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A new species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae) from the new world and the first report of U. Chilensis from Argentina.

ABSTRACT: Wheeler, G. A. 2005. A new species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae) from the New World and the first report of U. chilensis from Argentina. Darwiniana 43(1-4): 268-276.

A new species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae), U. austroamericana, is described and illustrated from austral South America and from the Tristan da Cunha archipelago in the south-Atlantic Ocean. This species grows in persistently wet, base-poor sites, particularly in Sphagnum bogs, and is known from southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and from the largest island of the Tristan da Cunha group. It differs both morphologically and ecologically from the similar-appearing U. macrolepis, a minerotrophic species best known from moist depressions in grasslands. The new species differs morphologically from U. macrolepis by possessing achenes that, when mature, are pale-colored and conspicuously-thickened at the apex and, also, by having more or less loosely-flowered spikes that frequently exceed 2 cm in length. Additionally, U. chilensis is reported for the first time from Argentina.

Keywords: Taxonomy, Argentina, Chile, Tristan da Cunha, Cyperaceae, Uncinia. RESUMEN: Wheeler, G. A. 2005. Una nueva especie de Uncinia (Cyperaceae) del Nuevo Mundo y primera cita de U. chilensis para la Argentina. Darwiniana 43(1-4): 268-276.

Se describe e ilustra U. austroamericana, una nueva especie de Sudamerica austral. Esta especie crece en suelos pobres y permanentemente humedos, especialmente en los pantanos de Sphagnum (turberas), y esta distribuida en Tierra del Fuego y en la isla mayor del Archipielago Tristan da Cunha, en el oceano Atlantico Sur. U. austroamericana difiere morfologica y ecologicamente de U. macrolepis, su taxon mas afin, pues este ultimo es una especie minerotrofica tipica de las depresiones humedas de los pastizales. Desde el punto de vista morfologico, esta nueva especie difiere de U. macrolepis por poseer aquenios debilmente coloreados y conspicuamente engrosados en el apice a la madurez, y por tener espigas relativamente laxas que con frecuencia exceden los 2 cm de longitud. Por otro lado, se publica el primer registro de U. chilensis para la Argentina.

Palabras clave: Taxonomia, Argentina, Chile, Tristan da Cunha, Cyperaceae, Uncinia.

INTRODUCTION

The genus Uncinia Pers. (Cyperaceae) is represented in South America with approximately 25 species (Wheeler & Goetghebeur, 1997), at least five of which occur in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (e.g., Barros, 1969; Wheeler, 1994; Guaglianone, 1996). In this paper a new species of Uncinia, U. austroamericana, is described from austral South America and from the Tristan da Cunha archipelago. In prior reports (e.g., Marticorena & Quezada, 1985; Wheeler, 1994, 1995; Guaglianone, 1996) these plants were referred to U. macrolepis Decne. Salient differences between U. austroamericana and U. macrolepis are given in Table 1. In addition, U. chilensis G. A. Wheeler, previously known from Chile (Wheeler, 1997), is here reported for the first time from Argentina.

BRIEF HISTORICAL OUTLINE

Kukenthal (1909) reported Uncinia macrolepis from Patagonia and New Zealand, though the New Zealand plants are now referred to U. sinclairii Boott (Hamlin, 1959; Moore & Edgar, 1970). Subsequently, Steyermark (1951) described U. meridensis Steyerm. from Venezuela, and Philcox (1961) described U. smithii Philcox from the south-Atlantic island of South Georgia. After studying two Uncinia specimens from Tristan da Cunha, Hooper (1968:7) assigned them to U. meridensis, and reduced U. smithii to synonymy. More recently, Wheeler (1995) considered both U. meridensis and U. smithii to be conspecific with U. macrolepis, whose type collection (Hombron & Jacquinot s.n. [holotype: P]) comes from "Magallanes" in southern South America and whose name has priority. At that time, the species was considered to have a South American distribution in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (e.g., Kukenthal, 1909; Barros, 1969; Wheeler, 1994, 1995), Bolivia (Wheeler & Goetghebeur, 1997), Colombia (Wheeler, 1996), Ecuador (Wheeler & Goetghebeur, 1997), Venezuela (Steyermark, 1951) and an Atlantic insular distribution on South Georgia (Philcox, 1961; Wheeler, 1994) and Tristan da Cunha (Hooper, 1968; Wheeler, 1995).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

