitative based on the Gospel for the day instead of an aria or sinfonia.
The third group of Leipzig cantatas, according to scores once owned by Carl Phillipp Emanuel Bach, cover from Christmas 1725 to Septuagesima 1727: BWV 57 (1725); BWV 32, 88, 170, 35, 169, 56, 49, 55, and 52 (1726); BWV 82 and 84 (1727). Several of these cantatas (BWV 57, 32, 49, 58) are in the form of dialogues between the Soul (soprano) and Jesus (bass). In this set, Bach begins writing cantatas for a single voice with a concluding chorale (BWV 52 and 84 for soprano; BWV 35,169, 170 for alto; BWV 55 for tenor; and BWV 56 and 82 for bass). Interestingly, in the Leipzig cantatas, we find Bach borrowing rather liberally from several of his earlier instrumental works (Table 4).
The fourth cycle of the Leipzig cantatas is largely lost, although BWV 156, 159, 174, and 188 are extant. It is noteworthy that BWV 159 shares many of the St. Matthew Passion themes. Picander wrote most of the libretti. Notable too is the expanded orchestra; Bach became director of Leipzig's Collegium Musicum, and had more instrumentalists available at this time.
Only fragments of the fifth cycle exist. (10)
WHY BACH WROTE CANTATAS FOR SOLO VOICES
As the popularity of opera in eighteenth century Germany grew, so did solo singing employing recitative and aria. These forms spread into church music and pushed choral music back from its predominance in the Lutheran worship service. (11)
Johann Kuhnau (1660-1772), Bachs immediate predecessor at Leipzig, who had attempted opera composition, protested the use of operatic forms and styles during liturgical services. However, congregational demand for the aria form existed when Bach assumed the duties of Cantor. (12)
Bach found it expedient to write solo cantatas because of administrative difficulties in acquiring the depth of talent he desired, (13) his reluctance to train choirs, (14) and the exhausting schedule he maintained. (15) By using more talented solo singers and his professional orchestra, he could conveniently and reasonably limit choir participation.
An examination of the church calendar reveals that solo cantatas appear in clusters. Major feast days require more music than other Sundays. For example, three musical services are required in one week for Whit Sunday, Whit Monday, and Whit Tuesday. In addition, the following Sunday is Trinity Sunday, a relatively important feast day. Cantata 194, presented on Trinity of 1724, is a large two part choral work of twelve movements. To lighten the rehearsal load, Bach found it expedient to present solo cantatas, where rehearsals can be confined to three or four instruments and the singer. Therefore the choirs could spend more time preparing for the major event.
Similarly, solo cantatas of the Leipzig years appear in concentration during the last Sundays of Trinity, the season prior to Advent and Christmas, and, in 1724, from the first Sunday after the Circumcision to Sexuagesima Sunday, the season prior to Holy Week (Table 5).
BACH'S USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN THE SOLO CANTATAS
In general, Bach's solo cantatas employ the same orchestral forces as his choral cantatas. To the complement of strings (viola parts divisi in the Weimar cantatas), he usually adds a wind instrument or instruments. As with choral cantatas, Bach occasionally uses sinfonias (Table 6). In an introduction to an aria, an obbligato instrument often will present the melody that the singer will repeat upon entering, the familiar "motto beginning" from earlier Italian style.
Orchestral texture defines three types of arias that Bach uses in his cantatas: a reduced orchestra, a ritornello style using the full orchestra, and continuo arias. In his predominant choice of orchestral texture, Bach reduces the size of the orchestra for solos and duets, which are mostly in da capo form. Trio sonata texture is most prevalent in arias, with the solo instrument, the singer, and the basso continuo forming a Baroque trio. Quartet texture appears less regularly, mostly with vocal duets, and only one solo cantata has a quintet movement: BWV 60, no. 3 uses oboe d'amore, violin, alto, tenor, and continuo. (As an interesting sidebar, this cantata contains the hymn "Es ist genug," a tune later explored by Alban Berg and others.)
Next in frequency are arias accompanied by the entire orchestra. These movements usually have one ritornello. After moments of reduced texture, the instruments echo the soloist in concertante style. With rare exception, the continuo plays throughout.
Least frequent are arias accompanied by continuo only. Sometimes they are built on an instrumental ostinato figure (BWV 165, no. 3), or have a short ritornello (BWV 162, no. 5).
All three types of orchestra texture may be found in any of the solo cantatas, and there is usually a combination of two of the styles. Only one solo cantata from Weimar does not use the chamber texture aria. In BWV 162, movement one, the bass soloist sings with the entire orchestra. The other movements are continuo arias, followed by an alto-tenor duet with continuo and ritornello accompaniment.
A greater variety of instruments appears in the Leipzig cantatas. Bach could hire his town musicians and university students, as well as employ the Thomasschule students. At Leipzig, oboe da caccia, horns, flutes, and violoncello appear exclusively, while timpani, viola d'amore, and viola da gamba are unique to his Weimar cantatas. All other instruments are found in both groups of cantatas. Bach uses the oboe as a solo instrument most frequently (28 out of the 47 cantatas listed here). Next in order of frequency is the violin (18), especially at Weimar, not a surprise, as that was one of Bach's proficiencies. Next come two more types of oboes, oboe d'amore (13), and the oboe da caccia (11) (Table 7).
The following is a general survey and performance guide to Johann Sebastian Bachs solo church cantatas, arranged by voice types. It shows singers' ranges, librettists, orchestral forces, number and types of movements within each cantata, average duration, (16) and other comments that may help singer or teacher in choosing cantatas for complete performance or for excerpting arias and identifying obbligato instruments for recital performance.
Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen! (Praise God in all lands) Text: Unknown (Bach?); Chorale: Johann Gramann
Range: [C.sub.4]-[C.sub.6] Trumpet in C, strings, b.c.
1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. S Chorale; 5. Aria Duration: 17:50
Bach indicated in his score that this cantata also could be put to general use. The libretto is relevant to the Gospel "Seek ye first the kingdom of God" and to the Epistle praising the fruit of the spirit. The very virtuosic solo demands that the singer compete with the trumpet in duet.
Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht (False world, I trust you not) Text: Unknown; Chorale: Adam Reusner
Range: [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5] Horns I, II, oboe I, II, III, strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. Sinf; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 15:00
The opening sinfonia is an adaptation of Brandenburg Concerto Number One (BWV 1046). This joyous movement is followed by a somber recitative whose text reflects the falseness of the world.
The second aria exhibits similarity with Handel's "V'adore pupille' (Giulio Cesare).
