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A new species of glyptosternine catfish (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) from Yomgo River, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Creteuchiloglanis payjab, a new glyptosternine catfish, is described from the Yomgo River at Mechuka, a tributary of the Siang River, Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India. It differs from all congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: head and body with milk-white and pale yellow patches, head depth 10.212.3% SL, body depth at dorsal origin 11.4-13.0% SL, predorsal length 30.4-33.5% SL, prepectoral length 16.820.5% SL, pectoral-fin length 23.5-25.8% SL, small anal fin (anal-fin length 11.8-13.4% SL, anal-fin base length 4.2-5.6% SL), adipose-fin base length 28.8-31.9% SL, and caudal-peduncle depth 6.1-6.9% SL. This is the second species of Creteuchiloglanis reported from the Brahma-putra River basin.

Zusammenfassung

Beschrieben wird die neue Art der Gebirgswelse, die den Glyptosterninae zuzuordnen ist: Creteuchiloglanis payjab, vom Yomgo-Fluss bei Mechuka, einem Nebenfluss des Siang im Brahmaputra-Becken, Arunachal Pradesh, Indi-en. Sie unterscheidet sich von allen anderen Vertretern der Gattung durch die einzigartige Verbindung der folgenden Merkmale: Kopf und Rumpf mit milchig weiSen und blassgelben Flecken, Kopftiefe 10,2-12.3% der Standard-lange SL, Rumpftiefe am Beginn des Rtickens 11,4-13,0% der SL, pradorsale Lange 30,4-33,5% der SL, prapektorale Lange 16,8-20,5 % der SL, Brustflossenlange 23,5-25,8% der SL, ldeine Afterflosse (Afterflossenlange 11,8-13,4% der SL, Afterflossenbasislange 4,2-5,6% der SL), Fett-flossenbasislange 28,8-31,9% der SL und Tiefe des Schwanzstiels 6,1-6,9% der SL. Es handelt sich urn die zweite Art der Gattung Creteuchiloglanis, die fiir das Brahmaputrafluss-Becken nachgewiesen wurde.

Resume

Creteuchiloglanis payjab, un nouveau poisson-chat glyptosternine est decrit provenant de la Yomgo River a Mechuka, un tributaire de la Siang River, bassin du Brahmapoutre, Arunachal Pradesh, en Inde. Il se distingue de tous ses congeneres par une combinaison unique de caracteristiques: tete et corps avec des taches blanc de lait et jaune pale, hauteur de la tete 10,2-12,3% de la LS, hauteur du corps a la base de la dorsale 11,4-13 % de la LS, longueur predorsale 30,4-33,5 % de la LS, longueur prepectorale 16,8-20,5 % de la LS, longueur de la pec-torale 23,5-25,8 de la LS, une petite anale longueur de l'anale 11,8-13,4 % de la LS, longueur de la base de l'anale 4,2-5,6 % de la LS), longueur de la base de l'adipeuse 28,8-31,9 % de la LS et hauteur du pedoncule caudal 6,1-6,9 % de la LS. C'est la seconde espece de Cre-teuchiloglanis signalee dans le bassin du Brahmapoutre.

Sommario

Creteuchiloglanis payjab, un nuovo pesce gatto gliptostern-ino, e descritto in localita Mechuka sul flume Yomgo, un af-fluente del flume Siang, bacino del Brahmaputra, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Si differenzia da tutti i congeneri per avere una combinazione unica dei seguenti caratteri: testa e corpo con macchie di colore giallo pallido e bianco latte, altezza della testa 10,2-12,3% SL, altezza del corpo all'origine della dorsale 11,4-13,0% SL, lunghezza predorsale 30,4-33,5% SL, lunghezza prepettorale 16,8-20,5% SL, lunghezza della pinna pettorale 23,5-25,8% SL, pinna anale minuta (lunghezza della pinna 11,8-13,4% SL, lunghezza della base 4,2-5,6% SL), lunghezza della base della pinna adiposa 28,8-31,9% SL e altezza del peduncolo caudale 6,1-6,9% SL. Questa e la seconda specie di Creteuchi loglanis segnalata dal bacino del flume Brahmaputra.