While examining South American Caricoideae from Sphagnum-dominated wetlands (e.g., Wheeler & Guaglianone, 2003), the author took the opportunity to study more closely Uncinia species common to Sphagnum bogs in austral South America. The work discussed below was initiated due to subtle, yet seemingly consistent, differences observed between similar-appearing bog plants and grassland plants, all of which were then referred to U. macrolepis (Wheeler, 1994, 1995).

One of the chief diagnostic features of bog plants is the pale-colored, conspicuously-thickened apex of the mature achenes, a feature poorly developed (if at all) in mature achenes of grassland plants. Also, the perigynia of bog plants are, in general, longer and narrower than those of grassland plants; additionally, the perigynia of the former are smooth except sometimes sparingly hispidulous just beneath the beak, whereas those of the latter are distinctly appressed hispid above the middle of the perigynium. It is also noteworthy that bog plants have more or less loosely-flowered spikes that frequently exceed 2 cm in length, whereas grassland plants have tightly-flowered spikes 2 cm long or less. Indeed, during the course of this study, all examined macrolepis-like plants that possessed spikes longer than 2 cm were assignable to the new species. Issued as a caveat, however, herbarium specimens with immature plants bearing spikes 2 cm long or less can be difficult to place, particularly if habitat information is lacking. Other salient differences between bog and grassland plants are given in Table 1 and in the dichotomous key provided further below.

The present study shows that the two similar-appearing, macrolepis-like plants differ both morphologically and ecologically. Significantly, the plants growing in grasslands are essentially identical to the holotype of U. macrolepis. As such, the heretofore undescribed bog entity is newly described and named immediately below.

NEW SPECIES: DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS

Uncinia austroamericana G. A. Wheeler, sp. nov.TYPE: Argentina. Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas Atlantico Sur. Dpto. Ushuaia: Isla de los Estados, 54[degrees] 52'S, 64[degrees] 41'W, 16-XII-1999, Biganzoli 739 (holotype, MIN!; isotype, SI!). Fig. 1, A-G.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Rhizoma repens; culmi 4-30(-45) cm alti; vaginae basales brunneae, glabrae. Folia 3-9; laminae 4-16(-23) cm longae, (0.7-)1-3.4 mm latae; ligulae 0.5-1.5 mm longae. Spica solitaria, terminalis, androgyna, cylindrica vel linearioblonga, 1.5-4 cm longa. Pars mascula 6-14 mm longa, 1-1.6 mm lata, 4-8-flora. Pars feminea 1.2-3 cm longa, 2-4 mm lata, 4-16-flora; squamae pistillatae persistentes, 5-8.5(-9) mm longae, 1.8-3.6 mm latae, subcoriaceae. Perigynia 5-6 mm longa, 1.2-1.6 mm lata, anguste elliptici ad elliptici, superior laevis vel parce hispidi, marginibus super medio ciliato-scabridus. Achenium 3-3.6 mm longum, 1-1.6 mm latum, brunneum, apicem stramineum valde incrassatum; rachilla 8-11 mm longa, exserta pars 4-5.6 mm longa. Stylus basi incrassatus. Stigmata 3. Antherae 3, 1-2 mm longae, ca. 0.2 mm latae; filamentae linearis, ca. 0.1 mm latae.