Ich bin vergniigt mit meinem Gliicke (I am happy with my good fortune)
Text: Picander; Chorale: Schwarsburg-Rudolstadt
Range: [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5] Oboe, strings, b.c.
1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 14:00
The laborer, feeling unworthy for having worked only one hour, gets the same reward as those who labored all day. The soprano has many trills in its imitative duet with the oboe.
Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut (My heart swims in blood) Text: G.C. Lehms; Chorale: Johann Heerman
Range: [B.sub.3- [A.sup.[flat].sub.5] Oboe, strings, b.c. with bassoon and bass 1. Recit.; 2. Aria and recit.; 3. Recit.; 4. Aria; 5. Recit.; 6. Chorale; 7. Recit.; 8. Aria Duration: 24:20
The soprano must possess both a beautiful legato and a clear coloratura.
In the chorale (No. 6), the soprano sings the hymn as a cantus firmus, while the viola plays a thematically derived obbligato.
Written at Weimar, this cantata was revised for use in Leipzig in conjunction with BWV 179 (1723).
Geist and Seele wird verwirret (Spirit and Soul become disordered) Text: Georg Christian Lehms
Range: [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia (or taille, a tenor oboe), concerted organ, strings, b.c.
1. Sinf; 2. Aria; 3. Recit.; 4. Aria; 5. Sinf; 6. Recit.; 7. Aria Duration: 26:10
This two-part cantata has a sinfonia as the first movement of each part. The sinfonias and three arias are adaptations of an earlier Harpsichord Concerto, BWV 1059. It is one of three cantatas written for the 12th Sunday after Trinity that uses the Gospel of the day, the healing of a deaf man.
The cantata is best suited for performance with an orchestra with a fine organist.
Widerstehe doch der Sunde (Stand against sin) Text: Georg Christian Lehms
Range: [F.sub.3]-[C.sub.5] Strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria Duration: 11:50
Note the low voice range, accessible to young male alto-tenors. This is one solo work that Bach called a cantata.
Gott soll allein mein Herze haben (God alone shall have my heart) Text: Unknown; Chorale: M. Luther
Range: [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c. 1. Sinfonia; 2. Arioso; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria; 6. Recit.; 7. Chorale Duration: 23:40
Bach adapted the first and second movements of his Concerto for Clavier, BWV 1053 for the first and fifth movements of this cantata.
The clavier part is for a single manual organ with pedals. Another cantata with possible earlier origins in Weimar, it is a superb work, with notable interplay between organ and singer.
Vergniigte Ruh,' beliebte Seelenlust (Pleasant rest, beloved soul's desire)
Text: G. C. Lehms Range:[ A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] Oboe d'amore, concerted organ, strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria Duration: 22:50
The second recitative uses no continuo, but strings and organ (no pedals). The organ plays two parts, the violin and viola play the third.
The text deals with death and peace.
Notable is the exquisite lyricism of the alto arias and the concerted use of the organ.
BWV 55 Ich armer Mensch, ich Siindenknecht (I, wretched man, I, slave of sin) Text: Unknown; Chorale: Johann Rist
Range: [D.sub.3]-[B.sup.[flat].sub.4] Flute, oboe d'amore, strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 13:10
The work requires a tenor capable of sustaining a high tessitura. The text dwells on the theme of a guilt-ridden sinner standing before the throne of God.
Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen (I will gladly carry the cross-staff) Text: Unknown; Chorale: Johann Franck
Range: [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia (taille), strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit. and arioso; 5. Chorale Duration: 20:30
A beautiful cantata requiring dramatic singing with long phrasing.
Ich habe genug (I have enough) Text: Unknown Range: [G.sub.2]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. 1. Aria; 2. Recit.; 3. Aria; 4. Recit.; 5. Aria Duration: 23:10
Three versions of this cantata exist: 1) in E minor for soprano with flute instead of oboe; 2) in C minor for alto; 3) in C minor for bass. The autograph begins for soprano, changed to alto, and is for bass after the first movement. Two movements appear in Anna Magdalena's Notebook.
The soloist should possess a lyric legato and be capable of agile singing.
Die Friede sei mit dir (Peace I give to you) Text: Johann Georg Albinus (first movement); S. Franck?; Chorales: Johann Rosenmuller, M. Luther
Range: [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Two chorales: the aria (No. 2) has the Rosenmuller chorale as cantus firmus while the bass sings Albinus's text; there is a concluding four-part chorale Violin, oboe, b.c. 1. B recit.; 2. B aria with S chorale; 3. B recit. and arioso; 4. Chorale Duration: 11:00
Numbers 1 and 4 use part of the text by Salmo Franck(?) belonging to the Gospel for Easter Tuesday; the text for Nos. 2 and 3 relate to the Feast of the Purification. Therefore, it is likely that someone assembled the cantata from several sources, and that a soprano may be used in the Rosenmuller chorale. The cantata may have appeared for a special funeral service. Note the lack of full orchestra.
Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen (Dearest Jesus, my desiring) Text: Christian Friedrich Henrici (Picander)
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sup.#.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Bass, [A.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. 1. S aria; 2. B recit.; 3. B aria; 4. S, B recit. (Dialogue); 5. S, B duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 23:20
The bass aria (No. 3) and duet (No. 5) are in da capo form. The autograph score is inscribed "Dialogus," a dialogue between Jesus and the Soul.
All arias are duets: the soprano with the oboe in her aria, the bass with a violin obbligato in his aria.
Ich geh and suche mit Verlangen (I go and seek with longing) Text: Unknown; Jeremiah 31:3; Rev. 3:20; Chorale: Phillipp Nicolai
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sup.#.sub.5]-[G.sup.#.sub.5]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe d'amore, violoncello piccolo, strings, concerted organ, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. B aria; 3. S, B recit.; 4. S aria; 5. S, B recit.; 6. S, B duet and chorale Duration: 25:20
The text is taken from the Song of Songs and reworked into another dialogue between the Soul and Christ. The sinfonia is an adaptation of the B Major Clavier Concerto, BWV 1053. Notable is the bass's repeat of the first phrase of his preceding aria (No. 2) in the No. 3 duet.
Each soloist has an aria with one of the obbligato instruments. The final movement is in chorale prelude style, where the soprano sings verse seven of Nicolai's hymn, Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern, while the bass sings texts from Jeremiah and Revelation.
