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A new species of Tripartiella (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Aequidens tetramerus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in north Brazil/Uma nova especie de Tripartiella (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) em Aequidens tetramerus no norte do Brasil.

1. Introduction

Trichodinids (Trichodinidae Claus, 1874) are a widely distributed group of ciliated ectoparasites of mollusks, fishes and amphibians (Mitra et al., 2013). Representatives of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959, however, are only found on the gills of marine and freshwater fish (Tang et al., 2013). Up to now, there is only one Tripartiella species reported in Brazil, which is Tripartiella pseudoplatystomae Pinto, Garcia, Figueiredo, Rodrigues and Martins 2009, parasite of the pintado Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil. However, considering the wide variety of fish species in Brazil and the great abundance of fish trichodinids, it is reasonable to accept that much more species are yet to be reported.

The saddle cichlid Aequidens tetramerus (Heckel 1840) (Cichlidae) is endemic to South America and is commonly used as ornamental fish, sport fishing and also as food for the Amazon riverine populations (Tavares-Dias et al., 2014). In course of a parasitological survey of the protozoan parasites of this cichlid in north Brazil, a new Tripartiella species was found.

This study characterizes morphologically Tripartiella tetramerii n.sp. parasite of A. tetramerus from north Brazil. Taxonomic and morphometric data for the new species are discussed.

2. Material and Methods

Sixty-three specimens of A. tetramerus were collected by net in November 2011 in the municipality of Macapa (00[degrees] 02' N, 51[degrees] 03' W), Amapa State, Brazil.

Wet smears of fish skin and gills of collected fish were air-dried and impregnated with Klein's dry silver method for observation of the adhesive disc as suggested by Lom (1958). The span of the denticle was measured from the tip of blade to the tip of ray as described by Arthur and Lom (1984). The body diameter is the dimension of the adhesive disc plus the border membrane. Wet mounts from the specimens preserved in 5% formalin solution were studied for the observation of adoral ciliature. All measurements are in micrometers and follow the recommendations of Lom (1958) and Van As and Basson (1989). Mean [+ or -] standard deviation is followed, in parentheses, by the minimum and maximum values and number of specimens or structures measured.

3. Results

A total of 65% of examined fish were parasitized by the new Tripartiella species (mean intensity of infection: 2, 379 [+ or -] 1, 344 (1, 233-3, 567)). Morphologically, it is characterized as a small-sized trichodinid, disc shaped. Blade of denticle elongated and straight, narrowing at distal end (Figure 1). Blade greater than ray. Tangent point rounded, lower than distal blade margin. Blade touching Y+1 and Y axes. Anterior blade projection broad, prominent and wide, fitting into indentation of next denticle. Section connecting anterior projection and central part constricted. Central part of the denticle with a remarkable rounded spine directed backwards. Ray slender, lower than blade, straight, rounded in its distal extremity and directed towards the center of the adhesive disc. Central part extends Y+1, Y and Y-1 axes (Figure 2). Adoral ciliature spiral 381[degrees]. Morphometrical data is presented in Table 1.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Taxonomic summary

Type Host: Aequidens tetramerus (Heckel, 1840)

Type locality: Macapa, Amapa State, north Brazil (00[degrees] 02' 20" N, 51[degrees] 03' 59" W)

Site of infection: gills

Etymology: The specific epithet "tetramerii' is derived from the name of the host species.

Reference material: Holotype and paratype slides are deposited in the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA 006, 007), Manaus, AM, Brazil.

4. Remarks

According to Gong et al. (2005), trichodinids are one of the most common parasitic ciliates that are well characterized by two main features: the morphology of the denticles in the adhesive disc and the development of the adoral ciliary spiral.