Plants with short- to long-creeping rhizomes. Fertile culms 4-30(-45) cm tall, erect or slightly curved, more or less trigonous (especially distally), smooth but sometimes scaberulent beneath the inflorescence, with glabrous, brownish basal sheaths. Leaves 3-9; blades 4-16(-23) cm long, (0.7-)1-3.4 mm wide, flattish or channelled (at least proximally), glabrous, margins with unbranched and 2-branched prickle hairs, the unbranched ones antrorse or retrorse; inner band of leaf sheaths white-hyaline or pale brown, glabrous, the apex slightly concave; ligules 0.5-1.5 mm long, more or less rounded. Inflorescence a solitary, androgynous spike, 1.5-4 cm long. Staminate part 6-14 mm long, 1-1.6 mm wide, 4-8-flowered; scales 2.5-5 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, oblongovate, obtuse to subacute, greenish or stramineous center with hyaline or pale brown to brownish margins, the tips hyaline and entire. Pistillate part 1.2-3 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, cylindrical or linearoblong, more or less loosely-flowered, with 4-16 perigynia; scales persistent, 5-8.5(-9) mm long, 1.8-3.6 mm wide, shorter than to about equaling the perigynia, ovate-lanceolate or broadly elliptic to slightly obovate, obtuse to subacute, glabrous, broad greenish center with hyaline or pale brown to brownish margins, the tips with a narrow hyaline strip and entire, 5-9-veined, the lowest sometimes with an excurrent scabrous-ciliate awn up to ca. 15 mm long. Perigynia 5-6 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm wide, narrowly elliptical to elliptic, smooth but sometimes distally sparingly hispidulous abaxially and adaxially, the margins scaberulent to ciliate-scabrous distally, whitish green or stramineous to brownish, 2 prominent veins and the others obscure or weak in the proximal half on both faces, gradually tapered to a puckered base (when dry); perigynium beak 0.4-0.8 mm long, smooth or appressed hispidulous proximally, the margins smooth or scaberulent, orifice erose. Achenes 3-3.6 mm long, 1-1.6 mm wide, compressed trigonous with oblong sides, the widest side shallowly concave, brownish except the apex pale-colored (stramineous) and conspicuously thickened. Rachilla 8-11 mm long and projecting beyond orifice of perigynium, the exserted portion 4-5.6 mm long, smooth, whitish green or stramineous to brownish, the hook 1.6-2 mm long and stramineous or pale brown. Style base thickened. Stigmas 3. Anthers 3, 1-2 mm long, ca. 0.2 mm wide; filaments linear (ca. 0.1 mm wide), narrower than anthers.

Morphological differences and niche requirements of the two macrolepis-like uncinias, as propounded throughout this paper, such as in Table 1 and in the key, seem to justify species rank for U. austroamericana. The epithet refers to austral South America as apparently being the center of distribution of this species. Based on features of its perigynia and stamens, the new species belongs in section Uncinia.

Uncinia austroamericana (Fig. 1, A-G) grows in persistently wet, base-poor sites and is more or less confined to the southern and western portions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (Fig. 2), where heavy rainfall and cool temperatures are conducive to the accumulation of peat deposits. It often occurs in boggy and swampy places, particularly where Sphagnum hummocks are well developed.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The majority of collections come from "Donatia-Marsippospermum bogs," where typical species are, among many others, Donatia fascicularis J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., Empetrum rubrum Vahl ex Willd., Marsippospermum grandiflorum (L.f.) Hook. f., Carex camptoglochin V. I. Krecz., C. magellanica Lam., as well as Sphagnum spp. and other hydric mosses. As treated here, Uncinia austroamericana also occurs as a disjunct on the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, where it grows on the largest island in Empetrum bogs (Hooper, 1968).

In austral South America, U. austroamericana grows at elevations from near sea level to about 600 m, and mature perigynia have been collected from January through March. The quasi-linear, east-west distribution of collection sites for this species near 52[degrees]S. lat. in western Chile, as shown in Fig. 2, is the result of a transect study conducted in 1976-1977 (Boelcke et al., 1985). That comprehensive study seems to indicate that this species is more common in southwestern Chile than present collections suggest.

Additional specimens of U. austroamericana examined.