Selig ist der Mann, der die Anfechtung erduldet (Blessed is the man who endureth temptation) Text: Georg Christian Lehms; Jacobus 1: 1,12; Ahasverus Fritsch
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c. 1. B aria; 2. S recit.; 3. S aria; 4. B, S recit.; 5. B aria; 6. B, S recit.; 7. S aria; 8. Chorale Duration: 24:30
Bach described this work as "Concerto in dialogo." The bass sings the part of Jesus and the soprano the part of the Soul. This cantata presents striking contrast to the usual joyous season of Christmas.
Ach, Gott, wie manches Herzeleid II (Ah, God, how many a heart sorrow) Text: Martin Moller; Unknown; Martin Behm
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c.
1. Chorale and S, B duet; 2. B recit.; 3. S aria; 4. S recit.; 5. Chorale and S, B duet Duration: 13:50
This is another "Concerto in dialogo." Cantata 3 also bears the same title, but uses an entirely different text for movements other than the first.
The first and last movements of this duet use chorale prelude technique: the soprano sings the melody, while the bass's comforting words weave in and out. The third movement is a free da capo aria for soprano, violins, and continuo.
Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten (Who loves me, keeps my word) Text: Erdmann Neumeister; John 1:14, 23; Martin Luther
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Trumpet I, II, tympani, strings, b.c. 1. S, B duet; 2. S recit.; 3. Chorale; 4. B aria Duration: 11:40
After the short bass aria of number four, a copyist wrote "Choral Segue," perhaps suggesting that the chorale is to be repeated as a finale, and possibly with additional text.
Trumpets are used only in the opening movement. Written in 1716, the first movement was expanded to form the opening chorus of Cantata 74 (1735).
Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn (Walk in the path of faith) Text: S. Franck
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Bass, [D.sub.2]-[C.sub.4] Recorder, viola d'amore, gamba, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. B aria; 3. B recit.; 4. S aria; 5. B recit.; 6. S, B duet Duration: 18:30
The work begins with a French overture for all instruments, and ends with a duet in gigue style. Note the reduced orchestra. This cantata is especially suited for lyric voices.
Ich lasse dich nicht, du segnest mich dean (I leave Thee not, Thou bless me then) Text: Picander; Chorale: C. Keymann Ranges: Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[B.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute, oboe, oboe d'amore, solo violin, strings, b.c. 1. T, B duet; 2. T aria; 3. T recit.; 4. B recit. and arioso; 5. Chorale Duration: 19:35
This cantata was inscribed "Funeral music at the grave of Herr J. C. von P [Johann Christoph von Ponikau] October 31, 1726." The memorial service occurred February 6, 1727, but the cantata may have been sung four days earlier at Leipzig. There are no da capo arias. The strings appear only in the chorale and the tenor recitativo.
Gleich wie der Regen and Schnee vom Himmel fallt (Even as the rain and snow from Heaven falls) Text: Erdmann Neumeister; Isaiah 55:10, 11; Chorale: Lazarus Spengler
Ranges: Soprano, [E.sup.[flat].sub.4]-[A.sup.-[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [F.sup.[flat].sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Recorders I, II, viola I-IV, bassoon, violoncello, b.c. 1. Sinfonia; 2. B recit./chorale; 3. T recit. and litany; 4. S aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 15:10
The soprano has the only aria (No. 4). The opening sinfonia is followed by a movement of recitative/arioso and interspersions of the chorale.
The tenor arioso is very melismatic.
Was soll ich aus dir machen, Ephraim? (What shall I make of thee, Ephraim?) Text: Unknown; Hosea 11:8; Chorale: J. Heerman
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Alto, [B.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Bass, [G.sub.2][E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Horn, oboe I, II, strings, b.c. 1. B aria; 2. A recit.; 3. A aria; 4. S recit.; 5. S aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 12:10
A biblical quotation serves as the motto for the work. God emits a terrifying outburst of anger against Ephraim and Israel for worshipping false gods. The remainder of the cantata concerns the Gospel of the day, the Parable of the unjust servant.
The original source for this cantata is lost.
BWV 60 O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (Oh, Eternity, thou thunder-word) Text: J. Rist and Psalm 119:166; Revelation 4:14, 13; Chorale: Franz Joachim Burmeister
Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Horn, oboe d'amore I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T, A duet; 2. A, T recit.; 3. A, T duet; 4. A recit. and B arioso; 5. Chorale Duration: 16:00
In the first movement, Johann Rist's text is sung by Fear (alto), while Hope (tenor) sings words of the Psalm in free counterpoint. All movements, except the chorale movement, are in dialog form. This cantata is one of Bachs most dramatically and harmonically complex cantatas.
Cantata 20, written a year earlier, contains more of the words of the Rist poem.
The chorale is the famous "Es ist genug," with its startling harmonies and whole-tone scale. (See Alban Berg's Violin Concerto dedicated to the death of a friend, and Chopiris C minor Prelude, No. 20.)
Jesus schluft, was soll ich hoffen (Jesus sleeps, what hope is there for me?) Text: Neumeister?; Matthew 4:8, 26; Chorale: J. Franck
Ranges: Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Recorders I, II, oboe d'amore I, II, strings, b.c. 1. A aria; 2. T recit.; 3. T aria; 4. B arioso; 5. B aria; 6. A recit.; 7. Chorale Duration: 17:00
This cantata is a dramatic work, where the Soul is in a storm of fear and is near Death's abyss. Jesus quells the storm.
The voices should be capable of operatic drama, especially in the tenor aria that alternates Allegro rapid passages in high tessitura, with Adagio calm lyricism.
Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde (Joyful time in the new dispensation) Text: Unknown, Luke 2:29-31; Chorale: Martin Luther
Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sub.2]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Horn I, II, oboe I, II, violin solo, two violins, b.c., 1. A aria; 2. Introduction and recit.; 3. T aria; 4. A recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 19:00
The first movement seems to be a rewritten lost violin concerto because of the florid writing. The second movement includes the plainsong "Nunc dimittus," with recitative and ritornelli interpolated.
Note the small orchestra easily adapted for recital.
Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten in meinem Namen (Until now have you asked for nothing in my name) Text: Marianne von Ziegler; John 16:24-31; Chorale: H. Mueller Ranges: Alto, [B.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Ten, [F.sub.3]-[B.sup.[flat].sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c.
1. B arioso; 2. A recit.; 3. A aria; 4. T recit.; 5. B arioso; 6. T aria; 7. Chorale Duration: 19:10
A rather somber cantata. Noteworthy is the siciliano tenor aria, the only movement in a major key, and the denouement of the cantata.