Denticles of both Tripartiella and Trichodinella species are wedged together both by central parts and anterior blade projection (Lom and Haldar, 1977). However, whereas in the former genus it bears developed straight rays, the latter possesses short ray curved along the delicate central part.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Concerning to Tripartiella, the type species Tripartiella copiosa Lom, 1959 has been regularly reported on the gills of Cyprinidae and Cobitidae fish throughout the European and Asian continents (Lom and Haldar, 1977; Mitra et al., 2012; Mohilal and Hemananda, 2012). Morphologically, its ray resembles those of T. tetramerii n.sp. (both the species have thin rays, terminating in a rounded point); however, the shape of the blade of T. copiosa (broad, directed backwards) differs completely from the present studied specimens (narrow and straight), besides almost all biometrical data (Table 1).

Tripartiellapseudoplatystomae also shows similarities with T. tetramerii. Their blades are similar in shape, although in T. tetramerii it suffers a narrowing process through its apex (differently from the former, with the same width along the entire length). In addition, anterior blade projection of T. pseudoplatystomae is directed upwards, differently from the new species (Figure 1). Morphometric data between the two also differ in some characters (e.g. denticulate ring and number of denticles, see Table 1). Finally, the tip of ray in T. pseudoplatystomae is thin and pointed while in T. tetramerii it is slender and rounded. All other Tripartiella species differ from the new species in the shape of denticles and, therefore, are not discussed in the present study.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.19014

Acknowledgements

The authors thank CAPES for the Doctoral scholarship to Natalia Marchiori and the research productivity fellowship to Dr. M.L. Martins (CNPq 305869/2014-0) and M. Tavares-Dias (CNPq).

References

ARTHUR, J.R. and LOM, J., 1984. Trichodinid protozoa (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) from freshwater fishes of Rybinsk Reservoir, USSR. The Journal of Protozoology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 82-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1984.tb04294.x.

GONG, Y., YU, Y., FENG, W. and SHEN, Y., 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among Trichodinidae (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) derived from the characteristic values of denticles. Acta Protozoologica, vol. 44, pp. 237-243.

LOM, J. and HALDAR, D.P., 1977. Ciliates of the genera Trichodinella, Tripartiella and Paratrichodina (Peritrichia Mobilina) invading fish gills. Folia Parasitologica, vol. 24, pp. 193-210.

LOM, J., 1958. A contribution to the systematics and morphology of endoparasitic trichodinids from amphibians, with a proposal of uniform specific characteristics. The Journal of Protozoology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 251-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1958.tb02563.x.

MITRA, A.K., BANDYOPADHYAY, P.K., GONG, Y. and BHOWMIK, B., 2012. Occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 34-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-011-0073-0. PMid:23542238.

MITRA, A.K., BANDYOPADHYAY, P.K., GONG, Y., GOSWAMI, M. and BHOWMIK, B., 2013. Description of two new species of ectoparasitic Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from freshwater fishes in the river of Ganges, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 35-41. PMid:24431538.

MOHILAL, N. and HEMANANDA, T., 2012. Record of the species of Tripartiella (Lom, 1959) from fishes of Manipur. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 87-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-011-0088-6. PMid:23542123.

TANG, F., ZHAO, Y. and LIU, C., 2013. First records of three Tripartiella species (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora, Peritrichida) from freshwater fishes along Yangtze River in China. Zootaxa, vol. 3681, no. 2, pp. 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3681.2.6. PMid:25232597.

TAVARES-DIAS, M., OLIVEIRA, M.S.B., GONCALVES, R.A. and SILVA, L.M., 2014. Ecology and seasonal variation of parasites in wild Aequidens tetramerus, a Cichlidae from the Amazon. Acta Parasitologica, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 158-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-0225-3. PMid:24570063.

VAN AS, J.G. and BASSON, L., 1989. A further contribution to the taxonomy of the Trichodinidae (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) and a review of the taxonomic status of some fish ectoparasitic trichodinids. Systematic Parasitology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 157-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02187051.