ARGENTINA: Tierra del Fuego. Antartida e Islas Atlantico Sur. Dpto. Ushuaia: Estancia Moat, Bahia Moat, 54[degrees] 57'S, 66[degrees] 46'W, swampy woodland near Moat Lake, 27-I-1968, Moore 1702 (RNG); Bahia Aguirre, Puerto Espagnol, Alan Gardiner Cove, 54[degrees] 57'S, 65[degrees] 58'W, wet Marsippospermum bog, 15-II-1968, Moore 1864 (RNG); Bahia Aguirre, Lucio Lopez range W of bay (E slopes), along ridges to 2000 ft. down to Gardiner Bay, back to Rio Bonpland, 54[degrees] 52'S, 66[degrees] 04'W, 15-II-1968, Goodall 1412 (NA); Bahia Thetis, muddy flat, 25-XI-1969, Goodall 2374 (RNG).

CHILE: XII Region (Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena) Prov. Antartica Chilena: Isla Navarino, Puerto Toro, 54[degrees] 55'S, 67[degrees] 30'W, piso del bosque, 1-III-1976, Dollenz 369 (HIP); Isla Navarino, Bahia Windhond, 55[degrees] 13'S, 67[degrees] 31'W, piso del bosque, 5-III-1976, Dollenz 415 (HIP, NA); Isla Grevy, Arch. Cabo de Hornos Rada Norte, Ba. Gretton, 16-I-1982, Pisano 5381 (GH, HIP, RNG); Prov. Ultima Esperanza: Fiordo Peel, rio al E al del cerro Aguilera, 50[degrees] 30'S, 73[degrees] 44'W, en turbales esfagnosos con Empetrum, 17-XII-1985, Pisano 6109 (HIP, RNG); Puerto Toro, Rio Serrano, 2 km from mouth, W side, 51[degrees] 24'S, 73[degrees] 05'W, 17-I-1977, Sphagnum bog, Moore & Pisano s.n., T.B.P.A. 1776 (HIP, RNG); Isla Virtudes, Canal Elias, Puerto Virtudes, 51[degrees] 33'S, 74[degrees] 54'W, coastal brushland, Dollenz et al. s.n., T.B.P.A. 1486 (RNG); Isla Piazzi, Caleta Ocasion, Abra Leackey's Retreat, 51[degrees] 44'S, 74[degrees] 01'W, 80 m s.m., Donatia-Marsippospermum bog, 19-I-1976, Dollenz et al. s.n., T.B.P.A. 1088 (HIP, RNG); Isla Rennel Norte, Canal Smyth, 51[degrees] 54'S, 74[degrees] 12'W, 23-I-1976, open coastal forest, Dollenz et al. s.n., T.B.P.A. 1128 (RNG); Isla Vidal Gormaz, Seno Nantuel, Bahia Maria Angelica, 51[degrees] 53'S, 74[degrees] 41'W, open sites, 3-II-1976, T.B.P.A. 1315 (HIP, partim); Canal de las Montanas, 51[degrees] 38.5'S, 73[degrees] 24.2'W, turbal musgoso, 28-XI-1987, Pisano 6184 (HIP); Peninsula Roca, Seno Resi, 51[degrees] 51'S, 73[degrees] 02'W, ca. 175 m s.m., turbal interior, sitios humedos con suelos organicos, 23-I-1978, Pisano s.n., T.B.P.A. 2865 (HIP, RNG).

TRISTAN DA CUNHA ISLANDS: Tristan da Cunha, flats W of Ponds, bog in fern scrub, 24-II-1938, Mejland 1615 (A).

Uncinia macrolepis Decne. in D'Urville, Voy. Pole Sud 2: 13.1853. TYPE: XII Region (Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena) Prov. Magallanes: Magallanes, 1837-1840, Hombron & Jacquinot s.n. (holotype: P!). Fig. 1, H-I.

Syn.: Uncinia meridensis Steyermark, Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 61. 1951. U. smithii Philcox, Kew Bull. 15: 229. 1961.

A detailed description of U. macrolepis, as presently understood and treated in this paper, is given below.