Es reifet euch ein schrecklich Ende (There ripens a dreadful ending) Text: Unknown; Chorale: M. Moller Ranges: Alto, [C.sub.4]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sup.[flat].sub.2][E.sup.[flat].sub.4]
Piccolo trumpet, strings, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. A recit.; 3. B aria; 4. T recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 12:40
The powerful tenor aria describes God's descent from Heaven during the Second Coming and the terrifying predictions of the Antichrist, false prophets, and the world's suffering, The equally powerful bass aria, with many trumpet fanfares and runs, describes the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem.
Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind' (Behold, dear God, how my enemies) Text: Unknown; David Denicke; Isaiah 14:10; Chorale: M. Moller
Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Strings, b.c. 1. Chorale; 2. A recit.; 3. B aria; 4. T recit.; 5. Chorale; 6. T aria; 7. B recit.; 8. A aria; 9. Chorale Duration: 15:00
Nos. 1, 5, and 9 are chorales evidently planned for congregational participation, but provenance also suggests that the choir sang them. At this time in the liturgical year, full musical forces performed frequently. The libretto centers around the Holy Family's flight into Egypt.
Notable are the minuet form of the alto aria, perhaps based on previously composed music, and the dramatic, stormy, tenor aria.
Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren (My dear Jesus is lost) Text: Unknown, Luke 2:49; Chorales: Martin Jahn, Christian Keymann
Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe d'amore I, II, oboe I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. T recit.; 3. Chorale; 4. A aria; 5. B arioso; 6. T recit.; 7. A, T duet; 8. Chorale Duration: 16:00
This work is a possible resetting and retexting of an earlier Weimar work, as indicated by some of the Weimar watermarks on the harpsichord part.
The alto aria, accompanied by two oboes d'amore, lacks lower basso continuo and organ accompaniment.
Ich steh' mit einem FuJ3 im Grabe (I stand with one foot in the grave) Text: Picander; Chorales: J. H. Schein, Kaspar Bieneman
Ranges: Alto, [F.sub.3]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. T aria with S chorale; 3. B recit.; 4. A aria; 5. B recit.; 6. Chorale Duration: 13:00
There are two chorales: the first with the soprano line singing Schein's "Machts mit mir, Gott, nach definer Gut" as cantus firmus against the tenor; the second chorale is the final movement.
The beginning sinfonia is an adaptation of the F minor Concerto for Clavier, BWV 1056, or a violin concerto, now lost. Here, the solo instrument is the oboe.
Sehet! Wirgehen hinaufgen Jersalem (Come! Let us go up to Jerusalem) Text: Picander, Luke 1:31; Chorales: Paul Gerhaart, Paul Stockmann
Ranges: Alto, [B.sup.[flat].sub.3]-[E.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2][E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe, strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. B arioso and A recit.; 2. A aria and S chorale; 3. T recit.; 4. B aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 15:20
Alto, tenor, and bass represent the Christian soul, grieving over Jesus's journey toward the Cross. It was written contemporaneously with St. Matthew Passion.
In No. 2, oboe joins the soprano cantus firmus, "O Haupt voll Blut and Wunden," while the alto sings the aria.
The expressive bass aria with oboe obbligato is frequently extracted for recital performance. Note the similarities with St. John Passion.
Ich liebe den Hochsten von ganzem Gemiite (I love the Highest with all my heart) Text: Picander; Chorale: Martin Schalling
Ranges: Alto, [C.sup.#.sub.4]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[G.sup.#.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Horn I, II, oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, concerted violins I, II, III, concerted viola I, II, III, b.c. (bassoon, bass, organ) 1. Sinf; 2. A aria; 3. T recit.; 4. B aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 21:10
The sinfonia is an expanded version of the Third Brandenberg Concerto, BWV 1048, although the parts are scattered for this version.
An extended alto aria gets the spotlight in this cantata, with two oboes interweaving counterpoint in alternation or in duet with the soloist, and in their own final lively duet.
Er rufet seinen Schafen mit Namen (He calls His sheep by name) Text: Marianne von Ziegler; John 10:5, 6; Chorale: Johann Rist
Ranges: Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.4]-[E.sub.4] Trumpet I, II, recorders I, II, III, violoncello piccolo solo; b.c. 1. T recit.; 2. A aria; 3. T recit.; 4. T aria; 5. A, B recit.; 6. B aria; 7. Chorale Duration: 15:40
The final chorale was also used in the third movement of Cantata 59.
The aria "Es dunket mich" is adapted from No. 7 of the secular solo cantata Durchlauchtster Leopold, BWV 173a. This aria was not used in BWV 173. Originally for bass, bassoon, and b.c., it appears here for tenor, violoncello piccolo, and b.c.
The treatment of the soloists is particularly noteworthy: 3 recorders a la sicilianno accompanying the alto aria, the violoncello piccolo (tuned like a cello, held in the arm like a viola, rumored to be Bach's invention) pairing with the tenor, and the two trumpets energizing the bass aria.
Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbahs (At evening of the same Sabbath) Text: Bach?; John 20:19; Matthew 18:20; Fabricius
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sup.#.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sup.#.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe I, II, bassoon, strings, b.c. 1. Sinf; 2. T recit.; 3. A aria; 4. S, T duet; 5. B recit.; 6. B aria; 7. Chorale Duration: 27:30
The Sinfonia first movement is in triple concerto style. The full orchestra accompanies one of the greatest of Bach's alto arias.
Siehe, ich will Fischer aussenden (Behold, I will send out fishers) Text: Unknown; Jeremiah 16:16; Luke 5:10; Chorale: Georg Neumark
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[G.sup.#.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Horn I, II, oboe d'amore I, II, oboe da caccia, strings, b.c. A two part cantata: 1. B aria; 2. T recit.; 3. T aria; 4. T recit. and B aria; 5. S, A duet; 6. S recit.; 7. Chorale Duration: 20:50
The Nazarean fishermen and their miraculous catch is the Gospel of the day, but in the interpolated Jeremiah text, God warns that the idol worshipping Israelites shall be caught by His fishers. In Part II, Bach alters the words to fit the Gospel of the day.
Part I: Bass aria, tenor recitative, tenor aria.
Part II: Bass aria, soprano-alto duet, soprano recitative, chorale.
Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bohn (Prepare the way, prepare the course) Text: Salomo Franck; Chorale: Elisabeth Kreuzinger
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sup.#.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sup.#.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [E.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Oboe, strings, bassoon, b.c. 1. S aria; 2. T recit.; 3. B aria; 4. A recit.; 5. A aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 20:00
As with several Weimar cantatas, note the bass low E.
Usually Bach did not perform cantatas during Advent at Leipzig.
Each of these marvelous arias is especially enhanced by a solo instrument: oboe with the soprano, cello with the bass, and violin with the soprano.