INTRODUCTION

Fishes of the genus Creteuchiloglanis Zhou, Li, and Thomson 2011, are distributed in the upper Mekong River basin west to the Brahmaputra River basin (Chu 1981; Jayaram, 1966; Ng 2004; Zhou et al. 2011). The genus is diagnosed in having an interrupted post-labial fold, broad isthmus, gill openings not extending ventrally onto undersurface of head, 14-16 branched pectoral-fin rays, lower lip not connected to the base of the maxillary barbel by a skin flap, sulcus between the lip and the barbel, homodont dentition, teeth pointed, coni-form in both jaws, premaxillary tooth patches contacting each other but not confluent, not extended posterolaterally, laterally blunt; dilator operculi muscle and levator opercula muscle contacting each other, broad anterior end of sternohyoideus muscle, its width almost equal to the width in the axilla of the pectoral fin, adductor pelvicalis superficialis muscle not contacting its antimere at the midline (Zhou et al. 2011). Five species are currently recognized in the genus Creteuchiloglanis, viz. Creteuchiloglanis brachypterus Zhou, Li and Thomson 2011, Creteuchiloglanis gongs hanensis (Chu 1981), Creteuchiloglanis kamengensis (Ja-yaram 1966), Creteuchiloglanis macropterus (Ng 2004), and Creteuchiloglanis longipectoralis Zhou, Li and Thomson 2011 (Zhou et al. 2011).

During a recent ichthyological survey of the Siang River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River basin in Arunachal Pradesh, specimens of an undescribed species of Creteuchiloglanis were collected at the Yomgo River (a tributary of Siang River), which is described herein.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Specimens were collected using a 3 m diameter, 7 mm mesh-size cast net. Measurements were made on the left side of specimens with dial calipers to the nearest 0.1 mm, following Ng (2004). The body depth at dorsal origin and anal-fin base length was measured following Zhou et al. (2011). Measurements are expressed as proportions of standard length (SL), with the exception of subunits of the head, which are expressed as proportions of head length (HL). Numbers in parentheses after a count indicate the frequency of that count. Institutional abbreviations are Rajiv Gandhi University Museum of Fishes (RGUMF), Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh; Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh; and Manipur University Museum of Fishes (MUMF), Can-chipur. Data for Creteuchiloglanis macropterus was taken from Ng (2004), for C. brachypterus, C. gong-shanensis, and C. longipectoralis, as well as additional data on C. kamengensis, from Zhou et al. (2011).

0 * For habitat analysis, water temperature was measured with the aid of a mercury thermometer graduated up to 100[degrees]C. The substrate composition of the stream bed was determined by line quadrate method following Cummins (1962). The velocity of water was manually calculated using a floater. The floater was allowed to drift for a standard distance and the time taken to cover the distance was recorded using a stop watch. This process was repeated 10 times to avoid any biases and the mean was used. A digital water analyzer (Systronic water analyzer 361) was used to assess pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and conductivity.

Creteuchiloglanis payjab n. sp.

(Figs 1-2, Table I)

Table I. Morphometric data for Creteuchiloglanis payjab (n = 6).
Data for holotype (RGUMF 0249) included in range and mean.

                         Holotype        Range  meant[+ or -]SD

Standard length (mm)        172.2  110.2-156.0

Percents of standard
length

Predorsal length             32.0    30.4-33.5  32.0[+ or -]0.9

Preanal length               76.4    76.4-78.6  77.6[+ or -]0.9

Prcpelvic length             42.2    41.6-43.1  42.1[+ or -]0.8

Prepectoral length           20.3    16.8-20.5  18.7[+ or -]1.4

Dorsal-fin base length       11.9    10.2-11.9  11.1[+ or -]0.7

Body depth at dorsal         13.0    11.4-13.0  12.2[+ or -]0.6
origin

Body depth at anus            9.6     9.6-11.9  10.8[+ or -]0.8

Head length                  22.7    22.7-25.9  24.1[+ or -]1.1

Maximum head width           23.1    20.0-23.1  21.6[+ or -]1.4

Head depth                   11.6    10.2-12.3  11.1[+ or -]0.8

Caudal-peduncle length       17.7    15.7-17.7  16.4[+ or -]0.7

Caudal-peduncle depth         6.1      6.1-6.9   6.5[+ or -]0.4

Dorsal to adipose            17.8    14.0-19.8  17.3[+ or -]2.1
distance

Pre-adipose distance         60.1    57.5-65.2       60.4 [+ or
                                                          -]3.0