Plants with creeping rhizomes. Fertile culms 2.5-18 cm tall, erect or slightly curved, more or less trigonous (at least distally), smooth but sometimes scaberulent beneath the inflorescence, with glabrous, brown basal sheaths. Leaves 4-9; blades 4-23 cm long, (1-)1.4-3.9 mm wide, flattish or channelled (at least proximally), glabrous, margins nearly smooth or with unbranched and 2-branched prickle hairs, the unbranched ones antrorse or retrorse; inner band of leaf sheaths white-hyaline or pale brown, glabrous, the apex slightly concave; ligules 0.5-1.5 mm long, rounded. Inflorescence a solitary, androgynous spike, 1-2 cm long. Staminate part 5-8 mm long, 1-1.6 mm wide, ca. 4-7-flowered; scales 3-5 mm long, 0.9-1.5 mm wide, ovate to oblong-ovate, obtuse to subacute, greenish brown or stramineous center with hyaline or pale brown to dark brown margins, the tips hyaline and entire. Pistillate part 1.4-2.8 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, linear-oblong to oblong, tightly-flowered, with 5-17(-20) perigynia; scales persistent, 3-5.5 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, slightly shorter than to somewhat exceeding the perigynia, ovate to broadly ovate, obtuse to subacute, glabrous, broad greenish center with hyaline or stramineous to dark brown margins, the tips with a narrow hyaline strip and entire, 5-7(-9)-veined, sometimes with an excurrent scabrous-ciliate awn up to ca. 7 mm long. Perigynia (3.5-)4-5.2 mm long, 1.4-1.9 mm wide, elliptic to broadly elliptical, abaxially and adaxially appressed hispid distally and smooth (or nearly so) proximally, the margins ciliate-scabrous above the middle, stramineous but often with brown maculations or brownish, 2 prominent veins and the others obscure or weak proximally on both faces, gradually tapered to a puckered base (when dry); perigynium beak 0.4-0.8 mm long, smooth or appressed hispid proximally, the margins smooth distally and ciliate-scabrous proximally, orifice entire or slightly erose. Achenes 2.2-3.2 mm long, 1-1.6 mm wide, compressed trigonous with oblong sides, the widest side shallowly concave, brown, apex little (if at all) thickened. Rachilla 6-8 mm long, projecting beyond orifice of perigynium, the exserted portion 3.3-4.2 mm long, smooth, whitish green or stramineous to brownish, the hook 1.2-2 mm long and stramineous to brown. Style base slightly to moderately thickened. Stigmas 3. Anthers 3, ca. 1-1.5 mm long, ca. 0.2 mm wide; filaments linear (ca. 0.1 mm wide), narrower than anthers.

As pointed out earlier, Uncinia macrolepis differs ecologically as well as morphologically from U. austroamericana. In austral South America (Fig. 2), U. macrolepis grows in moist to wet depressions in grasslands, particularly those dominated by Festuca gracillima Hook. f., but has also been recorded from subalpine meadows and dry heathlands. On the subantarctic island of South Georgia (Philcox, 1961) this species occurs in Festuca grasslands and on rock-laden, grassy hillsides. In northern South America, on the other hand, Uncinia macrolepis grows primarily on wet rocks and among cushion plants in paramo (Steyermark, 1951; Wheeler & Goetghebeur, 1997), though seemingly in sites where Sphagnum hummocks are absent or poorly-developed. Plants of U. macrolepis, including the holotype, are illustrated in Wheeler (1995:163, Figs. 1-4) and Wheeler & Goetghebeur (1997:12, Figs. 1, 2).

Specimens of U. macrolepis examined from the southern half of South America (see Fig. 1, H-I) and South Georgia are cited below; specimens from northern South America are cited elsewhere for Colombia (Wheeler, 1996), Ecuador (Wheeler & Goetghebeur, 1997), and Venezuela (Steyermark, 1951). Regarding the geography of U. austroamericana and U. macrolepis, the markedly discontinuous distributions of both species are probably best explained, in each case, by the exogenous transport of desmochores (hooked fruits), with long-range dispersal taking place by bird migration.

Representative specimens of Uncinia macrolepis.