Susser Trost, mein Jesus kommt (Sweet comfort, my Jesus comes) Text: G. C. Lehms; Chorale: Nikolas Hermann
Ranges: Soprano, [E.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute, oboe d'amore, strings, b.c. 1. S aria; 2. B recit.; 3. A aria; 4. T recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 16:30
Text based on Hebrews 1:1-14.
The soprano sings a memorable aria, often excerpted, with flute obbligato.
Mein Gott, wie Lang, ach lange? (My God, how long, ah, long?) Text: S. Franck; Chorale: Paul Speratus
Ranges: Soprano, [C.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [B.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[C.sub.4] Bassoon, strings, b.c
1. S recit.; 2. A, T duet; 3. B recit.; 4. S aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 13:00
One of the more modest, early cantatas written at Weimar, this is the only Bach cantata for the Second Sunday after Epiphany that notes the proper Epistle and Gospel, the turning of water into wine. The bassoon plays vivid obbligato for the alto-tenor duet.
Ach! Ich sehe, itzt, do ich zur Hochzeitgehe (Ah! I see, now, as I go to the wedding) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Johann Rosenmuller
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[G.sub.5]; Alto, [G.sub.3]-[C.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [D.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Trumpet, strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. B aria; 2. T recit.; 3. S aria; 4. A recit.; 5. A, T duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 16:20
When Bach revised this cantata for Leipzig in 1723, he added a slide trumpet to the outer movements, and expanded the orchestra.
Both versions are available, both in print and in performance, the Weimar version in the key of A and the Leipzig version in B.
Nur jedem das Seine (Only to each his due) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Johann Heerman
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-B5; Alto, [G.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Violin I, II, viola, violoncello obbligato I, II, b.c.
1. T aria; 2. B recit.; 3. B aria; 4. S, A arioso; 5. S, A duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 16:10
The text examines the "rendering unto Caesar" commandment. The court of Weimar had been in mourning for three months, and no cantatas had been performed until this one. Here Bach wrote a rather ravishing cantata deserving of more frequent performance. No. 4 is a duet arioso between two voices in canon.
Ihr, die ihr each von Christo nennet (You, who call yourselves after Christ) Text: S. Franck; Chorale: E. Creuzinger
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. B recit.; 3. A aria; 4. T recit.; 5. S, B duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 17:40
The libretto deals with the parable of the Good Samaritan.
The cantata has a unified message, but each aria displays a different form. Several use canonic devices. The cantata is not technically difficult, and rather pleasing to hear.
O heiliges Geist- and Wasserbad (Oh Holy Ghost and water-bath) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Ludwig Helmbold
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[B.sup.[flat].sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[G.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Strings, b.c. with bassoon 1. S aria; 2. B recit.; 3. A aria; 4. B recit.; 5. T aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 13:00
A short cantata with limited instrumentation, written at Weimar, this cantata reappeared at Leipzig in 1724. The first aria is in fugal form, and speaks of the surety of grace by baptism. The tenor aria, "Jesu meines Todes Tod," is based on a striking theme that shows the serpentine movement of the "little serpent of healing."
Ihr Menschen, riihmet Gottes Liebe (You men, extol God's love) Text: Unknown, Chorale: Johann Gramann
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [A.sup.2]-[E.sub.4] Clarino, oboe, oboe da caccia, violin I, II, viola, b.c. 1. T aria; 2. A recit.; 3. S, A duetto; 4. B recit.; 5. Chorale Duration: 18:00
The chorale is accompanied by orchestra with trumpet (originally "clarino"), but since it was written for a range of [D.sub.4]-[D.sub.6], it probably was a keyed trumpet.
It is a joyful cantata whose subject is John the Baptist, and because of its appearance in 1723, likely has its origins in Weimar.
Tue Rechnung! Donnerwort!
(Make a reckoning! Thunderword!) Text: S. Frank, Chorale: Bartolomaus Ringwaldt
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[D.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Oboe d'amore I, II, strings, b.c. 1. B aria; 2. T recit.; 3. T aria; 4. B recit.; 5. S, A duet; 6. Chorale Duration: 13:30
The parable of the unjust steward is set with many colorful orchestral effects to illustrate judgment and wrath. Again, this could have originated in Weimar, but no earlier version is extant. The tenor recitative is accompanied by sustained unison from both oboes d'amore.
Erhohtes Fleisch and Blut (Exhalted flesh and blood) Text: Unknown (Bach?)
Ranges: Soprano, [E.sub.4]-[B.sub.5]; Alto, [B.sub.3]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [D.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [D.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] Flute I, II, strings, b.c. 1. T recit.; 2. T aria; 3. A aria; 4. B, S duet; 5. S, T recit.; 6. Fourpart chorus Duration: 14:40
Bach adopted six of eight numbers from the birthday cantata Durchlauchster Leopold, BWV 173a, written for Prince Leopold at Anhalt-Kothen. The words are contrafacta on the older music. The solos, originally for soprano and bass, are transposed and distributed among a quartet of singers. The soloists sing the final chorus. The music is generally dance-like.
Sie werden each in den Bohn tun II (Ye shall be cast into the darkness) Text: C. M. von Ziegler, John 16:2, Chorale: P Ziegler
Ranges: Soprano, [D.sub.4]-[A.sub.5]; Alto, [D.sub.4]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [E.sub.3]-[B.sub.4]; Bass, [B.sub.2]-[D.sub.4] Oboe d'amore I, II, oboe da caccia I, II, violoncello piccolo, strings, b.c. 1. B recit.; 2. T aria; 3. A recit.; 4. S aria; 5. Chorale Duration: 13:50
Cantata 44 bears the same title. Nos. 1 and 2 of that cantata use the same text found in this cantata. Unusual is the opening bass recitative accompanied by all four oboes and continuo. Although the cantata is rather brief, note the large scale orchestra. The four oboes are prominent throughout and are necessary for a good performance of the work.
Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe (Merciful heart of eternal love) Text: S. Frank; Chorale: Johann Agricola
Ranges: Soprano, [B.sup.#sub.3]-[G.sup.#.sub.5]; Alto, [A.sub.3]-[C.sup.#.sub.5]; Tenor, [B.sup.#.sub.2]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [F.sup.#.sub.2]-[C.sup.#.sub.4] Oboe (or trumpet), strings, bassoon, b.c. 1. S, T duet; 2. A recit.; 3. A aria; 4. B recit.; 5. B aria; 6. Chorale Duration: 14:20
Bach revised this cantata for Leipzig.