Post-adipose distance        10.5     7.7-13.2   9.7[+ or -]1.9

Dorsal-fin length            16.4    13.0-16.4  I4.8[+ or -]1.2

Pectoral-fin length          24.3    23.5-25.8  24.8[+ or -]0.8

Pelvic-fin length            20.2    19.5-20.5  20.1[+ or -]0.3

Anal-fin length              13.4    11.8-13.4  12.9[+ or -]0.6

Anal-fin base length          5.6      4.2-5.6   5.0[+ or -]0.4

Caudal-fin length            13.2    12.6-14.2  13.2[+ or -]0.5

Adipose-fin base length      30.2    28.8-31.9  30.5[+ or -]1-3

Percents of head length

Snout length                 56.1    51.5-56.1  54.6[+ or -]2.1

Eye diameter                  6.8      3.9-7.3   5.6[+ or -]1.3

Interorbital width           21.6    21.6-24.6  23.2[+ or -]1.2

Maxillary barbel length      98.2    88.3-95.0  92.9[+ or -]3.4

Inner mandibular barbel      15.3     9.3-17.3  14.2[+ or -]2.9
length

Outer mandibular barbel      24.4    19.4-26.7  22.7[+ or -]2.5
length


Holotype: RGUMF 0249, 172.2 mm SL: India: Arunachal Pradesh state, West Siang District, Yomgo River at Mechuka, a tributary of Siang River, Brahmaputra River basin, 28[degrees]37'13.3"N, 94[degrees]04'7.8"E, elevation 1932 meters, Achom Darshan et al., 8 April 2013.

Paratypes: RGUMF 0251-0254, 4, 110.2-155.1 mm SL; ZSI/V/APRC/P-921, 1, 153.5 mm SL, same data as holotype.

Diagnosis: The new species differs from all congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: head and body with milk-white and pale yellow patches, head depth 10.2-12.3% SL, body depth at dorsal origin 11.4-13.0% SL, predorsal length 30.4-33.5% SL, prepectoral length 16.8-20.5% SL, pectoral fin length 23.525.8% SL, small anal fin (anal-fin length 11.8- 13.4% SL, anal-fin base length 4.2-5.6% SL), adipose-fin base length 28.8-31.9% SL, and caudal-peduncle depth 6.1-6.9% SL. See the Discussion, for a comparison with congeners.

Description: Morphometric data presented in Table I. Dorsal profile rising gradually from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin, then almost straight to adipose-fin origin or sloping very gently ventrally towards caudal peduncle. Ventral profile straight to anal-fin origin, and sloping dorsally gradually towards caudal peduncle. Head and abdominal region strongly depressed and broad, then laterally compressed posteriorly.

Gill opening extending from posttemporal region to middle of pectoral-fin base, not extending ventrally onto undersurface of head. Eye small, subcircular, subcutaneous, located dorsally at the posterior half of head. Mouth inferior and transverse, lips papillated. Post labial groove interrupted at base of inner mandibular barbel. Premaxillary tooth band partially exposed when mouth is closed, tooth patches placed in contact with each other, but not confluent. Oral teeth cone shaped, embedded in skin exposing its pointed tip, arranged in irregular rows.

Barbels in four pairs, all flattened. Anterior and posterior nostril separated by a flat nasal barbel. Nasal barbel distal tip not reaching anterior margin of orbit, maxillary barbel posterior margin with thin fringing skin flap, tip sharply pointed and extending beyond origin of pectoral fin. Outer mandibular barbel origin located posterolateral to inner mandibular barbel, its distal tip not reaching to origin of pectoral-fin.