ARGENTINA. Santa Cruz. Dpto. Guer Aike: al N de Pto. Dos Antonios, Faldeo Mesta Latorre, 51[degrees] 32'S, 72[degrees] 07'W, formando pequenas colonias en el pastizal de Festuca gracillima, 27-1-1978, Ambrosetti & Mendez s.n., T.B.P.A.-FIT. 3260 (RNG); Idem, 550 m s.m., comunidad de Chilotrichum & Berberis, 27-I-1978, Ambrosetti & Mendez s.n., T.B.P.A.-FIT. 3290 (RNG); ruta 293, limite N carta Mina Rio Turbio, 51[degrees] 20'S, 72[degrees] 11'W, 440 m s.m., en los sitios bajos entre matas de Festuca gracillima, 9-II-1978, Ambrosetti & Mendez, s.n., T.B.P.A.-FIT. 3923 (RNG); Ea. Rospentek, proximadades del Pto. Dos Antonios, 51[degrees] 38'S, 72[degrees] 11'W, 200 m s.m., pastizal de Festuca gracillima, 1-XI-1978, Ambrosetti & Mendez s.n., T.B.P.A.-FIT. 4155 (RNG). Prov. Lago Argentino: Uppsala Glacier, Estancia La Cristina, ca. 500 ft., in moist depressions on grassy hillside, 20-XII-1959, James 112 (BM). Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur. Dpto. Rio Grande: Porvenir, 31-I-1946, E. Barros 6018 (SI) and 6019 (SI). Islas Georgias del Sur: Ocean Harbour, N-facing Festuca grassland slope leading down to harbour, 50 m s.m., 16-II-1980, Headland 559 (NA); North Valley, Husvik, Stromness Bay, amongst dry Festuca association, ca. 500 ft., 21-I-1961, Green 1493 (GH); Cumberland Bay, Festuca association, ca. 500 ft., 1-II-1961, Green 1624 (GH); Cumberland Bay, amongst Festuca association at foot of rock face, ca. 1250 ft., 11-III-1961, Jones s.n., Hb. Green 2882 (GH); Brown Mountain, in Acaena-Festuca grassland on rocky E-facing slope, 600-700 ft., 13-II-1964, Longton s.n. (RNG).

BOLIVIA. La Paz. Prov. Murillo: La Paz ca. 20 km hacia Unduavi, alrededor de las lagunas de la cumbre, 4700 m s.m., 8-III-1985, Beck 11133 (LPB, SI). Prov. Sud Yungas: del pueblo de Tres Rios hacia las faldas orientales del glaciar Illimani, 67[grados] 46'S, 16[grados] 37'W, 4400 m s.m., 11-XI-1995, Beck & Ruthsatz 21803 (LPB, MIN).

CHILE. XII Region (Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena) Prov. Ultima Esperanza: SE slope of Monte Almirante Nieto, above and N of E end of Lago Nordenskjold, on trail to Camp Chileno, 50[degrees] 58.4'S, 72[degrees] 53.6'W, rocky exposed SE slope, subalpine meadow, 20-II-2001, Ziska 15760 (MIN); Parque Nacional Torres del Paine, 0.5-1 km N of Salto Grande, 51[degrees] 04'S, 73[degrees] 02'W, 80-100 m s.m., dry open heathland, 7-XII-1995, Elvebakk 95:309 (MIN).
Key to Uncinia austroamericana and U. macrolepis

Apex of achene pale-colored and conspicuously thickened; lowest
pistillate scale usually more than 5.5 mm long (excluding awn, if
present); spikes 1.5-4 cm long, more or less loosely-flowered;
perigynium smooth but sometimes sparingly hispidulous distally,
1.2-1.6 mm wide; primarily in bogs and in other Sphagnum-laden
sites                                           Uncinia austroamericana

Apex of achene not pale-colored and very little thickened; lowest
pistillate scale 5.5 mm long or less (excluding awn, if present);
spikes 1-2 cm long, tightly-flowered; perigynium appressed hispid
(at least distally), 1.4-1.9 mm wide; primarily in wet depressions
in grasslands and meadows                            Uncinia macrolepis