The lovely opening soprano-tenor duet is a chorale arrangement with the soprano and tenor against an oboe cantas firmas of Agricola's hymn, "Ich ruf an dir, Herr Jesu Christ," which Bach used in Cantata 177, written for the same Sunday.
The final chorale is the same hymn with a high violin obbligato.
Ich habe meine Zuversicht aaf den getreuen Gottgericht't (I have placed my confidence on the true God) Text: Picander; Chorale: Caspar von Stieler
Ranges: Soprano, [E.sub.4]-F5; Alto, [C.sub.4]-[E.sub.5]; Tenor, [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4]; Bass, [C.sub.3][E.sup.[flat].sub.4] Oboe I, II, oboe da caccia, obbligato organ, strings, b.c. 1. Sinfonia; 2. T aria; 3. B recit.; 4. A aria; 5. S recit.; 6. Chorale Duration: 24:20
A note on the autograph score indicates that the first movement of the D minor Clavier Concerto, BWV 1052, be played as the opening sinfonia. The final chorale has no instrumentation specified.
The two arias of this cantata stand among the best arias of Bach's cantatas and are well worth examining.
www.bach-cantatas.com An erudite resource, with entries that include the Lutheran Church Calendar, the readings for each day and their applicable cantata numbers, both choral and solo, texts, translations, printable piano-vocal scores, references, librettists. A weekly forum cyclically reviews recordings for beginning Bach lovers to erudite Bach scholars.
wwwjsbach.org An easy-to-use guide with indices of complete works in many categories, links to several other websites for available recordings and their reviews, and links to Bach information and web sites with MIDI files other than cantatas. wwwbach.gwdg.de/bach engl.html A database/catalog/provenance of the works of Johann Sebastian Bach.
wwwmusic.qub.ac.uk/tomita/bachbib The home page title says it all: Bach Bibliography for the Global Community of Bach Scholars.
Boyd, Malcolm, ed. Oxford Composer Companions: Bach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. A comprehensive coverage of each cantata.
Chiapusso, Jan. Bach's World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. An historical treatise of the city-states as Bach encountered
Chafe, Eric. Analyzing Bach Cantatas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. An in-depth, theoretic, theological, and analytic discussion of Bach's compositional techniques, using several of his cantatas.
--. Tonal Allegory in the Vocal Music of J. S. Bach. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
Durr, Alfred, trans. D. P. Jones. The Cantatas of J. S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. London: Oxford University Press, 2005. One of the latest translations of the scholarship of Durr.
Robertson, Alec. The Church Cantatas of J. S. Bach. New York: Praeger and Co., 1972.
Terry, Charles Sanford. Cantata Texts Sacred and Secular; With a Reconstruction of the Leipzig Liturgy of His Period. London: Holland Press, 1964.
--. The Music of Bach. Mineola, NY. Dover Press, 1963. A relatively inexpensive version of a standard text.
(1.) For an overview and musical analysis of Bachs liturgical solo works, see Richard Dale Sjoerdsma, "The Solo Liturgical Cantatas of J. S. Bach (Part I)," The NATS Journal 42, no. 2 (November/December 1985): 5-11, and "The Solo Liturgical Cantatas of J. S. Bach (Part II)," The NATS Journal 42, no. 5 (May/June 1986):12-17.
(2.) Charles Sanford Terry, Bach, the Cantatas and Oratorios, Book I (London: Oxford University Press, 1925), 5.
(3.) Karl Geiringer, Johann Sebastian Bach, the Culmination of an Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), 143.
(4.) Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel, The New Bach Reader (New York: W W Norton and Co., 1972), 71ff.
(5.) Geiringer, 144.
(6.) Sacred solo cantatas originating at Weimar and revised for Leipzig: BWV 155, 162, 165, 173, 185. See Alfred Durr, "Zur Chronologie der Leipziger Vokalmusik J. S. Bachs," Bach Jahrbuch 44 (1975): 57ff.
(7.) Werner Neumann, Handbuch der Kantaten Johann Sebastian Bachs (Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel Musikverlag, 1947, 1967, 1971, 1979).
(8.) Geiringer, 153-178. C. P E. Bach preserved these particular cantatas.
(9.) Durr, 57f
(10.) Geiringer, 174.
(11.) Albert Schweitzer, J. S. Bach, Vol. I, trans. Ernest Newmann (New York: Dover Publications, 1966), 80f
(12.) Lois Rimbach, "The Church Cantatas of Johann Kuhnau" (PhD dissertation, Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester, 1966), 35-39.
(13.) David and Mendel, 120.
(14.) Ibid., 119ff.
(15.) Ibid., 91.
(16.) According to www.almusic.com/cg. To access the information, click "Classical," and then write "Bach Cantata" and the number. It will be necessary to find the specific cantata from the list generated.
Antonio Rodrigues-Pavao, perhaps more widely known as Tony Pavao, has been a voice teacher for nearly forty years. During that time, he has been involved with the National Association of Teachers of Singing and its Wisconsin Chapter Board of Directors, as well as the Greater Milwaukee Chapter of the Voice Foundation. After retiring from public school teaching, Tony continued teaching voice in his home studio and at Carroll University, Waukesha, WI.
Tony has sung bass roles with the Skylight Theatre, the Illinois Opera Group, and other various regional opera companies. He has also performed with the Gregg Smith Singers, and has soloed with a number of symphony orchestras and as recitalist.
He has composed solo songs and choral music that have been performed at high schools, colleges, and ACDA national and state conventions. His hobbies include house remodeling, strength training, and reading.