Dorsal fin without spine, bearing i,6 (6) rays, distal margin straight, its distal tip crossed level of the posterior base of pelvic fin. Adipose fin long, anterior margin rising gently and then almost straight for the entire length. Pectoral fin without spine bearing i,14 (2, including holotype) or i,15 rays (4), enlarged, distal margin broadly rounded, reaching or slightly in front of pectoral fin origin, its first ray broadened and non-ossified, ventrally ornamented with regular striae. Pelvic fin with i,5(6) rays, enlarged, distal margin broadly rounded, its first ray broadened and entire length of the ray ornamented ventrally with regular striae. Anal fin with i,3 (5, including holotype) or i,4 (1) rays, its origin closer to caudal-fin base than to pelvic-fin origin. Anus nearer to analfin origin than to pelvic-fin origin. Caudal fin truncate with i,15, i (6) rays. Skin smooth. Lateral line complete and mid-lateral in position.

Coloration in life (Ag. 2): Dorsal and lateral surface of head and body brownish gray (Fig. 2a), ventral surface of head and abdominal region (anterior to posterior end of pelvic-fin base) dirty white, remaining portions brownish (Fig. 2b); milky-white patches at the base of last pectoral-fin ray and on the inner posterior margin of skin flap connecting maxillary barbel; basal portion of first ray and last ray of the pelvic-fin pale yellow, distal portion of adipose-fin pale yellow, more pronouncedly at anterior portion and posterior end of adipose-fin, dorsal and ventral margin of caudal fin yellowish and distal tip of pair fins yellowish with reddish patches in pectoral fin.

Color in alcohol (Fig. 1): Overall color pattern became plum beous gray, ventrally lighter. Body spots changed to a faint yellowish color.

Distribution: Creteuchiloglanis payjab is presently known only from its type locality, the Yomgo River, a tributary of Siang River, Brahmaputra basin, West Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh, India, at an altitude of 1932 meters above sea level (Fig. 3). We assumed that the species does not occur at the lower stretches of this river as we have not found it during our extensive surveys on the area during the last 10 years (2004-2013) at Aalo and nearby streams located at an altitude 370 m above sea level.

Etymology: The species epithet 'payjab' is derived from the local name of the fish in Memba, a colloquial speech of native ethnical group of the locality. The name is used as a noun in opposition.

Habitat: Creteuchiloglanis payjab was collected from Yomgo River at Mechuka (Fig. 4), a fast flowing (velocity of water current: 1.4 m/sec) mountain stream, a tributary of Siang River (Brahmaputra basin). The physiochemical parameters of the sampling site recorded during April 2013 were: water temperature 14[degrees]C, pH ranging between 7.017.02, dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.34 mg/ml, total dissolved solid (TDS) 117-119 ppm, conductivity 231-234 ii mhos c[m.sup.-2] and salinity 0.05 ppt. The river bed substrate was dominated by cobble, with smaller amounts of pebbles, gravel, boulders, sand, and silt (Fig. 5). Fish diversity of the Mechuka valley was found to be low; the only fish species collected along with the new species were Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) and the introduced On-corhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