A FIRST REPORT OF UNCINIA CHILENSIS FROM ARGENTINA

Uncinia chilensis was originally reported from Chile (Wheeler, 1997) and this note represents the first report of it from Argentina. In Argentina it is known, thus far, only from a single locality in Rio Negro Province, where it was collected in a forested area. In Chile, where the plant grows from about 1000 to 1500 m s.m., it is known from a single locality each in Arauco, Bio Bio, and Concepcion provinces (VIII Region, Bio Bio), and from one in Malleco Province (IX Region, Araucania). Mature fruit has been collected from December through February. The plant is illustrated in Wheeler (1997:4, Figs. 2, 3).

This species is somewhat similar to U. erinacea (Cav.) Pers. but differs by having: long-awned pistillate scales; lanceolate, short-awned staminate scales; larger perigynia, achenes, and rachillae; staminal filaments narrower than the anthers; and leaves (abaxial side) papillate-scabrescent (Wheeler, 1997). Because U. chilensis is poorly represented in major herbaria, it is probably uncommon in both Argentina and Chile.

Specimen examined from Argentina: Rio Negro. Dpto. Bariloche: subida al Chall Huaco, bosque, 11-II-1989, Nicora 9569 (MIN, SI).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author wants to thank E. R. Guaglianone (Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, Argentina) and S. Beck Herbario Nacional de Bolivia) for duplicate specimens of Uncinia; the Darwiniana Editorial Board, R. Pozner, and an anonymous reviewer for manuscript suggestions and skillful editing, and for a spanish abstract; A. Cholewa (University of Minnesota) for arranging loans and other herbarium services; and also to the directors and curators of the following herbaria for the loan of specimens: A, BM, GH, HIP, LPB, MIN, NA, P, RNG, and SI.

LITERATURE CITED

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Boelcke, O., Correa M. N., Moore D. M. & Roig F. A. 1985. Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares, in O. Boelcke, D. M. Moore & R. A. Roig (eds.). Transecta Botanica de la Patagonia Austral: 129-155. CONICET (Argentina); Instituto de la Patagonia (Chile); Royal Society (Gran Bretana).

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Marticorena, C. & Quezada M. 1985. Catalogo de la flora vascular de Chile. Gayana, Bot. 42: 1-157.

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Philcox, D. 1961. An Uncinia from South Georgia. Kew Bull. 15: 229.

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--& Goetghebeur, P. 1997. The Uncinia (Cyperaceae) of Ecuador. Aliso 15: 7-25.

--& Guaglianone, E. R. 2003. Notes on South American Carex (Cyperaceae): C. camptoglochin and C. microglochin. Darwiniana 41: 193-206.

GERALD A. WHEELER

University of Minnesota Herbarium, Bell Museum of Natural History, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108-1095, United States of America. E-mail: wheel039@tc.umn.edu
Table 1. A selected morphological and ecological comparison of Uncinia
austroamericana and U. macrolepis in the New World.

Character                 U. austroamericana       U. macrolepis

Culm height (cm)              4-30(-45)                2.5-18
Spike length (cm)               1.5-4                   1-2
Spike aspect                more or less          tightly-flowered
                            loosely-flowered
Perigynium length (mm)           5-6                (3.5-)4-5.2
Perigynium width (mm)          1.2-1.6                1.4-1.9
Perigynium vestiture,    usually smooth, but       abaxially and
  degree of                sometimes distally         adaxially
                               sparingly          appressed hispid
                              hispidulous         distally, smooth
                             abaxially and            proximally
                               adaxially
Achene length (mm)              3-3.6                 2.2-3.2
Lowest pistillate          generally > 5.5          5.5 or less
  scale length (mm)
Habitats                  bogs, poor fens,      moist depressions in
                           swampy woodlands,         grasslands,
                            other Sphagnum-           meadows,
                              laden sites             heathlands
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Author:Wheeler, Gerald A.
Publication:Darwiniana
Date:Dec 1, 2005
Words:4197
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