"There is not much that I can do, For I've no money that's quite my own!" Spoke up the pitying child-A little boy with a violin At the station before the train came in-"But I can play my fiddle to you, And a nice one 'tis, and good in tone!" The man in the handcuffs smiled: The constable looked, and he smiled too, As the fiddle began to twang; And the man in the handcuffs suddenly sang With grimful glee: "This life so free Is the thing for me!" And the constable smiled, and said no word, As if unconscious of what he heard; And so they went on till the train came in--The convict, and boy with the violin. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) "At the Railway Station, Upway" TABLE 1. Sacred solo cantatas without chorales. Cantata Place of Year of Number Voice(s) Composition Composition BWV 35 Alto Leipzig 1726 BWV 51 Soprano Leipzig 1730 BWV 54 Alto Weimar 1714 BWV 82 Bass Leipzig 1727 BWV 152 Soprano-Bass Weimar 1714 BWV 170 Alto Leipzig 1726 BWV 173 SATB Leipzig 1724 TABLE 2. Bach's sacred solo cantatas in the Lutheran church calendar, place and date of composition. Cantata BWV Occasion Bereitet die Wege 152 Fourth Sunday of Advent Selig ist der Mann 57 Christmas Monday Susser Trost, mein Jesus kommi 151 Christmas Tuesday Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn 152 Sunday after Christmas Schau lieber Gott, wie meine Sunday Feind' 153 after Circumcision Ach, Gott, wie manches Sunday Herzeleid II 58 after Circumcision Mein liebster Jesus ist First Sunday verloren 154 after Epiphany Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen 32 First Sunday after Epiphany Mein Gott, wie lang', ach, Second Sunday lange 155 after Epiphany Ich steh' mit einem Fuss im Third Sunday Grabe 156 after Epiphany Jesus schlaft, was soll ich Fourth Sunday hoffen? 81 after Epiphany Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde 83 Purification of BVM Ich habe genug 82 Purification of BVM Ich lasse dich nicht 157 Purification of BVM Der Friede sei mit dir 158 Purification of BVM Ich bin vergnugt mit meinem Glucke 84 Septuagesima Sunday Gleich wie der Regen und Schnee vom Himmel fallt 18 Sexagesima Sunday Sehet, wir gehen hinauf gen Jerusalem 159 Quinquagesima Sunday Am Abend aber desselbigen First Sunday Sabbats 42 after Easter Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten 87 Fifth Sunday after Easter Sie werden euch in den Bann Sixth Sunday tun II 183 after Easter Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten 59 Whit Sunday Ich liebe den Hochsten von ganzem 174 Whit Monday Erhohtes Fleisch und Blut 173 Whit Monday Er rufet seinen Schafen mit Namen 175 Whit Tuesday O heiliges Geist- und Wasserbad 165 Trinity Sunday Ihr Menschen, ruhmet Gottes Liebe 167 St. John the Baptist Barmherzigens Herze der ewigen Fourth Sunday Liebe 185 after Trinity Siehe, ich will viel Fischer Fifth Sunday aussenden 88 after Trinity Vergnugte Ruh', beliebte Sixth Sunday Seelenlust 170 after Trinity Widerstehe doch der Sunde 54 Seventh Sunday after Trinity Tue Rechnung! Donnerwort! 168 Ninth Sunday after Trinity Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut 199 Eleventh Sunday after Trinity Geist und Seele wird verwirret 35 Twelfth Sunday after Trinity Dir, die ihr euch von Christo Thirteenth Sunday nennet 164 after Trinity Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen! 51 Fifteenth Sunday after Trinity Gott soll allein mein Herze Eighteenth Sunday haben 169 after Trinity Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne Nineteenth Sunday tragen 56 after Trinity Ach! Ich sehe, jetzt, da ich Twentieth Sunday zur Hochzeit gehe 162 after Trinity Ich geh und suche mit Twentieth Sunday Verlangen 49 after Trinity Ich habe meine Zuversicht auf Twenty-first den getreuen Gott gericht't 188 Sunday after Trinity Was soll ich aus dir machen, Twenty-second Ephraim? 89 Sunday after Trinity Ich armer Mensch, ich Twenty-second Sundenknecht 55 Sunday after Trinity Nur jedem das Seine 163 Twenty-third Sunday after Trinity Falsche Welt, dir trau ich Twenty-third nicht 52 Sunday after Trinity O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort 60 Twenty-fourth Sunday after Trinity Es reifet euch ein schrecklich Twenty-fifth Ende 90 Sunday after Trinity Date of Place of Cantata Composition Composition Bereitet die Wege 1715 Weimar Selig ist der Mann 1725 Leipzig Susser Trost, mein Jesus kommi 1725 Leipzig Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn 1714 Weimar Schau lieber Gott, wie meine Feind' 1724 Leipzig Ach, Gott, wie manches Herzeleid II 1727 Leipzig Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren 1724 Leipzig Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen 1726 Leipzig Mein Gott, wie lang', ach, lange 1716 Weimar Ich steh' mit einem Fuss im Grabe 1729? Leipzig Jesus schlaft, was soll ich hoffen? 1724 Leipzig Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde 1724 Leipzig Ich habe genug 1727 Leipzig Ich lasse dich nicht 1727 Leipzig Der Friede sei mit dir 172?,173? Leipzig Ich bin vergnugt mit meinem Glucke 1727 Leipzig Gleich wie der Regen und Schnee vom Himmel fallt 1714? Weimar Sehet, wir gehen hinauf gen Jerusalem 1729? Leipzig Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbats 1725 Leipzig Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten 1725 Leipzig Sie werden euch in den Bann tun II 1725 Leipzig Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten 1714 Weimar Ich liebe den Hochsten von ganzem 1729 Leipzig Erhohtes Fleisch und Blut 1724? Leipzig Er rufet seinen Schafen mit Namen 1725 Leipzig O heiliges Geist- und Wasserbad 1715 Weimar Ihr Menschen, ruhmet Gottes Liebe 1723 Leipzig Barmherzigens Herze der ewigen Liebe 1715 Weimar Siehe, ich will viel Fischer aussenden 1726 Leipzig Vergnugte Ruh', beliebte Seelenlust 1726 Leipzig Widerstehe doch der Sunde 1714 Weimar Tue Rechnung! Donnerwort! 