DISCUSSION

Creteuchiloglanis payjab differs from the geographically closest congener, C. kamengensis, in having a more anteriorly positioned dorsal fin (pre-dorsal length 30.4-33.5 vs. 34.5-37.5% SL, respectively), deeper body (body depth at dorsal origin 11.4-13.0 vs. 11.1-11.3% SL, respectively), smaller anal fin (anal-fin length 11.8-13.4 vs. 18.521.9% SL, respectively, anal-fin base length 4.25.6 vs. 6.1-8.8% SL, respectively), shorter adipose-fin base (28.8-31.9 vs. 32.7-37.3% SL, respectively), fewer pectoral fin rays (i,14-15 vs. i, 16), and by the presence of a white spot at the base of last pectoral-fin ray and another white spot at the inner posterior margin of the skin flap connecting maxillary barbel (vs. absence); from C. gongshanensis in having a shorter adipose-fin base (30.4-33.5 vs. 34.8-37.8% SL, respectively), a deeper caudal peduncle (6.1-6.9 vs. 3.8-4.6% SL, respectively), a shorter caudal fin (12.6-14.2 vs. 14.7-17.8% SL, respectively) and also by its shorter mandibular barbels (inner mandibular barbel length 9.3-17.3 vs. 19.0-20.4% HL, outer mandibular barbel length 19.4-26.7 vs. 27.3-30.5% HL, respectively); and from C brachypterus in having a longer prepectoral length (16.8-20.5 vs. 10.0-16.1% HL, respectively), a longer pectoral-fin (23.5-25.8 vs. 18.5-21.8% SL, respectively) and the absence of a yellow patch at the middle of caudal fin (vs. presence).

Creteuchiloglanis payjab differs from C. longipec-toralis by its deeper head (10.2-12.3 vs. 7.2-8.8% SL, respectively) and body (body depth at anus 9.6-11.9 vs. 7.8-8.1% SL, respectively); shorter dorsal to adipose distance (14.0-19.8 vs. 20.230.0% SL, respectively), anal-fin base (4.2-5.6 vs. 6.1-8.8% SL, respectively) and mandibular barbels (inner mandibular barbel length 9.3-17.3 vs. 19.724.7, outer mandibular barbel length 19.4-26.7 vs. 29.7-35.5% HL, respectively). The new species also differs from C. macropterus in having a shorter interorbital distance (21.6-24.5 vs. 24.6-30.2% HL, respectively), caudal peduncle (15.7-17.5 vs. 17.6-20.0% SL, respectively) and mandibular barbels (inner mandibular barbel 9.3-17.3 vs. 19.226.5% HL, respectively, outer mandibular barbel 19.4-26.7 vs. 27.5-31.6% HL, respectively); and by the absence of pale yellow spots on the occipital region (vs. presence).

Comparative material: Creteuchiloglanis kamen-gensis: MUMF 6200, 1 ex., 86.0 mm SL: India, Arunachal Pradesh, Rupa, Kameng River, Brahma-putra basin, K. Nebeshwar, 5 November 2005. RGUMF-0128 (1), 75 mm SL: India, Arunachal Pradesh, Baichom River at Rupa, Brahmaputra basin.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, for financial assistance through Centre with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity (CPEB) scheme and Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh, for providing all the research facilities. We also thank Professor Waikhom Vishwanath (Manipur University, Canchipur) for providing relevant literature and permission to examined material in MUMF and two anonymous reviewers for critical comments that greatly helped to improve the manuscript.

REFERENCES

CHU, X. L. 1981. Taxonomic revision of the genera Pareuchiloglanis and Euchiloglanis. Zoological Research 2: 25-31

CUMMINS, K. W. 1962. An evaluation of some techniques for the collection and analysis of benthic samples with special emphasis on lotic water. American Midland Naturalist 67: 477-504.

JAYARAM, K. C. 1966. A new species of sisorid fish from

the Kameng Frontier Division, Nefa. Journal of the Zoological Society of India 15: 85-87.

NG, H. H. 2004. Two new glyptosternine catfishes (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from Vietnam and China. Zootaxa 428: 1-12.

ZHOU, W. LI X., & THOMSON, A. W. 2011. A new genus of glyptosternine catfish (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) with descriptions of two new species from Yunnan, China. Copeia 2: 226-241.

Achom Darshan (l), Rashmi Dutta (l), (2), Akash Kachari (2), Budhin Gogoi (2), Kamhun Aran (2) and Debangshu Narayan Das (1), (2)*

1) Centre with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, India.

2) Fishery and Aquatic Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, India.

*Corresponding author: dndas321@rediffmail.com

Received: 7 September 2013--Accepted: March 2014
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Author:Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Aran, Kamhun; Das, Debangshu Narayan
Publication:aqua: International Journal of Ichthyology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Apr 1, 2014
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