M. L. Martins (a) *, N. Marchiorib, L. S. Bittencourt (c) and M. Tavares-Dias (c)

(a) Laboratorio AQUOS-Sanidade de Organismos Aquaticos, Departamento de Aquicultura, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina--UFSC, Rodovia Admar Gonzaga, 1346, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil

(b) Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina--EPAGRI, Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriu, Rua Joaquim Garcia, s/n, CEP 88340-000, Camboriu, SC, Brazil

(c) Laboratorio de Aquicultura e Pesca, Embrapa Amapa, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, Km 5, 2600, CP 10, CEP 68903-419, Macapa, AP, Brazil

* e-mail: mauricio.martins@ufsc.br

Received: September 11, 2014--Accepted: March 16, 2015--Distributed: May 31, 2016

(With 2 figures)
Table 1. Morphometric comparison of Tripartiella tetramerii n. sp.
with Tripartiella pseudoplatystomae and Tripartiella copiosa.

                          Tripartiella tetramerii n.sp.

                                  Present study

        Host                  Aequidens tetramerus

 Site of Infection                    Gills

Body (D)                  37 [+ or -] 4.9 (30.0-50.7; 17)
Adhesive disc (D)       30.5 [+ or -] 2.7 (27.3-37.5; 17)
Denticulate ring (D)    13.2 [+ or -] 0.8 (11.8-14.8; 17)
Number of denticles              24 (23-25; 13)
Pins per denticle        4.4 [+ or -] 0.6 (4-6; 13)
Denticle (L)             2.5 [+ or -] 0.4 (1.8-3.4; 20)
Blade (L)                7.1 [+ or -] 0.4 (6.3-8.0; 20)
Central part (W)         1.2 [+ or -] 0.1 (0.9-1.6; 20)
Ray (L)                  2.0 [+ or -] 0.2 (1.5-2.4; 23)
Span                    10.6 [+ or -] 0.7 (9.2-11.8; 25)

                                  Tripartiella
                                pseudoplatystomae
                           Pinto, Garcia, Figueiredo,
                              Rodrigues and Martins
                                     (2009)

                                Pseudoplatystoma
        Host                       corruscans

 Site of Infection                    Gills

Body (D)                36.2 [+ or -] 3.7 (28.0-42.0; 25)
Adhesive disc (D)       31.9 [+ or -] 3.6 (23.0-36.9; 19)
Denticulate ring (D)    17.3 [+ or -] 1.3 (14.0-19.0; 19)
Number of denticles     29.6 [+ or -] 1.2 (27.0-31.0; 24)
Pins per denticle        5.9 [+ or -] 1.2 (5-7; 10)
Denticle (L)             3.5 [+ or -] 0.6 (3.0-4.0; 34)
Blade (L)                5.9 [+ or -] 0.8 (4.0-8.0; 35)
Central part (W)         1.4 [+ or -] 0.3 (1.0-2.0; 34)
Ray (L)                  1.6 [+ or -] 0.2 (1-2; 34)
Span                     9.0 [+ or -] 1.2 (7.0-12.0; 35)

                          Tripartiella copiosa
                         Lom 1959 in Mohilal and
                            Hemananda (2012)

                            Cirrhinus mrigala
                       Labeo rohita, Catla catla,
        Host                 Cyprinus carpio

 Site of Infection                Gills

Body (D)                    18.65 (15.5-23.5)
Adhesive disc (D)           16.9 (15.0-19.5)
Denticulate ring (D)         7.85 (6.5-9.0)
Number of denticles           22.6 (20-25)
Pins per denticle               3.4 (3-4)
Denticle (L)                  1.4 (2.5-3.5)
Blade (L)                     4.0 (3.5-4.5)
Central part (W)              0.7 (0.5-1.0)
Ray (L)                      1.75 (1.0-2.5)
Span                          5.3 (4.5-6.0)

Mean [+ or -] standard deviation is followed, in parentheses, by the
minimum and maximum values and number of specimens or structures
measured. Mean values are given in micrometers. D Diameter, L Length,
and w Width.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Martins, M.L.; Marchiori, N.; Bittencourt, L.S.; Tavares-Dias, M.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Date:Apr 1, 2016
Words:1805
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