1725 Leipzig Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut 1714 Weimar Geist und Seele wird verwirret 1726 Leipzig Dir, die ihr euch von Christo nennet 1725 Leipzig Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen! 1730 Leipzig Gott soll allein mein Herze haben 1726 Leipzig Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen 1726 Leipzig Ach! Ich sehe, jetzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe 1715 Weimar Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen 1726 Leipzig Ich habe meine Zuversicht auf den getreuen Gott gericht't 1729? Leipzig Was soll ich aus dir machen, Ephraim? 1723 Leipzig Ich armer Mensch, ich Sundenknecht 1726 Leipzig Nur jedem das Seine 1715 Weimar Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht 1726 Leipzig O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort 1723 Leipzig Es reifet euch ein schrecklich Ende 1723 Leipzig TABLE 3. Sacred solo cantatas with exceptional ranges. Usual Voice Range Cantata No. High BWV 154 -- BWV 199 -- Soprano [C.sub.4]-[A.sub.5] BWV 165 [B.sub.5] BWV 163 [B.sub.5] BWV 51 [C.sub.6] BWV 54 -- BWV 156 -- Alto [A.sub.3]-[E.sub.5] BWV 162 -- BWV 163 -- BWV 87 [B[flat].sub.4] BWV 55 [B[flat].sub.4] Tenor [C.sub.3]-[A.sub.4] BWV 157 [B.sub.4] BWV 183 [B.sub.4] BWV 132 -- BWV 152 -- Bass [G.sub.2]-[E.sub.4] BWV 162 -- BWV 185 -- Voice Low Place Written Year [B.sub.3] Leipzig 1724R [B.sub.3] Weimar 1714R Soprano -- Weimar 1715R -- Weimar 1715 -- Leipzig 1730 [F.sub.3] Weimar 1714 [F.sub.3] Leipzig 1729 Alto [G.sub.3] Weimar 1715R [G.sub.3] Weimar 1715 -- Leipzig 1725 -- Leipzig 1726 Tenor -- Leipzig 1727 -- Leipzig 1725 [E.sub.2] Weimar 1715 [D.sub.2] Weimar 1715 Bass [D.sub.2] Weimar 1715 [F.sub.2] Weimar 1715 R--Revised for use at Leipzig TABLE 4. Solo cantatas using borrowed instrumental works. BWV 35 No. 1 D Minor Clavier Concerto (fragmentary), BWV 1059 No. 2 Unknown Clavier Concerto No. 5 Unknown Clavier Concerto BWV 49 No. 1 E Major Clavier Concerto, BWV 1053 BWV 52 No. 1 First Brandenburg Concerto, BWV 1046 BWV 82 No. 2 Notebook for Anna Magdelena 11, No. 34 No. 3 Notebook for Anna Magdelena 11, Nos. 34, 38 BWV 83 No. 1 Unknown violin concerto No. 3 Unknown violin concerto BWV 156 No. 1 F Minor Clavier Concerto, BWV 1056? /Unknown violin concerto? BWV 169 No. 1 E Major Clavier Concerto, BWV 1053 No. 5 E Major Clavier Concerto BWV 1053 BWV 174 No. 1 Third Brandenburg Concerto, BWV 1048 BWV 188 No. 1 D Minor Clavier Concerto, BWV 1052 (also in Cantata 146) TABLE 5. Most frequent use of sacred solo cantatas during Bach's Leipzig years. 1723: Trinity XX Trin. XXI Trin. XXII Solo: 162 89 Choral: 109 1723: Trin. XXIII Trin. XIV Trin. XXV Solo: 60 90 Choral: 194 Cantata 109 has six movements: one choral movement, one chorale movement using a soprano cantus firmus, alto and tenor solo, and no chorale. Cantata 194, originally for Trinity Sunday: twelve movements in two parts, one choral movement, soprano, alto, and bass solos, and two chorales. 1724: 1st Sun. Epiphany Ep. I Ep. II after Circum. Solo: 153 154 155 Choral: 65 1724: Ep. III Ep. IV Purif BVM Sept. Solo: 81 83 Choral: 74 144 Cantata 65 has seven movements: one choral movement, two chorales, and tenor and bass solos. Cantata 74 consists of five movements: one choral movement (with three recitatives interspersed by the three soloists), and soprano, tenor, and bass solos. Cantata 144 is six movements long: one choral movement, two chorales, and soprano, tenor, and bass solos. 1724: Whit Sunday Whit Monday Whit Tuesday Trinity Sunday Solo: 59 173 165 Choral: 172 194 Here Bach obviously used a cantata before the Epistle as well as after the Gospel on the two Sundays. Cantata 172 has seven movements: two choral movements, one chorale, and soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos. Cantata 194 appears above in 1723. 1725: Easter V Ascen. Thurs. Sun. after Whit Sun. Solo: 87 183 Choral: 128 74 1725: Whit Mon. Whit Tues. Trinity Ascen. Solo: 175 Choral: 68 176 Cantata 128 has five movements: one choral movement, one chorale, alto, tenor, and bass solos. Cantata 74 is eight movements long: one choral movement, one chorale, soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos. Cantata 68 consists of five movements: one extended chorale, one choral movement, and soprano and bass solos. Cantata 176 has six movements: one choral movement, one chorale, and soprano, alto and bass solos. 1726: Trin. XVIII Trin. XIX Trin. XX Solo: 169 56 49 Choral: 1726: Trin. XXI Trin. XXII Trin. XXIII Solo: 55 52 Choral: 98 Cantata 98were written for the fifth and sixth Sunday after Trinity. Solo Cantatas 88 and 170 appear between the two larger and more chorally centered cantatas of Johann Ludwig Bach. They were written for the fifth and sixth Sunday after Trinity. TABLE 6. Sacred solo cantatas with sinfonias. Cantata Place of Year of Number Voice(s) Composition Composition BWV 35 Alto Leipzig 1726 BWV 42 SATB Leipzig 1725 BWV 49 Soprano-Bass Leipzig 1726 BWV 52 Soprano Leipzig 1726 BWV152 Soprano-Bass Weimar 1714 BWV 156 ATB Leipzig 1729? BWV 169 Alto Leipzig 1726 BWV 188 SATB Leipzig 1728 TABLE 7. Solo and obbligato instruments employed in Bach's sacred solo cantatas. Oboe Leipzig: 32, 35, 42, 52, 56, 57, 58, 82, 83, 84, 87, 89, 156, 157, 159, 164, 167, 169, 170, 174,188 Weimar: 132, 152, 158, 185, 199 Oboe da caccia Leipzig: 35, 56, 57, 58, 87, 88, 167, 169, 174, 183, 188 Weimar: 0 Oboe d'amore Leipzig: 49, 55, 60, 81, 88, 151, 154, 157, 168, 170, 183 Weimar: 163 Organ Leipzig: 35, 49, 169, 170, 188 Weimar: 161 Trumpet Leipzig: 51, 90, 167, 175 Weimar: 59, 162, 185 Horn Leipzig: 52, 60, 83, 88, 89, 174 Weimar: 0 Flute Leipzig: 55,151, 157, 164, 173 Weimar: 0 Timpani Leipzig: 0 Weimar: 59 Recorder Leipzig: 81,175 Weimar: 152 Bassoon Leipzig: 159,165 Weimar: 155, 162, 199 Viola d'amore Leipzig: 0 Weimar: 152 Viola da gamba Leipzig: 0 Weimar: 152 Violin Leipzig: 32, 42, 51, 52, 57, 58, 60, 83, 84, 88, 156, 157, 170, 174 Weimar: 59, 132, 158 Viola Leipzig: 83, 156, 170, 174 Weimar: 199 Violoncello Leipzig: 188 Weimar: 163 Violoncello Leipzig: 49, 175, 183 piccolo Weimar: 0
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|Publication:||Journal of Singing|
|Date:||May 1, 2009|
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